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Sericulture with Emphasis of Rejuvenation of Races at RSRS, Sahaspur

Larvae Cocoon Silk


INTRODUCTION
Silk is known as the queen of all fabrics over thousands of years. It has become an inseparable part
of Indian culture and tradition. Silk fiber in India is mostly considered to be as more traditional and
used to wear in special occasions and events. There are number of other beliefs and mythological
thoughts that are considered to be attached to silk fiber, therefore, the silk acquired the place of
queen of fiber.
In India, it is a rural based agro industry providing employment to rural population, although
sericulture is considered to be a subsidiary occupation and technical innovation made it possible to
generate more employment. It is the most labor intensive section for the economy which provides
livelihood to a large section of population.
Sericulture or silk farming, is the rearing of silkworm for production of raw silk. Although there are
several commercial species of silkworms, Bombyx mori is the most widely used and intensively
studied.
Silkworm larvae are fed mulberry leaves and after the moulting, climb a twig placed near them and
spin their silken cocoons. This process is achieved by the worm through a dense fluid secreted from
its structural glands, resulting fiber of cocoon. The silk is a continuous-filament fiber consisting
of fibroin protein, secreted from two salivary glands in the head of larva and a gum called sericin,
which cements the two filaments together. The sericin is removed by placing the cocoons in hot
water, which frees the silk filaments and readies them for reeling. This is known as the degumming
process. The immersion in hot water also kills the silkworm pupae.
Single filaments are combined to form thread. This thread is drawn under tension through several
guides and round into reels. The threads may be plied together to form yarn. After drying the raw
silk is packed according to quality.




History of Sericulture

According to Confucian texts, the discovery of silk production B. mori dated about 2700 BC,
although archaeological records point to silk cultivation as early as the Yangshao period (5000 –
3000 BC). About the first half of the 1st century AD it had reached ancient Khotan, and by AD 140

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the practice had been established in
India. Later it was introduced to
Europe, the Mediterranean and other
Asiatic countries.
Once upon a time long, long ago in
an ancient kingdom of China there
lived queen Xi-Ling, wife of emperor
Huang-Di. She was interested in the
arts and looming. One day she sat
under her favorite mulberry tree in
the garden sipping tea and admiring
the beautiful spring flowers,
something fell into her tea cup. She
jumped up horrified and spilled the tea all over her lovely dress. Her ladies-in-waiting rushed to
wipe off the stains but lady Xi-Ling stopped them. On top of the tea stain on her dress she spotted
a lovely web of the most exquisite threads, she had not ever seen before. She carefully picked up the
delicated threads. She felt soft and smooth to the touch. She understood that is the silk threads
come from the silkworm’s cocoon where it fell from Mulberry tree. She sat on her loom and started
working out a complicated pattern. It was the most exquisite piece she had ever woven. This
discovery of silk was celebrated with great feasting and rejoicing throughout the land. Later when
commercial relations were established between China, and rest of the world. Knowledge of silk
spread far and wide.
Silkworm eggs and the technology of making silk, was brought to India by Buddhist monks from
China. Also, the industry had said to spread in Tibet when a Chinese princess, carrying silkworm
eggs and Mulberry seed in her dress, married with king of Kotan in Tibet.
About two and half centuries ago silk was introduced into Karnataka by Tipu Sultan, the ruler
of the State. Today it is the biggest silk producing centre in India. Sericulture introduced in
Tamilnadu from the border area of Karnataka during early 1960. Now Tamilnadu stands
number one in bivoltine silk production in India.
Moriculture, it is the important aspect of the sericulture in relation to the mulberry silk production.
As the B. mori only feeds on the mulberry leaves, so we can say the quality and quantity of cocoon
depends on the mulberry leaves. Moriculture can be defined as the culture of the mulberry plant.
According to western historians, mulberry-tree cultivation spread to India through Tibet during 140
BC and cultivation of mulberry trees. Rearing of silkworms began in the areas flanking the
Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers. Mulberry plant is an important plant that can be useful in many
ways. It is widely used as feed for the mulberry silkworm, fuel, making baskets, preparing jam and
jelly from its fruits.
There are mainly 4 types of silk that are mulberry silk, tasar silk, eri silk and muga silk in world. In
India we produce all types of silk. Sericulture has become one of the most important cottage
industries in a number of countries like China, Japan, India, Korea, Brazil, Russia, Italy and France.
Today, China and India are the two main producers, together manufacturing more than 60% of the
world production. Production of raw silk in India was 23,060 MT (matric ton) in 2011-12, of which,
mulberry raw silk output aggregated to 18,272 MT (79.24%). The remaining 4,788 MT (20.76%)
was tasar silk. Mulberry sericulture is mainly practiced in five states namely, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Jammu & Kashmir jointly account for about 97% of the total
mulberry silk production in the country.India is the largest consumer of raw silk in the world. As the

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consumption of raw silk (around 28,733 MT) exceeds the production, the additional requirement of
around 5,700 MT of silk (particularly bivoltine mulberry silk of international quality) is imported
mainly from China.

Moriculture


AREA WITH MULBERRY IN INDIA
Mulberry foliage is the only food for the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and is grown under varied
climatic conditions ranging from temperate to tropical. Mulberry leaf is a major economic
component in sericulture since the quality and quantity of leaf produced per unit area have a direct
bearing on cocoon harvest. In India, most states have taken up sericulture as an important agro-
industry in different places of india with excellent results.

