Beams according to their use are classified into
seven types which are discussed below:
1. Lintel Beam
2. Joists Beam
3. Rafter Beam
. !urlin Beam
". #irt Beam
$. %rimmer Beam
&. 'ollar Beam
1.Lintel Beam :
Lintel is a simple architecture where a
hori(ontal member )the lintel*or header+ is supported by
two vertical posts at either end. %his form is commonly used
to support the weight of the structure located above the
openings in a bearing wall created by windows and doors.
Use of lintel beam:
Lintel beams are used as a support
above the doors n windows. %hey transfer the load to walls and
save doors n windows from direct load.
%he biggest disadvantage to a post and lintel
construction is the limited weight that can be held up, and the
small distances re-uired between the posts.
2.Joists Beam:

. joist, in architecture and engineering, is
one of the hori(ontal supporting members that run from wall
to wall, wall to beam, or beam to beam to support a ceiling,
roof, or floor. /t may be made of wood, steel, or concrete.
%ypically, a beam is bigger than, and is thus distinguished
from, a 0oist. Joists are often supported by beams and are
usually repetitive.
Calculation of depth of Joists:
%he wider the span between the
supporting structures, the deeper the 0oist will need to be
if it is not to deflect under load. Lateral support also
increases its strength. %here are approved formulas for
calculating the depth re-uired and reducing the depth as
needed1 however, a rule of thumb for calculating the depth
of a wooden floor 0oist for a residential property is half the
span in feet plus two inches1 for e2ample, the 0oist depth
re-uired for a 13foot span is 4 inches. 5any steel 0oist
manufacturers supply load tables in order to allow designers
to select the proper 0oist si(es for their pro0ects.
.!afte" Beam:
. rafter is one of a series of sloped
structural members )beams+, that e2tend from the ridge or
hip to the down slope perimeter or eave, designed to support
the roof dec6 and its associated loads.
. type of beam, which supports the roof of a
building. /n home construction, rafters are typically made of
wood. 72posed rafters are a feature of traditional roof
/n many buildings, rafters have been replaced
by engineered trusses )trussed rafters+, normally because
of span limitations and8or roof load )weight from above+.
$.%u"lin Beam:
/n architecture or structural engineering
or building, a !urlin )or %u"line+ is a hori(ontal structural
member in a roof. !urlins support the loads from the roof
dec6 or sheathing and are supported by the principal rafters
and8or the building walls, steel beams etc. %he use of
!urlins, as opposed to closely spaced rafters, is common in
pre3engineered metal building systems and some timber
frame construction.
Use of %u"lin:
/n lightweight timber roof construction under
purlins were used to support rafters over longer spans than
the rafters alone could span. 9nder purlins were typically
propped off internal walls. :or e2ample, an ; 2 under purlin
would support the center of a row of $ 2 2 rafters that in turn
would support 3 2 2 roof purlins to which the roof cladding was
fi2ed. /n traditional timber truss construction purlins rest on
the principal rafters of the truss. /n all metal or mi2ed
building roof systems, purlin members are fre-uently
constructed from cold3formed steel, )or roll formed+ ' or <
sections. %he < sections can be lapped and nested at the
supports which create a continuous beam configuration
between the bays. =hen ' and < sections are used in wall
construction are normal to call them girts.
&. 'i"t Beam:
/n architecture or structural engineering, a
girt is a hori(ontal structural member in a framed wall. #irts
resist lateral loads from wind and support wall cladding
materials. #irts are supported by the columns and typically
pass outside of one or more columns. %he use of girts to
support metal siding is common in pre3engineered metal
building systems.
Use of 'i"t Beam:
/n metal building systems, girts are
fre-uently constructed from cold3formed steel ><> sections
in a manner similar to roof purlins. %hese sections can be
lapped and nested at the supports which create a continuous
beam configuration between the bays. .n e-uivalent element
in roof construction is a purlin.
/n light3frame construction, a trimmer is a
timber or metal beam )0oist+ that is installed perpendicular to
floor or ceiling 0oists in order to allow an opening, such as a
stairwell or dormer, to be formed.
/t can also refer to a 0ac6 stud that supports a header above a
window or door opening.
%raditionally, a stud which was less than full length was
sometimes referred to as a cripple.
*.Colla" Beam:
/n architecture, a collar beam )also 6nown
simply as a collar+ is a hori(ontal piece of timber connecting
and tying together two opposite rafters.
Use of Colla" Beam : /t is used to connect the two
Rafters with each other and it provides support to them .

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