ANSI/ISA–77.13.

01–1999 (R2008)

Fossil Fuel Power Plant
Steam Turbine Bypass System

Reaffirmed 30 December 2008
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Fossil Fuel Power Plant Steam Turbine Bypass System
ISBN: 978-1-934394-74-8
Copyright © 2008 by ISA. All rights reserved. Not for resale. Printed in the United States of America. No
part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by
any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written
permission of the Publisher.
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- 3 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

Preface
This preface, as well as all footnotes and annexes, is included for information purposes and is not part of
ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008).
This document has been prepared as part of the service of ISA towards a goal of uniformity in the field of
instrumentation. To be of real value, this document should not be static but should be subject to periodic
review. Toward this end, the Society welcomes all comments and criticisms and asks that they be
addressed to the Secretary, Standards and Practices Board; ISA; 67 Alexander Drive; P. O. Box 12277;
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709; Telephone (919) 549-8411; Fax (919) 549-8288; E-mail:
standards@isa.org.
The ISA Standards and Practices Department is aware of the growing need for attention to the metric
system of units in general, and the International System of Units (SI) in particular, in the preparation of
instrumentation standards. The Department is further aware of the benefits to USA users of ISA
standards of incorporating suitable references to the SI (and the metric system) in their business and
professional dealings with other countries. Toward this end, this Department will endeavor to introduce
SI-acceptable metric units in all new and revised standards, recommended practices, and technical
reports to the greatest extent possible. Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The
Modern Metric System, published by the American Society for Testing & Materials as IEEE/ASTM SI 10-
97, and future revisions, will be the reference guide for definitions, symbols, abbreviations, and
conversion factors.
It is the policy of ISA to encourage and welcome the participation of all concerned individuals and
interests in the development of ISA standards, recommended practices, and technical reports.
Participation in the ISA standards-making process by an individual in no way constitutes endorsement by
the employer of that individual, of ISA, or of any of the standards, recommended practices, and technical
reports that ISA develops.
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THE USER OF THIS DOCUMENT SHOULD BE AWARE THAT THIS DOCUMENT MAY BE IMPACTED BY ELECTRONIC
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 4 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

The following people served as members of ISA77.13:
NAME COMPANY
J . Schleis, Chairman Wood Group Turbine Control Services, Inc.
W. Holland, Managing Director Southern Company
E. Adamson Invensys
C. Fernandez-Varela Comision Federal de Electricidad
H. Foreman Power Consultants
K. Gabel Centerior Energy
M. Kuffer NEOTECHA AG
D. Lee ABB Automation, Inc.
H. Maxwell Bechtel Power Corporation
I. Mazza Trasferimento Di Tech
G. Mookerjee U.S. Department of Energy
R. Papilla Edison O&M Services
K. Schoonover Con-Tek Valves, Inc.
L. Stratton Control Components, Inc.
I. Verhappen MTL Instrument Group
D. Younie Wood Group Turbine Control Services, Inc.

The following people served as voting members of ISA77:
NAME COMPANY
G. McFarland, Managing Director Emerson Process Mgmnt Power & Water Sol.
D. Roney, Chair URS – Washington Division
L. Altcheh Israel Electric Corporation
S. Alvarez Compania Inspeccion Mexicana
J . Batug PP&L, Inc.
D. Christopher Consultant
G. Cohee Applied Control Systems
D. Crow Invensys
R. Eng Hitachi Power Systems America
A. Gavrilos ABB, Inc.
J . Gillman J FG Technology Transfer LLC
W. Hocking Invensys Process Systems
W. Holland CH2M Hill
R. Hubby Consultant
R. J ohnson Consultant
D. Lee ABB Automation, Inc.
G. Mookerjee Detroit Edison Company
J . Olson Tennessee Valley Authority
P. Reeves TXU Sandow
M. Skoncey First Energy Generation Corporation
T. Stevenson Constellation Energy
C. Taft Consultant
A. Zadiraka The Babcock & Wilcox Company
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- 5 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

This standard was approved for publication by the ISA Standards and Practices Board on 30 December
2008.

NAME COMPANY
T. McAvinew, Chair J acobs Engineering Group
M. Coppler Ametek, Inc.
E. Cosman The Dow Chemical Co.
B. Dumortier Schneider Electric
D. Dunn Aramco Services Co.
J . Gilsinn NIST
W. Holland Consultant
E. Icayan ACES, Inc.
J . J amison Consultant
K. Lindner Endress & Hauser Process Solutions AG
V. Maggioli Feltronics Corp.
A. McCauley, J r. Chagrin Valley Controls, Inc.
G. McFarland Emerson Process Management
R. Reimer Rockwell Automation
N. Sands E I du Pont
H. Sasajima Yamatake Corp.
T. Schnaare Rosemount, Inc.
J . Tatera Consultant
I. Verhappen MTL Instrument Group
R. Webb Consultant
W. Weidman Parsons Energy & Chemicals Group
J . Weiss Applied Control Solutions LLC
M. Widmeyer Consultant
M. Zielinski Emerson Process Management
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- 7 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS
1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................9
2 Purpose................................................................................................................................................9
3 Definitions.............................................................................................................................................9
4 Bypass systems..................................................................................................................................11
4.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................11
4.2 Elements ........................................................................................................................................12
4.3 Capacity.........................................................................................................................................13
4.4 Design requirements......................................................................................................................13
4.5 Turbine bypass instrumentation.....................................................................................................21
4.6 Control and logic requirements......................................................................................................23
4.7 Alarm requirements........................................................................................................................25
4.8 Operator interface..........................................................................................................................26
Annex A — References...............................................................................................................................29
Annex B — The use of bypass systems .....................................................................................................31
Annex C — Valve life expectancy...............................................................................................................33
Annex D — Some typical high- and low-pressure turbine bypass valve....................................................34
Annex E — Figures.....................................................................................................................................35


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- 9 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

1 Scope
This standard covers the design requirements and operator interface for steam turbine bypass systems
for drum and once-through steam generators and combined cycle plants. Hardware configurations are
suggested to obtain the minimum design requirements to obtain a safe and operable system. Both fixed
percentage bypass and variable pressure systems are covered.
It is applicable to boilers with steam capacities of 200,000 lb/hr (25 kg/s) or greater.
2 Purpose
This standard establishes the minimum requirements for design specifications to implement steam turbine
bypass systems and hardware configurations for drum and once-through, fossil fuel power plant boilers.
The turbine bypass system should provide for cold start-up, warm start, hot restart, load rejection, turbine
shutdowns, and unit trips. The system shall be designed to provide pressure, temperature, and flow
control of steam around and through the turbine by controlling each bypass valve, isolation valve, and
associated desuperheater. The desuperheating function may be integral with the bypass valve. The
turbine bypass system does not interface with the turbine control and supervisory system. The turbine
bypass system is set to maintain steam pressure, and any coordination with the turbine is through
interaction with the process as the turbine demands more or less steam. There is no direct
interconnection of control systems.
3 Definitions
The following definitions are included to clarify their use in this standard and may not correspond to the
use of the word in other texts. For other definitions, see ISA-51.1, Process Instrumentation Terminology.
3.1 alarm:
an indication used to alert an operator about an abnormal operating condition.
3.2 automatic tracking:
the action of a control system to automatically track a setpoint or the process variable without any other
corrective mechanisms.
3.3 boiler:
the entire vessel in which steam or other vapor is generated for use external to itself, including the
furnace, consisting of waterwall tubes; the firebox area, including burners and dampers; the convection
area, consisting of any superheater, reheater, and/or economizer sections as well as drums, generating
tubes, and headers.
3.4 condenser backpressure elements:
a multiple breakdown diffuser, normally installed in the steam condenser neck, used to generate a
positive back pressure upstream of the condenser vacuum and to reduce the kinematic energy of steam
from an external source other than the turbine exhaust.
3.5 controller:
any automatic, semi-automatic, or manual device or system of devices used to regulate the boiler turbine,
or any other equipment within defined parameters. If automatic, the device or system responds to
variations in temperature, pressure, water level, flow, or other control variables.
3.6 differential producer:
a measuring element that is inserted in a process flow path and used to create a pressure drop that is
proportional to the square of the volumetric flow rate.
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 10 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

3.7 fail safe:
the capability to go to a predetermined safe state in the event of a specific malfunction.
3.8 fault tolerant:
built-in capability of a system to provide continued, correct execution of its assigned function in the
presence of a hardware and/or software fault.
3.9 integral windup:
the saturation of the integral controller output, in the presence of a continuous error, which may cause
unacceptable response in returning the process to its setpoint within acceptable limits of time and
overshoot.
3.10 load:
a device that receives power or that power which is delivered to such a device, as in the rate of output,
lb/hr (kg/s) of steam or megawatts (kilowatts) of electrical generations.
3.11 logic system:
decision-making logic equipment with its associated power supplies, I/O hardware, and sensing devices.
3.12 mode (submode):
a particular operating condition of a control system, such as manual, automatic, remote, or coordinated.
3.13 redundant (redundancy):
the duplication or repetition of elements in electrical or mechanical equipment to provide alternative
functional channels in case of failure of one channel.
3.14 severe duty valve:
a mission-critical valve, typically seeing high-pressure drop service, which may see cavitating or flashing
fluids, or if not properly designed, may see early trim erosion, vibration, or excess noise.
3.15 shall, should, and may:
the word “SHALL” is to be understood as a REQUIREMENT; the word “SHOULD” as a
RECOMMENDATION; the word “MAY” as a PERMISSIVE, neither mandatory nor recommended.
3.16 steam quality:
the ratio of the vapor’s mass to the mixture’s mass.
3.17 turbine:
a machine that converts energy from a moving fluid into rotating mechanical energy that drives a load. In
a power plant, a turbine converts energy in the steam into mechanical energy to drive an electric
generator (the mechanical load).
3.18 turbine governor valves:
the primary control valves used to regulate the flow of steam through the turbine during normal operation.
3.19 turn-down ratio:
the ratio from maximum operating to minimum operating conditions, providing a controllable or
measurable span. The device must perform over this range.


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- 11 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

4 Bypass systems
4.1 General requirements
The steam turbine bypass system requirements are defined for those components and logic systems
necessary to handle steam to and around the turbine.
The design of systems to prevent water damage to steam turbines is covered by the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standard TDP-1.
The steam should be of a minimum quality of 92 percent to avoid impingement and corrosion.
Figures E.1 and E.2 show a typical turbine steam bypass system to assist in explaining the design
requirements of this clause. Other figures show specific areas to help clarify the text materials.
This standard will cover the following functions:
a) Matching with an acceptable difference the metal to steam temperatures before steam is admitted to
the turbine
b) Handling the difference between the generated and consumed steam flows during transient
conditions
4.1.1 High-pressure (HP) bypass system
The HP bypass system shall fulfill the following requirements:
a) Control the pressure of the steam bypassing the HP turbine
b) Control the pressure of the main steam from the boiler
c) Control the flow and temperature of steam through the cold reheat line to cool the boiler reheater
tubing
d) Control the flow of steam through the main steam line to cool the boiler final superheater in case of
sliding pressure operation
e) Prevent lifting of main steam and hot reheat safety valves during transient operations
4.1.2 Intermediate-pressure (IP) and low-pressure (LP) bypass system
The IP and LP bypass system shall fulfill the following requirements:
a) Control the pressure of the steam bypassing the IP and LP turbines
b) Control the pressure and temperature of the hot reheat steam from the boiler
c) Prevent the lifting of hot reheat safety valves during transient operations
d) Protect the condenser against excessive pressure, temperature, and steam kinematic energy
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 12 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

4.2 Elements
The elements that make up the steam turbine bypass system are those added over the elements required
for a system without the ability to bypass steam around the HP, IP, and LP turbines. Therefore, those
elements that are added due to the bypass are shown in figures E.1 and E.2.
4.2.1 HP bypass elements
a) HP bypass control valve (HPB) (see notes 1 and 3)
b) Before HP bypass control valve, block valve (B) (see note 3)
c) HP bypass desuperheater (DES) (see note 1)
d) HP bypass desuperheater spray water control valve (SPV) (see notes 2 and 3)
e) HP bypass desuperheater spray water block valve (B) (see note 3)
f) HP turbine cold reheat, non-return valve (NRV)
g) HP turbine bypass control system
h) HP turbine bypass instrumentation
i) HP turbine reverse flow valve (see note 4)
NOTE 1 — The pressure control valve and desuperheater may be combined into one HP turbine mainstream bypass pressure
control and desuperheating valve as shown in figure E.2.
NOTE 2 — The desuperheater may have an integral spray water control valve.
NOTE 3 — Block valves are usually required to assure that leakage does not occur through the control valve. This function could be
integrated in a composite control valve, provided the block valve’s purpose is not compromised.
NOTE 4 — The reverse flow valve may be necessary to prevent excessive windage heating of the HP turbine blades during a hot
restart if initial loading is accomplished using the LP/IP sections.
4.2.2 IP and LP elements
a) IP/LP bypass control valve (IP/LPB) (see notes 1 and 3)
b) Before IP/LP bypass control valve, block valve (B) (see note 3)
c) IP/LP bypass desuperheater (DES) (see note 1)
d) IP/LP bypass desuperheater spray water control valve (SPV) (see notes 2 and 3)
e) IP/LP bypass desuperheater spray water block valve (B) (see note 3)
f) Condenser back pressure elements (I)
g) IP/LP pressure bypass control system
h) IP/LP bypass instrumentation
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- 13 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

NOTE 1 — The pressure control valve and desuperheater may be combined into one IP and LP turbine hot reheat bypass pressure
control and desuperheating valve as shown in figure E.2.
NOTE 2 — The desuperheater may have an integral spray water control valve.
NOTE 3 — Block valves are usually required to assure that leakage does not occur through the control valve. This function could be
integrated in a composite control valve, provided the block valve’s purpose is not compromised.
4.3 Capacity
The steam flow capacity of the bypass system is governed by a number of other variables in the overall
steam system. These are
a) heat distribution in the boiler;
b) turbine rotor diameter;
c) condenser internals;
d) startup, loading, unloading, and shutdown practices and requirements for the unit;
e) safety considerations; and
f) economics.
4.3.1 System size
There are a number of possibilities to size the bypass system. In this document the bypass system size or
capacity to fulfill the two functions previously defined in 4.1 are as follows:
a) A bypass system that matches the steam-to-turbine metal temperatures should be sized for 15
percent of maximum continuous rated (MCR) flow at valves wide open. This system reduces the
startup time by about 30 minutes.
b) A bypass system that handles the difference between the generated and consumed steam flows
during upset or transient conditions should handle 40 percent of MCR flow at valves wide open or
should have a greater size range.
c) A bypass system that keeps the steam generator running at full load without blowing the safety valves
in case of a turbine or generator trip at full load should handle 100 percent of MCR flow at valves
wide open.
4.4 Design requirements
The design requirements for each of the elements are as follows.
4.4.1 HP and IP/LP turbine bypass control valve
a) Design criteria

The design criteria for the bypass system valves shall be specified as shown in tables 4.4.1(a) and
4.4.1(b).
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 14 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

Table 4.4.1(a) — HP turbine bypass control valve
Severe duty, pressure type or pressure- and temperature-reducing type (see note 2)
Operating Conditions The coordinated inlet and outlet pressure, temperature, and flow conditions for all distinct
service situations
Inlet and Outlet Design
Pressure
The maximum design pressure for the inlet and outlet
Inlet and Outlet Design
Temperature
The maximum design temperature for the inlet and outlet
Inlet Pipe Size (Internal
Diameter [ID]) and Material
The same as the piping just before the valve
Outlet Pipe Size (Internal
Diameter [ID]) and Material
The same as the piping just after the valve
Noise Level The desired maximum noise level at 1.0 meter (3.28 feet) from the valve (see ISA-75.07-
1997)
Shutoff Leakage Class The desired shutoff class at the design pressure and temperature rating of the valve —
usually Class V of ANSI/FCI 70.2
Travel Time The desired minimum travel time from any position including fully closed at the maximum
operating pressure
Fail State The HP bypass valve is normally a fail-closed valve (see note 1.)
Modulating Time The maximum time for full stroke operation
Turndown Ratio The full range of coordinated operating parameters of flow, pressure, and temperature
Quick Opening Time The travel time for a valve that is provided with quick opening devices

NOTE 1 — If the applicable pressure vessel code permits, this valve can also be used as a fail-open safety relief. An “HP to
condenser” valve is preferably fail closed.
NOTE 2 — If the control valve has an integral water injection system, the average droplet size and distribution and the evaporation
length (90% of total droplet mass) shall be provided by the manufacturer.
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- 15 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

Table 4.4.1(b) — IP and LP turbines hot reheat bypass control valve
Severe duty, pressure type or pressure- and temperature-reducing type with stem sealing for condenser vacuum if
required (see note 2 from previous page)
Operating Conditions The coordinated inlet and outlet pressure, temperature, and flow conditions for all distinct
service situations
Inlet and Outlet Design Pressure The maximum design pressure for the inlet and outlet
Inlet and Outlet Design
Temperature
The maximum design temperature for the inlet and outlet
Inlet Pipe Size (Internal Diameter
[ID]) and Material
The same as the hot reheat piping just before the valve
Outlet Pipe Size (Internal
Diameter [ID]) and Material
The same as the hot reheat piping just after the valve
Noise Level The desired maximum noise level at 1.0 meter (3.28 feet) from the valve (see ISA-75.07-
1997)
Shutoff Leakage Class The desired shutoff class at the desired design pressure and temperature rating of the
valve — usually Class V of ANSI/FCI 70.2
Travel Time The desired minimum travel time from any position, including fully open, at the maximum
operating pressure
Fail State The IP and LP turbines bypass valve is preferably a fail-closed design
Modulating Time The maximum time for full-stroke operation
Turndown Ratio The full range of coordinated operating parameters of flow, pressure, and temperature
Condenser Back Pressure The maximum back pressure for valve operation at a specified pressure, temperature,
and Flow

NOTE — If the code permits, this valve can also be used as a fail-open safety relief. An “HP to condenser” valve is preferably fail
closed.
b) Control valve actuator

The type, motive power, material, function, and design of the actuator desired to meet the
requirements of the specific control valve should be either specified or left to the manufacturer.
c) Control valve position indication

The number, type, and operation of position switches and transmitters should be specified.
d) Stem, trim, packing, and seat

The material and design of the stem, trim, packing, and seat shall be specified or left to the
manufacturer. The design and materials shall be suitable to resist mechanical, thermal, and fluid
induced wear.
e) Valve stem vacuum sealing connection (applies to IP and LP bypass control valve if required by
specific design)

The size, type, and materials for the connection should be specified or left to the manufacturer.
f) End-connection preparation

The end preparation for the valves should be specified with the weld-end or flange details.
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 16 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

g) Cycles

The number of cycles per month and modes of operation along with the temperature gradients should
be specified.
h) Trim and valve outlet kinematic energy

Trim and valve outlet velocities shall be specified to reduce noise, vibrations, and erosion.
4.4.2 HP and IP/LP bypass block valve
a) Design criteria

The design criteria for the HP and IP/LP bypass block valves shall be specified as shown in table
4.4.2.
Table 4.4.2 — Bypass block valves
These are non-pressure-reducing type val ves (see note 1).
Operating Pressure Same as control valve
Operating Temperature Same as control valve
Design Pressure Same as control valve
Design Temperature Same as control valve
Before Block Valve Inlet and
Outlet Pipe Size (Internal Diameter
[ID]) and Material
Same as or larger than the inlet of the control valve
Shutoff Leakage Class Shall be per MSS SP-61, Class V
Travel Time Required minimum and maximum travel time from one end to the other shall be
specified
Fail State Follow control valve fail state

NOTE — Block valves are usually required to assure that leakage does not occur through the control valve. This function could be
integrated in a composite control valve provided the block valve’s purpose is not compromised.
b) Actuator

The type, motive power, material, and design of the actuator desired to meet the opening and closing
time should be specified or left to the manufacturer.
c) Block valve position indication

The number, type, and operation of position limit switches and transmitters should be specified.
d) Stem, disk, packing, and seat

The material and design of the stem, disk, packing, and seat should be specified or left to the
manufacturer. The design and materials shall be suitable to resist mechanical, thermal, and fluid
induced wear.
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- 17 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

e) Stem vacuum sealing connection (intermediate and low pressure bypass block valves only, if
required)

The size, type, and materials for the connection to the valves should be specified for vacuum sealing
or left to the manufacturer.
f) End-connection preparation

The end preparation should be specified with the weld-end or flange details.
g) Pressure loss

The bypass block valves should be specified to have a low pressure loss and minimum flow
disturbance to minimize operational instability of the downstream piping and valves.
4.4.3 Desuperheater
The design criteria for the main steam and hot reheat steam desuperheaters shall be specified as shown
in table 4.4.3. The desuperheater may have an integral spray water control valve. The design parameters
that affect the time/distance required for evaporation of the water spray include
a) the nozzle design and associated droplet size distribution;
b) the relative location of associated nozzles and their direction of spray into the superheated steam flow
path;
c) the amount of initial and final superheat available in the steam/water mixture;
d) the steam and droplet velocity and degree of turbulence in the mixing region;
e) the amount and temperature of the injected water; and
f) the water surface tension and viscosity.
Table 4.4.3 — Desuperheater
Body Material The body material shall be specified for each desuperheater
Internal Components The material for the internal components shall be specified or left to the manufacturer
Type The type of desuperheater shall be specified
Mounting The position in the bypass piping shall be specified
Operating Conditions The operating, design, and boiler hydro test pressures and temperatures shall be
specified
Temperature Control Range The temperature reduction differential at various steam flow and pressure conditions
shall be specified
Average Droplet Size and
Distribution
The average droplet size and distribution shall be provided by the manufacturer for
each set of operating conditions
Evaporation Length (90% of Total
Droplet Mass)
The evaporation length shall be provided by the manufacturer for each set of operating
conditions
End Connection Preparation The end preparation shall be specified, along with the weld-end or flange details

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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 18 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

4.4.4 Desuperheater spray water control valve
a) Design criteria

The design criteria for the desuperheater spray water control valve shall be specified as shown in
table 4.4.4.
Table 4.4.4 — Desuperheater spray water control valve
This is a pressure-reducing-type val ve.
Operating Conditions The coordinated inlet and outlet pressure, temperature, and flow conditions for all
distinct service conditions
Design Pressure The maximum design pressure for the system The maximum design pressure for the
system
Design Temperature The maximum design temperature for the system
Inlet Pipe Size (Internal Diameter
[ID]) and Material
The same as the piping just before the valve
Outlet Pipe Size (Internal Diameter
[ID]) and Material
The same as the piping just after the valve
Noise Level The desired maximum noise level at 1.0 meter (3 feet) from the valve (see ISA-75.07-
1997)
Shutoff Leakage Class The desired shutoff class at the desired design pressure and temperature rating of the
valve—usually Class V of ANSI/FCI 70.2
Travel Time The desired minimum travel time from any position, including fully open, at the
maximum operating pressure
Fail State The valve shall be coordinated with the fail state of the HP bypass and IP/LB bypass
valves.
Modulating Time The maximum time for full-stroke operation
Turndown Ratio The full range of coordinated operating parameters of flow, pressure, and temperature

b) Control valve actuator

The type, motive power, material, function, and design desired to meet the requirements of the
control valve should be either specified or left to the manufacturer.
c) Control valve position indication

The number and type of position limit switches and transmitters should be specified.
d) Stem, trim, packing, and seat

The material and design of the stem, trim, packing, and seat shall be specified or left to the
manufacturer. The design and materials shall be suitable to resist mechanical, thermal, and fluid
induced wear.
e) End-connection preparation

The end preparation for the valves should be specified along with the weld-end or flange details.
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- 19 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

4.4.5 Desuperheater spray water block valve
a) Design criteria

The design criteria for the desuperheater spray water block valve shall be specified as shown in table
4.4.5.
Table 4.4.5 — Desuperheater spray water block valve
These val ves are non-pressure-reducing type (see note 1).
Operating Pressure Same as control valve
Operating Temperature Same as control valve
Design Pressure Same as control valve
Design Temperature Same as control valve
Before Block Valve Inlet and
Outlet Pipe Size (Internal Diameter
[ID]) and Material
Same as for the inlet of the control valve
Noise Level Same as control valve
Shutoff Leakage Class Shall be per MSS SP-61
Travel Time Required minimum and maximum from one end to the other shall be specified
Fail State Follow control valve fail state

NOTE — The desuperheater spray water block valve is required for water induction prevention. This isolation function may be
integrated into a composite control valve provided that the block valve’s protection function is not compromised.
b) Actuator

The type, motive power, material, and design of the actuator desired to meet the opening and closing
time should be specified or left to the manufacturer.
c) Block valve position indication

The number, type, and operation of position limit switches and transmitters should be specified.
d) Stem, disk, packing, and seat

The material and design of the stem, disk, packing, and seat should be specified or left to the
manufacturer. The design and materials shall be suitable to resist mechanical, thermal, and fluid
induced wear.
e) End-connection preparation

The end preparation should be specified, along with the weld-end or flange details.
f) Pressure loss

The bypass block valves should be specified to have a low pressure loss and minimum flow
disturbance to minimize operational instability of downstream piping and valves.
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 20 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

4.4.6 Cold reheat non-return valve
a) Design criteria

The design criteria for the cold reheat non-return valve shall be specified as shown in table 4.4.6.
Table 4.4.6 — Cold reheat non-return valve
This is a non-pressure-reducing-type val ve.
Operating Pressure Same as HP bypass control valve
Operating Temperature Same as HP bypass control valve
Design Pressure Same as HP bypass control valve
Design Temperature Same as HP bypass control valve
Internal Diameter Same as for cold reheat piping
Noise Level Same as for HP bypass control valve
Shutoff Leakage Class Shall be per MSS SP-61
Travel Time Required minimum from one end to the other shall be specified
Material Required materials shall be specified

b) Actuator

The type, motive power, material, and design of the actuator desired to meet the opening and closing
time should be specified or left to the manufacturer.
c) Non-return position indication

The number, type, and operation of position limit switches should be specified.
d) Shaft, disk, packing, and seat

The material and design of the shaft, disk, packing, and seat should be specified or left to the
manufacturer. The design and materials shall be suitable for the mechanical, thermal, and fluid
induced wear.
e) Counterweight

The size, type, and materials for the counterweights should be specified or left to the manufacturer.
f) End-connection preparation

The end preparation should be specified along with the weld-end or flange details.
g) Pressure loss

The valve should be specified to have a very low pressure loss and minimum flow disturbance to
minimize operational instability of the downstream piping and valves.
4.4.7 Desuperheater spray water filter
If the desuperheater spray water control valve does not include filtering, a dual element, full flow filter
should be specified. Differential pressure detection, measurement, and alarm should be included.
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- 21 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

4.4.8 Condenser element
The design criteria for the condenser pressure element to withstand impingement and erosion from the
wet steam should be specified as follows (see EPRI Report CS-2251):
a) Steam quality (The minimum expected quality of the steam should be specified.)
b) Steam dump condenser entry (The preferred location for the bypass steam should be left to the
condenser manufacturer.)
c) The desired level of backpressure to be generated at a specific pressure, temperature, and flow
condition.
4.5 Turbine bypass instrumentation
The design criteria for the turbine bypass high, intermediate, and low pressure instrumentation should be
specified as follows.
4.5.1 Instrumentation components
Instrumentation components furnished with the equipment shall be in accordance with the following
articles and shall be constructed to withstand high vibration and high temperatures encountered in the
actual service. Explosion-proof construction shall be furnished where required by applicable code.
4.5.1.1 Limit switches
Limit switches, except those integrally mounted on motor-operated valves, shall be specified.
4.5.1.2 Pressure elements
Pressure elements shall be specified.
4.5.1.3 Temperature elements
Temperature elements shall be specified.
4.5.1.4 Solenoid valves
Solenoid valves shall be specified. Valves shall be selected based on body construction, trim materials,
packing, and internal arrangements suitable to the application. Solenoid enclosures shall be NEMA 4
unless otherwise required. Solenoid coils shall be Class H, high-temperature construction or Class F, as
applicable, and shall be suitable for continuous duty.
4.5.1.5 Pressure gauges
Gauges for control air supply and signal pressures integral to the instrument shall be in accordance with
the manufacturer’s standards. All other gauges shall be specified as needed.
4.5.1.6 Thermometers
Thermometers for local mounting shall be specified as needed.
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 22 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

4.5.1.7 Thermowells
Fluid system temperature sensors shall be equipped with thermowells. The thermowell’s design shall be
certified acceptable for the maximum conditions of temperature, pressure, type of fluid, and fluid velocity
by methods described in ASME Performance Test Code 19.3. Thermowells shall be welded or threaded
and, if threaded, constructed to allow seal welding after installation. Threaded thermowells shall be a
minimum of 3/4 inch NPT. Thermowell insertion length shall be specified.
4.5.1.8 Test wells
Test wells shall meet all the criteria for material, design, construction, and certification stipulated for
thermowells.
4.5.1.9 Vibration transducers
A non-contact, vibration pick-up system for monitoring valves, steam lines, and the condenser inlet should
be considered.
4.5.1.10 Position transmitters
Position transmitters have to be able to withstand the high vibration, high temperatures, and humidity.
4.5.2 Instrument installation
Instruments should be installed as close as is practical to the source of the measurement, with
consideration given to excessive vibration, temperature, and accessibility for periodic maintenance.
Recommendations for the location of instrument and control equipment connections can be found in the
publication, Recommendations for Location of Instrument and Control Connections for the Operations
and Control of Watertube Boilers, by the Measurement Control and Automation Association (MCAA).
Thermowell installation for temperature measurements shall meet the requirements of ANSI/ASME B31.1,
ASME Code for Pressure Piping.
Thermowell installation shall consider location, mounting, and velocity criteria in making a proper interface
with the process.
4.5.3 Process measurements
Process measurements for steam turbine bypass controls are listed. For location of these measurements,
refer to figures E.1 and E.2.
4.5.3.1 Main steam pressure
A pressure measurement taken at the turbine inlet is required for HP turbine steam bypass control.
4.5.3.2 Main steam temperature
A temperature measurement taken at the turbine inlet is required for operator information.
4.5.3.3 First stage pressure
A pressure measurement taken at the turbine first stage (impulse chamber) is required for IP/LP turbine
steam bypass control.
4.5.3.4 First stage inner metal temperature
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- 23 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

A temperature measurement taken as near as possible to the inner metal surface of the first stage is
required for operator information.
4.5.3.5 Reheat outlet temperature
A temperature measurement taken at the outlet of the reheater superheater section is required for IP/LP
turbine steam bypass control.
4.5.3.6 Reheat innerbowl temperature
A temperature measurement taken as near as possible to the inner metal surface of the turbine reheat
bowl is required for operator information.
4.5.3.7 HP bypass steam temperature
A temperature measurement taken downstream of the HP bypass desuperheater is required for HP
turbine steam bypass control.
4.5.3.8 Reheat outlet pressure
A pressure measurement taken at the outlet of the reheater superheater section is required for IP/LP
turbine steam bypass control.
4.5.3.9 LP bypass steam temperature
A temperature measurement taken downstream of the LP bypass desuperheater is required for IP/LP
turbine steam bypass control.
4.5.3.10 Condenser pressure
A pressure measurement taken in the condenser is required for IP/LP turbine steam bypass control.
4.5.3.11 Condenser temperature
A temperature measurement taken in the condenser is required for IP/LP turbine steam bypass control.
4.6 Control and logic requirements
The function of the turbine bypass system is to take the boiler energy output and generate the demand for
pressure and temperature reduction to simulate the high pressure, intermediate pressure, and low
pressure stages of the turbine in an efficient and stable manner. This subclause addresses the means for
controlling the difference between the generated and consumed steam flow and steam temperature for
HP bypass control and IP and LP bypass control.
4.6.1 System design requirements
The turbine bypass control’s logic system design shall be fault tolerant. The designer shall recognize the
failure behavior of components when designing a fail-safe system.
The logic system design shall include diagnostics to monitor and alarm any microprocessor component
failures, including processor, data transfer, I/O, and power supplies.
Control access to the turbine bypass’s decision-making logic shall be (1) prohibited while fuel is being
fired in the boiler and (2) protected from unauthorized changes. Decision-making logic includes, but is not
limited to, maintenance interface, test and bypass functions, alarms, and I/O configuration.
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 24 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

Pneumatic and single loop controllers may be used in the control system design.
4.6.2 HP bypass controls
4.6.2.1 HP bypass control valve
Single-element, high-pressure bypass control is the minimum control strategy required to regulate the
steam pressure leaving the boiler. Referring to figure E.3, main steam pressure is measured and
compared to a setpoint, with the results used to regulate the high-pressure control valve. The steam
pressure setpoint is limited within a minimum and maximum value and ramped smoothly to prevent
process upsets. The valve is not permitted to open if the desuperheater spray water pressure is
insufficient, if no water is present, or if the block valve is not fully open.
For redundancy and added safety, a two-out-of-three or one-out-of-three pressure-monitoring safety
system should be used.
4.6.2.2 HP bypass desuperheater spray water valve
Single-element, HP bypass steam temperature control is the minimum control strategy required to
regulate the steam temperature leaving the HP turbine bypass. Referring to figure E.3, HP bypass steam
temperature is measured and compared to a setpoint. The results are used to regulate the HP
desuperheater spray water control valve.
4.6.2.3 HP bypass and desuperheater spray water block valve(s) logic
Provisions shall be made to override the HP bypass demand and block valve sequence logic and to open
the control and block valve in the event of
a) a turbine trip;
b) a generator breaker open; or
c) an operator open request.
Provisions shall be made to override the HP bypass demand and block valve sequence logic and to close
the control and block valve in the event of an operator close request.
A sequence control logic shall be provided for the block valve(s) operation to preserve its tight shutoff
ability. The block-valve logic shall open the block valve to its fully open position prior to the initial opening
of its modulating control valve. The block-valve logic shall close the block valve after its modulating valve
is fully closed.
4.6.3 IP and LP bypass controls
4.6.3.1 IP and LP bypass control valve
Single-element IP and LP bypass control is the minimum control strategy required to regulate the steam
pressure leaving the boiler’s reheater section. Referring to figure E.4, reheat outlet steam pressure is
measured and compared to a setpoint with the results used to regulate the IP and LP pressure control
valve. The steam pressure setpoint is programmed based on the turbine’s first stage pressure and is
limited within a minimum and maximum value. The valve is not permitted to open if the desuperheater
spray water pressure is insufficient, if no water is present, or if the block valve is not fully open.
4.6.3.2 IP and LP bypass desuperheater spray water valve
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Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

Single-element, IP and LP bypass steam temperature control is the minimum control strategy required to
regulate the steam temperature leaving the LP turbine bypass. Referring to figure E.4, LP bypass steam
temperature is measured and compared to a setpoint with the results used to regulate the IP and LP
desuperheater spray water control valve. The LP setpoint is derived from the IP and LP bypass control
valve position, the reheater outlet pressure, and the reheater outlet temperature.
If the distance between the spray water injection and temperature measurement device is too short to
evaporate the water, a heat balance calculation can be carried out to position the water valve.
A one-out-of-three or a two-out-of-three pressure-monitoring safety system should be used for
redundancy and safety.
4.6.3.3 IP and LP bypass control and block valve(s) logic
Provision shall be made to override the IP and LP pressure bypass demand and block valve sequence
logic and to close the control and block valve in the event of
a) condenser high pressure;
b) condenser high temperature;
c) hotwell high level; or
d) desuperheater spray water low pressure.
A sequence control logic shall be provided for block valve(s) operation to preserve its tight shutoff ability.
The block valve logic shall open the block valve to its fully open position prior to the initial opening of its
modulating control valve. The block valve logic shall close the block valve after its modulating valve is
fully closed.
4.6.4 Automatic tracking
Automatic tracking shall be provided such that any control mode transfer is accomplished without process
upset.
4.6.5 Integral windup prevention
Means shall be provided with the HP and IP/LP bypass flow and temperature control strategy to prevent
integral windup of the feedback controller when the primary regulating device is at a limit (fully open or
fully closed).
4.7 Alarm requirements
Minimum alarm requirements shall include the following information:
a) High condenser pressure
b) High condenser temperature
c) High condenser level
d) Low HP spray water pressure
e) Low LP spray water pressure
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 26 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

f) Loss of control power
g) Loss of final drive power
h) Control loop trip-to-manual
i) Control and bypass valve open/close abnormal status
j) High HP outlet temperature
k) High LP outlet temperature.
4.8 Operator interface
4.8.1 Operator information
The following information used in the HP and LP/IP bypass control system shall be made available to the
operator:
a) Main steam pressure
b) Main steam temperature
c) First stage pressure
d) First stage inner metal temperature
e) Reheat outlet temperature
f) Reheat inner bowl temperature
g) HP bypass steam temperature
h) RH outlet pressure
i) LP bypass steam temperature
j) Main steam pressure setpoint
k) HP bypass steam temperature setpoint
l) LP bypass steam pressure setpoint
m) LP bypass steam temperature setpoint
n) All alarms
o) Automatic/manual control loop status
p) Reheat outlet minimum pressure setpoint
q) Control and bypass valve (open/closed status).
In addition to the above, valve position(s) should be made available to the operator.
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- 27 - ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

4.8.2 Operator control functions
The control system shall include capabilities for the automatic/manual control of each individual, final
device.
The control system shall include capabilities for the operator to control/adjust the main steam pressure
setpoint, main steam pressure rate-of-change, and the HP bypass steam temperature setpoint.
Consideration should be given to setpoint limits that would be accessible to the operator.
The control room operator shall receive indications and have control functions for the bypass system and
process interfaces.
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– 29 – ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)

Annex A — References
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI)
ANSI/FCI 70-2 Control Valve Seat Leakage, 2006
Available from: ANSI
25 W. 43
rd
Street, 4
th
Floor
New York, NY 10036
Tel.: (212) 642-4900
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (ASME)
ASME PTC19.3-1991 Safety Standard for Compressors for Process Industries
ANSI/ASME B31.1-2007 Power Piping
ANSI/ASME TDP-1-1998 Recommended Practice for the Prevention of Water Damage to Steam Turbines
Used for Electric Power Generation
Available from: ASME International
Three Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016-5990
Tel.: (800) 843-2763
ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE (EPRI)
Report CS-4810 Turbine and Superheater Bypass Evaluation (dated October 1986)
Report CS-2251 Recommended Guidelines for the Admission of High Energy Fluids to Steam
Surface Condensers (dated February 1982)
Available from: EPRI
3420 Hillview Ave.
P.O. Box 10412
Palo Alto, CA 94304-139
Tel: (800) 313-3774
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION (IEC)
ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 Rules for the Structure and Drafting of International Standards
Available from: IEC
P.O. Box 131
3, rue de Varembe
CH-1211 Geneva 20
Switzerland
Tel: 41 22 919 0211
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) – 30 –
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

ISA
ISA-5.1-1984 (R1992) Instrumentation Symbols and Identification
ISA-51.1-1979 (R1993) Process Instrumentation Terminology
Available from: ISA
67 Alexander Drive
P.O. Box 12277
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
Tel: (919) 549-8411
MANUFACTURERS STANDARDIZATION SOCIETY OF THE VALVE AND FITTINGS INDUSTRY, INC.
(MSS)
MSS SP-61, 2003 Manufacturers Standardization Society ⎯ Valve and Fitting Industry Pressure
Testing of Steel Valves
Available from: MSS
127 Park St. NE
Vienna, VA 22180
Tel.: (703) 281-6613

MEASUREMENT CONTROL AND AUTOMATION ASSOCIATION (MCAA)
Recommended Instrument Connections: SAMA/ABMA/IGCI Recommended Instrument Connections.
J ointly published by Scientific Apparatus Makers Association, American Boiler Manufacturers'
Association, and Industrial Gas Cleaning Institute. [Washington, D.C.] : Scientific Apparatus Makers
Association, 1981.

NOTE — This document is no longer in print, and no longer supported by the Scientific Apparatus Makers Association, but available
from ISA with permission from MCAA.

Available from: MCAA
2093 Harper's Mill Road
P.O. Box 3698
Williamsburg, VA 23187
Tel: (757) 258-3100
http://www.measure.org
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– 31 – ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)

Annex B — The use of bypass systems
The steam generator output can be run down in ten minutes or less to a house load value of
approximately 10 to 20 percent without creating excessive temperature gradients when bypass systems
are used.
The pressure setpoint must follow the actual steam pressure value at the superheater outlet during
variable pressure operation. This setpoint can be changed automatically or manually.
The quick opening signal for the HP bypass valve can be initiated as a function of the control position of
the turbine stop valve(s) or the generator trip signal.
Bypass steam flow is used as a feedforward signal for the temperature control system. The bypass valve
position indexed by the steam pressure is indicative of this steam flow. For 40-percent bypass systems
and larger, an HP bypass steam flow measurement may be needed for the control strategy that regulates
the boiler’s feedwater demand. If steam flow is measured by the turbine’s first stage pressure (steam flow
index), then an HP bypass flow nozzle is required to measure the bypass steam flow, or a characterized
bypass valve position indication may be used. If steam flow is measured before the main steam stop
valve, then an HP bypass flow nozzle is not required.
The European Boiler Codes allow omitting the conventional safety valves and operating the system with
the HP bypass valves only. The American Boiler Codes require conventional safety valves even with the
bypass valves.
All valves in the bypass system are usually equipped with a control system, power unit, and actuators that
permit operating valves of any size full stroke in two seconds or less.
The following list highlights some particular advantages of correctly sized and designed bypass valves:
a) Cold start

For the boiler, especially in supercritical units, the bypass system allows enhanced operation of the
furnace, primary and secondary superheaters, flash tank, and main and reheater steam lines in the
early steam water cycle.

This improves the system’s steam purity before starting the turbine. It further reduces the start-up
times drastically. The turbine can be started from the turning gear and can reach the rated speed in
15 to 30 minutes, provided the turbine rotor temperature is above the fracture appearances transition
temperature. The bypass operation may take approximately 2.5 to 3.5 hours.

The steam flow through the superheater and reheater enhances the tube cooling effect and may
allow the steam generator to operate with a higher increased furnace firing rate.

Rotor bore temperatures should follow the turbine manufacturer’s temperature gradients.
b) Warm start

The advantages of the bypass system mentioned under cold start also apply to this mode, where the
casing temperature of the HP turbine is usually above 212°F (100°C). The bypass valves allow the
operator to optimally match the steam to the metal temperatures under all speed conditions.
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 32 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

c) Hot start

Minor disturbances that caused the unit to trip will usually involve a hot restart. Many of the
advantages mentioned earlier apply to this mode of operation. The bypass has the ability to closely
match the metal temperature of the heavy turbine parts, and this makes it unnecessary to go through
tedious cool down and rewarming procedures.
d) Partial- or full-load rejection and quick restart

In the case of a partial- or full-load rejection, the bypass valves have to open immediately. The
bypass control system opens the bypass valves to the same degree the turbine control valves were
before they closed.

The turbine can shut down slowly and prepare to restart.

Protective systems should be provided to trip the boiler when HP bypass or LP bypass valves fail to
open and when insufficient cooling steam flow passes through the superheater or reheater.

The European Boiler codes require variable pressure safety valves on the reheater outlet and
omission of the safety valves on the reheater inlet.
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– 33 – ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)

Annex C — Valve life expectancy
There are basically two major valve design standards in use: ANSI B-16.34 in the Americas and DIN
3840 (German) in Europe. The first takes the “cookbook approach” by providing easy-to-use tables for
determining the required wall thicknesses. The latter requires the engineer to perform an accurate stress
analysis by using the so called “pressure area comparison method” (the flow area versus the pressure
containing section area). This approach is similar to ASME Section 3, Nuclear Valves.
DIN 3840 requires the designer to select the correct material strength value and apply a safety factor as a
function of the material characteristics (type and condition) and the “expected lifetime.” In turbine bypass
valves, this is often a P22 Chrome-Molybdenum Alloy Steel (CrMo) forging with certification 3.1A or 3.1B,
according to DIN 50049, and the creep rupture value at the design temperature (example 1000°F) for an
expected lifetime of 100,000 or 200,000 hours. Please note that the safety factor is 1.0 in case of 200,000
hours.
A designer knows much better where the products’ limits are when using DIN 3840. DIN results in thinner
walls. Thus steady state thermal stresses will be lower. However, the maximum thermal stress, which
impacts the cycle life of the valve, will occur during the thermal transient as the valve heats up on
opening.
These maximum thermal transient stresses are essentially independent of the wall thickness for the range
of metal thicknesses used in Steam Turbine Bypass valves. The presence of water spray inside the valve
body would significantly increase the maximum thermal stresses present and would result in a reduced
cyclic life.
DIN penalizes the use of cast bodies instead of forgings by a higher safety factor, not only for the design
but also for the testing. Paragraph 7.5 of DIN 3840 briefly mentions “Additional Stresses” that must be
considered. The German TRD (and AD [non-fired piping]) Boiler rules provide the guidelines to calculate
those. ASME Section 1, in turn, requires loadings other than pressure and static head. But no rules for
this have been set.
The advantage of using DIN 3840 is the implicit time element that goes into the analysis and makes a
statement about the expected lifetime.
ASME Code Case 1331 provides guidelines for the calculations of the cyclic lifetime of, for example,
turbine bypass valve bodies (low cycle fatigue). These values have been used extensively over many
years and are particularly important for the design of HP bypass and trip valves with very short stroking
times.
Utility people generally expect a turbine bypass to last 20 to 25 years. This typically is used to translate
into 10,000 to 12,000 total cycles. Today, bypass systems in combined cycle plants can be exposed to a
much more cyclic service, but, generally, they also are operating at lower pressures and temperatures,
although recent developments have design temperatures up to 1100°F.
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 34 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.

Annex D — Some typical high- and low-pressure turbine bypass valve
High Pressure Turbine Bypass Valve
Life Expectancy: 20 - 25 Years
Size and ANSI Class: 12" x 18" ANSI 1500 - 4500#
Maximum Design Pressure: 6812 PSIG @ 100°F (38°C) (cold working)
Body Material: ASTM/ASME SA182-F22 or SA217-WC9
Disk Material: Hardened heat resistant
Maximum Temperature: 1050°F (566°C)
Stem Material: Hardened heat resistant
Seat Material: Hardened heat resistant
Packing and Trim Materials: Service conditions of valve
Seat Leakage: ANSI/FCI 70-2 (see reference in annex A)
Low Pressure Turbine Bypass Valve
Life Expectancy: 20 - 35 Years
Size and ANSI Class: 20" x 30" ANSI 900#
Maximum Design Pressure: 2250 PSIG @ 100°F (38°C) (cold working)
Body Material: A217-WC6/WC9 or SA182-F11/F22
Disk Material: Hardened heat resistant
Maximum Temperature: 932 – 968°F (500 – 520°C)
Stem Material: Hardened heat resistant
Seat Material: Hardened heat resistant
Packing and Trim Materials: Service condition of the valve
Seat leakage: ANSI/FCI 70-2 (see reference in annex A)
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– 35 – ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)

Annex E — Figures

Figure E.1 — Turbine steam bypass system with separate pressure reducing
valves and desuperheaters
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 36 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.


Figure E.2 — Turbine steam bypass system with combined pressure reducing
and desuperheating valves
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– 37 – ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008)


Figure E.3 — HP turbine steam bypass control
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ANSI/ISA–77.13.01–1999 (R2008) - 38 -
Copyright 2008 ISA. All rights reserved.


Figure E.4 ⎯ IP/LP turbine steam bypass control
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Developing and promulgating sound consensus standards, recommended practices, and technical
reports is one of ISA’s primary goals. To achieve this goal the Standards and Practices Department
relies on the technical expertise and efforts of volunteer committee members, chairmen and reviewers.
ISA is an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) accredited organization. ISA administers United
States Technical Advisory Groups (USTAGs) and provides secretariat support for International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) committees
that develop process measurement and control standards. To obtain additional information on the
Society’s standards program, please write:
ISA
Attn: Standards Department
67 Alexander Drive
P.O. Box 12277
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
ISBN: 978-1-934394-74-8



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