Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna

Sausage i

Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory
Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna Sausage

Kurnia Latifatul Insaning Azizah

Food Science and Technology Division
Faculty of Agricultural Technology
Rajamanggala University of Technology Thanyaburi
Thanyaburi distrisct Pathumthani
Thailand

ABSTRACT
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef
and Chicken Bologna Sausage were developed by using a combination
Incorporating 40 Parts of BM, 40 Parts of CM and 20 Parts of Chicken skin fat.
The purpose of this research is to study the effect of yeast extract on beef and
chicken bologna sausage, the addition of yeast extract which can improve and to
determine the acceptability of panelist to beef and chicken bologna sausages
produced using organoleptic or sensory evaluation. This paper presents the
physical and sensory properties in some detail to reveal each trait involved with
every detail. In addition, a method of color measurement, texture, pH, moisture
and sensory evaluation are briefly discussed. Some optional methods that have
been done in the previous literature described a proposal to develop innovative
techniques to develop the properties of bologna sausage ingredients. Factors that
affect the quality of the content consist of bologna sausage color, texture, flavor,
aroma, and acceptance. All the parameters mentioned detracted from raw
material properties and processing conditions. Especially for processing where
the physical characteristics can vary. In this paper, treatment of yeast extract
used to increase lift organoleptic indices, especially taste and smell, and can be
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
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used as natural additives in all major types of sausage products as a raw material
substitute for meat. The addition of yeast extract to the sausage meat can increase
the protein content. Yeast extract is added to the dough to make a bologna
sausage function umami flavor and savory taste sensation. Yeast extracts present
flavor substitute monosodium glutamate (MSG). The level of yeast extract used
was 0.01 %, 0.02 %, and 0.03 %. From the calculation and ANOVA showed that
the rate of 0.03 % yeast extract gives a good effect on the sensory evaluation
scores. The results differ in the composition of the sausage is cooked, because
moisture and pH give a good effect on the level of 0.01 % yeast extract.

Keywords: Bologna sausage, Yeast extract, Sensory evaluationn
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 1

INTRODUCTION
In Thailand, the level of consumption of red meat (beef, goat, sheep, and
buffalo) by 24, 96 kg per capita per year. Beef is used widely in emulsified meat
products, poultry meat emulsion characteristics but has generated interest among
processors. The chicken has nutritional value and high economic and suitable for
processing rare. Chicken meat production reached 1.4 million tons last year, it was
ranked no.1 meat products in Thailand and followed by 0.2 million tons of beef
(Office of Agricultural Economic, 2013).
In emulsified meat products, technological properties of proteins play an
important role. Among the meat protein, myofibrils protein has a high function in
the emulsification. Increase the solubility and their interactions influence the
binding of oil and water holding ability, stability, viscosity, density and other
characteristics of the emulsion. Important functional characteristics of proteins are
their ability to form a gel. Myofibrils proteins play an important role in the
formulation of the gel after heat treatment. Gel formation contributes to the
desired texture and fat - stabilization of emulsions of water in meat products.
Florencio and Sonido (1973) have shown that beef suitable for the
manufacture of sausages. One sausage is manufactured using beef bologna
sausage. Bologna is a sausage with a soft texture. Bologna is also an emulsion-
type products which filled the large casing and includes artificial casings. Casing
in size from 4.5 to 5.0 cm in diameter is usually appropriate. Beef bologna is
made with a mixture of beef, goat and pork or it is 100 percent beef. Fat is one of
the ingredients of the most variable in sausage products, make the most of the
composition of sausages, and is important in processing, texture, and sensory
characteristics of sausage products. Basically bologna sausage using beef fat or
pork fat, but at this time the fat used is derived from chicken fat is chicken skin.
Thus, changes in the quality of fat may affect the quality of the sausage especially
on the sensory characteristics of bologna sausages. The use of yeast extract
associated with meat products (sausages) raised organoleptic indices, especially
taste and smell, and can be used as natural additives in all major types of sausage
products as a meat substitute raw materials. The addition of yeast extract to the
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
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sausage meat can increase the protein content. Addition of yeast extract is added
to the dough to make a functioning bologna sausage savory flavors and umami
taste sensations.
In accordance with my research, namely Effect of Yeast Extract Content
on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna Sausage, then
use the 3 treatment on the amount of yeast extract are 0.01 %, 0.02 %, and 0.03 %.
OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this research is to study the effect of yeast extract on beef
and chicken bologna sausage and the addition of yeast extract which can improve
beef and chicken bologna sausage. In addition, to determine the acceptability of
panelist to beef and chicken bologna sausages produced using organoleptic or
sensory evaluation.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Meat
The meat is all animal tissue and all processed products such networks are
appropriate to eat and does not cause health problems for those who eat it. The
meat can be processed in a way cooked, fried, baked, broiled, smoked, or
processed into another product of interest, among other meat corned beef,
sausage, jerky and shredded (Soeparno, 2005). The meat was soft parts were
wrapped in animal skin and bones become attached to groceries. Meat is
composed mostly of muscle tissue, coupled with the fat attached to it, tendons,
and cartilage.
Meat is composed of connective tissue, epithelial, neural tissues, blood
vessels and fat. The number of different connective tissue between the muscles,
connective tissues associated with the texture of the meat. Skeletal muscle tissue
is a major source of meat. Skeletal muscle contains about 75 % water with a range
of 68-80 %, about 19 % protein, non- protein substances that dissolve fat 3.5 %
and approximately 2.5 % (Anonymous, 2010).
Meat is one of perishable food products due to the rich meat substances
containing nitrogen, minerals, carbohydrates, and high water content and pH
destroyer and spoilage microorganisms needed for growth (lunar, 2004). Organs
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
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such as the liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, spleen, pancreas, and muscle tissue
is included in this definition (Soeparno, 2005). Buckle et al. (1987) stated that the
meat is a perishable food chart by microorganisms due to the availability of
nutrients in it that are very supportive for the growth of micro-organisms,
especially microbes destroyer.
Many things can affect the quality of the meat is good when maintenance
or when processing. Factors that can affect the appearance of the meat during the
cutting process is treated before transport and breaks that can determine the level
of stress on the cattle that will ultimately determine the quality of meat produced
(Suyuti, 2006). Factors affecting the condition of livestock before slaughter will
affect the rate of conversion of muscle into meat and also the quality of the
resulting meat (Anonymous, 2010).
There are 2 types of meat that are commonly used in Bologna sausage, namely:
1. Chicken is a delicious choice as an alternative to red meat.
The benefits of chicken meat include:
- A rich source of protein. In 100 gram of chicken had contained 60
percent of the daily value for protein adequacy.
- High niacin (vitamin B3) and vitamin B6. Niacin is important for
maintaining healthy skin and nervous system. Niacin and Vitamin B6 is
also necessary in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins in
the body.
- Source of the mineral and selenium are very good. Selenium is an
essential component of several metabolic pathways, including thyroid
hormone metabolism, antioxidant defense systems, and immune system.
- Can be presented in various types of dishes.
Minus:
Excessive eating fried chicken can increase the risk of acute coronary
syndrome, significantly improving cholesterol, and increase the risk of
heart attack. Limit yourself to eat chicken, at least twice a week.


Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
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2. Beef
The beef is considered the most popular choice of all red meat.
Advantages:
- Lean beef contains 60 percent of the daily value for protein adequacy in
only 100 grams.
- Sources of vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 sources. Vitamin B12 is only
found in animal products and is essential for cell metabolism; maintain
a healthy nervous system and red blood cell production in the body.
- Lean beef has zinc six times higher than in other meats. Zinc helps
prevent damage to blood vessel walls that contribute to the narrowing
of blood vessels, Atherosclerosis.
- A good source of iron and contains selenium and phosphorus.
Minus:
The beef is high in saturated fat and is thought to increase the risk of
cancer. Beef that is not cooked properly can also invite disease. For the
best choice, choose organic beef is free of hormones and antibiotics.
Also choose lean meats section.




Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
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Fat
Fat in the sausage-making is useful to form a compact and soft sausage and
improve the taste and aroma of sausage. The addition of a maximum of 30% fat
by weight to maintain the texture of the meat during processing.

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Emulsification
The principle of emulsification:
Water and oil will not be fused forever. If we want to mix the two, then in
an instant they will separate again. This is due to the difference in polarity
between the two levels of the substance. Water is a molecule that has a polar
group. While oil is a substance that has a non- polar groups. This difference
causes the two cannot be merged, because the polar groups can only be united
with polar groups, whereas the non -polar groups can only unite with non-polar
groups.
Protein has a polar group on one side and has non - polar groups on the
other. Therefore, it will bind to the ends of polar and non- polar water binds with
fat. Then there emulsions that cause it looks like a mix of both. Food or beverage
that consists of fat / oil and water in it together then there must emulsifiers. For if
the material is not added there will be a separation between the two.
Emulsion is a two phase system consisting of a liquid dispersion or a
compound which cannot be mixed, which is dispersed in another. The liquid form
of small globules called phase dispersion or discontinuous phase, and its dispersed
liquid where the globules are called continuous phase. Soluble meat protein acts
as an emulsifier to wrap or encase all the dispersed particle surface (Soeparno,
1994).
According to Charley (1982), the emulsion consists of three phases or
sections. One, the dispersed phase comprising particles insoluble. In food, these
substances are usually oil, though not always. The second phase is the continuous
phase. In food, this substance is usually water. If water and oil are mixed, they
will direct and visible splits and a clear dividing line. In order for particles of one
liquid suspended in another liquid, substance takes third, namely molecules that
have affinity for both liquids above.
These substances called emulsifiers.
Based on its dispersed phase, there are two types of emulsions, namely:
1. Emulsion type (o / w): oil in water emulsion, namely when the oil phase is
dispersed as dots throughout a continuous phase of water. Emulsions for
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
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oral administration of drugs are usually of type (o / w) and require an
emulsifying agent (o / w). Examples: substances that are nonionic, acacia
(gum), tragacanth, and gelatin.
2. Type emulsion (w / o): water in oil emulsion, which is when the oil phase
acts as the continuous phase. Pharmaceutical emulsion (w / o) used almost
for all outdoor use. Emulsifier used: polyvalent soaps (calcium palmitate),
span, cholesterol, tween.

Emulsion type (o / w) and (w / o) emulsion system is simple. Double
emulsion systems/complex would be obtained if the balls inside the emulsion
formed are still there again globules of other phases. Such a system is expressed
as emulsion w / o / w or emulsion o / w / o.
Food emulsifier’s functions can be grouped into three main categories, namely:
1. To reduce the surface tension of oil and water on the surface, this
encourages the formation of emulsions and the formation of phase
equilibrium between oil, water and emulsifier to stabilize the emulsion
surface.
2. To slightly alter the properties of texture, preservation and rheological
properties of food products, with the formation of complexes with
components of starch and protein.
3. To improve the texture of food products main ingredient of fat, with
control state polymorph fat.

Emulsifier system is closely linked to the working surface tension between
the two phases (interfacial tension). During emulsification, interfacial tension
lowering function emulsifiers that facilitate the formation of interfacial surface is
very wide. When the interfacial tension drops below 10 dynes per cm, the
emulsion can be formed. Meanwhile, when the interfacial tension approached zero
value, then the emulsion will form spontaneously.


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Emulsion stability
According to Swift and Ellies (1986), Based on the amount of emulsion
stability emulsified fat and separate from the dough. The greater the amount of fat
separate from the dough, the more unstable emulsion of dough generated.
Muchtadi (1990), adding that the factors affecting emulsion stability associated
with the use of oil or fat are amount of oil is added, the type of oil and the melting
point of the oil. Determination of emulsion stability of the sausage mixture based
on the amount of fat not emulsified and out of the sausage batter.
The higher the volume of fat that comes out then the lower the stability of
the emulsion. Emulsion stability is an indication stability of the protein as a binder
in a bind with the oil and water the emulsion product.
High protein content will increase the capacity of the meat emulsion.
Emulsion capacity of various meat trimming decreases with decreasing content of
lean. Salt is able to dissolve more protein so that more is available for
emulsification. Therefore, the more fat that can be emulsified with less proteins.
Thus increasing efficiency. Capacity emulsion of water-soluble proteins is lower
than the capacity of salt-soluble protein emulsion (Wilson et al., 1981).
Protein is an effective surface active agents having the ability to lower the
interfacial tension between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic components in food.
To produce stable emulsions, must be chosen proteins soluble, has charged the
group, and have the ability to form a strong cohesive movie.
Based on the mechanism of hydrophobicity, amphiphilic proteins which
have a high surface hydrophobicity adsorbed on the surface of the oil / water. The
adsorbed protein lowers interfacial tension which helps the formation of
emulsions. Proteins with non -polar amino acid content is high (more than 30 % of
the total amino acids) showed activity froth emulsion and high power but have a
lower gel.
Several factors affect the emulsion properties of proteins, namely:
1. The concentration of proteins: emulsion stability is influenced by the
amount of protein in the preparation
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2. PH Value: Several proteins have power on the optimal emulsion
isoelectric point such as egg whites and gelatin, while some have optimal
power emulsion at a pH far from the isoelectric point of the protein such as
beans and soy.
3. Ionic strength: The presence of salt lowers the electrostatic repulsion
potential and can decrease the stability of the emulsion.
4. Heat treatment: Temperature is a critical factor in the formation of
emulsions. Heating causes an increase in viscosity sighting on some
proteins, which affect the emulsion properties of this protein.
5. Several processes can lead to emulsion instability. This emulsion
instability caused by aggregation, koalesens, flocculation, and creaming.
Koalesens led to an increase in droplet size and phase volume and
viscosity changes. Flocculation and coagulation caused by the
phenomenon of fat droplet size. The interactions between the fat droplets
cause flocculation. Creaming due to the density difference between oil and
water phases. Droplets with a size smaller than 0.5 mm does not cause
creaming, because the droplet size reduction can reduce the likelihood of
creaming.
Emulsion stability is determined by the two force, namely:
1. Attractive force known as the London-style Van Der Waals forces. This
force causes the colloidal particles together to form aggregates and
precipitate.
2. Repulsion caused by the overlap of the electric double layer of the same
electrical charge. This force will stabilize colloidal dispersions.
Factors that affect the stability of the emulsion are:
1. Mixing
2. Stabilization agent
3. Viscosity
4. pH
5. Temperature during emulsification
6. Fat particle size
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7. Amount and type of soluble protein
8. Solids
9. Heavy fraction droplet size

Emulsion stabilization-destabilization caused by homogenization, stirring, mixing,
chopping or heating and cooling.
Yeast Extract
Yeast extract is the common name for various forms of processed yeast
products made by extracting the cell contents (removing the cell walls); they are
used as food additives or flavorings, or as nutrients for bacterial culture media.
They are often used to create savory flavors and umami taste sensations.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used for umami, but has no flavor. Yeast
extract, like MSG, often contains free glutamic acid. Yeast extracts in liquid form
can be dried to a light paste or a dry powder. Glutamic acid in yeast extracts are
produced from an acid-base fermentation cycle, only found in some yeasts,
typically ones bred for use in baking.
Yeast extract has a savory flavor that is comparable to a bouillon, which
often makes it a suitable ingredient for savory products to add and bring out
flavors and taste in these products.
Yeast is the basic ingredient for yeast extract. Enzymes break down the
proteins into their taste delivering parts: this is yeast extract. Yeast extract has a
strong taste of its own. Therefore it is used only in very small quantities. Just a
small amount already leads to very good results in terms of flavor and taste.
Yeast extract is a natural ingredient and not a flavor enhancing additive.
Flavor enhancers such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) are generally single
substances which have no taste of their own, but make existing flavors stronger.
They are ranked among additives and are therefore labeled with an E-number (E
620 - E 640) in the ingredient list.
Yeast extract is a rich composition of amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins
and minerals. Yeast extract has a natural glutamate content of typically about 5%.
Glutamate also is one of the many natural components of yeast extract. Even our
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
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body produces glutamate. Yeast extract is labeled as “yeast extract” in the
ingredient list or sometimes included in “natural flavor”. These names are based
on the requirements of the European Food Law.
The tags refer to the fact that yeast extract is a 100% natural ingredient and
flavor enhancement is not its main characteristic.
Ice or water ice
The increase in temperature during the pulping process the meat will melt
the ice, so that the temperature of the meat or dough can be maintained.
Furthermore, the addition of ice or water is also important to keep moisture from
drying the final product, increase the oil extract (Juiceness) and meat tenderness
(Forrest et al., 1975). The amount of ice added to the mix will affect the water
content, water binding power, elasticity and cohesiveness of meatballs
(Indarmono, 1987). Therefore the use of ice or ice water should be limited.
One purpose of the addition of water and ice on the meat emulsion
products are products that reduce the heat generated due to friction during milling,
salt dissolve and distribute to all parts of the meat evenly mass, muscle protein
facilitate extraction, assist in the formation of emulsions, and maintaining the
temperature of the dough to keep it lower. If the heat is excessive then the
emulsion will break, because the heat is too high resulting in protein denaturation.
As a result, the product will not be united during cooking (Aberle et al., 2001).
Nitrite Salt
The function of nitrite is stabilizing the color of the network to contribute
to the character of the meat curing to inhibit the growth of spoilage
microorganisms and food toxins, inhibit rancidity (Desrosier, 1978)
Food Chemical Codex (1981) states, Sodium Nitrite NaNO2 with
molecular formula is a white to yellowish material, shaped starch granules/stick
form. Nitrite bland taste/flavor of salt, alkali solution on litmus paper. Solubility 1
gram of sodium nitrite dissolved in 1.5 ml of water, slightly soluble in alcohol.
The terms of this material is a form of arsenic (As) not more than 3 ppm and
heavy metals (Pb) is not more than 0.002%.
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The use of nitrites and nitrates in food (especially meat products) is limited
due to poisoning effects of these substances. Nitrite reacts with amino secondary /
tertiary form the compound N - nitrosamines are mutagenic and carcinogenic,
subsequent nitrosamine showed carcinogenic activity. Nitrite residue that remains
in the final product will cause death if it exceeds 15 - 20mg / kg body weight
consumed (Forest, et al, 1975).
Bologna mix
Bologna mix consists of nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper, onion, mace, garlic,
and chili. Everything is mixed into a spice called "Bologna mix". The following is
the percentage amount:
1. Nutmeg 3%
2. Cinnamon 1.5%
3. Pepper 16.5%
4. Onion 24.8%
5. Mace 1.5%
6. Garlic 15.05%
7. Chili 37.6%
Erythorbate
According to Forrest et al (1975), Sodium Erythorbate is an antioxidant
which is a salt of sodium Erythorbate salt crystals form, in the dry state is non-
reactive in water but readily reacts with atmospheric oxygen as well as with other
agents that can oxidize. The properties of these materials cause antioxidant
benefits. This material serves to control and speed up the bright color on the meat.
According Soeparno (1992) Sodium Erythorbate used as a curing mixture
to accelerate the formation of the color of meat curing. Action of these
compounds is to reduce NO2 to nitric oxide which then reacts with the meat
pigment myoglobin to form nitric oxide myoglobin is red then formed with the
heating nitro silhemokrom thus forming a stable pink.
Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP)
According Ockermann (1983), STPP has the function to increase meat pH,
emulsion stability and emulsion ability. If the pH value closer to the isoelectric
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
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point of the protein, the binding power of the water will be even lower. Addition
of STPP can increase the pH in order to obtain the power of the higher water
binding. The use of polyphosphate as much as 0.75 percent of the weight of the
meat and the addition of salt as much as 2.0 percent give a very good consumer
acceptance. The addition of higher polyphosphates can cause a bitter taste.
Starch
Function of starch is as filler. The difference between the binder and filler
is located on the main faction and its ability to emulsify fat. The filler has a higher
carbohydrate content, while the binder has a higher protein content. Binder has the
capacity to bind water and emulsify fat (Kramlich, 1971). Flour of starch can
improve water binding because it has the ability to hold water during processing
and heating (Tarwotjo et al., 1971). According to Forrest et al. (1975), the
addition of filler material intended to reduce shrinkage during cooking, improved
emulsion stability, improve taste, improve the properties of slices and reduce
production costs.
Wheat gluten
Wheat gluten (WG) is the natural water insoluble protein portion of wheat
endosperm which, during wet processing of wheat flour, is separated in the form
of a protein-lipid-starch complex. Commercial WG has a mean composition of
72.5% protein (77.5% on dry basis), 5.7% total fat, 6.4% moisture and 0.7% ash;
carbohydrates, mainly starches, are the other major component. The major protein
fractions of WG consist of gliadin and glutenin which differ in their solubility
properties and molecular weight. Wheat gluten used in bologna sausage is
“Vegamine”.
Seasoning (Pepper & Garlic)
According to Forrest et al. (1975), the addition of flavoring in the
manufacture of meat products intended to develop flavor and aroma as well as
extend the shelf life of the product. Pepper and garlic are often used in some
recipes processed meat products such as sausages, meatballs and so forth. The
main objective is to improve the addition of seasoning flavors and products
produced as a natural preservative (Schmidt, 1988). In addition, herbs also have
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an influence on the preservation of processed meat products because in general
seasoning containing substances that are bacteriostatic and antioxidants
(Soeparno, 1998).
Pepper is the fruit of the plant Piper nigrum L. and has a very spicy
(Pungent) and smell (aromatic). Spicy flavor produced by piperine and aroma
substances produced by terpenes. Pepper essential oil containing 1 % - 2.7 %.
Garlic is a bulb of Allium sativum L.plants and has a spicy flavor (Pungent).
Garlic contains about 0.1 % - 0.25 % volatile substances, namely allyl sulfide
grains formed enzymatically when garlic bulbs crushed or broken. In the garlic
also contained S - (2 - propenyl) - L - cistein sulfoxide which is the primary
precursor in the formation of allyl thiosulfate (allicin) (Reinnenccius, 1994).
Salt
Sunarlim (1992) states that the processed meat typically contains 2-3 % of
salt. Berle et al. (2000) adds that the salt is added to the ground meat will increase
myofibril proteins were extracted. These proteins have important feelings as
emulsifiers. The function of the salt is adding or enhancing the flavor and extend
the shelf life of the product.
Sausage casings
Sausage casings used to determine the shape and size of the sausage.
Sausage casings can serve as a template for processing, packaging during
handling and transportation, as well as a display medium for trade. Sausage
casings must have a strong and elastic properties (Pearson and Tauber, 1984).
According Kramlich (1971), there are five kinds of casings are commonly used in
the manufacture of sausages, namely:
1. Casings made from animal intestines,
2. Casings made of collagen,
3. Casings made of cellulose,
4. Casings made of plastic,
5. Casings made of metal.
Casing used on bologna sausage is artificial casing is made of plastic.

