Prof. D. R.

Wilton
Note 4
Note 4
Transmission Lines
Transmission Lines
(Bounce Diagram)
(Bounce Diagram)
ECE 3317
Step Response
The concept of the bounce diagram is illustrated for a unit
step response on a terminated line.
R
L
z = 0 z = L
V
0
[V]
t = 0
+
-
R
g
( )
g
V t Z
0
t
( )
g
V t
( ) ( )
0 g
V t V u t =
0
V
Step Response (cont.)
The wave is shown approaching the load.
R
L
z = 0 z = L
V
0
[V]
t = 0
+
-
R
g
( )
g
V t Z
0
d
c
t = 0
t = t
1
t = t
2
V
+
0
0
0 g
Z
V V
R Z
+
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
Generator circuit initially sees line characteristic impedance in
series with generator impedance; hence by voltage divider
0
0
0
( / ) ( / )
d d
g
Z
V t z c V u t z c
R Z
+
⎛ ⎞
− = −
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
or
Bounce Diagram
z = 0
R
L
z = L
V
0
[V]
t = 0
+
-
R
g
( )
g
V t Z
0
d
L
T
c
=
0
0
0 g
Z
V V
R Z
+
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
0
0
g
g
g
R Z
R Z
⎛ ⎞

Γ =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
0
0
L
L
L
R Z
R Z
⎛ ⎞

Γ =
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
0 t =
T
2T
3T
4T
5T
6T
L
Γ
g
Γ
V
+
L
V
+
Γ
g L
V
+
Γ Γ
2
g L
V
+
Γ Γ
2 2
g L
V
+
Γ Γ
2 3
g L
V
+
Γ Γ
0
V
+
(1 )
L
V
+

(1 )
L g L
V
+
+Γ +Γ Γ
2
(1 )
L g L g L
V
+
+Γ +Γ Γ +Γ Γ
2 2
(1 )
g L
V
+
+ +Γ Γ
2 3
(1 )
g L
V
+
+ +Γ Γ
z
t

Propagating
voltages
Net line
voltages
Steady-State Solution
2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3
0
( , ) (1 ) (1 )
(1 )
1 1 1
1
g L g L g L L g L g L g L
L L
g L g L g L
L
L
V z V V
V V
V
R Z
R
+ +
+ +
+
∞ = + Γ Γ + Γ Γ + Γ Γ + + Γ + Γ Γ + Γ Γ + Γ Γ +
Γ + Γ
= + =
− Γ Γ − Γ Γ − Γ Γ

+
=


Sum of all right-traveling waves Sum of all left-traveling waves
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
1
1
g L
g L g
g
L
g L
L
g L
L
g
g L g L
R Z R Z
R Z R Z
Z
Z
V
R Z
R Z
R Z
R Z R Z
R Z
R Z R Z
R Z
Z
V
R Z
R Z R Z R Z R Z
+ +
×
+ +
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞
+
⎝ ⎠
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+ ⎛ ⎞

⎛ ⎞

⎝ ⎠

⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+ +
⎝ ⎠
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞

+ + +
⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞
+
⎝ ⎠
=
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
+ + − − −
⎝ ⎠
Adding all infinite number of bounces, we have:
( )
0
1
1
1
n
n
z
z
z

=
=

<

Note: We’ve used
the geometric series
formula:
Steady-State Solution
Simplifying, we have:
( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0
2 2
0 0 0 0
1
( , )
2
2
2
L
g L
L
g
g L g L
L
g L
L
g
g L g L
L
g L g L
L
g L L g g L
R Z
R Z R Z
R Z
Z
V z V
R Z
R Z R Z R Z R Z
R
R Z R Z
R Z
Z
V
R Z
R Z R Z R Z R Z
R Z V
R Z R Z R Z R Z
R Z V
R R Z R Z R Z R R Z
⎛ ⎞

+ + +
⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞
+
⎝ ⎠
∞ =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
+ + − − −
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
+ +
⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞
+
⎝ ⎠
=
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
+ + − − −
⎝ ⎠
=
+ + − − −
=
+ + + − −
( )
( )
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
2
2
L g
L
L g
L
L g
R Z R Z
R Z V
R Z R Z
R V
R R
+ +
=
+
=
+
Steady-State Solution
0
( , )
L
L g
R
V z V
R R
⎛ ⎞
∞ =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
Hence we finally have:
This is just the voltage divider equation,
as if the transmission line were not present!
Note: the steady-state solution
does not depend on the
transmission line length or
characteristic impedance.
Example
z = 0
R
L
=25 [Ω]
z = L
V
0
=4 [V]
t = 0
+
-
R
g
= 225 [Ω]
( )
g
V t Z
0
=75 [Ω]
T = 1 [ns]
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[ns] t

[m] z
0
0
0
1[V]
g
Z
V V
R Z
+
= =
+
0
0
1
2
g
g
g
R Z
R Z
⎛ ⎞

Γ = =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
0
0
1
2
L
L
L
R Z
R Z
⎛ ⎞

Γ = = −
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
Example (cont.)
The bounce diagram can be used to get an “oscilloscope trace”
at any point on the line.
[ns] t
1
2
3 4 5
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.25[V]
3
4
( , ) ( ) V L t oscilloscope trace
steady state voltage:
0
( , ) 0.400[V]
L
L g
R
V z V
R R
⎛ ⎞
∞ = =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[ns] t

[m] z
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[ns] t

[m] z
3
4
z L =
0.75 [ns]
1.25 [ns]
2.75 [ns]
3.25 [ns]
The bounce diagram can also be used to get a “snapshot” of the line
voltage at any point in time.
Example (cont.)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[ns] t

[m] z
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[ns] t

[m] z
3.75[ns] t =
L/4
[m] z
4
L
0.375[V]
0.25[V]
( , 3.75[ns]) ( ) V z snapshot
2
L
3
4
L
L
To obtain a current bounce diagram from voltage diagram, multiply
forward-traveling voltages by 1/Z
0
, backward-traveling voltages by -1/Z
0
.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
1
2
1
4

1
16
1
32
0
1
1.5
1.25
1.125
1.1875
1
64

1.203125
[ns] t

1
8

1.21875
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[ns] t

[m] z
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[ns] t

[m] z
Note: This diagram is for the normalized
current, which we define as Z
0
I(z,t).
[m] z
voltage
Z
0
x current
Example (cont.)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
1
2
1
4

1
16
1
32
0
1
1.5
1.25
1.125
1.1875
1
64

1.203125
[ns] t

1
8

1.21875
[m] z
Note: We can also just change the signs of
the reflection coefficients, as shown.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
1
2
1
4

1
16
1
32
0
1
1.5
1.25
1.125
1.1875
1
64

1.203125
[ns] t

1
8

1.21875
1
2
I
g
Γ = −
1
2
I
L
Γ =
[m] z
Note: These diagrams are for the normalized current, defined as Z
0
I(z,t).
I
Γ = −Γ
Z
0
x current
Z
0
x current
Example (cont.)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
1
2
1
4

1
16
1
32
0
1
1.5
1.25
1.125
1.1875
1
64

1.203125
[ns] t

1
8

1.21875
1
2
I
g
Γ = −
1
2
I
L
Γ =
[m] z
Z
0
x current
oscilloscope trace of current
Example (cont.)
steady state current:
0
( , ) 0.016[A] ;
L g
V
I z
R R
⎛ ⎞
∞ = =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
( )( )
0
( , ) 0.016 75 1.20[A] Z I z ∞ = =
1
2
3 4 5
1
1.5
1.125
1.1875
1.25
3
0 4
( , ) Z I L t
[ ] t ns
2.75 [ns]
3.25 [ns]
0.75 [ns]
1.25 [ns]
Example (cont.)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
1
2
1
4

1
16
1
32
0
1
1.5
1.25
1.125
1.1875
1
64

1.203125
[ns] t

1
8

1.21875
1
2
I
g
Γ = −
1
2
I
L
Γ =
[m] z
Z
0
x current
3.75[ns] t =
L/4
snapshot of current
[m] z
4
L
1.125
1.25
0
( , 3.75[ns]) Z I z
2
L 3
4
L
L
Example
Reflection and Transmission Coefficients at a
J unction Between Two Lines of Differing Characteristic Impedance
R
L
=50 [Ω]
V
0
=4 [V]
150 75 1
225 3
4
1
3
J
J J
T
+
+ +

Γ = =
= +Γ =
75 150 1
225 3
2
1
3
J
J J
T

− −

Γ = = −
= +Γ =
KVL: T
J
= 1 + Γ
J
(since voltage and current must be
continuous across the junction)
z = 0
z = L
t = 0
+
-
R
g
= 225 [Ω]
( )
g
V t Z
0
=75 [Ω]
Z
0
=150 [Ω]
T =1 [ns]
T =1 [ns]
junction
Example (cont.)
0
1
2
3
4
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
0.3333[V]
0.1667[V]
0[V]
1[V]
1.3333[V]
1.5000[V]
[ns] t

1
2
L
Γ = −
1.3333[V]
0.6667[V] −
0[V]
1.3333[V]
0.6667[V]
-0.4444 [V]
0.0555 [V]
-0.3888 [V]
1.1111[V] 1.1111[V]
0.2222 [V]
0.2222 [V]
0.4444 [V]
Bounce Diagram for Cascaded Lines
V
0
=4 [V]
[m] z
150 75 1
225 3
2
1
3
J
J J
T
+
− −

Γ = =
= +Γ =
4
1
3
75 150 1
225 3
J J
J
T
+ +

= +Γ =

Γ = = −
z = 0
R
L
=50 [Ω]
z = L
t = 0
+
-
R
g
= 225 [Ω]
( )
g
V t Z
0
=75 [Ω]
Z
0
=150 [Ω]
T =1 [ns]
T =1 [ns]
Pulse Response
Superposition can be used to get the response due to a pulse.
( ) ( ) ( )
0 g
V t V u t u t W ⎡ ⎤ = − −
⎣ ⎦
t
( )
g
V t
0
V
W
We thus subtract two bounce diagrams, with the second one being a shifted
version of the first one.
R
L
z = 0 z = L
V
g
(t)
+
-
R
g
( )
g
V t Z
0
+
-
Example: Pulse
R
L
=25 [Ω]
z = 0.75 L
z = 0
z = L
R
g
= 225 [Ω]
Z
0
=75 [Ω]
T =1 [ns]
V
g
(t)
+
-
W=0.25 [ns]
V
0
=4 [V]
t
( )
g
V t
0
V
W
1[V] V
+
=
Example: Pulse
-
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0[V]
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[ns] t

0.75 [ns]
1.25 [ns]
2.75 [ns]
3.25 [ns]
4.75 [ns]
5.25 [ns]
1.25
2.25
3.25
4.25
5.25
6.25
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0[V]
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[m] z
W
0.25
1.00 [ns]
1.50 [ns]
3.00[ns]
3.50[ns]
5.00 [ns]
5.50 [ns]
z = 0.75 L
W=0.25 [ns]
Example: Pulse (cont.)
R
L
=25 [Ω]
z = 0.75 L
z = 0
z = L
R
g
= 225 [Ω]
Z
0
=75 [Ω]
T =1 [ns]
V
g
(t)
+
-
W=0.25 [ns]
V
0
=4 [V]
t
( )
g
V t
0
V
W
oscilloscope trace of voltage
[ns] t
1
2
3 4 5
1[V]
0.5[V] −
0.125[V]
0.25[V] −
3
4
( , ) V L t
0.0625[V]
0.03125[V] −
Example: Pulse (cont.)
-
t = 1.5 [ns]
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[m] z
W
L / 4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
L
Γ = −
1
2
g
Γ =
1[V]
1
[V]
2

1
[V]
4

1
[V]
8
+
1
[V]
16
+
1
[V]
32

0
1[V]
0.5[V]
0.25[V]
0.375[V]
0.4375[V]
0.40625[V]
1
[V]
64

0.390625[V]
[ns] t

1.25
2.25
3.25
4.25
5.25
6.25
0.25
L / 2
Example: Pulse (cont.)
snapshot of voltage
[m] z
0.5[V] −
( , 1.5[ns]) V z
L
0.5L
0.75L
0.25L
t = 1.5 [ns]
R
L
=25 [Ω]
z = 0
z = L
R
g
= 225 [Ω]
Z
0
=75 [Ω]
T =1 [ns]
V
g
(t)
+
-
W=0.25 [ns]
V
0
=4 [V]
t
( )
g
V t
0
V
W
W
Capacitive Load
C
z = 0 z = L
V
0
[V]
t = 0
+
-
Z
0
( )
g
V t Z
0
Note: The generator is assumed to be matched to the transmission line for
convenience (we wish to focus on the effects of the capacitive load).
0
g
Γ = Hence
The reflection coefficient is now a function of time.
Capacitive Load
C
L
z = 0
z = L
V
0
[V]
t = 0
+
-
Z
0
( )
g
V t Z
0
0 t =
T
2T
3T
( )
L
t Γ
0
g
Γ =
V
+
( )
L
t V
+
Γ
0
V
+
( ) ( )
1
L
t V
+

t
z
0
0
0 0
0
/2
Z
V V
Z Z
V
+
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
=
Capacitive Load (cont.)
C
L
z = 0
z = L
V
0
[V]
t = 0
+
-
Z
0
( )
g
V t Z
0
At t =0: capacitor acts as a short circuit.
( )
0 1
L
Γ = −
At t =∞: capacitor acts as an open circuit.
( )
1
L
Γ ∞ =
Between t =0 and t =∞, there is an exponential time-constant behavior.
( ) ( )
( )
/
1 1 1 ,
t T
L
t e t T
τ − −
⎡ ⎤ Γ = + − − ≥
⎣ ⎦
0 L
Z C τ =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
/
0
t
F t F F F e
τ −
⎡ ⎤ = ∞ + − ∞
⎣ ⎦
Time-constant formula:
Hence we have:
(valid for t <T)
Capacitive Load (cont.)
C
L
z = 0
z = L
V
0
[V]
t = 0
+
-
Z
0
( )
g
V t Z
0
0 t =
T
2T
3T
( )
L
t Γ
0
g
Γ =
V
+
( )
L
t V
+
Γ
0
V
+
( ) ( )
1
L
t V
+

t
z
t
V(0,t)
T
2T
V
0
/ 2
V
0
steady-state
Inductive Load
At t =0: inductor as a open circuit.
( )
0 1
L
Γ =
At t =∞: inductor acts as a short circuit.
( )
1
L
Γ ∞ = −
Between t =0 and t =∞, there is an exponential time-constant behavior.
( ) ( )
( )
/
1 1 1 ,
t T
L
t e t T
τ − −
⎡ ⎤ Γ = − + − − ≥
⎣ ⎦
0
/
L
L Z τ =
L
L
z = 0
z = L
V
0
[V]
t = 0
+
-
Z
0
( )
g
V t Z
0
(valid for t <T)
Inductive Load (cont.)
0 t =
T
2T
3T
( )
L
t Γ
0
g
Γ =
V
+
( )
L
t V
+
Γ
0
V
+
( ) ( )
1
L
t V
+

t
z
t
V(0,t)
T
2T
V
0
/ 2
V
0
steady-state
L
L
z = 0
z = L
V
0
[V]
t = 0
+
-
Z
0
( )
g
V t Z
0
Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR)
This is a device that is used
to look at reflections on a
line, to look for potential
problems such as breaks
on the line.
t
V(0,t)
resistive load, R
L
> Z
0
t
V(0,t)
resistive load, R
L
< Z
0
1[V] 1[V]
L
Γ
L
Γ
z = 0
load
z = L
V
0
=2[V]
t = 0
+
-
Z
0
( )
g
V t Z
0
matched source
inside the TDR
Time-Domain Reflectometer (cont.)
z = 0
load
z = L
V
0
[V]
t = 0
+
-
Z
0
( )
g
V t Z
0
(matched source)
capacitive load inductive load
t
V(0,t)
t
V(0,t)
1[V]
1[V]
Example of a commercial product
The 20/20 Step Time Domain
Reflectometer (TDR) was designed to
provide a clear picture of coaxial or
twisted pair cable lengths and to pin-
point cable faults.
AEA Technology, Inc.
Time-Domain Reflectometer (cont.)