Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)

Submitted by:-
GUIDED BY ________________________
AIM: -
To design & develop Continuously Variable Transmission
(CVT) System.
T"e pro#e$t "ere is all about Continuously Variable
Transmission (CVT). A $ontinuously variable transmission%
or CVT% is a type o& automati$ transmission t"at provides
more useable po'er% better &uel e$onomy and a smoot"er
driving e(perien$e t"an a traditional automati$.
Driving a car with a CVT
T"e $ontrols &or a CVT are t"e same as an automati$: T'o
pedals (no $lut$") and a )-!-*-+-,-style s"i&t pattern. ut
'"ile an automati$ transmission "as a set number o& gear
ratios (a.-.a. speeds)% usually .% / or 0% t"e CVT $an
$onstantly $"ange t"e relations"ip o& engine speed to $ar
speed. 1"en driving a $ar 'it" a CVT% you never "ear or
&eel t"e transmission s"i&t -- it simply raises and lo'ers t"e
engine speed as needed% $alling up "ig"er engine speeds
(or !)Ms) &or better a$$eleration and lo'er !)Ms &or better
&uel e$onomy '"ile $ruising.
Many people &ind t"e CVT dis$on$erting at &irst be$ause o&
t"e 'ay $ars 'it" CVTs sound. 1"en you step on t"e
a$$elerator% t"e engine ra$es as it 'ould 'it" a slipping
$lut$" or a &ailing automati$ transmission. T"is is normal --
t"e CVT is ad#usting t"e engine speed to provide optimal
po'er &or a$$eleration.
How the CVT works
Traditional transmissions use a gear set t"at provides a
given number o& ratios (or speeds). T"e transmission (or t"e
driver) s"i&ts gears to provide t"e most appropriate ratio &or a
given situation: ,o'est gears &or starting out% middle gears
&or a$$eleration and passing% and "ig"er gears &or &uel-
e&&i$ient $ruising.
T"oug" t"ere are several types o& CVTs% most $ars use a
pair o& variable-diameter pulleys% ea$" s"aped li-e a pair o&
opposing $ones% 'it" a metal belt or $"ain running bet'een
t"em. 2ne pulley is $onne$ted to t"e engine (input s"a&t)%
t"e ot"er to t"e drive '"eels (output s"a&t). T"e "alves o&
ea$" pulley are moveable3 as t"e pulley "alves $ome $loser
toget"er t"e belt is &or$ed to ride "ig"er on t"e pulley%
e&&e$tively ma-ing t"e pulley4s diameter larger. C"anging t"e
diameter o& t"e pulleys varies t"e transmission4s ratio (t"e
number o& times t"e output s"a&t revolves &or ea$" revolution
o& t"e engine)% in t"e same 'ay t"at a 56-speed bi-e routes
t"e $"ain over larger or smaller gears to $"ange t"e ratio.
Ma-ing t"e input pulley smaller and t"e output pulley larger
gives a lo' ratio (a large number o& engine revolutions
produ$ing a small number o& output revolutions) &or better
lo'-speed a$$eleration. As t"e $ar a$$elerates% t"e pulleys
vary t"eir diameter to lo'er t"e engine speed as $ar speed
rises. T"is is t"e same t"ing a $onventional automati$ or
manual transmission does% but '"ile a $onventional
transmission $"anges t"e ratio in stages by s"i&ting gears%
t"e CVT $ontinuously varies t"e ratio -- "en$e its name.
Advantages of the CVT
7ngines do not develop $onstant po'er at all speeds3 t"ey
"ave spe$i&i$ speeds '"ere tor8ue (pulling po'er)%
"orsepo'er (speed po'er) or &uel e&&i$ien$y are at t"eir
"ig"est levels. e$ause t"ere are no gears to tie a given
road speed dire$tly to a given engine speed% t"e CVT $an
vary t"e engine speed as needed to a$$ess ma(imum po'er
as 'ell as ma(imum &uel e&&i$ien$y. T"is allo's t"e CVT to
provide 8ui$-er a$$eleration t"an a $onventional automati$
or manual transmission '"ile delivering superior &uel
Disadvantages of the CVT
T"e CVT4s biggest problem "as been user a$$eptan$e.
e$ause t"e CVT allo's t"e engine to rev at any speed% t"e
noises $oming &rom under t"e "ood sound odd to ears
a$$ustomed to $onventional manual and automati$
transmissions. T"e gradual $"anges in engine note sound
li-e a sliding transmission or a slipping $lut$" -- signs o&
trouble 'it" a $onventional transmission% but per&e$tly
normal &or a CVT. 9looring an automati$ $ar brings a lur$"
and a sudden burst o& po'er% '"ereas CVTs provide a
smoot"% rapid in$rease to ma(imum po'er. To some drivers
t"is ma-es t"e $ar &eel slo'er% '"en in &a$t a CVT 'ill
generally out-a$$elerate an automati$.
Automa-ers "ave gone to great lengt"s to ma-e t"e CVT
&eel more li-e a $onventional transmission. Most CVTs are
set up to $reep &or'ard '"en t"e driver ta-es "is or "er &oot
o&& t"e bra-e. T"is provides a similar &eel to a $onventional
automati$% and serves as an indi$ator t"at t"e $ar is in gear.
2t"er CVTs o&&er a :manual: mode t"at simulates manual
gear $"anges.
e$ause early automotive CVTs 'ere limited as to "o'
mu$" "orsepo'er t"ey $ould "andle% t"ere "as been some
$on$ern about t"e long-term reliability o& t"e CVT. Advan$ed
te$"nology "as made t"e CVT mu$" more robust. *issan
"as more t"an a million CVTs in servi$e around t"e 'orld
and uses t"em in po'er&ul $ars su$" as t"e ;<6 "orsepo'er
Ma(ima% and says t"eir long-term reliability is $omparable to
$onventional transmissions.
History of the CVT
,eonardo +aVin$i s-et$"ed t"e &irst CVT in 5.<6. +ut$"
automa-er +A9 &irst started using CVTs in t"eir $ars in t"e
late 5</6s% but te$"nology limitations made CVTs unsuitable
&or engines 'it" more t"an around 566 "orsepo'er. In t"e
late =6s and early <6s% Subaru o&&ered a CVT in t"eir >usty
mini-$ar% '"ile ?onda used one in t"e "ig"-mileage ?onda
Civi$ ?@ o& t"e late <6s. Improved CVTs $apable o& "andling
more po'er&ul engines 'ere developed in t"e late <6s and
;666s% and CVTs $an no' be &ound in $ars &rom *issan%
Audi% ?onda% 9ord% AM% and ot"er automa-ers.
lo$- +iagram :-
C2M)2*7*T :-