For the exclusive use of adopters of the book

Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication, Second
Edition by Richard C. Jaeger.
ISBN0-201-44494-1.
© 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without
permission in writing from the publisher.
Introduction to
Microelectronic Fabrication
by
Richard C. Jaeger
Distinguished University Professor
ECE Department
Auburn University  
Chapter 5
Ion Implantation
For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication, Second
Edition by Richard C. Jaeger. ISBN0-201-44494-1.
© 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This
material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing
from the publisher.
Copyright Notice 
•  © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright
laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be
reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in
writing from the publisher.
•  For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Introduction to
Microelectronic Fabrication, Second Edition by Richard C.
Jaeger. ISBN0-201-44494-1.
First things first… 
Facebook group – for quick announcements
Recap: 
•  Pure Si is neither a conductor nor insulator. 
•  Impurities introduce charge carriers (holes or electrons)
into Si, changing its conductivity. 
•  How do we get the impurities into Si? 
Recap: 
Diffussion  Ion implantation 
Neutral dopants diffuse
into wafer 
Ionized dopants are
“shot” into wafer 
Dopants can be shot
deeper into wafer,
better dose control. 
Ion Implantation
High Energy Accelerator 
1.  Ion Source 
2.  Mass Spectrometer 
3.  High-Voltage Accelerator (Up to 5 MeV) 
4.  Scanning System 
5.  Target Chamber 
Ion Implantation
High Energy Accelerator 
!
Force on charged particle F = q v x B
( )
Magnetic Field B =
2mV
qr
2
Implanted Dose Q=
1
mqA
I t ( )
0
T
"
dt
m= mass
v = velocity
V = acceleration potential
A = wafer area
For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication, Second
Edition by Richard C. Jaeger. ISBN0-201-44494-1.
© 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This
material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing
from the publisher.
Ion Implantation
Overview 
•  Wafer is target in High Energy Accelerator 
•  Impurities “Shot” into Wafer. Vary DOSE and ENERGY. 
•  Preferred Method of Adding Impurities to Wafers 
–  Wide Range of Impurity Species (Almost Anything) 
–  Tight Dose Control (A few % vs. 20-30% for high temperature
pre-deposition processes) 
–  Low Temperature Process 
•  Expensive Systems (why?) 
•  Vacuum System (why?) 
For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication, Second
Edition by Richard C. Jaeger. ISBN0-201-44494-1.
© 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This
material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing
from the publisher.
Think about it.
Pros and Cons of Ion Implantation vs Diffusion 
1. Better Dose Control 
--Resistor tolerance is a just few percent if fabricated with
implantation; exceeds 20% with diffusion. 
--Complicated doping profiles can be realized.  
2. Expensive 
--Ion implantation needs vacuum, accelerators, millions
USD. 
Interesting online lectures on
Ion Implantation 
•  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-U3v9QBPO4 
•  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zLcNJvWbbHc 
Ion Implantation  
As an ion enters wafer surface:- 
-  it collides with the lattice atoms 
-  each collision reduces the ion’s energy, it finally stops. 
Some “lucky ions” don’t collide much, settle
very deep far beyond surface. 
Some ions “very unlucky”, get backscattered
and settle near surface. 
The collisions are random statistical process,
we assume it is Gaussian (normal
distribution)  
Ion Implantation
Mathematical Model  
“lucky” ions  
“unlucky” ions  
Most ions stop at Rp  
I
o
n

b
e
a
m
 
Model assumption: Target is amorphous (atoms in target
material are randomly positioned)
Ion Implantation
Mathematical Model 
!
Gaussian Profile
N x ( ) = N
p
exp "
x " R
p ( )
2
2#R
p
2
$
%
&
&
'
(
)
)
R
p
= Projected Range
#R
p
=Straggle
Dose Q = N x ( )dx = 2*
0
+
,
N
p
#R
p
Ion Implantation
Projected Range (LSS Theory) 
The more energy your ions have,
the deeper they get into wafer
(energy ~ range almost linearly) 
THINK: For a given energy, why
different dopants have different
projected range?
Ion Implantation
Straggle (vertical and transverse) 
In the wafer, the ions
spread in both vertical
and transverse
directions.  
Results for Si and SiO2 identical
Ion Implantation
Example 5.1:- 
Phosphorus with 100 keV energy is implanted into a Si
wafer. 
a)  What is its projected range and stragle? 
b)  What should the total dose be if desired peak
concentration is 10e17 cm-2? 
c)  What is the total time required to implant this dose
into 200-mm wafer with 2uA beam and singly
ionised phosphorus? 
Ion Implantation
Selective Implantation 
But some ions still
manage to settle
right below the
mask! Why? 
Collisions (scattering) happen
in all directions! 
We only want certain areas implanted 
Areas not to be implanted are covered with mask
Ion Implantation
Selective Implantation 
Figure 5.4 
Contours of equal ion concentration for an implantation
into silicon through a 1-µm window. The profiles are
symmetrical about the x-axis and were calculated using
the equation above taken from Ref. [3].  
This is mask. You use
this to cover the region
beneath from being
doped.  
But some ions still
manage to settle
right below the
mask! Why? 
Most ions settle at Rp 
Collisions (scattering) happen
in all directions! 
Ion Implantation
Selective Implantation 
!
N x, y ( ) = N x ( )F y ( )
F y ( ) =
1
2
erfc
y " a
2#R
$
%
&
'
(
)
*
"erfc
y + a
2#R
$
%
&
'
(
)
*
+
,
-
.
/
0
#R
$
= transverse straggle
N x ( ) is one - dimensional solution
Figure 5.4 
Contours of equal ion concentration for an implantation
into silicon through a 1-µm window. The profiles are
symmetrical about the x-axis and were calculated using
the equation above taken from Ref. [3].  
Ion Implantation
Selective Implantation 
| MASK | 
I
o
n

b
e
a
m
 
Some “lucky” ions
still manage to
penetrate through the
mask! 
We need thick enough mask to stop
penetration “lucky” ions. 
© 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This
material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing
from the publisher.
Ion Implantation
Selective Implantation 
•  Desire Implanted Impurity
Level to be Much Less
Than Wafer Doping 
   N(X
0
) << N

 
or 
   N(X
0
) < N
B
/10 
For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication, Second
Edition by Richard C. Jaeger. ISBN0-201-44494-1.
© 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This
material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing
from the publisher.
Ion Implantation
Selective Implantation 
!
X
0
" R
p
+ #R
p
2ln
10N
p
N
B
$
%
&
'
(
)
= R
p
+ m#R
p
Mask thickness, Xo:- 
Ion Implantation
Selective Implantation 
Example 5.2:- 
Boron penetration through a 50-nm gate oxide, with peak
concentration at the Si-SiO2 interface. Total dose implanted is to be
10e13 cm-2. 
a)  Calculate implant energy and peak concentration at the interface 
b)  How thick should the SiO2 layer be in areas not to be implanted,
if background concentration is 10e16 cm-3?  
c)  Supposed the oxide is 50nm thick everywhere, how much
photoresist required on top of the oxide to mask the implantation?
Note:- photoresist layer less effective in stopping ions; needs 1.8
times ooxide thickness for a same stopping power. 
Ion Implantation (Junction depth)
If implant deep enough, you get both “tails” in Si 
At points where N(x) = Nb, you get PN junctions.  
Ion Implantation
Junction Depth 
!
N x
j
( )
= N
B
N
p
exp "
x
j
" R
p
( )
2
2#R
p
2
$
%
&
&
'
(
)
)
= N
B
x
j
= R
p
± #R
p
2ln
N
p
N
B
*
+
,
-
.
/
Ion Implantation
Junction Depth 
Study Example 5.3 
Ion Implantation
Channeling 
Silicon atoms are organized in an
orderly crystal structure, not random.
Therefore large open spaces exist. 
So how would this effect our Model? 
What happens if an ion is shot right
through this long “channel”? 
Ion Implantation
Channeling 
“Channeling” causes ion penetration much
deeper than predicted by our simple model  
Channeling depends on angle
Ion Implantation
Deviation from Gaussian Theory 
Curves fit four-moment
(Pearson Type-IV)
distribution functions 
These don’t look
like a normal
distribution. They
are skewed! 
Light ions tend to
back scatter, settle
near surface, long
left tail dist.  
Ion Implantation
Shallow Implantation 
Ion Implantation
Shallow Implantation 
Ion Implantation
Lattice Damage and Annealing 
•  Implantation causes
damage to the lattice. 
•  Implanted species not
electrically active yet. 
•  We then heat (anneal) the
wafer to repair damage,
activate the dopants. 
Annealing moves Si and impurity atoms back to lattice sites, form
bonds. Impurity becomes electrically active. 
Ion Implantation
Lattice Damage and Annealing 
•  Implantation Causes
Damage to Surface 
•  Typically Removed by
Annealing Cycle
800-1000
o
C for 30 min. 
•  Rapid Thermal Annealing
(RTA) Now Used for
Lower Dt Product  
Ion Implantation
Rapid Thermal Annealing 
Figure 5.12 
(a) Concept for a rapid thermal annealing (RTP) system. (b) Applied Materials 300 mm RTP System (Courtesy Applied Materials) 
• Rapid Heating 
• 950-1050
o

• 50
o
C/sec 
• Very Low Dt  
(b) 
Ion Implantation
Summary 
For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication, Second
Edition by Richard C. Jaeger. ISBN0-201-44494-1.
© 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This
material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing
from the publisher.
Ion Implantation
References 
1. Read the whole Chapter 5.  
2. Do problems 5.1 and 5.4. 
3. Discuss the following:- 
- Advantages and disadvantages of ion implantation and diffusion 
- What is channeling? Causes and Effect of channeling? 
- What is annealing? Purposes of annealing? 
 Due in 2-weeks time (Wednesday 16 April 2014) 
You will be asked to demonstrate the solutions in class 
Tutorial Chp. 5: