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**• Maintain uniform conditions in the vessel (solid, liquid, gas
**

concentration, Temperature, pH).

• Disperse bubbles throughout the liquid, promote bubble break-up,

increase gas-liquid interfacial transfer (bigger the interfacial area

for diffusion, the better)

• romote mass transfer of essential nutrients

Mixing is effected by

• !eration and agitation in a "tirred Tank #eactor

• !eration (and consequent fluid circulation) in an !ir $ift #eactor

"chematic of "tandard tank configuration

Agitators in Bioreactors

Rushton Turbine Impeller in Glass Bioreactor

Types of agitator

• µ (apparent viscosit%) & '( c, high ) (rotational speed)

⇒ turbine (rushton or inclined blade) like above

#emote clearance* D (agitator diameter) + T (tank diameter)

* (.,'-(.')

-essel baffled (in general, four strips of metal running parallel to the

.all of the bioreactor, protruding into the liquid) to prevent vorte/

(similar to flo. behaviour about a sink plug hole) formation at high

agitation speeds

The impact of turbine blade pitch on flow pattern

0lat blade ⇒ #adial flo. (radial means perpindicular to the shaft of

the bioreactor. - out.ards)

"ketch and measure*

itched+inclined blade+propeller ⇒ a/ial component (a/ial means that

a proportion of the primar% flo. is parallel to the shaft 1

up+do.n.ards)

"ketch and measure*

Marine propellers ⇒ three blades, .ide range of ), high shearing

effect at high rotational speeds

"ketch and Measure*

High iscosity Solutions

• High µ⇒ anchors.helical ribbons ( and propellers)

!nchors, helical ribbons*D+T 2(.3

$o.er speeds, vessels generall% not baffled

• 4ntermig agitator ⇒ a/ial pumping impeller requires less energ%

and lo.er gas through-put to produce same mass transfer

coefficient as turbine.

4nsert 4ntermig icture Here*

• 0or adequate particle suspension and dispersal, ma% require

profiled vessel base5 inclined-blade agitators preferable

!imensionless "umbers in Agitated#Aerated Systems

6e use dimensionless numbers in agitated+aerated s%stems to help

us characterise the design and performance of the process, ho.ever

in a scale independent manner.

The first dimensionless number presented is the po.er number, )

' 7

D N

P

N

P

ρ

·

This number in con8unction .ith 4mpeller #otational "peed ()),

4mpeller Diameter (D) and $iquid Densit% (ρ) allo. us to calculate the

Mechanical o.er () being transmitted to the fluid b% a

turbine+impeller of a given design.

#e%nolds )umber is the second ke% number in the set of

dimensionless numbers. !gain similar to applications in pipes, etc.,

the #e%nolds number indicates the degree of turbulence e/perienced

in a stirred tank reactor.

µ

ρ

,

#e

ND

N ·

6here µ is the viscosit% of the liquid in .hich the agitator is turning.

0lo. )umber ()

9

) 1 :seful measure of the pumping capacit% of an

impeller. !gain the number is design specific and independent of

scale.

7

ND

Q

N

Q

·

!eration )umber ()

9g

) 1 :seful measure of the gas dispersion

capabilities of the impeller.

7

ND

Q

N

g

Q

g

·

; agitator po.er (6) ().<. "haft po.er onl%)

D ; impeller diameter (m)

ρ ; fluid densit% (kg m

-7

)

) ; impeller speed (s

-=

)

µ ; fluid viscosit% ()s m

-,

)

9 ; fluid flo. rate (m

7

s

-=

)

9

g

; gas flo. rate (m

7

s

-=

)

The Relationship of $ower "umber and Reynolds "umber

#elationship has three phases 1 each phase corresponding to the

three phases of liquid flo., laminar, transition and turbulent

! plot of $n )

vs $n )

#e

⇒ straight line, slope 1=

Turbulent flo., )

p

independent of )

#e

(also constant)

<ioreactors are, in the main, in turbulent flo.. This means that the

po.er number is constant for a given impeller design. o.er

numbers for a variet% of impellers in turbulent flo. have been .ell

characterised, therefore if .e kno. the impeller diameter and the

rotational speed of the impeller (both eas% to measure) .e can

subsequentl% estimate the mechanical po.er input to the bioreactor.

It is important to note that all of the correlations presented apply to

ungassed, single phase fluids only ⇒ no allowances for aeration or

suspensions

4n general the Gassed Power is less than the calculated ungassed

power. ! general rule of thumb for the calculation of gassed po.er is

g

; (.>

%xample

?alculate the specific po.er requirement (+-) for a standard

configuration "T#, full% baffled, fitted .ith a #ushton turbine and

containing .ater at ,'

(

?. The vessel diameter is (.'m. The impeller

speed is 7((rpm.

Solution

"tandard "T#⇒ T ; (.'m

D ; T+7 ; (.=>@m

H ; T ; (.'m

- ; ∏ T

7

+A ; (.(3Bm

7

( )

7

,

,

#e

=( =

=>@ . (

>(

7((

=(((

−

,

_

¸

¸

· ·

!

ND

N

µ

ρ

'

#e

=( A . = =73AA' ! N ≈ ·

⇒ full% turbulent flo., therefore from the o.er )umber #e%nolds

)umber correlation graph, (curve = is a #ushton turbine 1 remember

not to misread the log scaleC)

)

;'

;)

p

ρ)

7

D

'

; (')(=((()(7((+>()

7

((.=>@)

'

; B=6

Power input per unit "olume is a useful compariti"e measure

between bioreactors of different scales

7 7

+ = + B,B

(3B . (

B=

m #$ m $

%

P

≈ · ·

Typical Specific $ower &onsumptions '$#( k)#m

*

Mild agitation (.=

"uspending light solids

<lending of lo. viscosit% liquids

Moderate Agitation (.A

Das dispersion, liquid-liquid contacting

"ome heat transfer

+ntense Agitation =.(

"uspending heav% solids, emulsification

<lending pastes, dough A.(

+ndustrial,scale fermenters (.'-'

-ab,Scale fermenters '-=(

Reynolds "umber ranges for Rushton turbine

#e & =(

=

laminar flo.

=(

=

& #e & =(

A

transitional flo.

#e & =(

A

⇒ turbulent flo.

Mixing %ffecti.eness

• Mi/ing time t

m

1 time required to achieve specified degree of

homogeneit%, starting from the completel% segregated state

• ! sub&ecti"e quantit%

• Measured b% tracer studies

4n8ect a tracer pulse into the agitated vessel

Monitor concentration at a single point

• ?olouring+decolouring method

- e.g. meth%lene blue, iodine+starch

- simple to implement

- monitor b% e%e+spectrophotometer

- good for detection of stagnant regions

but - d%e ma% adhere to biomass

- ?oloration is irreversible (disposalE)

- vessels seldom transparent ⇒ sampling

• conductivit%

- electrol%te tracer e.g. F?$ added to vessel

- monitor response using conductivit% probe

- fast probe response time

- cheap and reliable for small scale s%stems using .ater

But - bubbles interfere .ith measurement

- addition of electrol%te to broth ⇒ changes in osmotic

pressure ⇒ rheological effects

- not suitable for actual fermentation s%stems

• pH

- acid added

- one (or more) pH probes to monitor response

- pH probes steriliGable, .idel% available

- acid addition circuit available for pH control

- most suitable for large-scale applications

- suitable for three-phase s%stems

but - pH signal requires careful interpretation

&orrelations for t

m

in Stirred Tank Reactors

Single,phase li/uids

0or full% turbulent flo., the energ% delivered to the fluid b% the

impeller P, is completel% transformed into kinetic energ% of the liquid*

,

,

' 7

u

Q D N N P

P P

ρ

ρ · · '0(

6here Q

P

is the pumping capacit% of the impeller (m

7

s

-=

) and u is the

liquid velocit% as it leaves the impeller. 0or an impeller blade .idth w,

Dw u Q

P

Π ·

'1(

The circulation time t

circ

is defined as

circ

circ

circ

Q

%

t ·

'*(

0or an agitated vessel, Q

circ

, the circulation capacit% is greater than

the pumping capacit% Q

P

due to liquid entrainment b% the impeller.

H/perimentall% it has been determined that*

P circ

Q Q , ≈

'2(

The mi/ing time t

mi!

is related to t

circ

as follo.s*

circ mi!

t t A ≈

'3(

!ssuming %

circ

; % ; ΠT

'

()* and that

,

,

u u · '4(

Hquations (=)-(') %ield

77 . (

,

7

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

·

D

w

N

T

(

D

T

N

c

t

P

mi!

'5(

0or the assumptions made above cI(.>.

0rom equation (@), for full% turbulent flo. (i.e N

P

constant)

Nt

mi!

; constant '6(

0or (+T and w;(.,D,

( )

[ ]

77 . (

7

+ J

P

mi!

N

D T

N

c

t ·

'7(

6here c

K

I =.@', in this case.

Ln the basis of e/perimental evidence for a .ide range of impellers

and assuming a mi/ing intensit% of I3(M, c

,

I7 (for single phase

s%stem, #e2=(,((()

0or #e &= / =(

A

, Nt

mi!

as #e↓

8or aerated systems '1 phases(

• ?omparativel% little e/perimental data available

• $imited range of reactor+impeller design

• Fno.ledge of the flo. mechanisms limited

• 0or gas flo. rates near the flooding region, influence of gas phase

ma% be significant

• Ln the basis of data available

⇒ mi! mi!

t t ,

, ,

≈

for equation (3), c

K

I >.

Significance of t

mix

for bioreactor operation9

• H 1 measurement and controlE

• DL concentrationE

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