¡

Ito/t/tt, /tmttcd /, o sc/cmc opprcvcd uudcr t/c Ircjcsstcuo/ Stoudords Icgts/ottcu.
O¡INIONON TH£ VAIIÐITY OI S£CTION¡ OI TH£ IACLDSFD LAADS
PKDTFCTIDA ACT zqoz (NSW}
¡OIIC£ v KINGSTON
A. SLMMARY
¡. I have been biieled io ¡iovide an o¡inion on ihe vaIidiiy, in Iighi ol ihe im¡Iied
lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion, ol seciion ¡ ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct :qo:
(Þ5V) (Inclosed Lunds Protection Act). 5eciion ¡ ¡iohibiis, in ceiiain ciicumsiances,
eniiy inio and iemaindei on incIosed Iands. Jhe coniexi in which I have been asled
io give ihis o¡inion is ihai Ms Iingsion, a |ouinaIisi, is io be ¡iosecuied loi
coniiavening s ¡ ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct. Ms Iingsion's ieason loi enieiing
and iemaining on ihe ieIevani incIosed Iands was io ie¡oii on a ¡ioiesi.
u. In my o¡inion.
u.¡. ihe ¡ios¡ecis ol successluIIy chaIIenging ihe vaIidiiy ol seciion ¡ ol ihe Iuc/cscd
Iouds Irctccttcu +ct aie Iow; and
u.u. ihe ¡ios¡ecis ol coniending ihai seciion ¡ ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct shouId
be iead in ihe coniexi ol ihe im¡Iied lieedom and, so iead, does noi ¡iohibii Ms
Iingsion's conduci aie aIso Iow.
B. O¡INION
Background
¸. Ms Iingsion has been chaiged wiih ollences ol enieiing onio incIosed Iand and
iemaining on incIosed Iand coniiaiy io s ¡(¡) ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct. Jhai
seciion ¡iovides.
Uu/oiju/ cutr, cu tuc/cscd /ouds
+u, pcrscu i/c, itt/cut /oiju/ cxcusc (prccj cj i/tc/ /tcs cu t/c pcrscu), cutcrs tutc tuc/cscd /ouds
itt/cut t/c ccuscut cj t/c ciucr, cccuptcr cr pcrscu opporcut/, tu c/orgc cj t/csc /ouds, cr i/c
u
rcmotus cu t/csc /ouds ojtcr /ctug rc¡ucstcd /, t/c ciucr, cccuptcr cr pcrscu opporcut/, tu c/orgc cj
t/csc /ouds tc /covc t/csc /ouds, ts /to//c tc o pcuo/t, uct cxcccdtug:
(o) :o pcuo/t, uutts tu t/c cosc cj prcscrt/cd prcmtscs, cr
(/) ¡ pcuo/t, uutts tu ou, ct/cr cosc.
¡. ¨IncIosed Iands" is delined in s ¸ io mean.
(o) prcscrt/cd prcmtscs, cr
(/) ou, /oud, ctt/cr pu//tc cr prtvotc, tuc/cscd cr surrcuudcd /, ou, jcucc, io// cr ct/cr crccttcu, cr
port/, /, o jcucc, io// cr ct/cr crccttcu oud port/, /, o couo/ cr /, scmc uoturo/ jcoturc suc/ os
o rtvcr cr c/tjj /, i/tc/ tts /cuudortcs mo, /c /uciu cr rcccgutscd, tuc/udtug t/c i/c/c cr port
cj ou, /ut/dtug cr structurc oud ou, /oud cccuptcd cr uscd tu ccuuccttcu itt/ t/c i/c/c cr port
cj ou, /ut/dtug cr structurc.
¸. ¨Iiesciibed ¡iemises" is aIso delined in s ¸.
o. I am insiiucied as io ihe loIIowing lacis.
o.¡. Ms Iingsion is a lieeIance |ouinaIisi and wiiies loi a websiie eniiiIed ¨Þo Iibs -
Ciiizens |ouinaIism". Ms Iingsion is a membei ol ihe Media AIIiance and
¡ieviousIy woiled ai ihe S,duc, Mcrutug Hcro/d. Ms Iingsion's ¡osiiion invoIves a
Ioi ol Iive iwiiiei ¡osiing and ie¡oiis on civiI disobedience. Much ol Ms
Iingsion's ie¡oiiing iequiies hei io iies¡ass-ihai is because ol ihe naiuie ol ihe
ie¡oiiing and wheie ii occuis.
o.u. Ms Iingsion enieied incIosed Iand on ¸¡ Maich uo¡¡. Jhe Iand was noi a
¡iesciibed ¡iemise, bui a¡¡eais neveiiheIess io have been incIosed.
o.¸. Ms Iingsion enieied ihe Iands iogeihei wiih a giou¡ ol Gieen¡eace membeis
who weie ¡ioiesiing and bIoclading a coaI mine siie in Ieaid 5iaie Ioiesi.
o.¡. Ms Iingsion's ¡ui¡ose in enieiing ihe Iands was io ie¡oii on ihe ¡ioiesi. 5he
had been ie¡oiiing on ihe bIoclade loi seveiaI monihs ¡iioi io ¸¡ Maich uo¡¡,
¸
as an ¨embedded ie¡oiiei". VhiIe she was noi ¡aii ol ihe bIoclade, Gieen¡eace
¡eimiiied hei access io iheii aciiviiies.
o.¸. Ms Iingsion beIieves ihai, wiihoui enieiing onio ihe incIosed Iands, ii wouId
have been im¡ossibIe io ie¡oii on ihe ¡ioiesis-as ihey weie occuiiing on an
incIosed mine siie.
o.o. Iiioi io being aiiesied, Ms Iingsion was a¡¡ioached by a maIe ¡oIice ollicei
who said woids io ihe loIIowing elleci. ¨you aie iies¡assing, aie you ¡ie¡aied io
Ieave'" Ms Iingsion ihen said io ihe ollicei ihai she was a ie¡oiiei ie¡oiiing on
ihe ¡ioiesi. Jhe ¡oIice ollicei ihen said woids io ihe elleci ihai ihai made no
dilleience and she wouId be aiiesied. Ms Iingsion ihen said io ihe ¡oIice
ollicei ihai she was noi ¡ie¡aied io Ieave.
o.¸. Ms Iingsion did noi Ieave aliei ihis iequesi by ihe ¡oIice ollicei. Ms Iingsion
said, ai ihe iime, ihai ihis was because she wanied io lee¡ ie¡oiiing and because
she was unwiIIing io waIl ihe ¸lm bacl io ihe ioad.
o.S. 5hoiiIy aliei ihis, ihe ¡oIice aiiesied aII ol ihe ¡ioiesieis ¡ieseni iogeihei wiih
Ms Iingsion. Ms Iingsion was Iaiei chaiged.
Gcncral principlcs
¸. Jhe CommonweaIih Consiiiuiion ¡ioiecis a lieedom ol communicaiion aboui
goveinmeni oi ¡oIiiicaI maiieis. Jhai ¡ioieciion Iimiis ihe IegisIaiive ¡oweis ol
5iaie IaiIiamenis. Uutcus ^SI v Stotc cj ^ci Scut/ Io/cs (uo¡¸) ¸o¡ AII uoo ai [¸¡|
(Iiench C|, Iayne, Ciennan, IieleI and IeII ||) (Inions ASH).
S. In deieimining wheihei a Iaw is invaIid by ieason ol ihe im¡Iied lieedom, ihe couiis
asl iwo quesiions.
S.¡. Iiisi, does ihe Iaw in iis ieims, o¡eiaiion oi elleci elleciiveIy buiden lieedom ol
communicaiion aboui goveinmeni oi ¡oIiiicaI maiieis'
¡
S.u. 5econd, il ihe answei io ihe liisi quesiion is yes, is ihe Iaw neveiiheIess
ieasonabIy a¡¡io¡iiaie and ada¡ied io seive a Iegiiimaie end in a mannei
com¡aiibIe wiih ihe mainienance ol ihe consiiiuiionaIIy ¡iesciibed sysiem ol
goveinmeni' In ihis o¡inion, I wiII desciibe ihis quesiion in shoiihand as ihe
quesiion ol wheihei ihe Iaw is ¡io¡oiiionaie io a Iegiiimaie end.
¡
5ee Icttcu v Stotc cj _uccus/oud (uo¡u) u¡o CII ¡ ai [u¸| (Iiench C|, Gummow,
Iayne, Ciennan and IeII ||) (Hotton).
q. Jhe communicaiion ¡ioiecied by ihe lieedom may be Iimiied io communicaiion
conceining ¡oIiiicaI and goveinmeniaI maiieis ai ihe jcdcro/, and noi 5iaie oi
Jeiiiioiy, IeveI. eg Hcgou v Htuc/ (uo¡¡) u¡¸ CII ¸oo ai [¡S| (Iiench C|). Iowevei,
given ihe subsianiiaI oveiIa¡ in CommonweaIih, 5iaie and Jeiiiioiy ¡oIiiicaI allaiis,
ihai Iimiiaiion is oidinaiiIy noi decisive. eg Uutcus ^SI ai [uo|-[u¸| (Iiench C|,
Iayne, Ciennan, IieleI and IeII ||).
¡o. Im¡oiianiIy loi ihe ¡ieseni issue, ihe im¡Iied lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion
has noi been undeisiood io ¡ioieci individuaI iighis io ¡oIiiicaI ex¡iession. see, eg,
Iougc v +ustro/tou ßrcodcosttug Ccrpcrottcu (¡qq¸) ¡Sq CII ¸uo, ¸oo, ¸o¸ (¡ei cuiiam)
(Lunge). Cne consequence ol ihai is ihai, in assessing vaIidiiy, couiis do noi inquiie
inio ihe elleci ol ihe Iaw on how a ¡aiiicuIai individuaI can ex¡iess himseIl oi
heiseIl; iaihei, couiis Iool io ihe elleci ol ihe Iaw on lieedom ol communicaiion
moie geneiaIIy. Uutcus ^SI ai [¸o| (Iiench C|, Iayne, Ciennan, IieleI and IeII ||).
Jhe ¡aiiicuIai communicaiions in which an individuaI wishes io engage may luinish
evidence as io ihe linds ol communicaiions buidened by ihe ¡aiiicuIai Iaw (eg Suuc/
v Cc//tcr (^c v) (uo¡u) uSq AII ¡uS ai [u¡| (Iaihuisi C|); oiheiwise ihey beai no
s¡eciaI signilicance in ihe deieiminaiion ol vaIidiiy. Ii loIIows liom ihis ihai iheie is
no s¡eciaI signilicance in ihe laci ihai seciion ¡ has, in ihis case, been a¡¡Iied io
¡
5ee Iougc ai ¸ou (¡ei cuiiam) (¨jt]u t/ts ccutcxt, t/crc ts /ttt/c dtjjcrcucc /cticcu t/c tcst cj rcoscuo//,
opprcprtotc oud odoptcd' oud t/c tcst cj prcpcrttcuo/tt,").
¸
iesiiici ihe communicaiive aciiviiies ol a |ouinaIisi. Jhe vaIidiiy ol ihe seciion is noi
assessed by ieleience io ihe a¡¡Iicaiion ol ihe Iaw io a ¡aiiicuIai individuaI; ii is
assessed ai a highei IeveI ol absiiaciion.
Is thcrc an cffcctivc hurdcn on thc frccdom of political communication³
¡¡. In my o¡inion, a couii is IileIy io lind ihai seciion ¡ ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct
elleciiveIy buidens lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion.
¡u. Ividence ol ihai buiden is discIosed by ihe lacis ol ihis case. Jhe Iaw buidens, loi
exam¡Ie.
¡u.¡. communicaiion, in ihe loim ol veibaI oi non-veibaI
u
¡ioiesi, aboui
enviionmeniaI issues, which, in Iighi ol ihe CommonweaIih's exieinaI allaiis
¡owei and siaiuies such as ihe Iuvtrcumcut Irctccttcu oud ßtcdtvcrstt, Ccuscrvottcu
+ct :qqq (Þ5V), can ¡iobabIy be ialen io be an aiea ol ieIevance io ledeiaI
eIeciions and debaie in ihe ledeiaI ¡aiIiameni;
¸
and
¡u.u. communicaiion consiiiuied by Iive ie¡oiiing on ¡ioiesis ol ihai lind.
¡¸. Ioih ol ihose buidens aie IileIy io be consideied moie ihan ¨tuccusc¡ucutto/". cl Mcuts
v T/c _uccu (uo¡¸) uq¸ AII u¸q ai [¸¡¸| (Ciennan, IieleI and IeII ||) (Monis).
¡¡. Jhai ihe buiden ideniilied in ¡aiagia¡h ¡u.u is signilicani is su¡¡oiied by dicia in
ihe cases ideniilying ihe im¡oiiance ol ihe media io ihe lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI
communicaiion. eg Icv, v Stotc cj Itctcrto (¡qq¸) ¡Sq CII ¸¸q, ou¸-¡ (McIugh |)
(Levy); +ustro/tou Coptto/ Tc/cvtstcu It, Itd v Ccmmcuico/t/ (¡qqu) ¡¸¸ CII ¡oo, ¡¸q-¡¡o
u
Þon-s¡eech communicaiions aie ¡ioiecied by ihe lieedom. Icv, v Stotc cj Itctcrto (¡qq¸) ¡Sq CII
¸¸q, ¸q¡-¸ (Iiennan C|), o¡¸ (Joohey and Gummow ||), ouu-ou¸ (McIugh |), o¸S (Iiiby |).
¸
5ee, eg, Icttcu ai [uo| (ieleiiing io aieas ol concuiieni CommonweaIih and 5iaie ies¡onsibiIiiy).
Jhai ihe lind ol communicaiion ideniilied in ihis sub-¡aiagia¡h is noi communicaiion in which
Ms Iingsion was diieciIy engaging oughi noi io mean ihai she couId noi ieIy on ii. Jhis is a
luiihei consequence ol ihe lieedom noi ¡ioieciing an individuaI iighi-iheie shouId noi be a
iesiiiciion on ihe ¨sianding" ol Ms Iingsion io ieIy on ihe elleci ol ihe Iaw on ihiid ¡aiiies. Il
seciion ¡ is invaIid because ol iis elleci on ¡eisons oihei ihan Ms Iingsion, ii is invaIid and
cannoi be a¡¡Iied io Ms Iingsion even il ii does noi diieciIy buiden Ms Iingsion's ¡oIiiicaI
communicaiions.
o
(Mason C|), u¸¡ (McIugh |), (ACTI); Stcp/cus v Icst +ustro/tou ^cispopcrs Itd (¡qq¡)
¡Su CII u¡¡, uoo (McIugh |); T/ccp/oucus v Hcro/d c Icc//, Ttmcs Itd (¡qq¡) ¡Su CII
¡o¡, ¡So (Ieane |); +ustro/tou ßrcodcosttug Ccrpcrottcu v Icuo/ Gomc Mcots It, Itd (uoo¡)
uoS CII ¡qq ai [¡q¸| (Iiiby |). Jhe high ¡oini ol ihese dicia is ¡iobabIy ihe
commeni ol McIugh | in Icv, ai ou¸ ihai ¨usc cj t/c prtut oud c/cctrcutc mcdto tc pu//tctsc
gcvcrumcut oud pc/tttco/ mottcrs ts sc itdcsprcod tu +ustro/to oud ct/cr Icstcru ccuutrtcs t/ot tcdo, tt
must /c rcgordcd os tudtspcuso//c tc jrccdcm cj ccmmuutcottcu".
¡¸. 5eciion ¡ may buiden lieedom ol communicaiion in ways oihei ihan ihose
ideniilied in ¡aiagia¡h ¡u. Ioi exam¡Ie, aside liom ihe ¡ioiesis Ms Iingsion was
coveiing, ii ¡iohibiis (sub|eci io conseni) any ¡oIiiicaI communicaiions which
de¡end on being ¡ieseni on incIosed Iands.
¡o. Jhe u¡shoi ol ihis is ihai, in my o¡inion, Ms Iingsion has a ieasonabIy siiong
aigumeni ihai ihe Iaw elleciiveIy buidens ¡oIiiicaI communicaiions.
Is scction ¡ of thc Inclosed Lunds Protection Act proportionatc to a compatihlc cnd³
¡¸. Answeiing ihe second quesiion ieleiied io in ¡aiagia¡h S invoIves answeiing a
numbei ol luiihei quesiions.
¡¸.¡. Vhai is ihe ¨end", oi whai aie ihe ¨ends", ol seciion ¡'
¡¸.u. Is ihai end, oi aie ihose ends, Iegiiimaie'
¡¸.¸. Vhai is ihe chaiaciei ol any elleciive buiden on ihe lieedom'
¡¸.¡. Is seciion ¡ ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct ¡io¡oiiionaie io iis end oi ends'
I/ot ts t/c cud, cr i/ot orc, t/c cuds, cj sccttcu ¡?
¡S. Jhe ¨end" ol a Iaw, loi ihe ¡ui¡oses ol assessing iis vaIidiiy in Iighi ol ihe im¡Iied
lieedom, is ideniilied by a ¡iocess ol siaiuioiy consiiuciion. Uutcus ^SI ai [¸o|
(Iiench C|, Iayne, Ciennan, IieleI and IeII ||).
¸
¡q. AccoidingIy, ii may be ideniilied by ¨cxprcss stotcmcut cj purpcsc tu t/c stotutc ttsc/j, tujcrcucc
jrcm tts tcxt oud structurc oud, i/crc opprcprtotc, rcjcrcucc tc cxtrtustc motcrto/s". Ccrtotu I/c,d's
Uudcrirttcrs Su/scrt/tug tc Ccutroct ^c IHoo++_S v Crcss (uo¡u) u¡S CII ¸¸S ai [u¸|
(Iiench C| and Iayne |).
uo. Jhe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct has no ex¡iess ob|ecis ¡iovision. In iis ¨Iong iiiIe", ii is
desciibed as ¨jo]u +ct tc ccusc/tdotc t/c cuoctmcuts rc/ottug tc t/c prctccttcu cj tuc/cscd /ouds jrcm
tutrustcu oud trcsposs" (em¡hasis added). Vhen seciion ¡ is iead in Iighi ol ihai Iong
iiiIe, ¡aiiicuIaiIy ihe em¡hasised seciion, a couii is IileIy io lind ihai ihe ¨end" ol
ihe ¡iohibiiion in seciion ¡ is, ai Ieasi, ihe ¡ioieciion ol ihe ¡io¡eiiy iighis ol any
owneis ol incIosed Iands. In ihis sense, ihe anaIysis a¡¡IicabIe io seciion ¡ ol ihe
Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct dilleis liom ihai a¡¡IicabIe io ihe It/d/tjc (Gomc) (Huuttug
Scoscu) Bcgu/ottcus :qq¡ (Vic) consideied in Icv,. Jhe Iaw iheie, whiIe iesiiiciing
access io Iands, was consideied io have ihe ¡ui¡ose ol ¡ioieciing ¡ubIic saleiy.
Is t/ot cud cr orc t/csc cuds "/cgtttmotc¨?
u¡. Jhe Iigh Couii has noi aiiicuIaied an auihoiiiaiive ciiieiion goveining when an
end is ieIevaniIy ¨Iegiiimaie".
uu. Inds which ihe Iigh Couii, oi |udges ol ihe Iigh Couii, have consideied io be
Iegiiimaie incIude.
uu.¡. ¡ioieciion againsi IegaIIy cognisabIe haim io ¡io¡eiiy. eg Mcuts ai [uo¸|-[uo¡|
(Iayne |);
uu.u. ¡ieseivaiion ol ihe iighi io use and en|oy ¡ubIic ¡Iaces. eg Cc/cmou v Icicr
(uoo¡) uuo CII ¡ ai [¸u| (GIeeson C|); and
uu.¸. ¡ioieciion ol ihe ¡iivaie inieiesi in individuaI ie¡uiaiion. Iougc ai ¸oS (¡ei
cuiiam).
u¸. Iaving iegaid io ihe auihoiiiies ieleiied io in ¡aiagia¡h uu, ii is IileIy ihai a couii
wouId considei ihe end ol ¡ioieciing ihe ¡iivaie inieiesi ol an ownei ol Iand in ihe
S
iighi excIusiveIy io ¡ossess ihai Iand io be a Iegiiimaie end. Jheie is ceiiainIy no
a¡¡aieni incom¡aiibiIiiy beiween ihai end and ihe mainienance ol ihe
consiiiuiionaIIy-¡iesciibed sysiems ol ie¡ieseniaiive and ies¡onsibIe goveinmeni
and loi amending ihe Consiiiuiion by ieleiendum.
I/ot ts t/c c/oroctcr cj ou, cjjccttvc /urdcu cu t/c jrccdcm?
u¡. Jhe Iigh Couii has diawn a disiinciion beiween Iaws which diieciIy buiden
lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion and ihose which onIy indiieciIy oi incideniaIIy
buiden ihai lieedom. In geneiaI, a Iaw is moie IileIy io be vaIid il ii onIy indiieciIy
oi incideniaIIy buidens ihe lieedom. eg Icttcu ai [¸o| (Iiench C|, Gummow,
Iayne, Ciennan and IeII ||).
u¸. Jhe Iigh Couii has noi cIeaiIy ex¡Iained ihe disiinciion beiween diieci buidens, on
ihe one hand, and indiieci oi incideniaI buidens on ihe oihei. In Icttcu, ihe
¡IuiaIiiy desciibed ihe disiinciion in ihe loIIowing way (ai [¸o|).
jT]/crc ts o dtsttucttcu . /cticcu /ois i/tc/ . tuctdcuto//, rcstrtct pc/tttco/ ccmmuutcottcu, oud
/ois i/tc/ prc/t/tt cr rcgu/otc ccmmuutcottcus i/tc/ orc tu/crcut/, pc/tttco/ cr o ucccssor,
tugrcdtcut cj pc/tttco/ ccmmuutcottcu.
uo. In Icttcu, IieleI | desciibed ihe disiinciion in ihis way (ai [¸S|).
+ dtsttucttcu /os /ccu droiu /cticcu o /oi i/tc/ /os o dtrcct oud su/stoutto/ cjjcct upcu pc/tttco/
ccmmuutcottcus oud o /oi i/tc/ /os cu/, ou tuctdcuto/ cr tudtrcct cjjcct.
u¸. Cihei |udges have someiimes a¡¡ioached ihe disiinciion in dilleieni ways. as a
disiinciion beiween Iaws which have ihe chaiaciei ol a Iaw wiih ies¡eci io iesiiiciing
¡oIiiicaI communicaiions and ihose which do noi (eg +CTI ai ¡oq (Ieane and
Joohey ||)); as a disiinciion beiween Iaws which have ihe ¡ui¡ose ol iesiiiciing
¡oIiiicaI communicaiions and ihose which have some oihei ¡ui¡ose (eg Icv, ai o¡q
(Gaudion |)); and as a disiinciion beiween Iaws which ¡iohibii communicaiions by
q
ieleience io iheii ¡oIiiicaI conieni and ihose which ieguIaie onIy ihe mode ol s¡eech
(eg +CTI ai ¡¡¸ (Mason C|)).
uS. Vhaievei a¡¡ioach is ado¡ied, in my o¡inion, a couii is IileIy io considei ihai
seciion ¡ ellecis onIy an indiieci oi incideniaI buiden on ihe lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI
communicaiion. Jhis is because seciion ¡ is noi conlined io ¡iohibiiing ¡aiiicuIai
¡oIiiicaI messages; noi is ii conlined io ¡iohibiiing ¡oIiiicaI communicaiions oi
communicaiions moie geneiaIIy. Ii o¡eiaies moie geneiaIIy io ¡iohibii eniiy inio oi
iemaindei on Iand, in ¡uisuii ol ihe ¡ui¡ose ol ¡ioieciing ¡iivaie ¡io¡eiiy. A couii
is IileIy io chaiacieiise iis elleci on ¡oIiiicaI communicaiions as indiieci and
insubsianiiaI. A couii is aIso unIileIy io chaiacieiise ii as being a Iaw wiih ies¡eci io
iesiiiciing oi ¡oIiiicaI communicaiions oi a Iaw which has ihe ¡ui¡ose ol iesiiiciing
¡oIiiicaI communicaiions. Iiom ihe ¡eis¡eciive ol ihe Gieen¡eace ¡ioiesieis, oi Ms
Iingsion, seciion ¡ may a¡¡eai diieciIy io iesiiici ihe linds ol communicaiions in
which ihey wani io engage. Iowevei, loi ihe ieasons sei oui in ¡aiagia¡h ¡o, ihai
does noi waiiani chaiacieiising ihe Iaw as one which diieciIy buidens ihe lieedom ol
communicaiion.
Is sccttcu ¡ cj t/c Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct prcpcrttcuotc tc tts cud cr cuds?
uq. Jhe ley quesiion in deieimining ihe vaIidiiy ol seciion ¡ is IileIy io be ihe quesiion
ol wheihei ii is ¡io¡oiiionaie io ihe end ideniilied in ¡aiagia¡h uo. Jhe Iigh Couii
has noi auihoiiiaiiveIy aiiicuIaied ihe naiuie ol ihe inquiiy inio ¡io¡oiiionaIiiy. Ai a
veiy high IeveI ol geneiaIiiy, ihe inquiiy can be desciibed as an inquiiy inio wheihei
iheie is a ieasonabIe lii beiween ihe Iaw's ieIevani end and ihe means seIecied by ii.
¸o. Jhe linds ol laciois io which ihe Iigh Couii has, oi |udges ol ihe Iigh Couii have,
had iegaid in assessing ihe ¡io¡oiiionaIiiy ol a Iaw incIude ihe loIIowing.
¸o.¡. ihe im¡oiiance ol ihe end soughi io be achieved. eg Strcct v _uccus/oud ßor
+sscctottcu (¡qSq) ¡oS CII ¡o¡, ¸¡¡ (Iiennan |);
¡o
¸o.u. wheihei ihe Iaw sullicieniIy luiiheis iis end. Uutcus ^SI ai [¸o| (Iiench C|,
Iayne, Ciennan, IieleI and IeII ||);
¸o.¸. ihe exieni ol ihe elleci ol ihe Iaw u¡on ¡oIiiicaI communicaiions. eg Mcuts ai
[¡u¡| (Iayne |), [uS¡| (Ciennan, IieleI and IeII ||);
¸o.¡. wheihei ihe buiden on ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion ellecied by ihe Iaw is indiieci
oi incideniaI. see ¡aiagia¡h u¡;
¸o.¸. ihe exieni io which ihe Iaw inliinges lundameniaI vaIues oi lieedoms oihei
ihan ihe consiiiuiionaI guaianiee. eg Cuu/tjjc v Ccmmcuico/t/ cj +ustro/to (¡qq¡)
¡Su CII u¸u, uq¸ (Mason C|);
¸o.o. wheihei ihe Iaw o¡eiaies in an aiea in which discussion has iiadiiionaIIy been
cuiiaiIed in ihe ¡ubIic inieiesi. eg Cc/cmou v Icicr (uoo¡) uuo CII ¡ ai [¸u¸|
(Ieydon |); and
¸o.¸. wheihei iheie aie aIieinaiive, ieasonabIy ¡iaciicabIe means ol achieving ihe
Iaw's ob|eci. eg Uutcus ^SI ai [¡¡| (Iiench C|, Iayne, Ciennan, IieleI and
IeII ||).
¸¡. 5ome ol ihese laciois aiguabIy ¡oini in lavoui ol ihe dis¡io¡oiiionaIiiy ol seciion ¡.
Ioi exam¡Ie.
¸¡.¡. ihe Iaw im¡oses a crtmtuo/ sanciion, iheieby magnilying ihe elleci ol ihe Iaw
on ¡oIiiicaI communicaiions;
¸¡.u. ihe Iaw aiguabIy necessaiiIy iesiiicis some ¡oIiiicaI messages. Ii may be
¡ossibIe io aigue ihai ¡ioiesiing on siie and Iive ie¡oiiing ol on siie ¡ioiesis
communicaie messages which cannoi oiheiwise be communicaied. ihe loim
ol ihe communicaiion is iniegiaI io ihe message communicaied. A Iaw which
¡ievenis some ¡oIiiicaI messages liom being communicaied, iaihei ihan |usi
iesiiiciing ihe iime, mannei oi ¡Iace ol ¡oIiiicaI messages, is IileIy io be seen
¡¡
as im¡osing a ieIaiiveIy gieaiei buiden on ihe lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI
communicaiion;
¸¡.¸. iheie is aiguabIy an avaiIabIe aIieinaiive io ciiminaI ¡ioieciion ol ¡io¡iieiaiy
iighis-ihe ioii ol iies¡ass; and
¸¡.¡. iheie is aIso aiguabIy anoihei avaiIabIe, Iess buidensome aIieinaiive io ihe
couise ialen by seciion ¡-nameIy, ex¡iessIy caiving oui as a IawluI excuse
eniiy onio oi iemaindei on Iand loi ihe ¡ui¡ose ol engaging in ¡oIiiicaI
communicaiions.
¸u. In my o¡inion, a couii is veiy IileIy io considei, howevei, ihai ihese laciois aie
ouiweighed by ihose which miIiiaie in lavoui ol ihe Iaw's ¡io¡oiiionaIiiy. Jhose
laciois incIude ihe loIIowing.
¸u.¡. 5eciion ¡ is IileIy io be consideied io luiihei ihe ¡ui¡ose ol ¡ioieciing ihe
¡io¡eiiy iighis ol owneis ol incIosed Iands insolai as ii is IileIy io deiei
¡eisons liom inliinging ihe iighi ol excIusive ¡ossession ol owneis ol
incIosed Iands.
¸u.u. Ioi ihe ieasons sei oui in ¡aiagia¡hs u¡ io uS, seciion ¡ onIy indiieciIy oi
incideniaIIy buidens ¡oIiiicaI communicaiions.
¸u.¸. Ai Ieasi so lai as incIosed Iands have an ownei wiih a iighi ol excIusive
¡ossession, ihe ¡iohibiiion ellecied by seciion ¡ goes no luiihei ihan ihai
hisioiicaIIy im¡osed by ihe ioii ol iies¡ass.
¸u.¡. VhiIe a Iaw may be Iess IileIy io be ¡io¡oiiionaie il ii crtmtuo/tscs conduci, a
Iaw can be ¡io¡oiiionaie ihough ii ado¡is ciiminaI, iaihei ihan civiI,
sanciions. eg Mo/cuc, v T/c _uccu (uo¡¸) uqS AII ¸oS ai [¡ou|-[¡o¸| (Iayne |),
[¡So| (IieleI |), [¸¸¸| (GageIei |). Jhe basis ol ihai musi be ihai, olien, a
ciiminaI ¡iohibiiion shouId be ialen io do someihing moie ihan whai wouId
be achieved by a co-exiensive civiI ¡iohibiiion. CiiminaIisaiion may have a
¡u
gieaiei deieiieni elleci ihan civiI sanciions; ii may aIso advance ihe ¡ubIic
inieiesi in denouncing conduci. AccoidingIy, ii is noi deieiminaiive ol ihe
vaIidiiy ol seciion ¡ ihai civiI iies¡ass Iaws wiII olien ¡iohibii esseniiaIIy ihe
same conduci as ihai ¡iohibiied by seciion ¡.
¸u.¸. Jheie is auihoiiiy ihai a Iaw is noi invaIid meieIy because ii does noi coniain
a caive-oui loi ¡oIiiicaI communicaiions. Jhai is ai Ieasi because ol ihe
dillicuIiy ol delining whai wouId quaIily as ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion loi ihe
¡ui¡oses ol ihe caive-oui. see Mu/dccu v Mc//curuc Ctt, Ccuuct/ (uo¡¸) ¡¸¸ AII
u¸¸ ai [¡oS|-[¡¡o| (Þoiih |).
¸¸. Jo ihese laciois can be added ihe geneiaI obseivaiion ihai on ihe onIy iwo occasions
since ¡qqu ihai ihe Iigh Couii has siiucl down a Iaw on ihe basis ihai ii
im¡eimissibIy buidened ihe lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion (+CTI and Uutcus
^SI), ihai Iaw has been one which o¡eiaied diieciIy on ¡oIiiicaI s¡eech. 5eciion ¡
ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct cIeaiIy does lai moie ihan buiden ¡oIiiicaI
communicaiion. in ihe vasi ma|oiiiy ol ihe ciicumsiances in which ii a¡¡Iies, ii is
unIileIy io a¡¡Iy io buiden ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion.
¸¡. Ioi ihese ieasons, and ¡aiiicuIaiIy loi ihe ieason ihai any buiden which ellecis on
¡oIiiicaI communicaiion wiII ¡iobabIy be consideied veiy indiieci, a couii is, in my
o¡inion, veiy unIileIy io considei ihai seciion ¡ is dis¡io¡oiiionaie io a Iegiiimaie
end.
Should scction ¡ of thc Inclosed Lunds Protection Act hc rcad in light of thc implicd
frccdom³
¸¸. ConsiiiuiionaI Iimiiaiions, such as ihe im¡Iied lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion,
can o¡eiaie on Iaws in iwo ieIevani ways. ihey can a¡¡Iy io invaIidaie ihe Iaw, oi
ihey can a¡¡Iy io alleci ihe Iaw's consiiuciion. In ihis seciion ol ihis o¡inion, I
considei wheihei ihe im¡Iied lieedom couId o¡eiaie in ihe second ol ihese ways. In
geneiaI, ihe ieason why ihe im¡Iied lieedom can alleci ihe consiiuciion ol ihe
¡¸
Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct is because ol ihe ¡iesum¡iion ihai IaiIiameni does noi
iniend io ¡as beyond consiiiuiionaI bounds. eg Iu//tc Scrvtcc +sscctottcu cj Scut/ +ustro/to
Iuccrpcrotcd v Iudustrto/ Bc/ottcus Ccmmtsstcu cj Scut/ +ustro/to (uo¡u)¡uS AII ¡o¸ ai [o¡|
(Gummow, Iayne, Ciennan, IieleI and IeII |).
¸o. Jheie a¡¡eai io be iwo ¡ossibIe ways in which ihe im¡Iied lieedom couId alleci ihe
consiiuciion ol seciion ¡ ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct. Jhe liisi is ihai ii couId
a¡¡Iy such ihai ihe seciion shouId be iead as il ii ¡iosciibed eniiy onio oi iemaindei
on ¡ubIic Iands, exce¡i so lai as ihai ¡ioscii¡iion wouId inliinge ihe lieedom ol
¡oIiiicaI communicaiion. Jhe Iigh Couii iead an im¡Iied Iimiiaiion ol ihai lind
inio ihe Iaw in Iotuc/u v Stotc cj ^ci Scut/ Io/cs (uo¡¡) u¸¡ CII ¡S¡ ai [¡¡¸|
(Gummow, Iayne, Ciennan and IeII ||). Iven il ii weie ¡ossibIe, consisieniIy wiih
ihe Iimiis ol |udiciaI ¡owei and ol ihe ¡iesum¡iion ihai siaiuies beai a vaIid
meaning, io asciibe such a meaning io seciion ¡ ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct, a
couii is unIileIy io do so. Jhai is because loi ihe ieasons sei oui above, a couii wiII
¡iobabIy noi considei ihai seciion ¡, il given ihe meaning ii beais on iis lace,
inliinges ihe im¡Iied lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion. Jheie is iheieloie no
need io iead ihe ¡iovision down by ieading in some im¡Iied excIusion.
¸¸. Jhe oihei way in which ihe im¡Iied lieedom couId alleci ihe consiiuciion ol
seciion ¡ ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct is ihiough ihe ieims ¨IawluI excuse". Jhe
meaning ol ihai ¡hiase is discussed ai some Iengih in O'Dcucg/uc v It//c (¡qqq) ¡¸
Þ5VII u¸¸ (D'Donoghue), a case in which ii was aigued ihai eniiy onio Iand loi
ihe ¡ui¡ose ol ¡ioiesiing was a IawluI excuse. In ihis o¡inion, I do noi considei in
deiaiI wheihei, aside liom ihe im¡Iied lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion, ihe
¡hiase ¨IawluI excuse" couId be iead such ihai eniiy onio oi iemaindei on Iand loi
ihe ¡ui¡ose ol Iive ie¡oiiing luinishes a IawluI excuse.
¸S. In my o¡inion, ihe im¡Iied lieedom is unIileIy io be ca¡abIe ol alleciing ihe
consiiuciion ol ¨IawluI excuse". Ii does noi a¡¡eai ihai any consiiiuiionaI ¡oini was
¡¡
aigued in O'Dcucg/uc-ceiiainIy, no consiiiuiionaI ¡oini was decided in ihai case.
Cuiside ihe coniexi ol seciion ¡ ol ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct, ihe ¡hiase ¨IawluI
excuse" has been undeisiood io ideniily ¨o rcoscu rcccgutscd /, /oi os sujjtctcut justtjtcottcu
. i/ct/cr /, io, cj ousicr, dcjcucc, justtjtcottcu cr ct/cr /cgo/ rtg/t cr tmmuutt,". +ttcruc,-Gcucro/
(Ct/) v ßrcc//cr (¡qqq) ¡q¸ CII S¸ ai [¡¸| (GIeeson C|, Gaudion, McIugh,
Gummow, Iayne and CaIIinan ||).
¸q. CouId ihe im¡Iied lieedom luinish some ¨answei, delence, |usiilicaiion oi oihei
IegaI iighi oi immuniiy" such ihai a ¡eison in Ms Iingsion's ¡osiiion wouId have a
IawluI excuse loi enieiing oi iemaining on incIosed Iands' Jhe im¡Iied lieedom ts
ca¡abIe ol being a¡¡Iied io deveIo¡ new delences. in Iougc, ihe Iigh Couii a¡¡Iied
ihe lieedom io deveIo¡ an exiended delence ol quaIilied ¡iiviIege io a cIaim in
delamaiion. Iven so, I cannoi see how a couii couId a¡¡Iy simiIai ieasoning heie
such ihai ihe im¡Iied lieedom wouId ¡iovide some lind ol answei, delence,
|usiilicaiion oi oihei IegaI iighi oi immuniiy io oi in ies¡eci ol a ¡iosecuiion undei
seciion ¡. Jhai is because, loi ihe ieasons I have ouiIined above, ii is veiy unIileIy
ihai a couii wouId considei seciion ¡ io inliinge ihe im¡Iied lieedom il ihai
¡iovision weie asciibed ihe meaning ii beais on iis lace. Jheie is no need ihen loi
ihe couii io iecognise, as in Iougc, some new ¨delence" which couId ihen consiiiuie
some sullicieni |usiilicaiion in Iaw. InIile loi exam¡Ie ihe 5u¡ieme Couii ol
Canada,
¡
AusiiaIian couiis have noi iecognised a ¡iinci¡Ie ihai Iaws shouId be
consiiued in Iighi ol consiiiuiionaI ¨vaIues" and ¨¡iinci¡Ies" as disiinci liom
consiiiuiionaI iuIes and ¡iohibiiions. Jhe u¡shoi ol ihis is ihai, il a couii consideis
ihai seciion ¡, il asciibed ihe meaning ii beais on iis lace, does noi inliinge ihe
im¡Iied lieedom, iheie is no waiiani loi ieading ihe ¡iovision any moie naiiowIy
meieIy because ihai wouId ieduce ihe buiden which ihe ¡iovision inlIicis on ihe
lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion. Jhe siaiuie onIy need be iead down oi a new
¡
5ee, eg, BIDSU v Dc/p/tu Dc/tvcr, Itd [¡qSo| u 5CI ¸¸¸.
¡¸
lind ol ¨delence" iecognised il necessaiy; bui heie ii is noi necessaiy. I iheieloie
considei ii unIileIy ihai a couii wouId, soIeIy because ol ihe im¡Iied lieedom, iead
¨IawluI excuse" as il ii com¡iehended eniiy onio oi iemaindei on Iand loi ihe
¡ui¡ose ol engaging in oi laciIiiaiing ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion.
¡o. Jhis said, ii is ¡ossibIe ihai a couii mighi achieve a simiIai ouicome by ieading
¨IawluI excuse" in Iighi ol ihe common Iaw ¡iinci¡Ie ol IegaIiiy and ihe ¡io¡osiiion
ihai abseni unmisialeabIe Ianguage Iaws shouId noi be consiiued io inliinge
lieedom ol ex¡iession (eg Mcuts ai [oo| (Iiench C|)). Jhe elleci ol ihai ¡iinci¡Ie
may be ihai, il iheie aie consiiuciionaI choices in ihe iniei¡ieiaiion ol seciion ¡ ol
ihe Iuc/cscd Iouds Irctccttcu +ct, a consiiuciion shouId be ado¡ied which ieduces ihe
ca¡aciiy ol seciion ¡ io buiden ihe lieedom ol ex¡iession. In Iighi ol ihe dicia ai ihe
consiiiuiionaI IeveI io ihe elleci ihai ihe media is iniegiaI io lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI
communicaiion, ihe ¡iinci¡Ie ol IegaIiiy couId aiguabIy be a¡¡Iied such ihai ¨IawluI
excuse" shouId be iead as com¡iehending eniiy onio oi iemaindei on Iand loi ihe
¡ui¡ose, inca¡abIe ol oiheiwise being accom¡Iished, ol Iive ie¡oiiing on ¡ioiesis.
In ihai case, ihe seciion wouId be iead in sym¡aihy wiih ihe inieiesis ¡ioiecied by
ihe lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI communicaiion, bui ihe iesuIiing consiiuciion wouId noi be
diieciIy diciaied oi inlIuenced by ihe consiiiuiionaI im¡Iied lieedom ol ¡oIiiicaI
communicaiion.
I so advise.
Iavid Iume
5ix 5eIboine Veniwoiih Chambeis
Ih. (ou) Sq¡¸ uoq¡

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful