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Learn English Today
English Grammar and Exercises for ESL learners.

Verb Tenses

Present Simple Tense
(example : to play)


Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I play I do not play I don't play Do I play?
You play You do not play You don't play Do you play?
He/she/itplay
s
He/she/it does not
play
He/she/it doesn't pla
y
Does he/she/it
play?
We play We do not play We don't play Do we play?
You play You do not play You don't play Do you play?
They play They do not play They don't play Do they play?

The present simple tense is used :
 To talk about regular activities :
 John plays tennis once a week.
 We start work at 9 a.m. every morning.
 Mary goes to visit her parents on Sundays.
 To talk about tastes :
 Peter likes Chinese food.
 Julie doesn't like classical music.
 Most children love chocolate.
 To talk about facts :
 The sun rises in the east.
 In Europe, the weather is cold in winter.
 Authors write books.
Complete each of the sentences below with a verb from the box.
start ⁄ take ⁄ eat ⁄ think ⁄ sleep ⁄ go ⁄ like ⁄ drink ⁄ write ⁄ lives
1. The film ________________ every day at 8 p.m.
2. Many children _________________ milk with their meals.
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3. Cats generally _______________ a lot.
4. Julie _______________ a letter to her mother once a week.
5. Tom and Julie _______________ in a big city in the centre of the country.
6. Tourists _______________ to Egypt to see the pyramids.
7. Jimmy always _______________ the bus to go to school.
8. We all know that children _______________ sweets.
9. Anne _______________ it's a good idea to do English exercises.
10. If you want to be healthy, you must _______________ good food.

Present Continuous Tense
(example : to play)


Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I am playing I am not playing I'm not playing Am I playing?
You are playing You are not playing You're not playing Are you playing?
He/she/it is
playing
He/she/it is not
playing
He/she/it's not
playing
Is he/she/it
playing?
We are playing We are not playing We're not playing Are we playiing?
You are playing You are not playing You're not playing Are you playing?
They are playing
They are not
playing
They're not playing Are they playing?

The present continuous tense is used :
 To talk about continuous activities :
 At the time of speaking :
 I am reading this page now.
 Around now, in a more general sense :
 I am learning English this year.

 To talk about planned future activities :
 Tom and Mary are coming to dinner tomorrow. They called to confirm.
 I am spending my holidays in Australia. I have already booked my flight.
Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets:
(Present Simple or Present Continuous)
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1. Every day Julie _______________ (take) the bus to go to her office.
2. At the moment you _______________ (do) an English exercise.
3. Tom and Julie _______________ (learn) English this year.
4. The Bank __________________ (open) at 9.30 every morning from
Monday to Friday.
5. Our cousins ___________________ (come) to see us next Sunday.
6. Tom ______________ (read) the newspaper every morning on the train.
7. Julie usually __________________ (clean) the house on Saturdays.
8. At the moment she _________________ (write) a letter to a client.
9. Julie _________________ (speak) three languages : English, French
and Spanish.
10. Today is Sunday. Tom and Julie _________________ (relax) in their
garden.

Past Simple Tense
(example : to play)
 The past simple tense of regular verbs is formed by adding - ed to the infinitive
(for example: - Infinitive : to play Past Simple : I played)
 The auxiliary did is used to form the negative and interrogative forms
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I played I did not play I didn't play Did I play?
You played You did not play You didn't play Did you play?
He/she/it
played
He/she/it did not
play
He/she/it didn't
play
Did he/she/it
play?
We played We did not play We didn't play Did we play?
You played You did not play You didn't play Did you play?
They played They did not play They didn't play Did they play?

The past simple tense is used to talk about finished actions in a finished period of
time,
for example :
 Yesterday evening I played tennis with a friend.
 Last year I started taking tennis lessons.
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 When I was at school I hated history.
 Five minutes ago I finished the report for my boss.
 Last week I attended a meeting in Tokyo.
Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets:

1. Yesterday evening I__________ (go) to the cinema with a friend.

2. From 1995 to 1998 I __________ (work) in Tokyo.

3. Last night the concert __________ (finish) at midnight.

4. I __________ (arrive) at the office this morning before my
colleagues.

5. When he was young, Tom ________ (ride) a bicycle to school.

6. The train was at 8 p.m. so I ___________ (leave) home at 7 p.m.

7. Last Sunday was my mother's birthday, so I __________ (make) a
cake.

8. I ___________ (start) to play golf five years ago.

9. The great composer Mozart _________ (die) at the age of 35.

10. Julie _________ (do) a lot of English exercises last week.
Past Continuous Tense
(example : to play)


Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Contracted Form



I was playing I was not playing I wasn't playing Was I playing?
You were playing You were not playing You weren't playing Were you playing?
He/she/was playing He/she/it was not playing He/she/it wasn't playing Was he/she/it playing?
We were playing We were not playing We weren't playing Were we playiing?
You were playing You were not playing You weren't playing Were you playing?
They were playing They were not playing They weren't playing Were they playing?

The past continuous tense is used :
 To talk about a continuous action which took place at a specific time in the
past :
 Yesterday evening, at 9 o'clock, I was watching television.

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 It is also used in sentences with when or while, to refer to an action which
was taking
place when a shorter, brief event occurred.
 Yesterday, while I was watching television, the phone rang.
 When my husband arrived home yesterday, I was cooking dinner.
 Complete the sentences below with the correct form of the tense in brackets
(ex : Past Simple : I played - Past Continuous : I was playing)




1) When her husband ____________ (arrive) home, Anne
__________________(watch) television.

2) I _________________ (prepare) dinner when the
telephone _________________ (ring).

3) What ________________________ (you do) when the postman
______________(arrive)?

4) Julie _______________ (learn) to drive when she
___________________ (work) in London.

5) Where ___________________ (you sit) when the show (begin)?

6) I ________________ (visit) Athens while I ____________________
(tour) Greece.

7) It was when he ____________________ (cross) the street that
John______________ (fall).

8) What ________________(you see) while you
______________________ (wait) for the bus?

9) Where _______________________ (you go) when your car
________________(break) down?

10) Julie ________________ (meet) Peter when she
___________________ (walk) in the park.



Present Perfect Tense
(example : to do)

Present Perfect Simple
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I have done I have not done I haven't done Have I done?
You have done You have not done You haven't done Have you done?
He/she/it has done He/she/it has not done He/she/it hasn't done Has he/she/it done?
We have done We have not done We haven't done Have we done?
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You have done You have not done You haven't done Have you done?
They have done They have not done They haven't done Have they done?

Present Perfect Continuous
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I have been doing I have not been doing I haven't been doing Have I been doing?
You have been doing You have not been doing You haven't been doing Have you been doing?
He/she/has been
doing
He/she/it has not been
doing
He/she/it hasn't been
doing.
Has he/she/it been
doing?
We have been doing We have not been doing We haven't been doing Have we been doing?
You have been doing You have not been doing You haven't been doing Have you been doing?
They have been
doing
They have not been doing They haven't been doing Have they been doing?
The present perfect is used to refer to actions which take place in an
unfinished time period up to the time of speaking.
 The present perfect continuous tense is used to refer to an action
which started
in the past and continues today.
 I have been learning English since September.
(I started in September and I continue to take lessons today.)

 The present perfect simple is used to refer to the finished part of a
continuous
action.
So far in my English course :
 I have learnt new vocabulary.
 I have revised some grammar rules.
(My English course is not finished, but I have finished some of the
lessons.)
Example:
Today is your English Revision day. It is now 2 p.m.
At 9 o'clock this morning you started your revision work. At 2 pm the day is not
finished,
so you can say : "I have been revising my English since 9 o'clock this morning."
(You are still revising your English, so the continuous form is used.)

However, you have completed part of the revision work, so you can say, for
example
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"So far today I have revised tenses and irregular verbs."

N.B.
If you refer to a specific time earlier in the day, you must use the Past Simple :
"This morning I revised tenses and irregular verbs." or,
"I met Charlie for lunch at 12.30"
Each of the sentences below has one or two mistakes. Find them and correct them.
(Example : I am watching television since I came home from school. → I have been watching television since I came
home.)

1. How long are you learning English ?

2. How many cigarettes have you been smoking this afternoon ?

3. I am working here since 1995.
4. I’ve had my watch since a long time.

5. How many years are you living in London?
6. Mark is exhausted. He is playing tennis since two hours.
7. Sophie is doing very well at school since the beginning of the
year.
8. I have worn this sweater since 9 o’clock this morning.
9. I know Laura for many years.
10. Peter is attending English classes since two years.
11. My best friend has always been hating fish.
12. How many chapters of the book did you read so far ?
13. I am waiting for the bus since a long time.
14. I have listened carefully to the teacher since the beginning of the
lesson.
15. How long are you a member of the tennis club?
Present Perfect vs Past Simple
(I have finished vs I finished)

PRESENT PERFECT

The present perfect tense is used :
 To talk about an action which started in the past and continues today :
For and since are used to express duration.
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 I have lived here for 10 years. I have lived here since 2002
(I arrived 10 years ago and I am still here.)
 To refer to past events in an unfinished period of time.
 I have written two letters today.
(Two letters are written but today is not finished.)
 To refer to past events that have just happened or been announced :
 There has been a plane crash near the coast.
(We know the event took place but we don't know when.)
 To talk about a past action with a result in the present. :
 I've broken my arm. I can't drive (= because my arm is broken now.)
 To talk and ask about experiences or accomplishments up to the time of
speaking :
 "I'm a writer. I've written 9 books."
 "Have you ever written a biography?" "No, never."

PAST SIMPLE

The Past Simple is used:
 When the period of time is finished.
 I wrote two letters yesterday. (Yesterday is finished).

 When the time is mentioned, either a precise time in the past, or a time
expression
which clearly situates the event in the past.
 John lived in the country
..... until the age of 6.
..... when he was young.
..... from 1995 to 2002
..... before he moved to London.
..... a long time ago.
As a general rule, if you can answer the question "when?", use the Past
Simple.
Put the verb in brackets into the correct form :
present perfect (simple or continuous form) or past simple.

Remember: the Present Perfect is used for unfinished time, the Past Simple for finished time.


PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST SIMPLE?

1. Tom (go)__________ to the cinema yesterday.

2. John is playing a game of tennis. He (play)______________ for 2
hours.

3 I (book)__________ the tickets two weeks ago for the concert in
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Vienna.

4. The teacher (speak)____________ English since the beginning of
this lesson.

5. In your life, how many countries (you-visit) _______________?

6. The Bank (open)__________ a branch in new shopping centre last
month.

7. The bus is late and Julie is cold. She (wait)__________ for 10
minutes.

8. Caroline (work)__________ here between 2003 and 2006.

9. Before boarding, John (buy)_______ a book to read during the flight.

10. So far today, I (learn) ____________ several new words in English.

Past Perfect Tense
(example : to do)

Past Perfect Simple
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I had done I had not done I hadn't done Had I done?
You had done You had not done You hadn't done Had you done?
He/she/it had done He/she/it had not done He/she/it hadn't done Had he/she/it done?
We had done We had not done We hadn't done Had we done?
You had done You had not done You hadn't done Had you done?
They had done They had not done They hadn't done Had they done?

Past Perfect Continuous
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I had been doing I had not been doing I hadn't been doing Had I been doing?
You had been doing You had not been doing You hadn't been doing Had you been doing?
He/she/it had been
doing
He/she/it had not been
doing
He/she/it hadn't been
doing.
Had he/she/it been
doing?
We had been doing We had not been doing We hadn't been doing Had we been doing?
You had been doing You had not been doing You hadn't been doing Had you been doing?
They had been doing They had not been doing They hadn't been doing Had they been doing?
 The past perfect simple is used to refer to actions which took place
before a specific time in the past.
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 Yesterday, between 4pm and 6pm, Paul played a game of tennis with
Tom.
His mother arrived at 6 pm.
When his mother arrived, Paul had finished the game.

 The past perfect continuous is used to refer to a past continuous action.
 Before his mother arrived, Paul had been playing tennis with Tom.
 Complete the sentences below with the correct form of the tense in brackets
(past perfect simple or continuous).

1. When their mother arrived home, the children __________________
(finish) their homework.

2. The meeting ____________ (start) when I arrived at the office.

3. Julie didn't watch the film because she _____________ (see) it before.

4. The mechanic ______________(repair) her car when Mary arrived at
the garage.

5. Caroline was tired when she left the office because she
________________(work) all day.

6. David was playing tennis. When his father arrived, he
__________________(play) for 2 hours.

7. When the dessert arrived, Anne wasn't hungry; she
_______________(eat) too much.

8. It was my first flight. I ________________ (never fly) before.

9. The dentist was angry because John _______________ (forget) the time
of his appointment.

10. On the day of his exam, Joe was ready. He ________________ (revise)
for weeks.

Present Perfect vs Past Perfect
Summary


PRESENT PERFECT
The present perfect is used to refer to actions which take place in an unfinished time period up to the time
of speaking, and allows the speaker to link past actions or situations to the present time.
 Continuous form :
 Actions started in the past which continue until now.
 I have been reading this book since last Monday.
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 Simple form :
 The completed or finished part of a continuous action.
 I have read the first three chapters of the book.
 Events that have just occurred, with no specific time mentioned.
 A plane has just crashed near the coast.
 A past action with a result in the present.
 I've broken my arm. I can't drive.
 Experiences and accomplishments up to now.
 I'm a writer. I've written 5 novels and several short stories.

PAST PERFECT
If we are already talking about the past, the past perfect is used to to go back to an earlier past time,
to refer to something that had already happened or had heen happening.
 Continuous form :
 Continuous actions entirely situated in the past.
 Paul had been revising his English when the postman rang the doorbell.
 Simple form :
 .Actions which took place before a specific time in the past.
 When Tom called at 8 am, Paul had already left for school.




















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Present and Past Tense Revision
Summary

Present Simple
 Routine, habits, repetitive actions :
 I play tennis every Saturday.
 Tastes :
 I like chocolate, I hate doing homework.
 Facts :
 The sun rises in the east.
Present Continuous
 Continuous actions :
 - at the time of speaking
 I am reading this explanation now.
 - around now :
 I am learning English this year.
 Planned future arrangements :
 I am visiting Rome next Monday.
Present Perfect
 Continuous form:
 An action started in the past that continues today :
 I have been learning English since September.
 Simple form :
 The completed or finished part of that action :
 We have revised grammar rules and verb
tenses.
Past Simple
 Finished actions at a specific finished time in the past.
 Last year I bought a new car.
 I saw your dog 5 minutes ago.
Past Continuous
 Continuous actions
 at a specific time in the past :
 I was having breakfast at 7 o'clock this morning.
 when a shorter brief event occurred :
 I was watching television when the phone rang.


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Each of the sentences below has a mistake. Find it and correct it.
(Example : I have written the article yesterday . → I wrote the article yesterday.)

1. I have visited New York two months ago.

2. Anne isn’t here at the moment. She’s been to London.

3. In your life, how many different countries did you visit?

4. They’ve opened the new shopping centre last week.

5. How many pages did you read so far this week ?

6. When have you bought your car?

7. I’ve lived in London since 5 years.

8. I’ve seen that film last Friday.

9. His English improved a lot this year.

10. In his last job, Peter has travelled to Germany every month.

11. Julie has worked here between 1997 and 1999.

12. How many films did you see this month ?

13. When has Mary arrived ?

14. Before leaving for Boston, I have bought a good dictionary.

15. So far I didn’t receive a reply to my invitation.



Future Tense
(example : to go)

Future Simple
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I will go I will not go I won't go Will I go?
You will go You will not go You won't go Will you go?
He/she/it will go He/she/it will not go He/she/it won't go Will he/she/it go?
We will go We will not go We won't go Will we go?
You will go You will not go You won't go Will you go?
They will go They will not go They won't go Will they go?
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Future Continuous
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I will be going I will not be going I won't be going Will I be going?
You will be going You will not be going You won't be going Will you be going?
He/she/it will be going He/she/it will not be going He/she/it won't be going Will he/she/it be going?
We will be going We will not be going We won't be going Will we be going?
You will be going You will not be going You won't be going Will you be going?
They will be going They will not be going They won't be going Will they be going?
 The future simple is used :

for predictions : what you think will happen or what is certain to happen.
 You are going on a long flight. You can say :
"I will be tired after my long journey."
for spontaneous decisions or offers (a decision made at the time of
speaking).
 With a group of friends, the phone rings : You can say :
"I'll answer it!"

 The future continuous is used to refer to a future continuous action.
 You are going on a long flight. You can say :
"In two hours' time I will be having lunch on the plane."
"I will be flying over London."
"I will be watching a film."
Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verb
in brackets :
- the future simple (ex : I will watch)
- the future continuous (ex : I will be watching)




1. I promise I ______________ (call) you as soon as I have any news.


2. This time tomorrow Tom ________________(fly) over the Atlantic on
his way to Boston.


3. Those bags look heavy. I _________________________ (carry) one
of them for you.
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4. They are getting married on Saturday. All the guests
_________________ (wear) white.


5. The following week they ______________________ (enjoy) the sun in
the West Indies.


6. The sky is a bit cloudy. __________________ (rain) do you think?


7. If you look at this map you ____________ (see) where the islands are.


8. You should have no problem finding him. He ___________________
(carry) a guitar.


The Subjunctive
The following is a mini-tutorial on the use of the Subjunctive. After you have studied
the tutorial, complete the associated exercises. If you already know how to use this
verb form, you can skip the explanation and go directly to the exercises.
FORM
Use the simple form of the verb. The simple form is the infinitive without the "to." The
simple form of the verb "to go" is "go." The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain
forms and tenses.
USE
The Subjunctive is used to emphasize urgency or importance. It is used after certain
expressions (see below).
Examples:
 I suggest that he study.
 Is it essential that we be there?
 Don recommended that you join the committee.
NOTICE
The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain forms and tenses. In the examples
below, the Subjunctive is not noticeable in the you-form of the verb, but it is
noticeable in the he-form of the verb.
Examples:
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 You try to study often. YOU-FORM OF "TRY"
 It is important that you try to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF "TRY" LOOKS
THE SAME.
 He tries to study often. HE-FORM OF "TRY"
 It is important that he try to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF "TRY" IS
NOTICEABLE HERE.
Verbs Followed by the Subjunctive
The Subjunctive is used after the following verbs:
to advise (that)
to ask (that)
to command (that)
to demand (that)
to desire (that)
to insist (that)
to propose (that)
to recommend (that)
to request (that)
to suggest (that)
to urge (that)
Examples:
 Dr. Smith asked that Mark submit his research paper before the end of the
month.
 Donna requested Frank come to the party.
 The teacher insists that her students be on time.
Expressions Followed by the Subjunctive
The Subjunctive is used after the following expressions:
It is best (that)
It is crucial (that)
It is desirable (that)
It is essential (that)
It is imperative (that)
It is important (that)
It is recommended (that)
It is urgent (that)
It is vital (that)
It is a good idea (that)
It is a bad idea (that)
Examples:
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 It is crucial that you be there before Tom arrives.
 It is important she attend the meeting.
 It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him if he wants to
hike to the bottom of the Grand Canyon.
Negative, Continuous and Passive Forms of Subjunctive
The Subjunctive can be used in negative, continuous and passive forms.
Negative Examples:
 The boss insisted that Sam not be at the meeting.
 The company asked that employees not accept personal phone calls during
business hours.
 I suggest that you not take the job without renegotiating the salary.
Passive Examples:
 Jake recommended that Susan be hired immediately.
 Christine demanded that I be allowed to take part in the negotiations.
 We suggested that you be admitted to the organization.
Continuous Examples:
 It is important that you be standing there when he gets off the plane.
 It is crucial that a car be waiting for the boss when the meeting is over.
 I propose that we all be waiting in Tim's apartment when he gets home.
Should as Subjunctive
After many of the above expressions, the word "should" is sometimes used to
express the idea of subjunctiveness. This form is used more frequently in British
English and is most common after the verbs "suggest," "recommend" and "insist."
Examples:
 The doctor recommended that she should see a specialist about the
problem.
 Professor William suggested that Wilma should study harder for the final
exam.
 Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the verb in
parentheses, then click the "Check" button to check your answers.
Negative, passive and continuous subjunctive forms are possible.
Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if an answer is giving you
trouble.
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 1. It's important that she (remember) to take her medicine
twice a day.
2. I suggest that Frank (read) the directions carefully before
assembling the bicycle. He doesn't want the wheels to fall off while
he
is riding down a hill
3. Mrs. Finkelstein demanded that the heater
(repair) immediately. Her apartment was freezing.

4. It's vital that the United States (focus) on improving its
public education system. What we do now will affect our country for
generations to come.

5. The monk insisted that the tourists (enter) the temple
until they had removed their shoes.

6. I am not going to sit here and let her insult me. I demand that she
immediately (apologize) for what she just said.

7. Judy asked that we (attend) her graduation ceremony
next week.

8. Was it really necessary that (sit) I there watching you the
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entire time you were rehearsing for the play? It was really
boring watching you repeat the scenes over and over again.
9. It is important to remember that Janine (think) very
differently from you. She may not agree to the changes you have
made in
the organization of the company.
10. It's a little difficult to find the restaurant. I propose that we all
(drive) together so that nobody gets lost along the way.
11. The woman insisted that the lost child (take) to store's
information desk so his parents could be paged.
12. The nutritionist recommended that Sally (reduce) her
daily fat intake.
13. The environmental leader felt it was extremely important that the
people of the city (allow) to voice their concerns over the
new hotel being built on the bay.
14. She told me that the government (regulate) the airline
industry. I don't know if that is true.
15. The sign at the pool recommended that you
(swim) after eating a large meal.
16. It is necessary that a life guard (monitor) the
summing pool while the children are taking their swimming lessons.
17. The sun is scorching today. I suggest you (put) on
sunblock immediately before you get a sun burn.
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18. John insists that Sarah (invite) to the wedding;
otherwise he will not attend.
19. I think it's an interesting fact that she (come) from
Estonia.
20. It is imperative that the world (work) towards a solution
to global warming before the weather patterns of the world are
disrrupted irreparably.



Conditional Tense
(example : to call)


Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I would call I would not call I wouldn't call Would I call?
You would call You would not call You wouldn't call Would you call?
He/she/it would
call
He/she/it would not
call
He/she/it wouldn't
call
Would he/she/it
call?
We would call We would not call We wouldn't call Would we call?
You would call You would not call You wouldn't call Would you call?
They would call They would not call They wouldn't call Would they call?

 The conditional (would + verb) is used to refer to an imaginary or
hypothetical
situation, with an 'if' clause in the past. :
 If I saw an accident I would call an ambulance..
 I would call an ambulance if I saw an accident.
It is possible that you will never see an accident, but here you are
describing your probable reaction in such circumstances.
 If Tom had more money, he would buy a sports car.
Tom is not rich, but if he were, this is what he would do.
21

 In English there are different conditional structures :





Co
mpl
ete
the following sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets.


1) If Peter _____________ (have) more money, he _______________ (buy)
a new car.


2) What _____________ (you do) if you ______________ (see) an
accident?


3) Where ______________ (you live) if you _____________ (have) a
choice?


4) If Caroline _______________ (arrive) late for a meeting, her boss
______________ (be) angry.


5) If his parents _____________ (come) to visit him, John
______________(bring) them to the theatre.


6) Where _____________ (you go) if you ________________ (can take)
a week's holiday?


7) If Julie _____________ (speak) better English, she ________________
(find) a better job.


8) If Paul's boss ______________ (invite) him to lunch, he
________________ (accept).


9) If I _____________ (lose) my wallet, I ______________ (report) it to the
police.


10) What ________________ (happen) if you ________________ (miss)
your flight?
Present + Present
(what is recommended in this
situation)
If you see an accident, call a doctor!
Present + Future
(possible future situation)
If I see an accident, I will call a doctor.
Past + Conditional
(imaginary situation)
If I saw an accident, I would call a doctor.
Past Perfect + Conditional Perfect
(the accident occurred but you didn't
see it)
If I had seen the accident, I would have called a
doctor.
22


Verb Tense Revision Chart

Verb Tense Use Example
I play Present Simple -Regular activites / routine Amy and Sue play tennis on Saturdays.
I am playing
Present
Continuous
Continuous present action Amy and Sue are playing at the moment.
I have played
Present
Perf.Simple
-Finished part of continous
action.
-Completed actions in
unfinished
time period.
-Recent events (unspecified
time)
-Past action with a result in
the present.
-Experiences up to now.
-Amy and Sue have played two sets.
-They have played several other matches
this year.
-Their parents have just arrived.
-Sue has broken her racket so she can't
continue.
-They have played in many tournaments.
I have been
playing
Present Perf.
Cont.
Actions begun in the past
which continue today.
They have been playing tennis since
2 o'clock this afternoon.
I played Past Simple
Finished actions at a specific
time in the past.
Last Saturday Sue played in another
tournament.
I was playing Past Continuous Past continuous actions.
At 2.45 pm they were playing the second
set.
I had played
Past Perfect
Simple
Completed actions before a
specific time or event in the
past.
Two other people had played a match
before Amy and Sue arrived.
I had been
playing
Past Perfect
Cont.
Continuous actions before a
specific time or event in the
past.
At 4 pm they had been playing for 2 hours.
I will play Future Simple
-Predictions
-Spontaneous decisions/offers
Amy will win the match today.
I'll lend you my racket!
I will be playing
Future
Continuous
Continuous future action
Tomorrow they will be playing in another
club.
I will have
played
Future Perfect Completed future action
By September they will have played ten
matches.
I will have been
playing
Future Perfect
Cont.
Continuous future action
estimatede at a time in the
future.
A 5 pm Amy and Sue will have been playing
for 3 hours.
I would play
Conditional
Simple
Probable action in an
imaginary situation
I would play tennis if I had a racket.
I would be
playing
Conditional Cont.
Continuous action in an
imaginary situation
Amy would be playing tennis if you came by
on Saturday afternoon.
23

Used to +Infinitive
(example : I used to smoke)


Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I used to smoke I did not use to smoke I didn't use to smoke Did you use to smoke?

The structure used to + infinitive is used to refer to
a discontinued past habit or situation
which contrasts with the present.
 It refers to past habits and states that do not exist today, something that you
did
regularly in the past but no longer do today.


 It exists only in the past.

Here are some examples :
 Tom used to drink coffee. Now he prefers tea.
 Julie used to fly from London to Paris. Now she takes the Eurostar.
 I used to drive to work. Now I take the underground.
 Bill used to live in Wales. Now he lives in Scotland
.
 This structure cannot be used to say how often something happened,
or how long it took.
 Julie used to visit Paris seven times. Julie visited Paris seven times.
 Bill used to live in Wales for three years. Bill lived in Wales for three
years.
 Complete the following sentences with the correct form of used and the verb in
brackets.
Example :

Tom______________ (take) the bus to go to work, now he
walks. => Tom used to take the bus to go to work...

Sending emails to my grandmother is difficult. She isn't ___________a
computer. => She isn't used to using a computer.

1. Caroline _______________ (have) a walkman, now she has an ipod.

2. We haven't seen Bob very often since he got a promotion. He's very
I would have
played
Conditional
Perfect
Speculation about imaginary
situations in the past.
I would have played tennis yesterday if you
had asked me.
I would have
been playing
Conditional
Perf.Cont.
Continuous hypothetical
situations.
I would have been playing with Sue if I had
won my last match.
24

busy. He _____________________(not be) so busy.

3. I've just got my first job. It's exciting but I'll have
_______________________(work) regular hours.

4. It is difficult for Tom to drive in England. He ____________________
(drive) on the left-hand side of the road.

5. When Peter was young, he ________________ (ride) a bicycle to
school.

6. People from India usually find our food tasteless. They
________________________ (eat) spicy food.

7. Computers ________________ (be) very expensive. Now the prices are
more reasonable.

8. English has become
international. Businessmen ________________________ (speak) English at
international meetings.

9. During my childhood, I ________________ (spend) a lot of time with my
grandparents.

10. Maria _________________ (think) that she would
never ________________________ (live) in New York.

Do not to confuse this structure with 'to be used to'. See more...

Be/Get used to
(example : to drive)

- Be/get 'used to' + noun
- Be/get 'used to' + -ing
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Long Form Contracted Form


I am used to driving I am not used to driving I'm not used to driving Are you used to driving?

 To be used to something means to be accustomed to it.
 To get used to something means to become accustomed to it.
 'Used to' is followed either by a noun or by a verb ending in -ing.
 Noun
 Tom is used to noise.
 Julie is used to hard work.
25

 Verb
 Tom is used to living in a noisy street.
 Julie is used to working hard.


 'Used to' refers to something that was strange before and has become
familiar,
something that you have learned to accept.
 It is used with be and get in all tenses : past, present, future and conditional.
 Now that I live in France, I am used to driving on the right.
 Since I moved to the city, I have got used to noise.
 Before I lived in Italy, I wasn't used to eating pasta.
 I wasn't used to the weather. It took me some time to get used to it.
 Complete the following sentences with the correct form of used and the verb in
brackets.

Example :

Tom______________ (take) the bus to go to work, now he
walks. => Tom used to take the bus to go to work...

Sending emails to my grandmother is difficult. She isn't ___________a
computer. => She isn't used to using a computer.

1. Caroline _______________ (have) a walkman, now she has an ipod.

2. We haven't seen Bob very often since he got a promotion. He's very
busy. He _____________________(not be) so busy.

3. I've just got my first job. It's exciting but I'll have
_______________________(work) regular hours.

4. It is difficult for Tom to drive in England. He ____________________
(drive) on the left-hand side of the road.

5. When Peter was young, he ________________ (ride) a bicycle to
school.

6. People from India usually find our food tasteless. They
________________________ (eat) spicy food.

7. Computers ________________ (be) very expensive. Now the prices are
more reasonable.

8. English has become
international. Businessmen ________________________ (speak) English at
international meetings.

9. During my childhood, I ________________ (spend) a lot of time with my
grandparents.

10. Maria _________________ (think) that she would
never ________________________ (live) in New York.

26



Other Verb Forms
Gerund - Infinitive

One of the difficulties of the English language is that
some verbs are followed by the gerund (ex : doing)
and others are followed by the infinitive (ex : to do)

Below you will find some guidelines and examples to help you.
(example verb : doing / to do)
When do we use the GERUND? (ex: doing)
After verbs that express likes/dislikes :
like, love, enjoy, dislike, hate, don't mind, can't stand ...
+ doing
After certain other verbs such as :
admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, deny, finish,
imagine, involve, keep (on), mention, miss, postpone, suggest
...
+ doing
After prepositions :
interested in ...
instead of ...
good at ...
before...
after ...
+ doing
After certain expressions :
it's no use ...
it's no good ...
there's no point in ...
+ doing
When do we use the INFINITIVE? (ex : to do)
After verbs that refer to a future event :
want, hope, intend, would like, promise ...
+ to do
After certain verbs such as :
afford, agree, arrange, choose, fail, happen,
help, learn, manage, offer, refuse, seem ...
+ to do
After adjectives:
glad : (glad to know that ...)
pleased : (pleased to meet you...)
disappointed : (disappointed to hear that ..)
+ to do
After 'too' and 'enough'
it's too difficult...
it's easy enough...
+ to do
27

Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the verb in brackets.


1. It's obvious he's only interested in (make) ______________ money.


2. Anne couldn't find a taxi so I offered (drive) ________________ her
to the station.


3. I managed (book) ________________ two seats on the morning flight


4. I promise (send) _______________ you our new brochure as soon as
it's available.


5. Peter was delighted (meet) _______________ a former colleague at
the conference.


6. I avoid (take) _______________ the car whenever possible,
especially in big cities.


7. We finished the job by (work) _______________ 12 hours a day.


8. Bob sent a report to the Chairman instead of (attend)
_______________ the meeting.


9. A lot of people dislike (drive) _______________ at night.


10. I intend (speak) _______________ to my boss about your complaint
Irregular Verbs

Verb Past Simple Past Participle
arise arose arisen
be was/were been
bear bore borne
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bite bit bitten
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burst burst burst
28


























buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feel felt felt
fight faught faught
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
know knew known
lay laid lain
lead led led
learn learnt learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
29




read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
speak spoke spoken
spell spelt spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilled/spilt spilled/spilt
spit spat spat
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
stink stank stunk
swear swore sworn
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written
30

Passive Form of Verbs

The passive form of verbs is made with the different tenses of BE + the past
participle :
(for example : English is spoken here.)
 We use the active form of a verb to say what a subject does:
 The chef cooks food every day.
 We use the passive form to say what happens to the subject:
 Food is cooked every day.
 To subject of a passive verb corresponds to the object of an active verb :
 Food is cooked every day. (Passive).
 The chef cooks food every day. (Active)

 We use the passive form of a verb when it is not important who does the
action,
or when we don't know who does it.
 The letter was delivered at 9 a.m.
The identity of the person who delivered the letter is unknown or
unimportant.
If we want to say who delivered the letter, we use 'by':
The letter was delivered by the postman.


VERB ACTIVE PASSIVE
Infinitive : To cook To be cooked

Present Simple : I cook food in the kitchen. Food is cooked in the kitchen.
Present
Continuous
I am cooking food in the kitchen. Food is being cooked in the kitchen.
Present Perfect I have cooked food in the kitchen. Food has been cooked in the kitchen.
Past Simple I cooked food in the kitchen. Food was cooked in the kitchen.
Past Contiuous I was cooking food in the kitchen. Food was being cooked in the kitchen.
Past Perfect I had cooked food in the kitchen. Food had been cooked in the kitchen.
Future I will cook food in the kitchen. Food wil be cooked in the kitchen.
Future Perfect I will have cooked food in the kitchen. Food will have been cooked in the kitchen.
Conditional I would cook food in the kitchen Food would be cooked in the kitchen.
Cond. Perfect
I would have cooked food in the
kitchen.
Food would have been cooked int he
kitchen.

Change the form of the following sentences from active to passive :

Example : People buy food at the market →Food is bought at the market.
He has fed the animals. → The animals have been fed.

31


1. Active : They take the child to school by car.
Passive : The child ...


2. Active : I saw two armed men in front of the jewellery shop.
Passive : Two armed men ...


3. Active : The reporter is announcing the results on the radio right now.
Passive : The results ...


4. Active : Emma had done the housework before the guests arrived.
Passive : The housework ...


5. Active : The doctor was treating the patient when the ambulance arrived.
Passive : The patient ...


6. Active : The ambulance will take the patient to the nearest hospital.
Passive : The patient ...


7. Active : The teacher had announced the results to the students.
Passive : The results...


8. Active : Tom will have calculated the cost before the end of the day.
Passive : The cost ...

Inversion
(verb before the subject)

Inversion means putting the verb before the subject.
It is sometimes difficult to remember when inversion is used.
Below you will find some guidelines and examples to help you.

In normal everyday English, inversion is used :
 To make questions : Does he? Can you?
 After 'so' 'neither', 'nor' : So do I, neither do I, nor do I.

In written English, as well as in a very formal style, inversion is used in the following
cases :
 After negative adverbial expressions :
 Under no circumstances can we accept cheques.
 In no way can he be held responsible.
 At no time did she say she would come.
32


 After adverbial expressions of place :
 Round the corner came the postman.
 On the doorstep was a bunch of flowers.

 After 'seldom', 'rarely', 'never', in comparisons :
 Seldom have I seen such a beautiful view.
 Rarely did he pay anyone a compliment.
 Never had I felt so happy.

 After 'hardly', 'scarcely', 'no sooner', when one thing happens after
another.
 Hardly had I begun to speak when I was interrupted.
 Scarcely had we started our meal when the phone rang.
 No sooner had I arrived than they all started to argue.

 After adverbial expressions beginning with 'only' :
 Only after the meeting did I realize the importance of the subject.

 After exclamations with 'here' and 'there' :
 Here comes the winner!
 There goes all our money!



Print and reformulate the following sentences using inversion.


Example : She at no time said she was vegetarian.
→→> At no time did she say (that) she was vegetarian.

1. I had hardly begun to apologize when the door closed .

2. I have seldom heard such a talented singer.

3. If John had known that she liked curry, he would have brought her to an Indian
restaurant.

4. The artist rarely paid any attention to his agent's advice.

33

5. He had never felt so depressed.

6. The shop can in no way be held responsible for customers' lost property.

7. The couple had no sooner arrived than the priest started the ceremony.

8. Tom only understood the meaning of the comment when he saw his wife's face.

9. She never at any time said that she was allergic to cats.

10. The restaurant cannot accept animals under any circumstances.

English Modal Verbs
Modal verbs are a type of auxiliary verb which express the mood of another verb. They are used
to express ideas such as possibility, prediction, speculation, deduction and necessity.

Modal Concept Example
Can
Ability:

Permission:

Offers :
Julie can swim.

Can I come with you? ('May' is
also used.)

Can I help you?
Could
Possibility:

Past ability :

Permission :

Requests :
That story could be true - who
knows!

Charlie could swim when he
was four years old.

Could I use your phone please?

Could you tell me the way to the
station please?
May
Possibility :

Permission :
The President may come to our
offices
if the meeting finishes before 5
pm.

May I borrow your dictionary?
Might
Slight possibility :

Past form of 'may'
in reported speech.
We might win a prize but I doubt
it.

The President said he might
come.
34





Reported (Indirect) Speech

In reported (indirect) speech, we report an idea expressed by someone,
without quoting the exact words used.
Direct speech
Tom : "I like football."
Mary: "What did Tom say?"
Indirect (reported) speech Bill : "Tom said (that) he liked football."

 We use verbs such as : say, tell, announce, promise, explain.
 The verb tenses become more past
 We can omit 'that' : Tom said (that) he liked football
Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech
You talk to your neighbour, Mr.
Smith,
and he tells you the following
things :
You report your conversation with Mr. Smith to your
husband/wife/friend :
 I clean my car every  Mr. Smith said (that) he cleaned his car every
Should
Advice :

Logical deduction :
You should take an umbrella in
case it rains.

I've revised so I should be ready
for the test.
Ought
to
Advice :

Logical deduction :
You ought to write to your
grandmother.

30 € ought to be enough for the
taxi.
Shall
Offer/suggestions
with ''I' and 'we'
Shall I order a taxi?
Shall we begin the meeting
now?
Will
Future tense
auxiliary:

Invitations/offers :
Tomorrow I will be in New York.

Will you join us for coffee?
Won't you come in?
35

Friday. Friday.
 I'm doing a computer
course this year.
 He said (that) he was doing a computer course
this year.
 I visited a museum
yesterday.
 He said (that) he had visited a museum
yesterday.
 I will be 30 tomorrow.  He said (that) he would be 30 tomorrow.
Questions
In indirect or reported questions, the subject changes place.
 When is your
husband startinghis
new job?
 He asked me when my husband was
starting his new job.
Orders, requests, advice and suggestions
Orders, requests, advice and suggestions are often reported by using the infinitive.
 Be careful!
 Don't drive too fast.
 I told him to be careful.
 I told him not to drive too fast.

Change the following sentences from direct speech to reported speech :

Example :
Direct Speech: Jane : "I play tennis every Saturday."
Reported Speech : Jane said she played tennis every Saturday.
1. Direct speech : David : "There is an excellent band playing later on."
Reported Speech : David said ...


2. Direct speech : Christine : "I saw Amy at the bank on Monday."
Reported Speech : Christine said ...


3. Direct speech : The driver : "I'm going to turn right at the traffic lights."
Reported Speech : The driver said ...


4. Direct speech : Jonathan: "I've returned the dictionary to the library".
Reported Speech : Jonathan said ..


5. Direct speech : The doctor : "I'll send you the results as soon as they arrive."
Reported Speech : The doctor said ...


6. Direct speech : Caroline : "Will you come to my party on Saturday?"
Reported Speech : Caroline ...

36


7. Direct speech : Shop assistant: "Are you looking for something special?"
Reported Speech : The shop assistant ...


8. Direct speech : Jack : "I'll lend you my grammar book if you think it will help.
Reported Speech : Jack said ...

























37

Grammar & Vocabulary

A - AN - THE
definite - indefinite articles

A - AN :

A and an are indefinite articles used to refer to a singular countable noun.
An indefinite article means that we do not know which one, or it is not important
to know it.

Which one to use: 'a' or 'an'?

The rule states that “a” should be used before words that begin with consonants
(b, c ,d etc.) while “an” should be used before words that begin with vowels (a,e,i, etc.).
It should be noted, however, that the usage is determined by the pronunciation and
not by the spelling, and this includes abbreviations and acronyms.
To simplify, one uses 'a' before a word that begins with a consonant SOUND,
and 'an' before a word that begins with a vowel SOUND.

A is used before :

• a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, etc.) a car/a hotel
• a vowel that is pronounced like "yu" a European/a university
• the vowel 'o' when it has a "w" sounda one-way street

An is used before :

• a vowel (a, e, i, etc.) : an animal/an elevator
• an unaspirated 'h': an hour/an honest man
• abbreviations starting with a vowel sound: an MBA ('em' sound)


THE :

The is a definite article used to talk about something specific.
 The town where Julie lives is very big.
 What book is Julie reading? She's reading the book Tom gave her.
The is also used to refer to:
 Rivers, seas, oceans :
 the Mississippi river, the Mediterranean sea, the Atlantic ocean
 Nationalities :
 the British, the Americans, the Japanese, the Chinese, etc.
NO ARTICLE :

No article is used in generalisations:
38

 I like music
 Caviar is expensive.
Exceptions :
 I watch television but I listen to the radio and I go to the cinema.
 I don't play tennis but I play the piano, the guitar, etc.
No article is used for place names (towns, countries, mountains) :
 London, Spain, Mount Everest
Except if plural :
 The Greek islands, The United States, The Alps
Complete the following sentences with A, AN or THE:


1. Danny wanted _____ new bicycle for Christmas.
a) A
b) AN
c) THE

2. Jennifer tasted _____ birthday cake her mother had made.
a) A
b) AN
c) THE

3. The children have _____ new teacher called Mr. Green.
a) A
b) AN
c) THE

4. All pupils must obey _____ rules.
a) A
b) AN
c) THE

5. Dad turned on _____ radio to listen to _____ news.
a) A/A
b) A/THE
c) THE/THE

6. Alex is in Boston studying for _____ MBA.
a) A
b) AN
c) THE

39

7. The teacher read _____ interesting article from the newspaper.
a) A
b) AN
c) THE

8. There was _____ huge crowd of people outside the church.
a) A
b) AN
c) THE

9. Julie talked for _____ hour about her school project.
a) A
b) AN
c) THE

10. _____ European expert was invited to speak to the committee.
a) A
b) AN
c) THE

11. The Mississippi river is in _____ United States of America.
a) No article
b) AN
c) THE

12. It would help us if you gave _____ honest opinion.
a) A
b) AN
c) THE

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives


FORMATION
Form Adjective Comparative Superlative

One syllable : long longer than the longest

(add : -er / -est)
nice nicer than the nicest

hot hotter than the hottest



Two or more syllables : famous more famous than the most famous

(add: more-less/most-least
before the adjective)
interesting less interesting than the least interesting

practical more practical than the most practical



40

Two syllables ending in -y : funny funnier than the funniest

(the 'y' becomes 'i'
before -er/-est)
easy easier than the easiest

happy happier than the happiest



Irregular Adjectives : good better than the best

bad worse than the worst

much/many more than the most

little less than the least

far farther/further than the farthest/furthest



N.B. : Adjectives ending with a vowel and a consonant double the consonant
big - bigger - biggest
except when the consonant is 'w' or 'y' :
new - newer - newest.

USE :

Comparative adjectives are used to compare two things or people to each other.
•A bus is bigger than a car.


Superlative adjectives are used to compare one member of a group to the whole
group.
•The Nile is the longest river in the world.


Complete each of the sentences below with the correct form of the adjective.
1. Jeremy is 10 years old. Jenny is 8 years old. Jeremy is (old) ____________ ______ Jenny.
2. The Alps are very high. They are (high) _____ _______________ mountains in Europe.
3. An ocean is (large) ____________ _______ a sea.
4. A Rolls Royce costs a lot of money. A Twingo costs less.
A Rolls Royce is (expensive) _______ ________________ _____ a Twingo.
5. John's results were bad. Fred's were very poor. Fred's results were (bad) __________ _____ John's.
6. This exercise is not very difficult. It's ____________ ______ I expected.
7. The weather is not good today. It's raining. I hope the weather will be (good) _____________ next week.
8. People are not very friendly in big cities. They are usually (friendly) ________________ in small towns.
9. In the government of a country, the President is (important) _____ ______ _______________ person.
10. People say that Chinese is (difficult) ______ ____________ to learn than English.
41

Adverbs
2.
Adverbs are used to say how we do something
(ex : people should drive carefully.)

Formation Adjective Adverb
Most adverbs are formed
by adding -ly to the adjective :
slow
careful
slowly
carefully

For adjectives ending in -y, -e, -ic,
the adverbs are formed as follows :
happy
humble
historic
happily
humbly
historically
Exceptions :
good
hard
fast
well
hard
fast

N.B. Although they end in -ly, the following words are adjectives, NOT adverbs :
friendly, lively, lonely, lovely, silly, ugly
for example : a friendly person, a silly remark, an ugly duckling, and so on ...

Adverbs of Frequency


Frequency Adverbs
 Adverbs such as always, already, ever, never, often, rarely, seldom,
sometimes,
still, usually, are placed as follows in sentences :
 after the verb BE :
 Charlie is always late.
 before other verbs :
 Tom sometimes takes the bus.
 between two verbs :
or after the first verb if there are more than two :
 Julie has never travelled on the Eurostar.
 I would never have thought that.
 Except if the second verb is an infinitive :
 Charlie often needs to ask for directions.
Frequency Phrases
42

 Frequency phrases such as every day, once in a while, etc. go at the
beginning
or at the end of sentences.
 I wash my hair every day.
 Once a month I go to the hairdresser's to have it cut.
A LOT OF - MUCH - MANY


A lot of - much - many :
 A lot of :
 A lot of can be used in all sentences: affirmative, negative and
interrogative.
 Much - many :
 Much and many are used in negative and interrogative sentences.
They are rarely used in affirmative sentences, except if they begin
the sentence . (see below)
 Much is used with uncountable nouns (for example: 'much English')
 Many is used with countable nouns (for example : 'many words').
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
We learn a lot of English.
I don't know a lot
ofEnglish.
Do you learn a lot of English?
I make a lot of mistakes. I don't know much English. Do you know much English?
BUT :
Much of our food is
exported.
I don't know a lot of words.
Do you make a lot
ofmistakes?
Many people drive too fast. I don't know many words. Do you make many mistakes?



Compare a lot of and a lot :
 Tom knows a lot of vocabulary.
 Charlie is talkative. He talks a lot.
Already - still - always - yet


ALREADY
 Already is used to say that something has happened earlier than
expected or
43

earlier than it might have happened. :


 Hurry up Susan. Breakfast is ready!
 I've already had breakfast thanks. I woke up early.
STILL
 Still is used to refer to continuing situations.
 They've been married for 40 years and they still love each other.
 I moved to this town five years ago and I'm still living here.
ALWAYS
 Always is used to refer to something that happens regularly.
 I always send cards at Christmas.
 Sue always takes the 8 o'clock train to work.
YET
 Yet is used to ask if something expected has happened
 Has the postman arrived yet?
 To say that something expected hasn't happened.
 The book I ordered hasn't arrived yet.
 Complete the sentences below with the correct word.

1. John moved to London 10 years ago and he __________ lives there.


2. Julie ____________ walks to school.


3. "What time is the accountant coming?" "He's ____________ here.".


4. "I ordered a book last week. Has it arrived __________?".


5. Do you __________ take milk in your coffee?".


6. "I've been taking English lessons for 3 months but I __________
haven't made much progress".


7. Emma only moved house last week and she __________knows her
neighbours!".


8. I ____________ save my files and turn off the computer before leaving
the office.


44

9. Peter sent an application form two weeks ago but he __________
hasn't received a reply.


10. The manager resigned yesterday, but his resignation hasn't been
officially announced __________.


Although - despite
(Although - even though / Despite - in spite of)

Although/even though and despite/in spite of are used
to combine or link two contrasting statements.
 Although/even though are followed by a subject and a verb :
 Although/even though it was raining, he walked to the station.
 Although/even though he had enough money, he refused to buy
a new car.
 Despite/in spite of are followed by a noun, a pronoun or a verb
ending in -ing.
 Despite/in spite of the rain he walked to the station.
 He noticed the rain but he walked to the station in spite of it.
 Despite being wet and tired, he walked to the station.
 Despite/in spite of have the same meaning, but despite is used without
'of'.


Example : He had enough money. He refused to buy a new car.

The above two statements can be combined as follows :
 Although/even though he had enough money, he refused to buy a new
car.
 Despite/in spite of having enough money he refused to buy a new car.
 He had enough money, but despite/in spite of that he refused to buy a
new car.
Complete the sentences below with although - despite - in spite of.


1. ___________ the weather was bad, we enjoyed our trip.


2. The children slept well ____________ the noise.


3. ________________ earning a low salary, Linda gave money to her
45

parents.


4. John rarely sees Paul ___________ they live in the same town.


5. Julie failed the exam ____________ of working very hard.


6. ____________ it was cold, she didn't put on her coat.


7. Tom went to work ___________ not feeling very well.


8. Anna never learned the language ___________ she lived there for
two years.


9. ____________ of the difficulty, they managed to climb to the top of
the mountain.


10. I couldn't eat _____________ I was very hungry.


Prepositions
AT - ON - IN

When to use the prepositions at, on and in can sometimes be confusing.
Below are some examples to help you.
AT- ON - IN
Examples of use :

Space/Location Time Other
AT
David is waiting at the bank. At 9 o'clock Anne is good at English.
I saw
Mary at work, at home,
at the party, etc.
At the age of 80. Look at that car!
We met at the station. At night. The golfer aimed at the flag.


ON
The bank is on the main
street.
On December 25th. On television.
The book is on the desk. On Sunday. On the radio.
Don't walk on the grass. On my birthday. On holiday(s)


IN The money is in the bank. In 2012. She writes in English.
46

The desk is in the room.
In a minute, a month, a
year,
the future.the past.
He is in good humour.
The children are in the
garden.
In the morning, the
afternoon,
the evening.
They are in danger.
He works in the city.
In winter, spring,
summer, autumn.
We are in good health.

Harry and Sally met each other at a barbecue while they were on holidays.
They live in the same town so they arranged to meet again at the cinema at 7
o'clockon the following Saturday. The cinema is on main street in the town
centre. Later in the evening they had dinner in an Italian restaurant on the
square.
NOUNS
(countable, uncountable and plural nouns)

Countable nouns

Countable nouns are individual objects, people, places and things that can be
counted.
For example, books, houses, Americans, cats, dogs, cars, etc.
A countable noun can be singular (a book) or plural (two books)
The singular form of a verb is used with a singular countable noun : the apple is red
The plural form of a verb is used with a plural countable noun : the apples are red.

Uncountable nouns

Uncountable or mass nouns are concepts, information, materials, substances etc.
which are not individual objects and cannot be counted. They have no plural form.
For example : water, knowledge, information, literature, milk, cream, air.
 Uncountable or mass nouns are :
 used with no indefinite article (a/an)
 take a singular verb.
 To talk about a certain quantity,
some/a piece of/a glass of/ a slice of, etc. are used.
 some milk
 a piece of cheese/cake/pizza
 a slice of bread
 a glass of lemonade
 a piece of advice/information/news/luggage
 Common uncountable nouns :
 advice, accommodation, baggage, bread, cheese, equipment,
furniture,
47

information, knowledge, money, pasta, work, progress, research,
travel...
 Examples :
 Water is a necessity.
 Could I have a slice of bread please?
 Have some cream with your strawberries.
 That's an interesting piece of information.

Plural nouns with no singular form

Some plural nouns have no singular form.
Examples are : earnings, glasses, trousers, shorts, scissors, binoculars.

These nouns take a plural verb :
 The company's earnings are increasing every year.
 These scissors are rusty.
To refer to one item of clothing, tools or instruments which consist of two parts,
a pair of is used :
 A pair of trousers
 A pair of scissors.
Some nouns appear to be plural in form but take a singular verb.
For example : news, gymnastics, athletics, economics, physics, politics
 The news is not very good I'm afraid.
 They say politics is a complicated business.
 Gymnastics is fun to watch.
 Physics is a difficult subject for many students.
(collective and compound nouns)

Collective nouns

Collective nouns are nouns which refer to a group of individuals :
For example : army, audience, committee, crew, crowd, flock, herd, public, staff,
team.
These nouns take a singular verb when we think of the group as an entity :
 The audience was enthusiastic.
 Our team is definitely the best.
 The jury is deliberating.
We can use a plural verb if we think of them as members of a group acting
individually :
48

 The crew are all wearing their new uniform.
Compound nouns

Compound nouns consist of two, three or more parts. Such parts can be two
nouns (notebook),
a noun and a verb (shoemaker, sunshine), an adjective and a noun
(greenhouse, blackboard)
or a gerund form (-ing) with a noun (washing machine, frying pan).

Compound nouns are either written as separate words (ex: orange juice, real
estate),
words linked by a hyphen (mother-in-law, check-in), or one word (notebook,
bedroom, toothpaste).

EVEN THOUGH / EVEN IF



Even though

Even though is used to express a fact, something that is real or true,
 Even though John is rich, he lives in a small house.
(John is rich, but in spite of that, he lives in a small house.)
 Even though she likes animals, Mary doesn't want a dog.
(In spite of the fact that she likes animals, Mary doesn't want a dog.)


Even if

Even if is used in a supposition or hypothesis.
 Even if Caroline earned a big salary, she would not buy a fast car.
(Caroline doesn't like fast cars. It is not because of the price that she
won't buy one.)
 Even if I had time and money, I wouldn't go on a cruise.
(It's not because I have no time or no money that I won't go on a cruise.
I have other reasons for not going.)
 Complete the sentences below with 'even though' or 'even if'.


1) Peter refused the offer _______________ he needed the
money.
49

2) ________________ Mary has a car, she walks to work.
3) James won't sell his car __________________ you offer him a
good price.
4) ____________________ the man was blind, he walked to the
station.
5) We go running every day, _______________ the weather is
bad.

6) I love my job. I wouldn't change jobs _______________ the
salary was higher.

7) She gives money to charity __________________ she is not
rich.
8) I wouldn't buy you a scooter _______________ I had the
money.
9) My grandmother will refuse to move house _______________
she is offered a more comfortable place.
10) Dad wouldn't allow me to take his car _______________ I
promised I would drive carefully.

FEW - L ITTLE
(few - fewer - fewest / little - less - least)



Few and little are both quantifiers which mean : 'not a lot' or 'not much/many'.

To make comparisons :

Few-fewer-fewest are used with countable nouns (a melon, two melons).

Little-less-least are used with uncountable nouns (milk, cheese, water...).

Meaning Example

Few Not many/not a lot There are few melons in the shop today.

Fewer Not as many. The supermarket has fewer melons.

Fewest The smallest number The shop has the fewest melons.

Little Not much/not a lot There is little milk left in the jug.
50


Less Not as much We bought less milk yesterday.


Least The smallest quantity. The eldest child drinks the least milk.



N.B. A few and a little have a positive meaning = a small quantity.
♦ There are a few melons = There is a small number.
♦ There is a little milk = There is a small quantity.

IN CASE - UNLESS

 In case

In case expresses the possibility of something happening.
It is used to express the idea of doing something to avoid a possible problem
later on.
It gives the reason for an action.
 Take an umbrella in case it rains.
= There is a possibility that it will rain, so it's a good idea to take an
umbrella.
 In case + 'of'

In case of means 'if there is'.
 In case of emergency, call this number.
= If there is an emergency, call this number.
 Unless

Unless means 'except if' or 'only if'.
Unless replaces 'if' + a negative verb.
 Sally won't come unless you invite Harry.
 Sally won't come except if you invite Harry.
 Sally will only come if you invite Harry.
 If you don't invite Harry, Sally won't come.
 We will have a picnic unless it rains.
 We will have a picnic except if it rains.
 If it doesn't rain we will have a picnic.
 Complete the following sentences with 'in case' or 'unless'.
(Correction at the end of the page.)
1. Emma won't call you ___________ you give her your phone
number.

51

Complete the following sentences with 'in case' or 'unless'.
1. Emma won't call you ___________ you give her your phone
number.

2. Take a map with you ____________ you can't find the hotel.

3. Ask for a receipt __________ you need it later.

4. ______________ fire, press the red button.

5. I won't lend you my car ____________ you promise to drive
carefully.

6. The alarm won't work ____________ you turn it on.

7. We got a second key ____________ we lost the first one.

8. Call this number ______________ emergency.

9. Take your vaccination certificate with you ___________ they ask
for it at the airport.

10. I'll see you at the meeting next week_____________ it's
cancelled before then.


LINKING WORDS

Linking words in English are words that are used to combine or link in one sentence
two statements presenting contrast, comparison, condition, supposition, purpose, etc.
Linking Words Example of use

As long as
provided (that)
providing
You can take my car as long as/provided (that)/providing
you don't damage it.
(I will lend you my car on condition that you don't damage it.)

Although/even though
Although/even though he is rich, he lives in a small house.
(In spite of the fact that he is rich, he lives in a small house.)
Even if
He is poor and has no house, but even if he had money, he
wouldn't buy a house.
(Supposing he had the money, he still wouldn't buy a house.)
In case
Take an umbrella in case it rains.
It might rain, so it's a good idea to take an umbrella.)
In spite of / despite In spite of/despite the rain, she walked to the station.
52

in spite of/despite being blind, he walked to the station.
(without being affected by the rain or by being blind.)
So that
She arrived early so that she could help her colleagues.
(She arrived early for the purpose of helping her colleagues.)
Whatever
You can count on me whatever you decide to do.
(No matter what your decision is, you can count on me.)

Whereas
Tom is rich, whereas Jack is poor.
(Tom is rich; in contrast Jack is poor.)

Whenever
I will lend you my car whenever you need it.
(No matter when you need my car, I will lend it to you.)
Wherever
My thoughts will be with you wherever you go.
(No matter where you go, my thoughts will be with you.)




POSSESSIVES


Rule Examples

Singular Nouns :
(even if the meaning is plural
or if there are several words.)
Add 's after the possessor.
- Tom's car
- The children's toys
- The Queen of England's
jewels

Plural Nouns Add 's after the plural 's'.
- My parents' car.
- The neighbours' dog
- My grandparents' house


Names ending in 's' Add 's after the last 's'.
- Denis's wife
- Gladys's job

Double Possessive
Add 's after the possessor's
name,
or use a possessive pronoun.
- A friend of my father's
(one of my father's friends,
not the only one.)
- A friend of mine/
his/hers/ours/yours/theirs.
53

- A friend of Julie's

Shops and people's homes Often take the possessive.
- At the hairdresser's
- At the dentist's
- At the Brown's


N.B.
The apostrophe followed by s ('s) (ex:Tom's), to denote possession, is used for living
things.
 living things (humans and animals) :
 John's car, the cat's milk, the dog's tail
 groups and institutions :
 The government's proposal, the company's policy.
 BUT :
 the door of the car
 the leg of the table.
 the roof of the house.

complete the sentences below.


1. Peter has a friend called David. David is ___________________

2. Peter has a lot of friends, including David. David is _____________________

3. I know Peter very well. We have become friends. Peter is ________________________

4. The dog has a long tail so be careful not to walk on it. Don't walk on
_________________________

5. Emma has an appointment with the hairdresser at 10 a.m. At 10 a.m. Emma will be
___________________________

6. My neighbours have a red car. _______________________ is red.

7. My parents have painted their house blue. _______________________ is blue.

8. The government made a proposal which was rejected by the Trade Unions. The Trade Unions
rejected the _____________________

9. My grandfather has a dog. Its name is Roxy. _____________________________ is Roxy

10.The head office of the company is on Park Avenue. The ____________________________ is on
Park Avenue.

54

SO - NEITHER
Agreeing with affirmative and negative statements in English.


SO

So is used to agree with an affirmative statement made by, or concerning, another
person.
 Example : Speaker A : "I like chocolate."
Speaker B : " So do I."
A : I speak English. Tom is hungry. Jane can swim. We have got a dog.
B :
So does Peter.
(Peter speaks English
too.)
So is Mary.
(Mary is hungry
too.)
So can Julie.
(Julie can swim
too.)
So have our parents.
(Our parents have got a dog
too.)


NEITHER

Neither is used to agree with a negative statement made by, or concerning, another
person.
 Example : Speaker A : "I don't speak Chinese."
Speaker B : "Neither do I." (=I don't speak Chinese either.)
A : Tom doesn't work here. Peter isn't tired.. I can't cook.. Mary doesn't have a ticket.
B :
Neither do I.
(I don't work here either.)
Neither is Tom.
(Tom isn't tired either.)
Neither can I.
(I can't cook either.)
Neither do I.
(I don't have a ticket either.)

Complete column B using so or neither, as in the examples given.
A B
Example 1: Sean is Irish. Michael is Irish
too. > > >
Example 1: Sean is Irish. So is Michael.
Example 2 : Tom doesn't like sailing. I don't like sailing
either. > > >
Example 2 : Tom doesn't like sailing. Neither
do I

1) My sister loves chocolate. I love chocolate
too.

1)

2) Peter was late. Mary was late too.

2)

3) They can't speak Chinese. We can't speak
Chinese either.

3)

4) Coffee keeps you awake. Tea keeps you
awake too.
4)
55



5) Sarah doesn't like coffee. Jane doesn't like
coffee either.

5)

6) David's job isn't well paid. My job isn't well
paid either.

6)

7) My parents would love to live by the sea. I
would love to live by the sea too.

7)

8) Tom wouldn't like to lose his job. Peter
wouldn't like to lose his job either.

8)

9) Julie is interested in art. I'm interested in art
too.

9)

10) Bill didn't understand the joke. His wife didn't
understand the joke either.

10)
SOME - ANY - A LITTLE - A FEW - MUCH - MANY

Some, any, a little, a few are used to express quantity, to say or ask if you have
a quantity of something or not.
 Some is used in affirmative sentences, and also when asking for or offering
something.
 Any is used in negative and interrogative sentences.
 A few is used with countable nouns : a few apples.
 A little is used with uncountable nouns : a little cheese.

Here are some examples :

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
There are some apples in the
bowl.
There aren't any apples. Are there any apples?
(We don't know how many,
but the bowl is not empty.)
(The bowl is empty.)
(We want to know if the
bowl contains apples.)

There are a few apples,
not many, a small number.
There aren't many apples. Are there many apples?

56

There is a little cheese. There isn't much cheese. Is there much cheese?


N.B.: Asking and offering : Can I have / would you like some coffee?

Complete the sentences below with one of the following words :

some | any | a little | a few | much | many

(There are sometimes two possibilities.)

1. Not all of the children went outside. ____________of them stayed in the classroom.


2. I have to go to the supermarket. There isn't _________ coffee left.


3. How ________ loaves of bread do we need?


4. Would you like _______ milk? Yes please. Just _________________.


5. The land is not suitable for agriculture so _________ of the food is imported.


6. There are only ______________ people interested in the subject..


7. How _________ of the students have a computer at home?


8. Can you tell me _____________ about your experience in London?

THIS - THAT - THESE - THOSE

This, that, these and those are demonstrative adjective
 This is used to refer to a single person, thing or place that is close to the
speaker.
 That is used when the person, thing or place is more distant.
 This computer is easy to use.
 That coat on the chair is mine.
 This person is my colleague.
 That man over there is my boss.
 This picture is clearer than that one.
57



 These is the plural form of this.
 Those is the plural form of that.
 These letters are urgent. Please post them immediately.
 Those men in the street are policemen.
 I like these shoes. They're very comfortable.
 Those shoes on the shelf are very expensive.
 I like these shoes better than those shoes.
WHO - WHOM

There is often confusion about the use of who and whom.
Who and whom are pronouns.
Who is a subject pronoun, in the same way as 'he/she/they'.
Whom is an object pronoun, in the same way as 'him/her/them'.

In the sentence "John loves Julie." :
 John is the subject of the verb 'love'
 Julie is the object of John's affection.

Simple rule : If you can substitute 'he/they', use 'who'.
If you can substitute 'him/them', use 'whom'.


Subject Verb Object
Tom loves Julie
Who loves Julie?
Tom loves whom?

Subject

 Who

We use 'who' when it is the subject of a verb, that is, when it refers to the
person who
takes an action.
 Julie played tennis. Julie is the subject of the verb 'to play'.
 To find out the name of the player, we ask a question using 'who'.
Who played tennis? Julie played tennis.
 Who can also be used as the subject of a non-identifying clause:
58

 There's Mr. Jones who bought the house next door.
Object
 Whom

We can use 'whom' as the object of a verb, but it is very formal and not often
used in spoken English.
 Formal English : Whom did you see?
 Everyday English : Who did you see?
 In formal English, whom is used directly after a preposition:
 With whom did you play?
 In informal conversational English, it is more usual to ask :
 Who did you play with?
WHO - WHOSE - WHOM - THAT - WHICH - WHERE


There is often confusion about the use of who, whose, whom, that,
which or where.

 We use who for a person, and which for a thing or an idea.
 We use that for both a person and a thing/idea.
 Whose is a possessive pronoun.
 When who is the object, whom, with a preposition, can be used instead, but it
is formal and rather old-fashioned. In modern speech, we use who, or we
leave out the pronoun.
 Where (relative adverb) refers to places.

Examples of use :
I know a woman. She speaks 6 languages. I know a woman who speaks 6 languages.

I know a woman. Her husband speaks 6
languages.
I know a woman whose husband speaks 6
languages.

I spoke to a person yesterday.
To person to whom I spoke yesterday.(formal)
The person (who) I spoke to yesterday. (informal)

I live in a house. It is 200 years old. I live in a house which/that is 200 years old.

That's the hotel. We stayed there last year.
That's the hotel where we stayed last year.
That's the hotel that we stayed in last year.
59



When can we leave out relative pronouns ?

Compare :
 The woman who wanted to see me is a doctor. ('Woman' is the subject of the
sentence)
 The woman (that) I wanted to see is a doctor. (Here 'woman' is the object, 'I" is
the subject.)
Relative pronouns can be omitted when they are the object of a relative clause.
WISH - IF


WISH :

 To express a regret about the present, we use wish + the past simple :
 I don't play the piano. I wish I played the piano.
 To express a regret about the past, we use wish + the past perfect :
 Julie lost her umbrella yesterday. She wishes she hadn't lost her
umbrella.
 To express a desire to change something, we use wish + the
conditional (would) :
 The neighbours are making noise. I wish they would stop making
noise.

IF :
 After if, we often use were instead of was, especially in a formal style where it
is considered more correct.
 If I were rich, I would travel all over the world.
 If he were a better manager, the company would be more successful.
 We use the structure "if I were you " + would to give advice
 If I were you I would take English lessons.

Rephrase the following sentences using wish or if.

ex : I don't have a dog and I regret that. → I wish I had a dog.

1. I don't speak Chinese and I regret that.
60

_____________________________________________________________

2. Tom didn't work hard last year and now he's sorry.
_____________________________________________________________

3. The children are shouting and I'd like them to stop.
_____________________________________________________________

4. Caroline isn't rich enough to buy an apartment otherwise she would do that.
_____________________________________________________________

5. My car broke down on Sunday and I regret that that happened.
_____________________________________________________________

6. In your position I think you should have a check-up once a year.
_____________________________________________________________

7. It would be better if the rain stopped.
_____________________________________________________________

8. I don't have any cake to offer you and I'm sorry about that .
_________________________________________________________

UK - US DIFFERENCES
Spelling and Vocabulary


Britain America

-our / -or

Many words end in -our in Britain, and in -or in America.
colour color
favour favor
neighbour neighbor

61

-tre / ter

Words ending in -tre in Britain end in -ter in America, for example :
centre center
litre liter
theatre theater

Doubling of letters

In Britain, the 'l' is doubled in an unstressed syllable :
travelling traveling
marvellous marvelous

Different spelling
analyse analyze
catalogue catalog
cheque check
defence defense
kerb curb
plough plow
pyjamas pajamas
tyre (for a wheel) tire

Different words
handbag purse/pocketbook
holiday vacation
lorry truck
motorway freeway
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nappy diaper
pavement sidewalk
tap faucet


Verbs

In Britain some verbs end in either -ize or -ise. Both are used.
In America, they always end in -ize. Here are some examples :

UK : apologise, organise, realise US : apologize, organize, realize

Regular - Irregular forms of verbs

Some verbs have alternative regular and irregular past tense and past participle forms,
for example : dream - dreamed or dreamt.
In Britain, the irregular form is more often used, whereas in American English, there is
a preference for the regular form. Here are some of those verbs :

dream dreamed / dreamt
learn learned / learnt
spell spelled / spelt
spoil spoiled / spoilt

The pronoun 'one'

Americans do not often use 'one' to mean 'people in general', nor do they use
'one's'or 'oneself'.
GB : One should look after one's health.
US : You should look after your health./People should look after their health.

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Dates


There are differences in the way dates are said and written.

GB : 4th July - the fourth of July
US : July 4 - July four - July fourth

Numbers

The British use 'and' between hundred and the rest of the number. The Americans do not.
GB : Two hundred and twenty.
US : Two hundred twenty.

TRAVEL - TRIP - J OURNEY - TOUR - VOYAGE

The explanations should help clarify the meaning and use of vocabulary
related to travel.

Travel
The word 'travel' is used to talk about going from one place to another. It
can be a verb, a noun or an adjective :
 Verb : Paul travels a lot in his job.
 Noun : Travel nowadays is faster than before.
 Adjective : There is a travel agency beside the bank.


Trip
The word trip is used to talk about a short journey somewhere for a
purpose, business or pleasure.
 For our wedding anniversary, we went on a trip to Venice.
 My boss is often away on business trips.
 Duriing our holiday we took a boat trip to the islands.

Journey
A journey is the distance covered when travelling from one place to
another.
'Journey' can refer to a long distance or a short regular one.
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 The journey was long and tiring. It took us 5 hours to get there.
 Did you have a good journey? Yes, it was quite pleasant.
 How long is your journey to work? Just about 20 minutes.


Tour
A tour is a journey during which several places are visited, especially on
a holiday.
'Tour' can be a noun or a verb.
 Noun : We went on a tour of Italy.
 Verb : We toured the north of India.

Voyage
A voyage is a long journey by sea or in space.
 Before the 20th century, long sea voyages were common.
 A spacecraft will take you on a voyage through space.