SPECIES AND VARIETIES UNDER CULTIVATION
There are about 68 species of the genus Morus. Majority of these species occur in Asia, especially in
China 24 species and Japan 19 species. American continental also rich in Morus species. This genus
shown low production in Africa, Europe and the Near East and poor in Australia.
In India, there are many species of Morus, of which Morus alba, M.
indica. M. serrata and M.laevigata grow wild in the Himalayas. Several other varieties have been
introduced that are M. multicaulis, M. nigra, M. sinensis and M. philippinensis. Most of the Indian
varieties of mulberry belong to M. indica.
In China there are 15 species, of which four species, Morus alba, M. multicaulis, M.
atropurpurea and M. mizuho are cultivated for sericulture. In the former Soviet Union M.
multicaulis, M. alba, M. tartarica and M. nigra are present.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

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Mulberry is a fast growing deciduous woody perennial plant. It has a deep root system. Their leaves
are simple, alternate, stipulate, petiolate, entire or lobed. The number of lobes varies from one to
five. Plants are generally deciduous. Inflorescence is catkin with pendent or drooping peduncle
bearing unisexual flowers. Inflorescence is always auxiliary. Male catkins are usually longer than the
female catkins. Male flowers are loosely arranged and after shedding the pollen, the inflorescence
dries and falls off. These are four persistent parianth lobes and four stamens implexed in bud.
Female inflorescence is usually short and the flowers are very compactly arranged. There are four
persistent parianth lobes. The ovary is one-celled and the stigma is bifid. The chief pollinating agent
in mulberry is wind. Mulberry fruit is a sorosis, mainly violet black in colour.
Most of the species of the genus Morus and cultivated varieties are diploid, with 28 chromosomes.
However, triploids (2n= (3x) =42) are also extensively cultivated for their adaptability, vigorous
growth and quality of leaves.






LEAF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Its differs according to variety and maturity. However, on the basis of the analysis carried out at
CSRTI,Mysore the chemical composition of the leaf is as follows:

Component Range

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Moisture 65 – 78 per cent
Protein 19 - 25 per cent
Minerals 10 – 15 per cent
Reducing sugars 1.2 - 1.9 per cent
Sugars 10 - 15 per cent

TABLE 2
Mulberry varieties in India
Variety Region Developed at Origin
Kanva-2 South India Irrigated CSRTI, Mysore Selection from natural variability
S-36 South India Irrigated CSRTI, Mysore Developed through EMS treatment of
Berhampore Local
S-54 South India Irrigated CSRTI, Mysore Developed through EMS treatment of
Berhampore Local
S-13 South India Rainfed CSRTI, Mysore Selection from polycross (mixed pollen)
progeny
S-34 South India Rainfed CSRTI, Mysore Selection from polycross (mixed pollen)
progeny
S-1 Eastern and NE India
Irrigated
CSRTI,
Berhampore
Introduction from (Mandalaya) Myanmar
S-1635 Eastern and NE India
Irrigated
CSRTI,
Berhampore
Triploid selection
S-146 N. India and Hills of J and K
Irrigated
CSRTI,
Berhampore
Selection from open pollinated hybrids
Tr-10 Hills of Eastern India CSRTI,
Berhampore
Triploid of Ber. S1
Goshoerami Temperate CSRTI, Pampore Introduction from Japan.

Climatic requirements
Mulberry thrives under various climatic conditions ranging from temperate to tropical located north
of the equator between 28° N and 55°N latitude. The ideal range of temperature is from 24 to 28°C.
Mulberry grows well in places with an annual rainfall ranging from 600 to 2,500 mm. In areas with
low rainfall, growth is limited through moisture stress, resulting in low yields. On average, mulberry
requires 340m
3
/ha of water every ten days in case of loamy soils and 15 days in clay soils.
Atmospheric humidity in the range of 65-80 percent is ideal for mulberry growth. Sunshine is one
of the important factors controlling growth and leaf quality.
Soil condition
Mulberry flourishes well in soils that are flat, deep, fertile, well drained, loamy to clay, and porous
with good moisture holding capacity. The ideal range of soil pH is 6.2 to 6.8, the optimum being 6.5
to 6.8. Soil amendments may be used to correct the soil to obtain the required pH.

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Propagation of Mulberry

Mulberry can be propagated in two ways. i. Sexual Propogation, ii. AsexualPropogation


i. Sexual Propagation:-
In mulberry the sexual propagation is through seedlings, particularly seed propagation carries a
varied population, For seed germination certain prerequisites are needed to be fulfilled such as
selection of quality seed, preparation of land, and seed should be selected such that can definitely
germinate. This is possible only when the seed is subjected to suitable environmental conditions,
embryo of seed is alive, healthy, and internal conditions of seed are capable for germination.



ii. Asexual Propagation:-
In asexual type of propagation vegetative plant parts are used. In mulberry the propagation is mainly
of three types.
 Propagation by Cutting.
 Propagation by Grafting.
 Propagation by Budding.

Land preparation.-
If the land has a gentle slope, it can be levelled by minor land shaping and providing suitable type of
bunds across the slope. If the slope is greater, contour bunding terrace planting or contour line
planting can be adopted. In more sloping areas, platforms for individual plants on contour lines are
more suitable since this involves less soil cutting.

Application of fertilizers:-
Fertilizers also must be used as per the recommended dosage mainly N.P.K. The recommended
dosage of N.P.K will be in the ratio of varied from place to place. Generally N.P.K. will be in the ratio
of 2.5:1:1 for irrigated conditions and 2:1:1 of N.P.K for rain fed conditions. In hilly areas the
recommended N.P.K. are 100:40:40.

Spacing:-
Spacing of tree depends on soil topography, the extent of land available for cultivation and training
method. For gentle slopes, 3´ x 3´, 5’ x 5’ may be adopted. In sloping more land 10’ x 10’ can be
adopted. Pits are to be prepared for plantation. In deep textured loose soils, 45 x 45 cm and in hard
shallow soils 60 x 60 x 60 cm pits are to be prepared. For each pit, 5 kg (one iron pan) of FYM or
compost must be applied.

Planting:-
Saplings of five months age with five to six roots are suitable for planting during the regular onset
of the monsoon. One sapling per pit should be planted. The saplings should be supported with a
stick to ensure straight growth.

Maintenance:-
After one month, all the buds except the top five to six should be removed carefully without
damaging the bark. Weeds around the plant should be removed and regular pot watering given.
After three months of plantings second weeding should be done and 25 g of suphala/plant should be
applied in a trench and should be covered with soil. A second dose of fertilizer (25 g urea/plant)
should be applied before cessation of the monsoon. Plants must be protected from grazing.

Mulberry Cultivation and practices:-


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Mulberry can be cultivated in a wide range of soil. Favorable soils for mulberry growth are sandy
loam, loam and clayey loam. The mulberry can be even grown on slopes of hilly areas, which are not
prone to water logging. In case of slightly sloppy lands, proper drainage must be provided. No doubt
the mulberry cultivation can be practiced in wide range of soils, however, the leaf yield is the main
factor. To increase the quality of leaf yield per hector all required favorable mulberry cultivation
practices should be adopted, because the silkworm is fed by mulberry leaves only. The soil pH, water
retaining capacity of field, quality of mulberry variety, temperature, environmental conditions
fertilizer/manure application, irrigation practices and soil texture etc., all these factors very much
influence on quantity and quality of leaf yield per acre per year. The land should be ploughed
repeatedly to loosen the soil and all gravel, stones and weed should be removed making the soil fine.
In irrigated land the recommended organic manure such as cattle dung compost @20 tonnes per
hector or @ 10 tonnes per hectare in rainfed conditions must be applied and mixed with soil by
ploughing 2-3 times. Land leveling is also important in case of plains. However, in hilly areas
generally the land will be sloppy where pit system is adopted. In hilly areas June/July are the
favorable where pit system is adopted in rainfed areas. In case of pit system the pits should be filled
with loose soil and organic manure.

Inter Cultivation:-

To eliminate the weeds and to loosen the soil for good aeration, around mulberry plant, light hoeing
should be done two months after plantation. This will facilitate the plant to absorb the water freely
and plant growth will not be restricted by weeds by competing with mulberry plant for food,
nutrition and water.

Pruning:-

Pruning of mulberry trees should be done after one year of plantation. By pruning the mulberry
branches, leaf yield can be increased and production of leaf can be synchronized with silkworm
rearing schedules all through the seasons. Pruning schedules controls the irregular growth of
mulberry branches there by save wastage of nutrition and energy. Care should be taken during
pruning; bark should not get peeled off since cut wounds do not heal, which leads infections and
diseases.

Leaf Harvesting:-

Along with leaf production, leaf utilization is also important. Leaf harvesting depends upon type of
rearing practice. Leaf harvested by 1) leaf picking, 2) branch cutting / shoot harvesting. Leaf
harvesting in time is very essential as mature leaf contain low nutrient value & silk worms fed upon
them become disease susceptible.

Leaf Picking:-

In India mostly leaf picking is practiced. However, this is more labour intensive, as availability of
labour is not a big problem. Presently this method is being followed by most of the rearers. In a year
5-6 harvests are possible. First leaf harvest takes place after (10) weeks of bottom pruning.










DISEASES & INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT OF MULBERRY

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There are following major diseases of the mulberry-


1. Leaf Spot Disease:-

Season of Occurrence-
 Rainy Season
 Causal Organism- Myrothecium rondum
 Cercospora moricola


Symptoms-
 Appearance of black irregular spots with yellow margins.
 Premature leaf fall.





Control measures-
 Pruning of plants during June end.
 Collection and burning of diseased leaves.
 Spray of 0.1-0.2 percent Carbandazim / Bavestine / Bengard.

2. Powdery mildew:

Season of Occurrence-
 Winter – November to February
 Causal Organism- Phyllactina corylea

Symptoms-
 Appearance of white powdery patches in lower side with slight yellowing on
upper surface.
 White patches turn black in later stage.


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Control measures-
 Avoid dense planting. Regular irrigation & weeding.
 Collection and burning of diseased leaves.
 Lady bird beetle for biological control.
 Spray of 0.1-0.2 percent Carbandazim on new leaves.

3. Leaf Rust:-

Season of Occurrence-
 Rainy and Winter Season.
 Causal Organism- Cerotelium fici, Aecidium mori.

Symptoms-
 Appearance of small spots on lower surface which turns red to brown later.
 Leaves turns yellow, margins becomes dry.
 Premature leaf fall.




Control measures-
 Avoid dense planting.
 Timely pruning, weeding, loosening of soil, regular irrigation.
 Collection and burning of diseased leaves.
 Spray of 0.2 percent Carbandazim.
There are certain other diseases that my cause damage to the plant but these are not of much
economic importance and does not cause severe damage to the plant.


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I. Pests

1. Tukra Disease:-

Season of Occurrence- April to June.
Causal Organism- Maconellicoccus hirsutus.
Loss due to disease- 10-20 percent

Symptoms-
Malformation of apical shoot.
The mealy bugs suck the sap resulting in stunted growth of the plant and reduction in leaf yield.

Control measures-
Removal and burning of the affected portion of the plants. Collect them I polythene bags and dip
them in 0.5% soap solution to destroy the pests.
Spray of 0.15% DDVP.
Release the predatory cryptolaemus montouzieri – Lady Bird beetle @ 125 adults/acre.

2. Stem Canker:-

Season of Occurrence- Through out the year.
Causal Organism- Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

Symptoms-
Sudden withring and death of sprout.
Black eruption on the bark in the infected region.
Death of plants.

Control measures-
Removal and burning of the infected cuttings and saplings in nurseries.
Field sanitation is essential.
Cuttings should be dipped in 0.2 % Carbendazim solution for 30 minutes prior to planting.
Use Biofungicide Tricoderma harzianum –Nursery guard.



3. Leaf Roller:-

Season of Occurrence- Rainy season.
Causal Organism- Diaphania pulverulentalis.
Loss due to disease- 5-45 percent


Symptoms-
The young caterpillar within the unopened young leaves secrete delicate white silky filaments which
binds the leaf blades together and feed on the soft tissues on the leaf surface.


Control measures-
Removal and burning of the affected apical portion of the plants to destroy the larvae.
Spray of 0.75% DDVP on apical portion of the plant.

Along with these pests there are other minor pests which do less harm to plants but are not severe.


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Sericulture
Silk worm rearing is started with production of egg that is also known as the grainage then followed
by the Chawki rearing and late age rearing. Silk that is produced in india is mainly of 4 types as
follows-



Mulberry:-
Bombyx mori is reared on the mulberry, considering the economical conditions, such as rainfall
and the nature of soil, different systems of plantations for raising mulberry are practiced in
India. The silkworm Bombyx mori are reared throughout the year. The total life span of this
silkworm is 50 days, out of these egg stage is 10 days, larval stage is 25-30 days and the pupa
stage is 10 days. It passes 4 moults during growth. At the end of the larval duration, the
silkworm emits silk from its mouth and constructs a cocoon on a scaffolding. The average
annual yield of cocoons in India is as low as 150 kg under rainfed conditions, and under irrigated
conditions it is about 400 kg.

Eri:-
This silk produced by Philosamia ricini is called eri silk. It is mostly grown in Assam in eastern
parts of India.The food plants of this silkworm is castor (Ricinus communis) The alternative food
plants are Heteropanax fragans, Manihot utilissima, Earica papaya, Ailanthus sp., Plumeria
acutifolia. This silkworm is multivoltine and is reared indoors. The worms moult four times
during its larval period of 30-32 days. It is generally hardy and not susceptible to diseases.

Tasar:-
For the extraction of tasar silk three species of Antherea are used in India. They are Antherea
mylitta, A. perniyi and A. royeli. This silkworm is reared on trees of Terminalia tomentosa,
Terminalia arjuna. Tasar silkworms are reared wild in nature. They are usually green in colour.



Muga:-
Antherea assama produce golden yellow silk. This process is found only in the Brahmaputra
Valley of India. It is semidomescticated. The worms are raised on Machilus bombycina and
Litsaea polyantha trees.



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Biodi
versity
Mulberry Tropical
Tasar
Temperate Tasar Eri Muga
Silkworm Bombyx mori
L.
Antheraea
myltta D.
Antheraea proyeli
J. A. frithi, A.
compta, A. pernyi,
A. yamamai
Philosamia
ricini
Antheraea
assamensis
Food
Plants
Mulberry
(MorusIndica
M. alba, M.
multicaulis, M.
bombysis)
Asan
(Terminalia
tomentosa),
Arjun (T.
arjuna), Sal
(Shorea
robusta)
Banj [Quercus
incana, Q. serrata,
Q. himalayana, Q.
leuco tricophora,
Q. semicarpifolia,
Q. grifithi
(A.pr.), Q. dealbata
(A. f., A. c.), Q.
dendata (A. pe), Q.
acutissima (A. y.)
Castor
(Ricinus
communis,
Manihot
utilisma,
Evodia
fragrance)
Som
(Machilus
bombycine)
Soalu (Litsia
polyantha, L.
citrata)
Origin China India India, China (Q.
den.), Japan (Q. a.)
India India
Status
Domesticated Wild (Semi
domesticated)
Semi domesticated Domesticated Semi
domesticated
Different types of silk produced in india
Mulberry silk production
Silk production is an process as follows-
Egg Production (grainage)
Grainage is a process responsible for the providing egg for regular rearing of the silkworm. Ultimate
production of silkworm seed is to produce cocoons to get silk yarn. Advance planning, quality
production, timely supply of seed is the critical factors in silkworm seed production.
The silkworm seed is produced in "Grainages". Grainages play a vital role not only in production of
seed but also in the entire seed organization. During the grainage operation one must know the seed
suitability for a particular area before releasing commercially.
Silkworm Rearing: -
Silkworm is domesticated over thousands of years and the sole food for the growth of silkworm is
mulberry leaf.
Types of Rearing:

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Rearing of silkworm is done in various
methods in different areas. Mainly the
rearing of silkworm is of two types:
a. Chawki Rearing:
Rearing of young age silk worms is called
Chawki rearing. Here worms are reared
upto third moult and distributed to the
rearers for late age rearing. Chawki
rearing in mass at each CRC will not only
control the attack of diseases but also
facilitate the rearing on most scientific
lines and cost wise it is most economical.
b. Late Age Rearing:
Late age rearing after third moult does not require high temperature and humidity compared to
chawki rearing. Late age rearing is a little easier process than chawki rearing. During late age the
quantity of mulberry leaf required is more than 90% of total larval period.
Climatic requirements: -
Under
ideal
conditi
ons
silkwor
m
comple
tes
cocoon
formati
on in
24-28 days from the day of hatching. The following required temperature/humidity/spacing should
be provided:







Rearing shed: -
Rearing shed must be constructed with East/West direction, preferably with the thatched roofing,
mud walls or any roofing must not reflect heat on the biological body growth of silkworm. Keeping
S.
No.
Stage Temperature
0
C
Humidity
%
Spacing (for 100
dfl’s)
in Sq. ft
1 1
st
Instar 26-28 85-90 4-14
2 2
nd
Instar 26-28 85-90 15-45
3 3
rd
Instar 25-26 80-85 46-90
4 4
th
Instar 24-25 70-75 91-100
5 5
th
Instar 23-24 70 181-360

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good number of windows, proper ventilation, light, using country tiles for roofing will serve the
purpose of maintaining required atmospheric conditions in the rearing house with reduced cost.

Leaf quality: -
Quality of mulberry leaf in addition to proper maintenance of temperature/humidity plays significant
role in the development of healthy silkworm.
Leaf quality plays an important role in the production of quality cocoons. The young age worms are
fed with tender, succulent leaves which contain sugar, less amount of fiber, starch but, high
moisture and protein that are suitable for chawki worms.
Harvested leaf should be transported in wet gunny bags or baskets made up of bamboo. Such leaf
should be preserved in a separate room or in a corner of rearing room or in specially designed leaf
preservation chamber made up of wood with sufficient number of ventilators.
Leaf requirement:
Silkworm attains nearly 10,000 times of weight starting from hatching to spinning stage, therefore,
feeding quality leaf plays an important role in the development of silkworm.
Leaf Requirement (about 400 eggs per DFL’s)
S.
No.
Silkworm Stage Quantity of mulberry leaf
Required (approx.) (Kgs)
1 1
st
Instar 2-4
2 2
nd
Instar 4-8
3 3
rd
Instar 30-40
4 4
th
Instar 80-90
5 5
th
Instar 600-650


Rearing Equipments:
The following equipments are required for silkworm rearing.
1. Mesh 2) Formalin 3) Sprayer 4) Mats 5)Leaf preservation chamber
6. Chopping board 7) Chopping knife 8) Chop sticks 9) Feathers
10. Ant wells 11) Foam pads 12) Paraffin Paper 13) Hygrometer
14. Thermometer 15) Bed cleaning net 16) Wash basin
17. Plastic buckets/Mugs 18) Rearing stands 19) Rearing trays
20. Feeding stand 21) Mountages

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Disinfection:
Disinfection is a process of destructing the disease casual organisms. There is a possibility of
carrying the pathogens or germs through the rearing equipment if there is any disease attack in the
previous crop. Therefore, disinfection is necessary to protect the crop from disease attack. Before
taking up rearing all the rearing equipments including the rearing house should be disinfected
thoroughly. There are various methods of disinfection like physical and chemical. Physical
disinfections are sun drying, steaming. In chemical disinfection, all the rearing equipment as well as
the rearing house should be thoroughly disinfected with 2% formalin and dried.
Incubation:-
The eggs should be kept in cooler places at 25
0
C temperature and 80% humidity, lesser the
humidity poorer the hatching percentage or more the temperature weak the larva and poorer the
hatch percentage.
For uniform hatching all the egg cards or loose eggs should be kept in dark and cooler atmosphere.
On the day of pin head or blue egg stage all the eggs are covered with a black sheet or kept in black
box and known as black boxing. On the day of hatching all the eggs are suddenly exposed to bright
light in the early morning at around 8 a.m. so that 95% hatching can be achieved.
Brushing:-
Brushing is transferring of newly hatched larvae into rearing trays. The newly hatched larvae after
one hour of hatching get ready to feed on mulberry leaf. They are fed with finely chopped tender
mulberry leaf.
Feeding of Leaf: -
Feeding newly hatched larvae daily at 9 a.m. in the morning is important. During the 1
st
instar
depending upon the silkworm strain and other factors (environmental conditions and leaf quality)
the required mulberry leaf per 100 DFL will be around 2-2.5 kgs. The 1
st
instar stays for 3-31/2 days
and undergo moult. Moulting period last for about a day. This will depend upon the environmental
conditions.
Spacing: -
The number of trays and space required for each instar will increase.

Stage of silkworm No.of trays required for 100 DFL’s
(Diameter of tray 3 ½’)
Space required
(Bi and Multi x Bi hybrids)
Beginning End of stage Begin End
1
st
instar 2 2 4 to 15 Sq.ft
2
nd
instar 2 5-6 15 to 45 Sq.ft
3
rd
instar 5-6 10-12 46 to 90 Sq.ft
4
th
instar 10-12 20 91 to 180 Sq.ft.
5
th
instar 20 40 181 to 360 Sq.ft
Bed Cleaning: -

16

Bed cleaning in silkworm rearing tray is done by various methods like using of paddy husk, straw,
and bed cleaning net. During 1
st
instar, bed clearing should be done once during pre-moulting,
during 2
nd
instar twice, once after moult and before next moult. During 3
rd
instar thrice i.e. after
moult, before next moult and once in the middle. During 4
th
and 5
th
stage once in a day in case of
shelf rearing.

Feeding:
It is estimated that 50% of the total weight will be increased in the 5
th
instar itself.
The feeding schedule is: -
S.No. 1
st
feeding 2
nd
feeding 3
rd
feeding 4
th
feeding 5
th
feeding
1 6 A.M.-6.30 A.M 11-11.30 AM 3-3.30 PM 7-7.30 PM
2 7 AM – 7.30 AM 11-11.30 AM 2-2.30 PM 5-5.30 PM
3 6 AM – 6.30 AM 10-10.30 AM 2-2.30 PM 6-6.30 PM 10-10.30 PM
Mounting:
Transferring of matured silkworm to the mountage or cocoon frames is called "mounting". This is an
important and skilled operation. Any deviation in identification of maturity of worms adversely affect
on cocooning.
For the purpose the density of worms in the mountage should be limited to 40-50 worms per
sq.ft.to avoid formation of double cocoon, stained cocoon. The matured worms picked up in any of
the methods mentioned above are transferred to the mountages. In an area of 1 mt 800-900 worms
can be mounted to avoid too much density in the mountage. In certain strains of silk worms around
250-300 worms can be conveniently mounted in a standard mountage of 90 x 60 cm size.
During mounting care should be taken to use the right type of chandrike in convenient size and
shape. There are different types of chandrike that are used for the purpose of mounting.
a. Plastic Mountage
b. Bamboo made Chandrike
c. Straw Mountage
d. Bottle Brush
e. Revolving Mountage
Cocooning:
The matured silkworm spins the outer protective covering called cocoon and remains in dormant
stage inside as pupa.
After mounting the ripen worms in chandrike the larvae sticks on to the mountage by oozing out
the silk fluid which will harden immediately after coming in contact with air and sticks itself to the
mountage. It starts to ooz out the silk by continuous movement of its head in a very specific manner
to form the silk filament in the shape of arithmetic figure `8’.

17

Larvae moves its head continuously about 70-80 times per minute till the compact shell called
cocoon is formed and detaches itself from the last layer of silk of then transforming into pupa.
Silkworm completes the spinning in 2-4 days depending upon the silkworm strain and climatic
conditions provided.
Harvesting of Cocoons:
Harvesting of cocoons is done on the fifth day of spinning. Whereas seed cocoons should be
harvested on eighth day or ninth day of spinning depending upon atmospheric temperature.
Harvesting should not be done immediately after pupation. Further, harvesting should be done
before the moth emerges out.
Cocoons are harvested generally with hand. In advanced temperate countries like Japan simple
devices are used to harvest the cocoons from rotatory mountage.
Reeling
Reeling is a process of unwinding of silk filament from the cocoon. Reeling process is an important
activity. Depending upon the required thickness (denier) of silk thread filaments from number of
cocoons are combined together and reeled. An efficient reeler will maintain the fixed number of
cocoons per end to produce uniform denier silk. Reeling is carried out by distinctive methods.
Types
Charka
It is about 50% of total raw silk production is contributed by charka. Reeling machine is
traditionally home built by using wooden material with the assistance of black smith and
corpenter hence,
Cottage Basin
In cottage basin, the cocoons are cooked separately and re-reeling is done separately to increase
the quality of silk. In cottage basin cooking is done separately and the reeling basins are fixed to
a reel bench. There will be 6-10 ends in each basin. Arrangement to supply hot water to each
basin and to drain out the dirt water accumulated due to floss and sericin is made.
Filature
Filature or multi-end reeling machine works on the principle of slow motion reeling and thread
production on small reels at a large number of ends per basin.
Automatic reeling machine
Bi-voltine cocoons are best suited to automatic reeling machines. This machinery requires
superior quality cocoons and uniform size of cocoons with less floss. Generally the multi-voltine
cocoons are not fit for automatic reeling. This is particularly due to inferior quality. The silk
produced from automatic reeling machine will be superior.



18








Different diseases of silkworm and their management
Life cycle of a mulberry silkworm-


Mulberry silkworm reared in north India are mainly bivoltine. Diseases that may cause severe harm
to the worms are as follows-

19

A. Protozoan diseases
The protozoan diseases of silk worm is called pebrine because of the characteristic pepper -
like black spots appearing on the infected silk worm. This disease is caused by the infection of the
protozoan Nosema bombycis Nageli.


Symptoms
All stages of mulberry silk worm are affected by the pebrine spore.
Control measures
a. Rearing only disease free laying prepared in grainage after mother moth examination.
b. Removing disease larvae from the rearing tray and burning them.
c. Disinfecting rearing room and rearing appliances with 4 to 5% formalin or bleaching powder after
pebrine infection to kill any spore that may be present.

B. Bacterial diseases ('Flacherie')
Formerly, all diseases with the symptoms of diarrhoea and vomiting were collectively called
'Flacherie' and were believed to be caused by bacterial infection. Later on it was found that infections
of bacteria were not always associated with flacherie.

Bacterial Oacherie or Gastric injury flacherie
This disease considered to be caused by multiplication of bacteria in the alimentary canal which has
become weakened due to bad environmental condition.


20



Causative organism
Various pathogens have been suspected to be the causative organism. In the initial stages of
the disease Streptococci, in the advanced stage approaching death, coliform bacteria and in dead
worms Proteus group of bacteria have been isolated from the diseased larvae.

c. Symptoms
The diseased larvae show the following general symptoms of flacherie are loss of appetite,
sluggishness and retardation of growth and softening and inelasticity of the skin.

d. Control measures
This control measures consists of the following.
i. Provision of optimum environmental conditions and providing good quality leaves during rearing.
ii. Avoidance of unhealthy larvae by incubating eggs at uniform optimum temperature (22-25°C) and
humidity (80-85% RH).
iii. Disinfection of rearing house and appliances with 2% formalin.

3. Grasserie disease
This viral disease is called jaundice as the infected larvae appear yellow in colour and excrete
white faeces filled with viral polyhedra. There are three different kinds of polyhedrosis disease
nuclear polyhedrosis, midgut cytoplasmic polyhedrosis and mid gut nuclear polyhedrosis.


21

a. Control measures
Hygienic rearing, avoidance of unsuitable leaves, giving proper ventilation, removal of dead
and sick larvae and sterilization of rearing room with steam or 2% formalin or bleaching powder.

This disease is controlled by oral administration of nalidxic acid, p-propiolactone, p-
aminobutyric acid and tropical application of Imanine.
D. Fungal diseases
Fungal diseases of silkworm are called muscardine. The characteristic feature of this disease
is the mummification of the infected larvae till and after death by deposition of calcium oxalate
salts. Hence, this disease is also called calcino.
Table 2: distinguishing characters of different muscardine diseases

Sl.
No
Type Casual
organism
Size Conidia
shape
Colour Tissue
affected
Symptoms
1 Yellow
muscardine
Paecilomyces

Farinosus
2.5-3.5-
4.5x
2.3-3.3-
4.00u
Generally
oval in
shape
but
rarely
spherical
or
bellshape
d
Individ
ually
colourl
ess but
collecti
vely
appear
yellow
in
colour
Gut The body
becomes
hard and
covered
with yellow
mycelia
2 Aspergillosis
or brown
muscardine
Aspergillus
falvus link
Spherodi
al or oval
Very
serious
on
chawki
worms,
infection
is almost
similar to
other
muscardi
ne fungi
but the
infection
is
localized
and it
does not
extend to
Infected
young
worm
become
lustrous
and die
soon.
Generally
in the
young
worm the
body will
not rot but
in late age
worms, the
area which
is not
covered by

22

the body
fluid
mycelial
mat will
not due to
secondary
infections
3 Red
muscardine
Sorosperella
uvella
Fungus
complete
s its
developm
ent
within
the wall
of its
host
without
appearin
g
externally
Infected
worms
occasionally
show red-
coloured
before
death;
when the
insect is
cut open,
brick red
powdery
mass of
spores
escapes.
The spores
germinate
upon
exposure to
moisture.
The
parasite
destroys
the
functional
organs
completely
4 White
muscardine
Beauveria

Bassiana
2.5-3.5-
4.5x
2.3-3.3-
4.00u
Spherical
or oval
The
infection
is mainly
through
cuticle.
Conodia
deposited
on
cuticle
germinat
e under
favourabl
e
condition
s and the
In early
stage of the
disease the
larvae lose
appetite
and
becomes
inactive.
On
progress of
the disease
moist
specks/oily
specks oil
stain

23

germ
tubes at
once
pierce
through
the
cuticle
and
invade
into body
within
24 hrs
by
mechanic
al force
or
enzymati
c action
or both
and from
hyphal
bodies in
the body
fluid
appears on
different
parts of the
larval body.
The specks
do not
exhibit
marked
colour
unlike
green
muscardine
. Larva
shows
negative
response to
external
stimuli and
losses
spontaneou
s
movement.
Due to
delayed
infection
some
worms may
spin flimsy
cocoons
but many
will fail to
do so
5 Green
muscardine
Spicaria

prasina
3.5-4.0-
5.2x
2.00-2.5-
3.2u
Round or
oval
Light
green
in
colour
The
germ
tube
penetrate
d into
the body,
and
reach
body
fluid and
organizes
the
hyphal
body
Large
moist
blackish
specks
appear all
over the
body
without
definite
circumfere
nce

24

6 Black or
green
muscardine
Metarrhizium
arisopliae
5.9x
2.35u

Non-
septate,
cylindrica
l and
ends
rounded
with a
character
istic
bend.
They are
produced
in
compact
chains
Dark
green
The
infection
process
is similar
to that of
Beauveria


Symptoms
The common symptoms are the following:
i. loss of appetite, lag in growth resulting in 'unequals' in the rearing bed,
ii. oily specks and spots on the skin which may have black or green margin,
iii. diarrhoea, vomiting, shrinkage of body and inelasticity of the skin,
Control measures
If muscardine attack is noticed, control measure have to be taken both during rearing and in
between successive rearing.
i. Infected larvae and litter must be removed immediately before formation of conidiospores on them
and burnt. Infected and healthy larvae can be separated froin each other by spreading a net with
fresh leaves over the rearing bed, when healthy ones alone crawl up to the net.
ii. Provision of good ventilation and low moisture in the rearing room.
iii 0.4% to 0.8% formalin is mixed with burnt paddy husk in the ratio of 1:10 and spread over the
rearing tray form 30 minutes for one or two days particularly after the molt.
iv. High grade chlorinated lime (containing 0.1 % chlorine) is sprayed till the larvae are wet. After
half an hour fresh food is supplied on a net and healthy larvae come out to feed and by this
treatment any spore on their body is prevented from growing.
v. A number of chemicals have been newly evolved for surface disinfection of the larva to prevent
muscardine growth. These include, Dithane M -45 with lime, aliband, sunace, kinuban, pafsol,
kabinuron, chemichlon, shinsha dust, benzoic acid and benzoal knonium chloride. Central Silk Board
(CSB) has evolved resham keet ooshash for this purpose.
Introduction of sericulture at RSRS,Sahaspur

25

Regional sericulture research Station(RSRS), Sahaspur is a research station which works for te
improvement of the sericulture in India. Its nodal centre is at Mysoore. Area under mulberry
plantation is about 9.824 acres along with other buildings such as rearing house, administrative,
seed house etc. include 3.664 acres. the total area of the station is about 15.62 acres. It runs many
research programs as well as many training programmes are also conducted here. some of the
projects running over here are as follows-
1. Silkworm breeds to evolve viable and productive silkworm genotypes/hybrid for sustainable
bivoltine sericulture
2. Evaluation of elite bivoltine silkworm germplasm under different agroclimatic conditions
3. All India silkworm germplasm evaluation programme
4. Maintainance of GPB
5. Maintenance of parental line and breeder stock

Rearing performance of GBP Rejuvenation during Spring 2013
Rac
e
Rep
.no.
Fecu
ndity
Hatc
hing
%
Larval
perio
d
days:
hours
Wt
of
10
mat
ure
larv
ae
Yd. of
1000
larvae
retained/b
rushed
PE
R
(lit
re)
Sing
le
coco
on
wt(g
ms)
Sing
le
shell
wt(g
ms)
She
ll%
Coc
oon
/ltr
Pupa
tion
rate
Mou
nt
Coc
oons
%
Wt
no.
C10
8
1B 488 97.13 28:00 35.
00
11.71
4
90
57
76 1.213 0.19
0
15.8
2
7.0
0
89.7
1
0.9
J112 2B 559 97.3
2
28:00 35.
00
12.8
57
90
28
92 1.44
8
0.22
0
15.2
6
7.0
0
88.2
8
0.6
J122 3A 527 96.0
2
28:00 35.
00
12.2
86
931
4
92 1.28
3
0.20
7
16.3
1
7.0
0
92.2
8
0.9
NB
7
4A 497 95.17 27:00 40.
00
11.85
7
79
43
79 1.44
0
0.22
0
15.3
7
6.0
0
75.14 2.1
NB
4D
2
5B 428 94.8
6
28:00 35.
00
7.42
8
537
1
54 1.69
3
0.31
2
18.
60
7.0
0
50.2
8
4.4
CC1 6A 545 96.3
3
28:00 42.
00
12.71
4
914
3
64 1.43
9
0.22
4
15.5
4
7.0
0
90.2
8
1.3


Fecundity-Potential of total functional eggs laid by one female.
Hatching %-While brushing is taken some larvae remain unbrushed because they are late borns
.Beside some eggs remain unfertilized, some dead eggs ,some unhatched egss also found on egg
sheets. from no. of larvae brushed late born larve are deducted and divided by total no. of eggs. Its
percentage is called hatching percentage. In total no. of eggs i.e. fecundity, fertilized eggs ,dead eggs
,unhatched eggs and hatched egg shells are counted.

26

Larval period-it is counted from brushing time to first moult time for first instar larvae, molt out
time to again moult in time is counted for LP of second , third and fourth stages. In fifth age period
from moult out to spinning is counted. Total larval period is counted by respective LP of fifth stage
of the silkworm and four moulting times.
Yield- Yield /10000 larvae brushed. This parameter for wt. is counted on the basis of the good
cocoons weight of area retained (300 or 350) divided by no of larvae retained and multiplied by
10000. For number this parameter is counted on the basis of no. of good cocoons (including double
cocoons and the cocoons in which pupae are formed divided by the no. of larvae.
Good cocoons- After harvest dead larvae, stained cocoons, flimsy cocoons, and good cocoons are
sorted out from the harvested lot in same chronological order. Normally cocoons confirming their
parents are hybrid characters with live pupa are called good cocoons.
Pupation percentage- Every good cocoon is gently shaken holding it between index finger and thumb
near our ears. If a clear sound comes , it shows live pupa inside. Live pupa divided by larvae retained
and multiplied by 100 is called pupation percentage.
SCW (Single cocoon weight)-SCW ,SSW,SR% normally 10 males *10 females pupa are selected from
a lot of 300 larvae retained for evaluation of these on an electronic balance. 10 male or female
cocoons with their pupae inside are weighted for SCW pupa and exuviate are taken out empty
cocoons shells are weighted again, this is called SCW. SSW divided by SCW and multiplied by 100 is
called SR percentage.

















27



Conclusion

As per the practical experience gained let me made a conclusion that sericulture is a vast field of
great economic importance and having a lot of potential. It has the capacity to provide employment
to the landless as well as the small farmers which may improve the living standard of the peoples.
Along with that silk that is produced is have more value than any other fiber and have capability to
provide good returns to the national economy.






















28