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MATERIALS AND METHOD
Recipe
The general formulations of emulsion-type sausage recipes involving the different
proportions of BM and CM (Beef meat and Chicken meat) and other ingredients
are furnished in Table 1.
The appropriate quantities of ground meat components were weighed
TABLE 1
Formulation of Beef and Chicken Bologna Sausage with Different
Levels of Yeast Extract
Meat Ingredients
Meat ( BM : CM ) + Chicken skin fat = 100 %
BM : CM
40 : 40 (%)
80 (40 + 40 ) + 20
= 100 %
80 (40 + 40 ) + 20
= 100 %
80 (40 + 40 ) + 20
= 100 %
Other Ingredients Quantity (%) Quantity (%) Quantity (%)
Ice 30 30 30
Nitrite salt 0.4 0.4 0.4
Bologna mix 1.5 1.5 1.5
Erhytrobate 0.3 0.3 0.3
Sugar 0.5 0.5 0.5
Phosphate 0.3 0.3 0.3
Starch 3 3 3
Wheat gluten 1.25 1.25 1.25
Salt 1 1 1
Pepper 0.7 0.7 0.7
Garlic 0.8 0.8 0.8
Yeast Extract 0.02 0.03 0.01
Chili 2 2 2






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Bologna Processing
Each treatment was replicated one times. Bologna has 3 treatment. For
each treatment, 4 kg of beef meat, 4 kg chicken meat and 2 kg of chicken skin fat
were weighed out to obtain 80:20 lean to fat ratio. Lean tissue was blended on low
in a bowl chopper with spices and 1.5 kg of ice water for 8 minutes to allow
sufficient protein extraction. Fat tissue and an additional 1.5 grams of ice were
added, blade speed was increased to high, and batter was chopped until a bowl
chopper reading of 10˚ C. Batter was removed from the bowl chopper, and the
batch temperature was recorded. Bologna batter was stuffed into a 4.5 cm
artificial casing using a Handtmann stuffer. Chubs were weighed and raw length
and diameter were measured. Two samples (50 g) of batter were also collected for
pH, moisture, color, texture, and sensory evaluation. Bologna cooked in boiling
water with an internal temperature of 63˚ C and 75 ˚ C for temperature of sausage.
After that is a cooling process, which has been cooked drained sausage first and
then cooled with water. The purpose of this cooling so that the temperature can be
downgraded, in addition to the main objective is to bind and retain aroma that
does not evaporate completely. For sensory evaluation, the sausage is sliced at 0.5
cm. Samples were vacuum packed and stored at 4˚ C until analysis was
performed.
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Figure1. Making Process Flow Chart of Bologna Sausage
PH
PH of bologna samples were determined by digital pH meter (PB-10
Sartorius). The electrode of pH meter was calibrated with the help of 2 buffer
solutions of pH 4 and 7. Each sample of 3 treatment bologna sausage weighed 5
grams. Then the sample is crushed and mixed with50 ml of distilled water in a test
tube. Electrode pH meter immersed in the filtrate and the pH of the sample was
recorded.
Moisture
Moisture test is carried out using by digital Moisture meter (HG53
Halogen Moisture Analyzer). Bologna sausage cut smaller and weighed 1gram.
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Then set the HG53 Halogen Moisture Analyzer and the time required is
proportional to the lot or not the water content in the product. So, when the water
content of the product takes a lot of the long time and vice versa. On moisture
measure (HG53 Halogen Moisture Analyzer) shows the results of the final result
will figure moisture, temperature and time used.
Color
Color was objectively measured on the center of bologna slices using a
ColorFlex (CIELAB 10°/D65) according to CIE (1978) to obtain L*, a*, and b*
value. L* value is a lightness, while the value of a* is redness and value for b* is
yellowness. Color evaluation was conducted on one sample per replicate.
Texture
Texture profile analysis performed by using a texture analyzer (TA-XT
Stable Microsystems, Surrey, UK) done by a sausage that has been cooked and cut
with a thickness of 1 mm diameter cylindrical probe is pressed using 35 mm to be
deformed by 75%, with a speed of 1 mm / sec. The time lapse between the first
pressure and the second emphasis is 5 seconds. Hardness and adhesiveness
calculated from the curves of force and time to probe the texture. The results of
the curve show the relationship between force and time to deform. Absolute
hardness value indicated by (+) peak is the maximum force, and the absolute
value of adhesiveness indicated by (-) peak. The second parameter is the unit
kilogram-force (Kgf). While elasticity is obtained from the ratio between the two
areas of compression.
Sensory Evaluation
Bologna sausage made in the 3 treatment. Sensory evaluation of bologna
sausage made in the replications by 30 panelists using a hedonic test. There are 9
points hedonic scale where the highest score of 9 = Like extremely and score at
least 1 = Dislike Extremely. Sensory evaluation including acceptance, color,
flavor, taste, and texture. Bologna sausage cut into uniform-sized pieces and
served to the panelists for evaluation. Furthermore, all the experimental data were
statistically analyzed. Statistical analyzes were performed using ANOVA test
(Analysis of Variant) and LSD test (Least Significant Difference)
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 19

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Bologna Sausage Production
Bologna is emulsion - type products which filled the large casing which
has a diameter of 4.5 cm and using artificial casing. Bologna sausage made with a
mixture of beef, chicken and chicken skin or fat that is 40 percent of beef meat, 40
percent of chicken meat and 20 percent of chicken skin.
Emulsification happens in the process of tying the relationship between fat
with water so that the proteins can carry out their duties as an emulsifier that can
unite the particles cannot be mutually soluble. It is powered by Charley (1982),
the emulsion consists of three phases or sections. One, the dispersed phase
comprising particles insoluble. In food, these substances are usually oil, though
not always. The second phase is the continuous phase. In food, this substance is
usually water. If water and oil are mixed, they will direct and visible splits and a
clear dividing line. In order for particles of one liquid suspended in another liquid,
substance takes third, namely molecules that have affinity for both liquids above.
In the sausage dough that contains a lot of water content in it, the making of
sausages can be circumvented by adding a protein that can be taken from high
protein flour. Its function is to enhance the emulsion to bind water and fat.
The addition of ice cubes in the batter aims to keep the temperature from
getting too hot due to friction forces that occur during grinding. So the protein in
meat is not denatured. This dough ice serves to tenderness sausage, because water
levels will rise. This is supported by the statement Soeparno (1994), the function
of water is to increase the tenderness and juice (juice oil) meat, dissolve the
protein soluble in water, forming a solution of salt needed to dissolve the salt
soluble protein, acts as the continuous phase of the emulsion meat, keeping the
temperature of the product as well as facilitate the penetration of curing
ingredients.
Bologna has 3 treatment. For each treatment, were weighed out to obtain
lean to fat ratio 80:20. Bologna sausage is a sausage with the addition of yeast
extract. Addition of yeast extract has 3 treatment. The treatment is by adding yeast
extract 0.01%, 0.02 % and 0.03 %. Containing yeast extract is a rich composition
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 20

of amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. It naturally contains
glutamat. Yeast extract is a natural substance that consists of a lot of sense to
provide components. Flavor enhancers such as MSG fortifies the impact of sense
of taste and because it is labeled a flavor enhancer. Not referring to the fact that
yeast extract is 100 % natural ingredients and no additional major characteristic
flavor. The use of yeast extract associated with meat products (sausages) raised
organoleptic indices, especially taste and smell, and can be used as natural
additives in all major types of sausage products as a raw material substitute for
meat. The addition of yeast extract to the sausage meat can increase the protein
content. The addition of yeast extract is added to the dough to make a bologna
sausage function umami flavor and savory taste sensation. Umami ingredients in
yeast extract are free glutamic acid, which is the exclusive result of yeast proteins.
Not added Amounts to 4-6 %.
Then the 5 ' nucleotide “IMP” + "GMP" = 5'IMP2Na7H2O +5’GMP2Na7H2O: ≥
3 % -14 % the last are salt.
Sensory Evaluation
Bologna sausage made in the 3 treatment. Sensory evaluation of bologna
sausage made in the replications by 30 panelists using a hedonic test. There are 9
points hedonic scale where the highest score of 9 = Like extremely and score at
least 1 = Dislike Extremely. Sensory evaluation including acceptance, color,
flavor, taste, and texture. Bologna sausage cut into uniform-sized pieces and
served to the panelists for evaluation. Furthermore, all the experimental data were
statistically analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variants) and continued LSD
(Least Significant Difference).







Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 21

TABLE 2
Mean and SD of Beef and Chicken Bologna Sausage Incorporating
40 Parts of BM, 40 Parts of CM and 20 Parts of Chicken skin fat
With Three Levels of Yeast Extract
Parameters
Level of Yeast Extract
0.01% 0.02% 0.03%
Sensory evaluation scores

Colour 5.40 ± 1.38 5.3 ± 1.09 6.87 ± 1.33
Flavour 5.37 ± 1.59 5.57 ± 1.10 6.77 ± 1.22
Texture 6.03 ± 1,30 5.73 ± 1.34 6.57 ± 1.30
Taste 6.1 ± 1.03 6.17 ± 0.99 6.9 ± 1.24
Acceptance 6.03 ± 1.30 6.1 ± 1.06 7.3 ± 1.09
Cooked sausage composition

Moisture 65.65 ± 0.36 62.28 ± 0.39 64.06 ± 0.10
pH 5.46 ± 0.01 5.41 ± 0.01 5.32 ± 0.06
Color

L* 58.57 ± 0.79 60.32 ± 1.15 68.06 ± 0.53
a* 8.95 ± 0.72 9.26 ± 1.01 8.7 ± 0.26
b* 15.90 ± 0.27 16.46 ± 0.30 15.58 ± 0.14
Texture Profile Analysis

Hardness (kg) 1.82 ± 1.28 1.40 ± 0.96 1.71 ± 1.10
Adhesiveness (kg) -0.03 ± 0.04 -0.02 ± 0.05 -0.03 ± 0.06









Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 22

TABLE 3
Results of Analysis of Variance of Beef and Chicken Bologna Sausage
Incorporating 40 Parts of BM, 40 Parts of CM and 20 Parts of Chicken skin
fat
With Three Levels of Yeast Extract
Parameters
Sources of variation
Treatment Error
df MS df MS
Sensory evaluation scores

Colour 2 23.08** 87 1.62
Flavour 2 17.2** 87 1.74
Texture 2 5.34
NS
87 1.73
Taste 2 5.91** 87 1.19
Acceptance 2 15.244** 87 1.33
Cooked sausage composition

Moisture 2 8.54** 6 0.17
pH 2 0.0035** 6 0.000044
Color

L* 2 101.93** 9 0.74
a* 2 0.31
NS
9 0.53
b*

2 0.78** 9 0.06
Texture Profile Analysis

Hardness (kg) 2 2.61
NS
153 1.26
Adhesiveness (kg) 2 0.0000897
NS
33 0.0024
* P < 0-05. (Significantly different)
** P<0-01. (Very significantly different)
NS (Non Significant)
BM = Beef meat
CM = Chicken meat
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 23

Mean and SD of Beef and Chicken Sausage Bologna Incorporating 40
Parts of BM , 40 Parts of CM and 20 Parts of Chicken skin fat with Three Levels
of Yeast extract (0.01% , 0.02 % and 0.03 %) are presented in Table 2. Of all
three treatments, the sensory evaluation scores of 0.03% yeast extract levels
receive higher color is (6.87 ± 1.33), flavor value (6.77 ± 1.22), texture value
(6.57 ± 1.30), taste value (6.57 ± 1.24), and overall acceptability value (7.3 ±
1.09). The color release between treatments was very significantly different (P
<0.01). There were significant differences between the treatments in taste (P <
0.01), flavor (P < 0.01), and acceptance (P < 0.01). Non-significant differences
were observed in respect of all the sensory evaluation scores including the overall
texture scores.
Cooked Sausage Composition including moisture, pH, and color. From the
result of Mean and SD obtained in the moisture and pH, treatment 0.01% yeast
extracts the highest value. Level of yeast extract 0.01 % in the moisture have
value is (65.65 ± 0.36). The moisture release between treatments was very
significantly different (P <0.01). While for pH, Level of yeast extract 0.01 % in
the pH has value is 5.46 ± 0.01. The pH release between treatments was very
significantly different (P <0.01).
Color parameters were significant for L * value is a lightness, while the
value of a * is redness and value for b * is yellowness. In a color scale uniform,
difference between the points in the plot color space can be compared to see the
difference in color of the planned (Hunterlab, 2008).

Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 24


Figure3. Color (CIELAB 10
o
/ D65) Figure4. Trend Plot (CIELAB 10
o

/D65)
Addition of yeast extract significantly affected the yellowness (b*) and
lightness (L*) of the bologna sausage. Although color changes have been reported
as being induced by the presence of fibers of various origins in various meat
products (Claus and Hunt 1991; Troutt 1992; Grigelmo-Miguel 1999), in other
cases no such effect was observed (Hughes 1997; Mansour and Khalil 1999). For
the redness (a*) was not significantly.
Results of the mean and SD, treatment of 0.03% yeast extract has the
highest lightness value namely 68.06 ± 0.53. While 0.02% yeast extract treatment
had the highest value of Redness namely 9.26 ± 1.01 and had the highest
yellowness value also namely 16.46 ± 0.30.
Texture measurement has become one of the most important factors in the
food industry, especially as an indicator of the non-visual aspects. A systematic
approach which leads to the analysis of the level of fragility of food can be seen
by mechanical factors, geometric, and other factors. Mechanical factors include
basic parameters such as hardness, elasticity, and stickiness of a food ingredient.
Secondary parameters include the degree of brittleness and breakage (Abbott and
Harker, 2005).
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 25

Textural parameters were not significant for hardness and adhesiveness.
Additionally, starch content also influences the hardness of sausage. The results of
the curve show the relationship between force and time to deform. Absolute
hardness value indicated by (+) peak is the maximum force, and the absolute
value of adhesiveness indicated by (-) peak. The second parameter is the unit
kilogram-force (Kgf). While elasticity is obtained from the ratio between the two
areas of compression. Results of the mean and SD, treatment of 0.01% yeast
extract has the highest Hardness value namely 1.82 ± 1.28. While 0.02% yeast
extract treatment had the highest value of Adhesiveness namely (-0.02 ± 0.05).

Figure2. Graphic of Texture Analyze
From the Graphic of Texture Analyze above, showed that there were 4
treatment namely control 0, bologna 1, bologna 2, bologna 3.Control here using
bologna sausage with treatment 0.02% which equals Bologna 1. Bologna 2 using
bologna sausage with treatment of 0.03%, while Bologna 3 using bologna sausage
with treatment of 0.01%. So that the resulting graph results are not significantly.
From the graph above can also be read that the results of the curve shows
the relationship between force and time to deform namely: Control 0 is 0.452454
kg/sec, Bologna 1 is 0.416917 kg/sec, Bologna 2 is 0.580368 kg/sec, Bologna 3 is
0.568697 kg/sec.
The folding test is a simple and fast method to measure the quality of gel
springiness in sausages. In the folding test in bologna sausage, treatment of 0.03%
Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 26

yeast extract has a better texture than the other sausages treatment. Myofibrillar
proteins were also contributed to a good folding-test result, which generally
indicates that a sample will have a good gel strength as well. The use of a
cryoprotectant (e.g., sugar) can protect myofibrillar protein from denaturation.
CONCLUSION
From the above results it can be concluded that, the level of 0.03% of
yeast extract gives a good effect on the sensory evaluation scores. The results
different in cooked sausage composition, because its moisture and pH give a good
effect on the level of yeast extract 0.01%.
The use of yeast extract associated with meat products (sausages) raised
organoleptic indices, especially taste and smell, and can be used as natural
additives in all major types of sausage products as a meat substitute raw materials.
The addition of yeast extract to the sausage meat can increase the protein content.
Addition of yeast extract is added to the dough to make a functioning bologna
sausage savory flavors and umami taste sensations.
Yeast extracts present flavor substitute monosodium glutamate (MSG).
Yeast extract could be said also a giver of umami taste. Ingredients of umami in
yeast extracts are free glutamic acid, namely results exclusively from yeast
protein. Not added. Amounted to 4 - 6 %.
Then 5' nucleotides "IMP" + "GMP"= 5'IMP2Na7H2O+5'GMP2Na7H2O:
≥ 3%-14% and the last are salt.
The physical properties of the bologna sausages varied among treatment
due to differing use of level of yeast extract, formulation and processing. Most of
the samples fulfilled the requirements for commercial bologna sausages with
desirable folding test, lightness and hardness values.






Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 27

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Co-operative Education Report infrastructure of the information received
from the M.R Halal Food Limited Partnership. Co. Ltd.
The author suggests that the preparation of training cooperative cannot be
solved without the direction and guidance of teachers, as well as the support of
other parties in the author thanks for the help instruction. Instructions that is very
useful for writers. Thanks to:
1. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Prasert Pinpathomrat, as President of the Rajamangala
University of Technology Thailand.
2. Asst. Prof. Dr Amnart Sinlawat, as Dean of the Faculty of Agricultural
Technology.
3. Asst Prof. Anchalin Singkhum, MP as the head of the field of study
Food Science and Technology.
4. Dr. Naroong Chucheep, Ph.D. as Project Advisor(s) in M.R. Halal
Food Limited Partnership.
5. Mr. Chet Thanomsub, president of M.R Halal Food Limited
Partnership factory.
6. Ms. Ranu Suwanlee Bachelor’s degree as Quality assurance M.R.
Halal Food factory.
And thanks to Politeknik Negeri Jember to advice and support. So we can
do the work in co-operative Education in M.R. Halal Food Limited Partnership.
Co.Ltd.
The author sincerely hopes that writing this report more or less useful for
general readers and education.






Effect of Yeast Extract Content on Physical and Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Bologna
Sausage 28

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