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Lesson1 :Adjectives
Types of Adjectives


 Attributive
Attributives are the ones that come right before the word(s) they modify.

The old man asked a question.
That is a good book.
I found an old, black, cotton sweater.

 Appositive
Appositives come after the words they modify. They are usually in used in pairs.

The woman, beautiful and smart, knew what she was doing.
The winner, tired but happy, waved and smiled.

 Predicate
Predicates come after verb to be or after linking verbs. They come at the end of the
sentence and they modify the subject.

The tickets are expensive.
She looked old.
The oven felt hot.
He was young and shy.


The Order of Adjectives

When there are more than 1 adjectives modifying the same word, they are usually placed
in a certain order.

a- What we think (Lovely, beautiful, intelligent, nice, fine...)
b- Size (small, big, large, short, tall...)
c- Age (young, old...)
d- Shape (round, slim, fat, square...)
e- Color (white, green, red...)
f- Material (plastic, glass, wooden...)
g- Origin (German, Russian, American...)

A nice big house. A big square table.
A lovely little town.
An old plastic pipe.
An expensive Scotch whiskey.
A tall young woman.
Intelligent young Danish scientist.

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Present and Past Participles as Adjectives

Ing / Ed - Interesting / Interested

Boring- Causes boredom
Bored- Result of boredom (something boring)
Tiring- Causes tiredness
Tired- Result of something tiring

• He is bored with his job.
Because his job is boring (at least to him), it caused him to be bored.
• He is boring.
I don't want to be with him because he is a boring person.

•He is interested in your offer.
Because your offer is interesting (at least to him), it drew his attention.
•He is an interesting man.
He engages attention, you want to know him better.

Some other verb roots that can become adjectives in a sentence by adding ed or
ing

Charm, admire, amaze, amuse, depress, worry, thrill, excite, disgust, disappoint,
discourage, embarrass, fascinate, frighten, frustrate, horrify, irritate, please, satisfy,
shock, startle, stimulate, surprise, terrify, confuse

Degrees of Adjectives
 Positive Degree : Expresses a quality without a comparison

The twins are smart.
The tree is tall.
The book is old.

 Comparative Degree : Used to compare things to each other.
Form Use Example
er
Shorter adjectives
(1 syllable or 2)
hotter area, warmer
water
more
longer adjectives
(2 or more syllables)
more interesting
subject, more
comfortable couch
more
adjectives that end
withed , ing , 's' (even
if they are 1 syllable)
I am more tired ,
more boring book
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Fred is taller than Barney.
He is the more aggressive of the two.
Barney is smarter than Fred.
Climbing is more tiring than running.
 Superlative Degree : Superlative is the highest or the lowest degree when comparing
two or more things/persons. The inflectional suffix for superlative degree is est. Longer
superlatives usually takemost instead of est.

This is the brightest room in the house.
Duncan is the tallest player on the team.
Britney is the most beautiful girl in the class.

Article the is used with superlative adjectives since it is definite (thing/person) what's
being talked about.
Absolute Adjectives
You either have the quality or you don't. There is no comparison. Dead, perfect, round...

You can't be deader than someone else who is only dead.


Some Absolute Adjectives:

absolute basic certain
complete empty entire
devoid excellent fatal
final dead perfect
square essential unique
full harmless immortal
meaningful obvious pure
superior ultimate universal
Carol drives carefully. (How does she drive?)
I looked for her everywhere. (Where did you look for her?)
She came to London yesterday. (When did she come to London?)


















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Lesson2 : Adverbs

Adverbs are generally divided into seven groups:

1) Manner: slowly, bravely, carefully, simply, quietly...
2) Place: there, here, up, down, near...
3) Time: yesterday, tomorrow, now, yet, still...
4) Frequency: never, always, often, once, twice...
5) Sentence: actually, really, obviously, evidently...
6) Degree: very, quite, rather, fairly, hardly...
7) Focus: just, only, simply, even, also...
Forming Adverbs
They are generally made from adjectives.

Many adverbs of manner and degree are formed by putting -ly at the end of an
adjectives.
slow – slowly happy - happily
cold – coldly rapid - rapidly
bad – badly kind - kindly

I don’t know why, but they spoke to me coldly.
The weather was awfully cold.
You should treat people gently.
Please, drive the car slowly.



When an adjective ends in consonant + y, it becomes -ly.

busy - busily
happy - happily
easy - easily
dry - drily (or dryly)

She is working busily.
Chuck passed the test easily.



When an adjective ends in -le, we omit -e and add -(l)y

noble - nobly
possible - possibly
simple - simply
gentle - gently

Ex: My mom brushes my hair gently every day.


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When an adjectives ends in -e, we keep -e and add -ly.

extreme - extremely
free - freely
brave - bravely
safe - safely

His political ideas are extremely dull.
Our army fought bravely.




When an adjective ends in -ic, we add -ally.

Systematic - systematically
Phonetic - phonetically

We searched the attic systematically.
Mrs. Burns wanted us to write the words phonetically.
Degrees of Adverbs
 Positive : Expresses a quality without a comparison.

Ivan walks slowly.
 Comparative : Expresses a higher or lower degree than the positive.

Ida walks faster than Ivan.
 Superlative : Expresses the highest or the lowest degree when comparing more than
two things/persons.

Brad walks slowest.

1. Adverbs having the same form as adjectives:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
fast faster the fastest
early earlier the earliest
late later the latest
hard harder the hardest

They came earlier than me.
Kenyans always win prizes in marathons because they run the fastest of all.
My parents’ plane will arrive later than my uncle's.



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2. Adverbs formed with –ly.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
easily more easily most easily
quickly more quickly most quickly
fluently more fluently most fluently
carefully more carefully most carefully


Linda drives more carefully than her husband.
Elizabeth speaks English the most fluently.


3. Irregular adverbs

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
well better the best
badly worse the worst
far father / further the farthest / the furthest
much more the most


Who speaks English the best?
They do everything worse than us.





















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Lesson3 : Adjectives vs Adverbs
Adjectives vs Adverbs Examples

 1) Adverbs and Adjectives are both modifiers, so it is easy to confuse them with each
other. And even more confusingly, some words sometimes act as adjectives, and
sometimes act as adverbs.

Hint: Ask yourself which word is being described: adjectives alwaysmodify nouns or
pronouns, but adverbs never do.

Sarah was a little sleepy. (adverb modifying adjective sleepy)
Sarah took a little nap. (adjective modifying noun nap)
 2) Use the comparative degree of an adjective or an adverb when speaking of two
things and the superlative degreee when speaking ofthree or more:

This is the larger of the two roooms.
This white one is the smallest of the three puppies.
Good vs well

Good is an adjective. The adverb is well.

Ex: My father is a good driver -> He drives well.
Your English is good -> You speak English well.

I feel good. (psychologically / morally)
I feel well. (healthy / well being)

You must study in bed until you feel well / better / good.
I hope you will get well / better / good soon.



Fast / Hard / Late

These words are both adjectives and adverbs:
ADJECTIVES ADVERBS
Jack is a very fast runner. He runs very fast. (fastly)
Ann is a hard worker. She works very hard. (hardly)
The train was late. The train arrived late. (lately)

Lately = recently
Have you seen Tom lately?

Hardly = very little, almost not
Sarah was rather unfriendly to me at the party. She hardly spoke to me.(she spoke to
me very little, almost not at all)

George and Hilda want to get married but they've only known each other for a few days.
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I don't think they should get married yet. They hardly know each other. (they know each
other very little)



We cannot form adverbs from adjectives ending in ly.

Common adjectives: friendly, lively, ugly, lonely. We add the pattern in a … way/manner
or fashion to make them adverb.

Friendly: In a friendly way/manner/fashion He behaves in a friendly way.
Lively : In a lively way / manner / fashion
Lesson4: English Articles - A An The


















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Lesson4: English Articles - A An The
Table of Articles

NUMBER INDEFINITE DEFINITE
Singular a / an the
Plural nothing the
Non-Count nothing the

Quick Hints
 a before consonants (a book)
an before vowels (an exam)

 Pronunciation is what matters.
an hour ('h' is silent and it's pronounced: an our)
 Temporary illnesses: (I have a headache, a cold, a fever, a backache)

 "The" with superlative forms (He is the smartest kid I have seen.)

Rules of Articles

Articles Rule 1: With singular count nouns, use 'a' if indefinite or "the" if
definite.

My daughter wants to buy a dog this weekend. (Indefinite-It could be any dog)
The dog in the backyard is very cute.(Definite- The one in the backyard)

Examples

1. He requested a puppy for his birthday.
2. He wanted the puppy he played with at the pet shop.
3. She ordered a hamburger without onions.
4. Did you drink the coke I just ordered?

Articles Rule 2: With plural count nouns use either "the" or nothing, never 'a'.

1.Come and look at the children. (definite)
2.Children are always curious. (indefinite)
3.She loves flowers. (indefinite)
4.The flowers in her garden are beautiful. (definite)
5.Do you like reading grammar rules?
6.Do you like reading the grammar rules on this page?

Articles Rule 3: With non-count nouns, use either "the" or nothing.

He has experience. (if indefinite or mentioned for the first time)
He has the experience necessary for the job. (if definite or mentioned before)
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1.The medicine the doctor prescribed had unpleasant side effects.
2.Writing in a second language is especially challenging.
3.Have you studied the history of South Africa?
4.History reminds us that events repeat themselves.

Articles Rule 4: If a plural or non-count noun is followed by [of + noun], "the" is
preferred.

1.The languages of Asia are unrelated to English.
2.The wines of France are famous.
3.The birds of North America are beautiful.
4.X Museum of Art is having X exhibit of the paintings of Picasso.

Special Rules for Articles

1. Adjectives as Nouns

When referring to a group of people by use of an adjective rather than a noun, use
"the".

the elderly the disabled the unemployed
the rich the sick the needy
the homeless the young the restless

2. Names of Countries
Some countries are preceded by "the", usually if the name is plural, contains an
adjective, or includes "of".

The United States The Soviet Union The Republic of Congo
America Russia Spain
Japan Chine Mexico

3. Cities and Streets use nothing

Chicago Fifth Avenue San Francisco
Highway 5 London Kennedy blvd.

4. Rivers, Oceans, Seas, Groups of Mountains & Islands use "the"

the Amazon the Atlantic the Mediterranean
the Cascades the Hawaiian Islands the Bahamas

5. Numbers

Cardinal numbers(1,2,3) use nothing
World War 2 Page 7 Chapter 1
Mission 1 Paragraph 5 Channel 6

Ordinal numbers (1st,2nd,3rd) use "the"
The Second World War the seventh page the first chapter
the first mission the fifth paragraph the sixth channel

6. Titles of People
When a title is given with a name, use nothing
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President Mitchael Queen Mary Professor Scott

When a title is used without a name, use "the"

The president the queen the professor

7.Schools

When a school has "of" in its title, use "the"
The University of Arizona The University of London Chapter 2

When a school does not have "of" in its title, use nothing
Lincoln High
School
Arizona State
University
Liverpool John Moores
University

8. Location versus Activity

When referring to an activity, use nothing
I am going to school now.(activity-study)
We went to cinema. (activity-see a movie)
He is always on time for class. (activity-learn)

When referring to the location, use "the"

The meeting is at the school. (location-campus)
They are remodeling the cinema. (location-building)
The new student had trouble finding the class. (location-classroom)

9. When the object is the only one that exists, use "the"

the earth the human race the world
the moon the sun the universe

10. When you use expressions that identify part of a larger group, use "the"

-One of the students
-None of the students
-Both of the students
-All of the students







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Lesson6: Modal Verbs / Auxiliaries
Modal Verbs Table

AUXILIARY USES PRESENT/FUTURE PAST
be supposed
to
expectation
We are supposed
to meet them here.
We were
supposed
to meet here.
be to strong expectation
We are to meet them
here.
We were
to meet them
here.
can / could

Can - Can't

Could
ability/possibility

informal permission

informal polite
request

impossibility(negative
only)
I can learn modal verbs
online.

You can use my car
tomorrow.

Can I borrow your book?

Cats can't swim.
I couldjump
high a few
years ago but
now Ican't.



That can'thave
been true!
have to
necessity


lack of
necessity(negative)
I have to go to class
today.

I don't have to go to
class today.
I had togo to
class
yesterday.

I didn't have
to go to class
yesterday.
have got to necessity
I have got to go to class
today
I had togo to
class
yesterday.
had better strongly advised
You had better be on
time.
(past form
uncommon)
may
polite request
formal permission
less than 50%
certainty
May I borrow your book?
You may leave the room.
He may be at the school.


He mayhave
been at school.
Might
less than 50%
certainty
He might be at school.
He might have
beenat school.
must
strong necessity

I must go to class today.

I had togo to
class
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prohibition


95% certainty
You must notopen that
door.

Mary isn't in class.
She must be sick.(present
only)
yesterday.



Mary musthave
beensick
yesterday.
ought to
advisability


80% certainty
I ought to study tonight.


She ought to be at school
I ought tohave
studied last
night.

She ought
to have done
well on the
test.
shall
ask another person's
opinion(only used
with I or we)
Shall I invite them too?
Shall we dance?
should
advisability


80% certainty
I should study tonight


He should be at school
Youshouldhave
paid your bills.

He shouldhave
done well on
the test.

Another Reference for Modals

Legal obligation/official MUST
Police officer:
'You must wear a
seatbelt.'
Logical Conclusion MUST
The teacher's absent.
Shemust be sick.
Reporting a rule
BE SUPPOSED
TO
We are supposed turn
our cell phones off in
movie theaters.
Personal necessity /
obligation
HAVE TO /
HAVE GOT TO
I have to call the doctor
today.
Possibility CAN
I can meet with you on
Friday.
Ability CAN / BE I can play the piano.
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ABLE TO I am able to speak
English.
Permission
CAN / BE
ALLOWED TO
I can have a dog in my
apartment. I am
allowed tohave pets in
my room.
Past Ability
COULD / WAS
ABLE TO
When I was a kid,
I could run for hours.
could vs was were able
to
Past Permission
WAS
ALLOWED /
PERMITTED
TO
I wasn't allowed to go
out at nights.
Advice SHOULD
You should call your
mother on her birthday.
Warning HAD BETTER
You'd better study
before the test.
A Choice/Not required
DON'T HAVE
TO
I don't have to wear a
suit to work.
Possibility/uncertainty
about the future
*adverb MAYBE
MAY / MIGHT
It might / may rain this
evening.
May be it will rain this
evening.
Polite request
WOULD /
COULD
Would you open the
door, please?
Permission
MAY / CAN /
COULD
May I borrow your pen?
To express what you
want
WOULD LIKE
I would like to learn
English free.
Preference
WOULD
RATHER
I would rather walking
than driving.



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Lesson7 : Causatives Examples
A. have / get something done
subject + have / get + direct object + verb3


Mr. Chaps got his house painted.
Gary had his ring polished.
He had himself kicked out of school.
I had my tooth extracted yesterday.

B. have / make somebody do OR get somebody to do something
Subject + have / make + somebody + verb (infinitive)
Subject - get + somebody + to verb (infinitive)

I had Luis repair my car.
I made my little brother say sorry.
Fred got his friend to do his homework.
Charlie had the carpenter repair the table.
Dora had her hairdresser cut her hair.

Note:

Make someone do something is stronger than the others and it means forcing someone
to do what we ask / want them to do.


























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Lesson8: Conjunctions / Transitions
Here are the relationships that the seven coordinators show:
For
 Expresses a result-cause relationship.(Because, Since)

I will get financial aid for college (result), for I applied on the first
day.(cause)

She flew as much as she could (result),for she loved flying.(cause)



And
 Chronological order

I went to the station(first) and waited for half an hour.(second)
I had breakfast and left for work.
 Expresses surprise

He is 13 and he speaks 3 languages?(wow really?)
 Adding two similar sources.

His job brought in several thousand dollars a month (a source of $),
and he got another large sum from an inheritance (a second source).



Nor
 Expresses a relationship of addition like "and", but it's an addition ofnegatives

Worms cannot swim, nor can they walk.
John did not like movies, nor did he care much for television.


But
 Expresses opposition between two ideas.

She bought food but she forgot the drinks.
I can understand everything but I can't speak very well.

 Idea of exception

I like everything but onions.
This website is about nothing but free English lessons.

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Or
 Indicates alternatives

You can come with me if you want to or you can stay home.
We can watch a movie or have dinner outside.

Yet
 It expresses opposition between ideas (just like "but")

She got the job she wanted, yet she discovered that she hated it.

Fred is very good at math, yet he is majoring in biology
So
 while for shows a result-cause relationship, "so" shows a cause-result.

She loved flying(cause), so she flew as much as she could.(result)
I applied on the first day, so I will get financial aid for college.
 Both...and
Connects two positives (this and that)

She is beautiful and she is smart.
She is both beautiful and smart.

Both Mia and Katie are coming..

 Neither ... nor
Connects two negatives(not this not that)

She is not tall. She is not short. She is neither tall nor short.
Neither my parents nor my friend approves my work.
Neither my friend nor my parents approve my work.

Notice the use of singular and plural verb form
 Either ... or

One of two

She is either 20 or 22 years old.
You either come with us or I will punish you.

 Not only...but also

Links two clauses

She is not only beautiful but also very intelligent.
He disappointed not only his father but also everybody else around him.
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Lesson9 : Subordinating Conjunctions Table
Table of Subordinating Conjunctions with their meanings and example
sentences online for English learners and teachers.

Conjunction Meaning Example
after
time
sequence
I left after you came
although
concession
and contrast
Although I failed my last two
exams, I passed.
as Time Take notes as you read the article.
as far as Place
I will come with you as far as you
go.
as if manner
The man stumbled, as if he were
about to fall.
as long as
conditional
time
I will help you as long as you don't
disappoint me.
as soon as Time Call me as soon as possible.
because Cause
I lied to her because you told me
to.
because of
cause /
blame
I lied to her because of you.
before
time
sequence
I left before you came.
by the time Time
Finish your worksheet by the time I
come back.
even though despite
I passed even though I failed my
last two exams.
however contrast
We spent so much time on
it,however, the boss didn't like it.
in case condition
Take your umbrella with you in
case it rains.
in case of condition Call 911 in case of emergency.
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in order to purpose
I want to improve my English in
order to communicate better.
so that purpose
I want to improve my English so
that I can communicate better
though
concession
and contrast
Though I failed my last two exams,
I passed.
unless condition
I know her, she won't text
me unless I text her first.
It's stoppage time, we are going to
lose the game unless a miracle
saves us.
until/till Time
I have until/till Friday to take my
grammar quiz.
when Time Were they asleep when you arrived?
whenever Time
She goes shopping whenever she
wants.
whereas
concession
and contrast
It's only 12.30 here, whereas it is 5
o'clock in Margaritaville.
wherever Place He follows me wherever I go.
Conjunctions Practice
1) ---- what technique is used, a fisherman cannot catch fish unless the bait or the
artificial lure is placed where the fish are.

However No matter Although Inspite of


2) ---- the first half of the 20th century California suffered several setbacks - a disastrous
earthquake and a fire in San Fransisco In 1906.

Since During By For


3) The two ships collided with a sharp impact. ----, the damage was found, on inspection,
to be of little or no significance.

Although Nonetheless Nevertheless However

4) ---- the ancient philosopher Aristotle distinguished the five senses as sight, hearing,
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smell, taste, and touch, many more senses exist.

Despite No matter Even so Although

5) Insects differ from each other in terms of ability to endure heat; ----, caterpillars
prefer colder temperatures while cockroaches seek out warm, moist locations.

in other words for instance that is for example

6) ---- do creative writers create images in their writings ---- they communicate with
them.

Not only / but Both / and Neither / nor Either / or

7) An idiomatic expression is a phrase that has become an accepted part of a language
but that makes little sense if taken literally. Most idioms are difficult, ----, to translate
from one language to another.

thus therefore hence as a consequence of

8) In the late 1980s, ---- the many organizations working to teaeh adults to read, the
number of people who were illiterate remained constant.

though despite in spite of much as

9) ---- individual interests and tastes vary so much, no single target in life can be
prescribed for everyone

Because of As Because Since

10) Many students often conclude, mistakenly, that to be well read means to read as
many books as possible. ----, to be well read means to read well and selectively among
the works that are most challenging.

Although Actually Accordingly In fact






21

Lesson10 : Gerunds and Infinitives
Infinitives

An infinitive is a verb used as a noun. They can be used as a subject or an object of a
sentence. It is made by adding "–to" to the beginning of a verb.

After certain verbs: I want to find a job.
After an object: I want you to help me.
After certain adjectives: I'm happy to help you.
After certain expressions with
'it':
It's important to practice English.
To show purpose:
I went to the mall to buy some
shoes.

Verbs followed by infinitives (to)

Agree Forget Prefer
Ask Hope Promise
Attempt Learn Refuse
Begin Like Remember
Continue Love Start
Decide Need Try
Expect Plan


Adjectives followed by infinitives

Afraid Lucky Ready
Glad Prepared Sad
Happy Proud


'It' expressions + adjectives followed by infinitives

Dangerous Good Necessary
Difficult Great Possible
Easy Hard Sad
Expensive Important Wrong
Fun Impossible

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Gerunds
Verbs followed by a gerund (ing)
Admit Enjoy Practice
Appreciate Finish Put off
Avoid Keep Quit
Can't help Mind Recommend
Consider Miss Risk
Discuss Permit Suggest
Dislike Postpone


Go + gerund expressions

Go boating Go hiking Go sightseeing
Go bowling Go hunting Go skating
Go camping Go jogging Go skiing
Go dancing Go sailing Go swimming
Go fishing Go shopping


Verb + preposition + gerund

Care about Think about Look forward to
Complain about Worry about Object to
Dream about Believe in Depend on/upon
Forget about Succeed in Insist on/upon
Talk about Adjust to Plan on

Adjective + preposition + gerund

Afraid of Excited about Responsible for
Fond of Upset about Famous for
Proud of Worried about Good at
Tired of Sad about Interested in/upon
Concerned about Accustomed to Successful in

Verbs Used with Gerunds and Infinitives

Attemp Deserve Prefer
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Begin Hate Start
Can't stand Like Try
Continue Love

A. Complete the following exercise with gerund or infinitive forms of
the indicated verbs.

1. What do you want (do) tonight?

I feel like (go) to a movie.

2. It's not so bad (tell) a white lie, is it?

I don't think (lie) is ever right.

3. It isn't wrong (defend) yourself, is it?

I think (defend) yourself is the right thing to do if you have a

good reason.

4. Why did you end up (major) in forestry?

I've always loved (be) outdoors. And I've always had trouble

(do) desk jobs.


B. Complete the following exercise with gerund or infinitive forms
of the indicated verbs.

1. She decided (move) in another city.

2. Grammarbank is one of the best websites (practice)

English grammar.

3. Alicia enjoys (watch) soap operas on television.

4. She refuses (listen) to her father.

5. Students want (get) good grades.

6. Many drivers avoid (drive) in traffic.

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7. Do you feel like (eat) hamburger?

8. I can't imagine (jump) out of a flying jet.

9. The president wishes (end) the war.

10. I would love (see) that movie. I heard it's really good.

11. Mrs. Rogala is a really good teacher. She always offers

(help) her students.











































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Lesson11 : If Clauses / Conditionals
If clauses have three sub categories:
First Conditional IF
Type 1- True In the present or future

-If the weather is nice, we usually sit in the garden. (present)
-If the weather is nice tomorrow, we will sit in the garden. (future)
Second Conditional IF
Type 2- Untrue (contrary to the fact) In the present or future

-If it were our day off today, we would have a barbecue in
the garden. (present)

-If it were our day off tomorrow, we would have a barbecue in
the garden. (future)
Third Conditional IF
Type 3- Untrue (contrary to the fact) in the past

-If the weather had been nice yesterday, we would have sat in
the garden.(past)

-If it had been our day off yesterday, we would have had a barbecue in
the garden.(past)

Present (do/does) or Simple Future (will)
-If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.
-I will visit my parents after work if I have time.
-They will come to the cinema with us if they leave work early enough.
-If she fails that exam, her life will change a lot.
-Perhaps she will come tomorrow. Then we will study together.
-If she comes tomorrow, we will study together.
-Perhaps she will get her salary next week. Then she'll pay back what she
owes me.
-If she gets her salary next week, she will pay back what she owes me.
-Perhaps there will be another rise in prices soon. Then everybody will
suffer.
-If there is another rise in prices soon, everybody will suffer.
-Perhaps it won't be her day off tomorrow. Then I'll go shopping alone.
-If it isn't her day off tomorrow, I'll go shopping alone.
UNLESS:
We usually use “unless” in order to mean “if not”.

You won't learn English unless you practice a lot.
You won't learn English if you don't practice a lot.
Unless you come, I won’t invite you again.
If you don’t come, I won’t invite you again.

Unless you leave home at once, you will be late for work.
26

If you don’t leave home at once, you will be late for work.
"Unless" is followed by the condition
1) Complete this exercise with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses.
A: We had a great time at Drew's house Sunday. Why didn't you come?
B: I had to study for Spanish.

A: If you (come) with us, you (see) an

awesome movie.

B: Yeah? What?

A: We rented Back to the Future. It's about a kid who time

travels back to his parents' high school days. He changes his own future.

At the end, his parents...

B: Wait-Don't tell me. If you (tell) me the ending, you

(spoil) it for me. I want to see it myself.

A: OK. But have you ever thought about that?

B: About what?

A: About how things could be different. You grew up here in Baileyville,

and you're almost an adult now. But what your childhood

(be) like if you (be born) in a different

family?

B: Let's see. If I (have) a different family, I

(not grow up) here in Baileyville.

A: And if you (not grow up) here, I (not

meet) you.

B: That's true. But getting back to the here-and-now, how did you do on

the Spanish test?

A: I flunked. I wish I (not take) that course. I'm going to fail.

B: You just don't study enough. If you (study) more,

27

you (pass) this course easily this semester.

A: That's easy for you to say. You always get A's.

B: Sometimes I don't. It's not automatic. I (not get) A's unless

I (study) hard.

A: I suppose you're right.

B: If I (be) you, I (try) to do better on the next test.








































28

Lesson12 : Indirect Speech / Reported Speech
Direct speech:

We repeat the speaker’s words.
He said, "I have lost my key."

Indirect speech:

We give the exact meaning of a speech without necessarily using the speaker's exact
words. If we want to mention who the speaker talked to, we use told, otherwise we
use said.

She said that she had lost her wallet.

She told me that she had lost her wallet.
How to put direct speech into indirect speec
A. Put the tense one step in the PAST:
B. Expressions of Time and Place in Reported Speech
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Pronouns and
possessive adjectives
We usually change from first or second to third
person except when the speaker is reporting his
own words.
today that day
yesterday the day before (the previous day)
now Then
tonight that night
here here / there
this that, it
these Those
can Could
will Would
could Could
may Might
might Might
have to / has to had to
must Must
ought to / should ought to / should


If the main verb is in the present tense, we don't change the tense in the direct speech.
29

Examples:

Direct: Paul says, "I don't like coffee."
Indirect: Paul says that he doesn't like coffee.

Direct: Dwayne says, "I didn't do my homework."
Indirect: Dwayne says that he didn't do his homework.

Pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change from first or second person to third
person except when the speaker is reporting his own words.

Examples:

Direct : He said, "You don't know my language."
Indirect : He said that I didn't know his language.
Direct : I said, "I sold my book."
Indirect : I said that I had sold my book.
Direct : She said to me, "Your brother is bothering me."
Indirect : She told me that my brother was bothering her.
Indirect Speech Statements
We join the indirect and the direct parts of a sentence with that. Sometimes we may omit
that.
Examples:

Direct : They said, "We love our teacher."
Indirect : They said that they loved their teacher.

Direct : Mr. Jones said to me, "I educated myself by reading widely."
Indirect : Mr. Jones told me that he had educated himself by reading widely.

Direct: The teacher said to her, "You have done your homework well."
Indirect: The teacher told her that she had done her homework well.

Direct: Mr. Woods said, "There are many boats in the harbor." Indirect: Mr. Woods said
that there were many boats in the harbor.

Mixed Types

If a direct speech consists of mixed types, each section requires its own
introductory verb.

Examples:

Direct: Theressa said, "I can't understand this lesson, mother. Please help me."
Indirect: Theressa told her mother that she couldn't understand that lesson and wanted
her mother to help her.

Direct: Tia said to me, "I can't help you now. I am very tired."
Indirect: Tia told me that she couldn't help me then as she was very tired.

Direct: Carl said, "It's hot in here. Isn't the AC on?"
Indirect: Carl said that it was hot in there and asked if the AC was on or not.

30

Direct: Mr. Jefferson said to Helen, "Didn't you hear what I said? You must be quiet when
I talk."
Indirect: Mr. Jefferson asked Helen if she had heard what he had said or not, and added
that she must / had to be quiet when he talked.

Direct: David said, "Let's go to the movie theater!"
Indirect: David suggested that they should go to the movie theater.
Or
Dave suggested going to the move theater.

Direct: Penny said, "How about going for a walk?"
Indirect: Penny suggested that we might go for a walk.

Common Verbs used with Reported Speech

Add

boast

object

remind

Admit
complain

observe

reply

Announce

deny
point out

scream

Answer

grumble

promise
shout

Argue

inform

protest

whisper
Assure+object

murmur

remark

yell

Allege

You will feel comfortable at this hotel.
The travel agent assured us that we would feel comfortable at that hotel.

I can’t finish all this work.
She protested that she couldn’t finish all that work.

Note:

Deny can’t be used in negative.

I didn’t steal the money.
He denied that he had stolen the money.

Reported Speech Examples 1

1. "Don't play with matches," his mother said.
1. His mother told him not to play with matches.

2. "I've forgotten to bring my lunch with me," he said.
2. He said that he'd forgotten to bring his lunch with him.

3. "Will you be home soon?" she asked her husband.
3. She asked her husband if he would be home soon.

4. "Go to bed!" father said to the children.
4. Father told the children to go to bed.

5. "I'll clean the car tomorrow," Tim said to his father.
5. Tim told his father that he would dean the car the following day.
31


6. "Where have you be en?" Gary asked his wife.
6. Gary asked his wife where she had been.

7. "I've been working for the same company since 1960," he said to me.
7. He told me that he had been working for the same company since 1960.

8. "Do you know Garfield?" she asked me.
8. She asked me if I knew Garfield.

9. "How shall I tell Tom the bad news?" she said.
9. She asked how she should tell Tom the bad news.

10. "You must try my horne-made wine," he said.
10. He said that i had to try his home-made wine.

11. "Can 1 go home now?" he asked her.
11. He asked her if he could go home then.

12. "May 1 call you by your first name?" he asked.
12. He asked if he might call me by my first name.

13. "She must try harder if she wants to succeed," he said.
13. He said that she had to try harder if she wanted to succeed.

14. "My father will be angry with me if he finds out," she said.>
14. She said that her father would be angry with her if he found out.

15. "You had better speak to the manager," she said to him.
15. She told him that he had better speak to the manager.

16. "1 may not be able to meet you at the airport," he said to her.
16. He told her that he might not be able to me et her at the airport.











32

Lesson13 :Inversion
With adverbs of negative meanings

Never have I seen such a big house!
Hardly ever he speaks English at home.
In no way can he be accused of murder.
Seldom does he visit his grandmother.
Scarcely did Mrs. Bran go to the dendist last year.
After Only
Only today she told me she was married.
Only with thinner he can remove that stain.
After So
So clearly does Mr. Harris speak English that we can understand him easily.

Instead of if

Had the train been late, we wouldn't have got there on time.
Were they in danger, they would phone you.
Should we pay the bill, tell her to give us a receipt.

Mixed Inversion Types
How expensive it is!
May be rest in peace
Next to the president stood the reporters.
Never do we go there by ourselves.
In vain did we try to change his plan?
Under no circumstances will I see him again.
Everywhere has evidence of his crime.



















33

Lesson14 : Irregular Verbs List
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS

BASE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
arise arose Arisen
awake awoke Awoken
be was / were Been
bear bore born / borne
beat beat beaten / beat
become became Become
begin began Begun
bend bent Bent
bet bet Bet
bid bid Bid
bind bound Bound
bite bit bitten/bit
bleed bled Bled
blow blew Blown
break broke Broken
breed bred Bred
bring brought Brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
built built Built
burst burst Burst
buy bought Bought
34

cast cast Cast
catch caught Caught
choose chose Chosen
cling clung Clung
come came Come
cost cost Cost
creep crept Crept
cut cut Cut
deal dealt Dealt
dig dug Dug
do did Done
draw drew Drawn
eat ate Eaten
fall fell Fallen
feed fed Fed
feel felt Felt
fight fought Fought
find found Found
fit fit Fit
flee fled Fled
fling flung Flung
fly flew Flown
forbid forbade/forbid forbidden
forecast forecast Forecast
35

forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave Forgiven
forsake forsook Forsaken
freeze froze Frozen
get got Gotten
give gave Given
go went Gone
grind ground Ground
grow grew Grown
hang hung Hung
have had Had
hear heard Heard
hide hid Hidden
hit hit Hit
hold held Held
hurt hurt Hurt
keep kept Kept
know knew Known
lay laid Laid
lead led Led
leave left Left
lend lent Lent
let let Let
lie lay Lain
36

light lit/lighted lit/lighted
lose lost Lost

BASE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
make made Made
mean meant Meant
meet met Met
mislay mislaid Mislaid
mistake mistook mistaken
pay paid Paid
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
37

shed shed shed
shine shone / shined shone / shined
shoot shot shot
show showed shown/showed
shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
speak spoke spoken
speed sped sped
spend spent spent
spin spun/span spun
spit spit / spat spit / spat
spread spread spread
spring sprang/sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sung stung stung
stink stank/stunk stunk
strive strove striven
strike struck struck / stricken
38

string strung strung
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swim swam swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
upset upset upset
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
weep wept wept
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written


39

Lesson15 : Passive Voice
Use of Passive Voice
 When you don't know the person who performed the action.

The bank was robbed.
 When it is not important who performed the action.

Harvard University was founded in 1636.
 When the performer is not a specific person.

English is spoken in many countries around the world.
 When you prefer not to mention the name of the performer.

I was told that you didn't go to work today.
 Used with a performer: by + performer

The cake was made by my cousin.

Note:

In a passive sentence, If we want to mention what caused or who did the action, we use
the agent (by...........)

Active: Charles Dickens writes novels.
Passive: A novel is written by Charles Dickens.
Passive Voice Tenses Chart
FORM Object A form of 'Be' Past Participle
Simple Present Passive The door is closed
Simple Past Passive Jurassic Park was directed by Steven Spielberg
Will Future Passive

Going to Future Passive
An English book

A gift
will be

is going to be
given to passing students.

given to the best student.
Present Continuous Passive The suspect is being pursued.
Past Continuous Passive He was being tortured.
Present Perfect Passive The room has been cleaned.
Past Perfect Passive The window had been broken.
Passives With Modals All the rules must be obeyed.
A) Form passive voice in appropriate tenses for the following exercise.

1.(TV / invent / Baird)
40

TV was invented by Baird.


2.(Pyramids / build / Egyptians)


3.(milk / produce / cows)


4.(coffee / grow / in Brazil)


5.(chopsticks / use / in China)


6.(plants / water / every day)


7.(the robber / arrest / policeman / yesterday)


8.(injured marines / take to a hospital / now)


9.(the truck / repair / tomorrow)


10.(the letters / send / last week)


B) Complete the exercise with be or get passive forms and the indicated verbs.
Use 'be' unless 'get' specified.

1. Where
was the missing child found
? (the missing child / find)

She (discover) walking barefoot along

the beach.

2. How do you think the team is going to do this year?

Pretty well, except that I'm sure they'll

(get / beat) by Central University.

3. What happened to your car?

It (get / hit) by a truck.

4. Jim, (we / getting / overcharge) for
41

six months.
I think we ought to . (have / the

company / investigate) I've heard the same complaint from the neighbors.
5. Why are these floors so dirty?

(they / not / clean) every day?

Normally, yes, but somehow the cleaning (not /

get / do) this morning.

6. Please don't give food to the animals. They (feed)

on a special diet.

OK. Will we be able to see the animals (getting /

feed) while we're here at the zoo?

Yes. (they / will / feed) at five o'clock today.















42

Lesson16 : Pronouns
Personal Pronouns
I, you, he... my, your, his... mine, yours, his...
Reflexive Pronouns
They are also known as mirror pronouns; myself, yourself, himself, herself,
ourselves, yourselves, themselves, itself. They reflect the action of the verb back at
the subject.

1-Use the right mirror pronoun to match the subject:

He hit himself with the slingshot.
They hurt themselves by selling their house.

2-Reflexive pronouns may be used to emphasis.

He himself finished all that work.
I myself couldn't believe what you said.
Relative Pronouns
They link adjective or noun clauses to other elements of the sentence. A relative pronoun
replaces the noun being modified by the adjective clause and connects that clause to the
noun.

Definite relative pronouns that, which and who (whom when it is object) Indefinite
relative pronouns what, which, who, whoever, whatever, whom and
whomever The man who sold you that book is my neighbor. (who is a definite pronoun
because the sentence mentions the person in advance)

Whoever sold you that book did not give you the right one. (whoever is an indefinite
pronoun because the sentence does not mention about the whoever in advance)


-Who and whom refers only to people.

-That can refer to people, animals and non living objects.

-Which cannot refer to people.


Who or Whom ?

Use who if the pronoun is the subject of a verb and whom if it is the object of a verb,
preposition, or infinitive.

Sam wondered who was ringing her doorbell.
(who is the subject of was ringing) Sam was not sure whom he could trust with her
secret.
(Sam is the subject of trust; whom is the object of trust)

See if the pronoun is doing an action. Is it the subject of a verb? Use who. And also it's
safe to use who if the sentence begins with the pronoun. Whodid you ask?
Whom did you ask? (more formal)
43

Which or That ?

Cats that have three legs can learn to hop quickly.
(A limited group of cats-three legged cats)

Cats, which cannot fly, are friendly animals. (all the cats, there is no certain limitation
by the pronoun which)
Demonstrative Pronouns
Also known as pointing pronouns, are used to indicate which thing you are talking about.
The pointing pronouns are this, these, that, those.

Use this or these (plural) to point the objects near the speaker.
Use that orthose (plural) to point the objects far from the speaker.

I want to buy this and those over there.(pointing pronoun, stands in for what the
speaker is pointing to)
You should taste those, they are really good.(pointing pronoun)


Warning: A pronoun replaces a noun, or else it is an adjective.

You should taste those apples. (adjective, modifying apples)
That man looks suspicious. (adjective, modifying the man)

Choose the appropriate options to complete the sentences

1. We all told the boss that we wanted to have ---- salaries paid in advance but he just
ignored ----.

A) ours / it
B) his / we
C) their / our
D) we / his
E) our / us
2. When the man asked me how I had got ---- address, I told him that I was given it by
a relative of ----.

A) my / me
B) his / his
C) mine / his
D) his / him
E) him / him
3. Although ---- in the room seemed to follow ---- said by the speaker, he never intended
to simplify his language.

A) no one / anything
B) anybody / anything
44

C) nobody / nothing
D) anyone / nothing
E) someone / something
4. I hope you will enjoy ---- at the re-union party this weekend because I won't be able
to be there ----.

A) you / myself
B) yourself / mine
C) yours / oneself
D) yourself / myself
E) you / me
5. We decided to do all the cooking ---- instead of hiring a catering company for the
party.

A) of our own
B) oneself
C) by ourselves
D) ours
E) each other
6. Thousands of children nowadays prefer doing ---- homework with a background of
pop-music to doing ---- in a quiet room.

A) theirs / them
B) his / its
C) them / it's
D) they / them
E) their / it

7. You and ---- brother need to take time to prepare ---- for the long journey which will
start next month.

A) his / yourself
B) yours / ourselves
C) their / you
D) your / yourselves
E) her / by themselves
8. Th students watched each gesture of ---- as if their teacher were a stranger.

A) them
B) hers
45

C) him
D) her
E) himself
9. Trademarks enable a company to distinguish ---- products from ---- of another
company.

A) their / it
B) it / that
C) our / this
D) its / those
E) my / these
10. ---- cannot see through translucent materials, but light can pass through ----.

A) We / it
B) Anything / their
C) One / them
D) No one / its
E) Everyone / their













46

Lesson18 : Adjective / Relative Clauses
Defining Relative Clauses
Relative Pronouns as Subject of the Clause

There are mainly three relative pronouns. They are Who, Which and That.

Who is used for people.
Which is used for things and animals.
That is used for people, things, and animals.

If the noun we will define is in the position of subject in the defining sentence, we can
use pronouns like “he, she, it, they” with “that, which, who”.

Examples: WHO

A dentist is a person. He gives dental treatment.
A dentist is a person who/that gives dental treatment.

I hate people. They tell lies.
I hate people who/that tell lies.

We know a lot of people. They live in Minnesota.
We know a lot of people who/that live in Minnesota.

A vegetarian is someone. He/she never eats meat.
A vegetarian is someone who/that never eats meat.

Do you know the man? He discovered Africa.
Do you know the man who/that discovered Africa?

The teacher was very strict. He taught us last term.
The teacher who/that taught us last term was very strict.

Note: The relative Pronoun comes just after the word it refers to.

The man was drunk. He caused the accident.
The man who was drunk caused the accident.

The man is my uncle. He is coming towards us.
The man who is coming towards us is my uncle.


Examples: WHICH

This is the horse. It kicked me.
This is the horse which/that kicked me.

The nails are rusty. They are in the tool-box.
The nails which/that are in the tool-box are rusty.

A cow is an animal. It supplies us with milk.
A cow is an animal which/that supplies us with milk.

Where are the eggs? They were in the fridge.
Where the eggs are which/that were in the fridge?
47

Mahmud works for the company. It makes software viruses.
Mahmud works for the company which/that makes software viruses.

We can also use possessive pronouns like “his/her/its” with “whose”.

A widow is a woman. Her husband is dead.
A widow is a woman whose husband is dead.

What was the name of the man? His car broke down.
What was the name of the man whose car broke down?

I know someone. Her father is a translator.
I know someone whose father is a translator.


Although the group names such as “crowd, audience, class” are of people, they
are used with which/that.

There was a big crowd. It soon gathered at the scene of the accident.
There was a big crowd which/that gathered at the scene of the accident.
Relative Pronouns have the same form when they refer to masculine, feminine, singular
or plural nouns. The verb in adjective clause must be singular if the subject of the
relative pronoun refers to a singular noun. If plural, then the verb will be in the plural
form:
The person who speaks good English is a doctor.
The people who live next door are doctors.
The plates which are on the table are very dirty.
The man who lives next to us has got a huge dog.
The men who went to the USA were very affluent.
Relative Clauses Grammar Practice

Combining Sentences with which, who, in which, of which, whose, whom... Given a list of
relative pronouns, find the appropriate one(s) which would go with each sentence.
Answers are highlighted and hidden via corresponding buttons for each example
sentence.

1) February, the second month of the New year, is the month ---- many of my colleagues
take skiing holidays.

which when in which where


2) The dress ---- the famous film star is wearing is ornamented with precious stones and
weighs fifty pounds.

whom that why Which

3) Growling ferociously, our dogs, ran after the tennis ball ---- bounced across the
kitchen floor.

48

that whose which Who

4) Independent films, most ---- were once unfamiliar to many audiences, are now
becoming more popular.

where of which at which That

5) The family ---- dog escaped and ate the two cats next door will have to pay a
substantial fine.

which whose whom Why


6) Moviegoers, many ---- love romance and drama, are fond of romantic films such as
The Titanic and Love Story.

of whom which who That
7) Flying squirrels ---- live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives
without ever touching the ground.

in which that where Which
8) The pyramids of Egypt, ---- were constructed more than 2,000 years ago, are truly
one of the seven wonders of the world.

of which that which Where

9) Healthy people ---- refuse to work should not be given government assistance
anymore.

that who which Whom


10) He likes shopping between one and three, ---- most people are at home, because of
the relative calm.

when which during which where
11) At the end of this month, scientists at the institute will conduct their AIDS research --
-- wıll be published within 6 months.

when which whom for which
12) The researchers are doing case studies of people --- families have a history of high
blood pressure and heart disease to determine the importance of heredity in health and
49

longevity.

when that why whose

13) At the conference, the scientist will describe the basic process ---- raw cotton
becomes cotton thread.

why which by which where
14) I left my son at the campus day-care center ---- is available to all full-time students
with young children.

when where that which

15) A physician ---- smokes and overeats has no right to criticize the personal habits of
his patients.

whose that who whom














50

Lesson19: Verb Tenses Chart

1) SIMPLE TENSES



Simple Present Tense

It snows in Alaska.
I watch television everyday.
I visit my cousin all the time.
In general, the simple present expresses events or situations that exist always, usually,
habitually; they exist now, they have existed in the past, and probably will exist in the
future.


Simple Past Tense

It snowed yesterday.
I watched television last night.
I visited my cousin last year.




At one particular time in the past, this happened. It began and ended in the past.


Simple Future Tense

It will snow tomorrow.
I will watch television tonight.
I will visit my cousin later.



At one particular time in the future, this will happen.


2) PROGRESSIVE VERB TENSES


Present Progressive Tense

51

He is sleeping right now.

He is asleep at the moment. His sleep is in progress at the present time, and probably
will continue.(at least for a while)



Past Progressive Tense

He was sleeping when I arrived.






He went to sleep at 10:00 last night. I arrived at 11:00. He was still asleep. His sleep
began before and was in progress at a particular time in the past. It probably
continued.(at least for a while)


Future Progressive Tense

He will be sleeping when we arrive.






He will go to sleep at 10:00 tomorrow night. We will arrive around 11:00. The action of
sleeping will begin before we arrive, and it will be in progress at a particular time in the
future. His sleep will probably continue.(at least for a while)
3) PERFECT VERB TENSES


Present Perfect Tense

I have already eaten.






I finished eating something before now. The exact time is not important.


52



Past Perfect Tense

I had already eaten when they arrived.






First I finished eating. Later they arrived. My eating was completely finished before
another time in the past



Future Perfect Tense

I will already have eaten when they arrive.






First I will finish eating. Later they will arrive. My eating will be completelyfinished before
another time in the future
4) PERFECT PROGRESSIVE VERB TENSES


Present Perfect Progressive Tense

I have been studying for two hours.


Event in progress: studying
When? Before now, up to now
How long? For two hours

Past Perfect Progressive Tense

I had been studying for two hours before my friends
came.


Event in progress: studying
When? Before another event in the past
53

How long? For two hours


Future Perfect Progressive Tense

I will have been studying for two hours by the time you
arrive.


Event in progress: studying
When? Before another event in the future
How long? For two hours





















54




























55

Preface : A guide to English pronunciation
What is 'Pronunciation'?
Pronunciation is a broad term used to describe a number of aspects of producing
the appropriate sounds in the language targeted. Most people think it refers to only
the separate, identifiable sounds of words, but it covers more than just that. As well
as the sounds there are also the sentence tunes, and the use of pitch and loudness to
indicate importance or strong feeling.
The English sound system
All languages have their own unique sound systems. We can find sounds in English
such as "th" which cannot be found in Cantonese. Similarly there is a sound "eui"
in the Cantonese word for 'team': 'deuih' ( ), which does not exist in English.
Sometimes the same sound is found in both English and Cantonese, e.g., 'ng'. But it
never occurs at the beginning of an English word, whereas it does in Cantonese, as
in 'ngah' ( ) and 'ngoh' ( ). These words are difficult for many English speakers
to pronounce.
Some, but not all, of the difficulty Cantonese speakers have with English is due to
such differences as these.
Intonation
Another major area of difference is the tune or intonation of the language, which is
the pattern of rises and falls in pitch. In Cantonese, the word meanings are
distinguished by changes in pitch commonly called tones. For example, the
word 'ma' can mean 'horse'
( ) or 'mother' ( ) according to whether the pitch is rising or falling. However, in
English, the changes in pitch indicate the feelings of the speaker or show that the
sentence is not yet finished. 'No', for example, can be said in many ways: the pitch
tells the listener the real meaning, that is, the emotional meaning, which the speaker
wants to convey.
Rhythm
The third and probably the most difficult aspect of pronunciation to master is the
rhythm of English, which is totally different from the rhythm of Cantonese (or
other dialects of Chinese). English has strong and weak beats similar to the beat in
music. The beat is marked by loudness and a higher pitch. We refer to it as stress.
The sound in a stressed syllable is said to be strong. Individual words can be strong
or weak, or contain both strong and weak sounds. Phrases have strong and weak
sounds and in sentences, the most important words will be strong, orstressed. The
differences between strong and weak syllables are extremely hard for speakers of
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Cantonese to master. This is possibly because in Chinese each syllable is written as
a separate character. But the rhythm which works for Chinese does not work in
English. The rhythm of the strong beats in English is regular, as in music. There
may be any number of weak beats between the strong ones.
Word linking
To add to the difficulty, English words run together so that a sentence often sounds
like one long word. This is often hard for Cantonese learners to do. Probably the
most important way to master this running together is to practise linking words
beginning with a vowel to the last sound of the preceding word, e.g., the_end;
stop_it.

















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Lesson 1 - Syllables in English words
English words can have one or more syllables. Here are some examples.
one syllable must can
two syllables study exam
three syllables diligent analyze
four syllables analysis registration
five syllables environmental durability
six syllables permeability anthropological
Recognizing wordstress
If an English word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables of the word should sound
stronger, or stressed. It is said more loudly, on a higher pitch and is slightly lengthened. There
may be more than one stressed syllable in a poly-syllabic word such as “environmental”. In most
dictionaries, the symbol used to indicate stress is /ˈ/ placed before the stressed syllable,
e.g., eˈxam. If a word has more than one stressed syllable, the major one is called primary stress
/ˈ/, and the other secondary stress /ˌ/ e.g., ˌphiˈlosophy. These stresses are usually indicated
together with the pronunciation symbols /ˌfɪˈlɒsəfɪ/. Check your dictionary for the system
used. The remaining unstressed syllables are pronounced very fast, i.e., with weak vowels.
Identifying wordstress
Find out the stresses in the following words.
1 must 2 can
3 study 4 exam
5 diligent 6 analyze
7 environment 8 durability
9 permeability 10 anthropological
Counting syllables and recognizing wordstress
Listen to the recording and write the number of syllables for each word in the space provided. Also read each word
to yourself and find out where the stress is.


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environment

probable

secondary

church

able

protect

walked

coughed

subtract

probability

productive

enthusiastic

economy

interfaces

purchased

















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Lesson 2 - Weak syllables
Syllables which are not stressed can be described as weak. They are pronounced very
quickly and softly. Learning to pronounce unstressed syllables weakly can be difficult
for Cantonese speakers.
Identifying weak syllables
Find out the strong and weak syllables of the words below, e.g., toGEther, and then practise
pronouncing the words aloud. .

1 protect 2 subtract
3 purchase 4 estate
5 analysis 6 horizon
7 equipment 8 insurance
9 exhibit 10 representative
International Phonetic Alphabet
We can use the International Phonetic Alphabet to indicate how words are
pronounced. Click here to see and listen to the English phonetic symbols.
Recognizing transciption symbols
Read the words transcribed below and write them out in normal spelling in the space provided. The
first one has been done for you.
1 /praɪs/
price
2 /prəˈtekt/

3 /həˈraɪzən/

4 /ˈpɜːtʃəs/

5 /əˈnæləsɪs/

6 /təˈgeðə/



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Note
The schwa
The symbol for the most common vowel sound in spoken English is /ə/. It
is always unstressed, and said very quickly, softly and at a low pitch. We call it
the schwa.
















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Lesson 3 - The rhythm of English
The strong and weak syllables of English result in a rhythm that is similar to the
rhythm of music. The strong (stressed) syllables are like the beat in music. Strong
syllables are long. Weak syllables are usually short. Strong syllables usually have weak
ones around them, but if two strong ones occur together, they are said just as slowly as
if they did have weak ones around them.
Look at the following examples:
(a dot = short, a dash = long)

· — · — · —
result detect confuse
— · — · — ·
final science table
· — · · — · · — ·
computer in Sydney distribute
— · · — · · — · ·
absolute tentative chemistry
· — · · · — · · · — · ·
infanticide it's terrible impossible
— · · — — · — — —
Give me a break! Run along! Mind out
— — — —
Get lost! Don't know!
Marking rhythm in sentences
Find out the strong and weak beats in the following limerick. Then try to work out the rhythm (which
is characteristic of a limerick) and practise reading it.
There was a young student called Billy
Who really was terribly silly
He ate a whole pig
And became far too big
And that was the end of poor Billy

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Lesson 4 - Consonants and consonant clusters
Practising final consonants and clusters
Say these phrases concentrating on the final consonants. Remember the rhythm. There should be two
beats in each phrase.

1 Don't talk.
2 The shirts were scorched.
3 We asked him some questions.
4 He squealed loudly.
5 The results were ruined.
6 The experiments took time.
7 The discs are corrupt.
8 I asked her out.
9 I was quite upset.
10 But I soon bounced back.
Practising initial and medial consonant clusters
A good strategy for pronouncing two or more consonants together is to say them slowly and imagine
there is a very short vowel between them. Practise the following words:
Initial
project train question quality streamlined
process strip triangular thread screws
Medial
electrical cylindrical rectangular micrometer description
Reading consonant clusters in a sentence
Practise reading aloud the sentence below; focus on the consonant clusters but don't
forget about the rhythm (strong and weak sounds
Trains trundle through here throughout the night. Freight has priority.
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Lesson 5 - Linking words together
When a vowel at the beginning of a word follows a final consonant, the two words are
run together:
e.g., Is_it_a boy?
If you learn to do this, your English will sound smooth and natural.
Linking endings before vowels
Mark the links between these words as in the example above. Then say them aloud.
1 talk about it
2 move it across
3 pick up a pen
4 fight it out
5 turn it off
6 give it away
7 walk along a road
8 drink it all up









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Lesson 6 - Intonation: showing feelings
Intonation in a language can be compared with a tune in music. It can go up or
downwards. In English, the sentence intonation often indicates the mood of the
speaker. Different tunes on the same word or phrase can send different messages about
the speaker's feelings. Here are some examples:
really = disapproving
really = surprised and curious to know more
really = very surprised
really = not very interested
Notice that greater falls or rises usually indicate stronger feelings.
Showing feelings and/or attitude through intonation
Work out the most likely intonation and the syllables to stress for the following dialogue. Then read
the dialogue aloud.
A: Are you busy tonight?
B: Not really. Why?
A: I was thinking of going to a movie.
B: Great! Let's do it!
Rules about intonation in English
Complete these statements about intonation in English.
1 Questions with a question word usually end in a ...
fall rise
2
Questions without any question word usually end in
a ...
fall rise
3 Statements usually end in a ...
fall rise







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Lesson 7 - Pronouncing "long" vowels ending in voiced
consonants
Practice
Long vowels followed by certain voiced consonants (b, d, g, v, l, n, m) are
difficult for even very advanced Cantonese speakers of English: e.g., hard /hɑːd/
Practise saying the words below which all end in voiced consonants. The dash (—)
above the words indicates a strong syllable.




Practice
Now practise these phrases linking the words to a following vowel:
heard_about_it bird_of_prey third_in_line halve_it
fall_out harm_it hard_of_hearing lead_on
full_of_gas board_it_up







— — — — — — — — —
heard bird bored food third board halve card word
— — — — — — — — —
arm man fall harm nerd pearl small curl nerve
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Lesson 8 - Pronunciation and grammar
Pronunciation can sometimes be important for grammar, and good pronunciation can
help you write accurately
Distinguishing past tense verb endings
Listen to these words. Write down the number of syllables in each word. Which of these have extra
syllables in the past tense verb endings?

1 laughed

2 joked

3 wasted

4 walked

5 landed

6 closed

7 folded

8 washed

9 evaluated

10 lasted

11 worked

12 distributed

13 purchased

14 closed

15 last

16 surveyed

17 disrupted

18 collected

19 validated


Distinguishing plural noun endings
Listen to these words. Write down the number of syllables in each word. Which of these have extra
syllables in the plural noun endings?
1 harddrives

2 mixes

3 piles

4 causes

5 boxes

6 smiles

7 damages

8 kisses

9 fishes

10 makes

11 leases

12 interfaces

13 buzzes

14 catches

15 slashes

16 axes

17 judges

18 diseases

19 illnesses






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Lesson 9 - Synthesizing all the pronunciation skills studied so far
Preparing to read aloud
Before you read anything aloud, (or when you are preparing to speak in public) it is
advisable to prepare by following the steps below:

Read the text silently and decide which
words are the most important content words
likely to carry the sentence stress.

Check the pronunciation of any unknown
words in the dictionary.

Is any of the vocabulary difficult to
pronounce (clusters, difficult sounds)?

Think about the intonation - where will your
voice rise or fall?
Mark the words which will be linked.
Cross through the weak syllables.
Practice
Now read the short text below aloud. Then compare your reading to the recording and the key.

The health alert was over the next day,
but many in the territory remain alarmed.
Weeks of dry weather and unfavourable winds
caused air pollution to accumulate.
The main culprit,
according to a three-year study by the
Environmental Protection Department,
is the car.
It found that vehicle emissions
accounted for 98% of Hong Kong's air
pollution
and that the worst offenders
are taxis, mini-buses and trucks that run on
diesel fuel.
Only four years ago, the transport lobby
persuaded legislators
to reject a government proposal
that would require commercial operators
to switch from diesel fuel to cleaner-burning
gasoline.
Fortunately things are now changing.
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Full Practice
Practice 1 to 6 - Consonants

1: /l/ and /n/
Pronounce the following pairs of words, paying particular attention to the consonants /l/ and /n/.
1 law, nor
2 lay, nay
3 line, nine
4 let, net
5 light, night
2: /l/ and /n/
Read aloud the following extracts, paying particular attention to the words beginning with 'l' or 'n'.
1 The laboratory technician forgot to turn off the light last night.
2 Lily locked her belongings in a locker near the language laboratory last
night.
3 Nearly nine accidents happened in May last year.
3: /t/ and /d/
Pronounce the following pairs of words, paying particular attention to the consonants /t/ and /d/.
1 lent, lend
2 wrote, road
3 bent, bend
4 fate, fade
5 bit, bid
4: /t/ and /d/
Read aloud the following extracts, paying particular attention to the words beginning with 't' or 'd'
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1 He had hoped to be successful in his career, but fate decided othewise.
His hopes faded.
2 The paintings are a bit too expensive; there is not any bid for them.
3 Juliet couldn't bend her mind to her English studies even though she
has a bent for English.
5: /k/ and /g/
Pronounce the following pairs of words, paying particular attention to the consonants /k/ and /g/.
1 coat, goat
2 ankle, angle
3 back, bag
4 duck, dug
5 pluck, plug
6: /k/ and /g/
Read aloud the following extracts, paying particular attention to the words beginning with 'l' or 'n'.
1 Please put the plug in the outlet. I'm going to pluck the duck which has
dug a hole in the garden.
2 Put the heavy bag on your back.
3 Professor Kelogg twisted his ankle carelessly while he was suggesting his
students look at the affair from a different angle.
Practice 7 to 14 - Vowels

7: /ɪ/ and /iː/
Pronounce the following pairs of words, paying particular attention to the vowels.
1 sheep, ship
2 sleep, slip
3 eat, it
4 feat, fit
5 seat, sit
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8: /ɪ/ and /iː/
Read aloud the following extracts, paying particular attention to the words with the
vowel /ɪ/ and /iː/.
1 You need to proof-read your report carefully before you submit it.
Please read it again.
2 Mr. Green was grinning from ear to ear when he knew that his six
pretty little sisters living in the city were going to visit him.
3 Sit on this seat and see if these slippers fit your feet.
9: /e/ and /æ/
Pronounce the following pairs of words, paying particular attention to the consonants /e/ and /æ/.
1 pen, pan
2 men, man
3 lend, land
4 send, sand
5 said, sad
10: /e/ and /æ/
Read aloud the following extracts, paying particular attention to the words with the vowel
with /e/ and /æ/.

1 Jack said that he was very sad because he had broken his radio set.
2 Send that man who landed on the sand a bag of sand.
3 The man who is cooking with a pan is not one of the men who have
bought the pens.
11: /ɔː/ and /ɒ/
Pronounce the following pairs of words, paying particular attention to the consonants /ɔː/ and /ɒ/.
1 port, pot
2 sport, spot
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3 short, shot
4 court, cot
5 cork, cock
12: /ɔː/ and /ɒ/
1 John has bought a lot of sausages because he has sausages as breakfast
almost every morning.
2 Doctor Wong, who is pointing to the clock on the wall, is Uncle Tom's
daughter.
3 George is drawing four saws, four swords, four walls and four doors on
the board.

13: /uː/ and /ʊ/
Pronounce the following pairs of words, paying particular attention to the vowels.
1 Luke, look
2 food, foot
3 hoot, hood
4 fool, full
5 pool, pull
14: /uː/ and /ʊ/
Read aloud the following extracts, paying particular attention to the words with the
vowel /uː/ and /ʊ/.


1 Look! Luke is pulling a fool out of the pool in the wood.
2 June said to Sue, "You should bring along with you some food and wear
proper shoes when visiting the zoo next Tuesday with Ruth."
3 Who took away the cookery book?
15: The schwa /ə/
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Pronounce the following pairs of words, paying particular attention to the unstressed /ə/.
(1) Two-syllable words with weak first syllable and stress on the second syllable
1 about, again
2 obtain, oppose
3 suppose, suggest
4 forget, forbid
5 perhaps, percent
6 surprise, survey
(2) Two-syllable words with weak second syllable and stress on the first syllable
1 Alan, necklace
2 melon, purpose
3 hundred, open
4 circus, Autumn
5 major, minor
6 eastern, mother
7 eastern, mother
8 nature, creature
(3) Three-syllable words with weak second syllable and stress on the first
syllable
1 roundabout
2 customer
3 standardise
4 wonderland
5 yesterday
Practice 16 and 17 - Stress

16: Compound words
The stress is placed on the first syllable of both words when they are used as two individual
words, for example,ˈswimming ˈpool. However, if the compound noun is used as a single word,
the stress is placed only on the first syllable, for example, ˈblackboard.
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Practice saying the following.

Two individual words A compound word
1
ˈwhite ˈboard ˈwhiteboard
2
ˈcommon ˈroom ˈcommonroom
3
ˈcross ˈword ˈcrossword
4
ˈdark ˈroom ˈdarkroom
5
ˈgreen ˈhouse ˈgreenhouse
6
ˈheavy ˈweight ˈheavyweight
7
ˈsecond ˈhand ˈsecondhand
8
ˈhot ˈcake ˈhotcake
17: Nouns VS Verbs
The stress is usually placed on the first syllable of a noun and the second syllable of a verb.
Practice saying the following.

Noun Verb
1
ˈconflict conˈflict
2
ˈcontract conˈtract
3
ˈdefect deˈfect
4
ˈdigest diˈgest
5
ˈexport exˈport
6
ˈextract exˈtract
7
ˈimport imˈport
8
ˈobject obˈject
9
ˈpermit perˈmit
10
ˈprotest proˈtest
11
ˈpresent preˈsent
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12
ˈproduce proˈduce
13
ˈproject proˈject
14
ˈrecord reˈcord
15
ˈrefuse reˈfuse
18: 'ed' endings
Pronounce the following pairs of words and pay particular attention to the 'ed' endings.
1 walked 2 knocked
3 jumped 4 looked
5 stopped 6 helped
7 finished 8 explained
9 phoned 10 designed
11 wanted 12 arrested
13 started 14 ended
15 created 16 produced
17 carried 18 headed
19: 'ed' endings
Read aloud the following dialogue between Tim and Jenny. Pay particular attention to the 'ed'
endings.
Jenny: I witnessed a serious accident last Friday.
Tim: Really? What happened?
Jenny:
Well, I was doing some housework. It was going to rain heavily, and I wanted to see
how bad the weather was. Then I walked over to the window and looked outside.
Tim: And what did you see?
Jenny:
Well, nothing at first. But then a minibus came along the road. Two students started
to cross the road when the minibus drove straight over the crossing without even
slowing down.
Tim: Oh, no! Was anybody hurt?
Jenny:
Well, the taller one jumped out of the way and the minibus just missed her. But it
knocked down the other one.

75