DEFINE INHERITANCE

 The mechanism of deriving a new class from an old class is
called inheritance( or derivation).
 The old class is referred to as the base class or super class or
parent class.
 The new class is called the derived class or subclass or child
class.
NEED FOR INHERITANCE
 The capability to express the inheritance relationship which
ensures the closeness with the real world model.
 Idea of reusability, i.e., the new class can use some of the
features of old class.
 The advantages of reusability are : faster development time,
easier maintenance and easy to extend
 Transitive nature of inheritance, i.e., it can be passed on
further.
 If a class B inherits properties of another class A, then all
subclasses of B will automatically inherit the properties of A.
This property is called transitive.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF INHERITANCE
 Single inheritance
 A derived class with only one base
class is called single inheritance.
 Multiple inheritance
 A derived class with several base
classes is called multiple
inheritance.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF INHERITANCE
 Multilevel inheritance
 The mechanism of deriving a class
from another derived class is
called multilevel inheritance. (
Transitive nature of inheritance is
reflected by this form)
 Hierarchical inheritance
 When many sub classes inherits
from a single base class, it is
known as hierarchical inheritance.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF INHERITANCE
 Hybrid inheritance
 It is a combination of
hierarchical and multiple
inheritance.
DEFINING DERIVED CLASS
 A derived class is defined by specifying its relationship with
the base class using visibility mode.
 The general form of defining a derived class is:
class derived_class : visibility_mode base_class
{
____________
____________ // members of derived class.
};
 The colon indicates that the derived_class is derived
(inherits some property) from base_class.
DEFINING DERIVED CLASS
 Following are some examples of derived class definitions:
1. class Marksheet : public student // public
derivation
{
// members of derived class
};
2. class Marksheet : private student // private derivation
{
// members of derived class
};
3. class Marksheet : protected student // protected
derivation
{
// members of protected class
};
DEFINING DERIVED CLASS
 If no visibility mode is specified, then by default the visibility
mode is considered as private.
 Actually a derived class inherits all the members of a base
class; however, the derived class has access privilege only to
the non private members of the base class.
 The private members of the base class cannot be accessed
directly, yet the objects of derived class are able to access them
through the non-private inherited members.
MULTIPLE INHERITANCE
 Subclass inheriting from multiple base classes is known as
Multiple inheritance.
 The Syntax of defining a derived class is given below :
class derived_classname : mode baseclass1, mode baseclass2
{
// members of derived class
};
Example 1
class marks : public semester1, private semester2
{
// members
};
VISIBILITY MODES
 It can be public, private or protected.
 If inheritance is done in public mode, public members of the base
class become the public members of derived class and protected
members of base class become the protected members of derived
class.
 If inheritances is done in a private mode, public and protected
members of base class become the private members of derived
class.
 If inheritance is done in a protected mode, public and protected
members of base class become the protected members of derived
class.
VISIBILITY MODES
PRIVATE
PUBLIC VISIBILTY MODE
class student
{
private :
int x;
void getdata ( );
public:
int y;
void putdata ( );
protected:
int z;
void check ( );
};
class marks : public student
{
private :
int a ;
void readdata ( );
public :
int b;
void writedata( );
protected :
int c;
void checkvalue( );
};
PUBLIC VISIBILTY MODE
The public derivation does not change the access specifiers for inherited members
in the derived class. The private data of base class student cannot be inherited.
PRIVATE VISIBILITY MODE
class student
{
private :
int x;
void getdata ( );
public:
int y;
void putdata ( );
protected:
int z;
void check ( );
};
class marks : private student
{
private :
int a ;
void readdata ( );
public :
int b;
void writedata( );
protected :
int c;
void checkvalue( );
};
PRIVATE VISIBILITY MODE
The data present in public and protected section of base class become the private members
of derived class. The data in private section of base class cannot be inherited.
Making a Private Member Inheritable
 Private members of the base class are not inherited by derived
class ( i.e., the derived class does not get access privilege for
them)
 Methods to make private member inheritable:-
1. By making visibility mode of the private member as public
2. By making the visibility mode of the private member as
protected.
 By modifying the visibility mode of private member to public
will make them accessible to all the other functions(non
member ) of the program, thus taking the advantage of data
hiding
Making a Private Member Inheritable
 Introduction to third visibility modifier, protected.
 This modifier retains the data hiding of the private members
and at the same time makes it inheritable.
 A member declared as protected is accessible by the member
functions within its class and any class immediately derived
from it.
PROTECTED VISIBILITY MODE
class student
{
private :
int x;
void getdata ( );
public:
int y;
void putdata ( );
protected:
int z;
void check ( );
};
class marks:protected student
{
private :
int a ;
void readdata ( );
public :
int b;
void writedata( );
protected :
int c;
void checkvalue( );
};
PROTECTED VISIBILITY MODE
The data present in private section of base class cannot be inherited. The difference
between private and protected section is that data present in protected section can
be inherited. Otherwise both the section cannot be accessed by the object of the
class.
INHERITANCE AND CONSTRUCTORS AND
DESTRUCTORS
 When an object of derived class is created, first the base class
constructor is invoked, followed by the derived class
constructors.
 When an object of derived class expires, first the derived class
destructor is invoked, followed by the base class destructor.
 In case of multiple inheritance, the base classes are
constructed in the order in which they appear in the
declaration of the derived class.
 In a multilevel inheritance, the constructors will be executed
in the order of inheritance.
22
Constructor Rules for Derived Classes
class A {
public:
A ( )
{cout<< “A:default”<<endl;}
};
class B : public A
{
public:
B ()
{cout<<“B”<<endl;}
};
Object of class B test;
A:default
B
output:
CONSTRUCTORS RULES
 As long as no base class constructor takes any arguments,
the derived class need not have a constructor function.
 If any base contains a constructor with one or more
arguments, then it is mandatory for the derived class to
have a constructor and pass the arguments to the base class
constructor.
CONSTRUCTORS RULES
 Derived class constructor accepts arguments for itself as
well as for its base constructor.
 The general form of defining a derived constructor is:-
 The header line of derived – constructor function contains
two parts separated by a colon(:).
 First part provides the declaration of the arguments that are
passed to derived constructor.
 The second part lists the function calls to the base
constructors.
DerivedClassCon ( ArgumentsBaseDerived ) : BaseClassCon ( baseClass args )
{ DerivedClass constructor body }
CONSTRUCTORS RULES
Class base
{
int a;
float b;
public:
base(int i, float j )
{
a=i;
b=j;
}
……..
};
Class derived : public base
{…..
public:
derived(int p , float q ): base(p, q)
{ }
};
Even if the derived constructor does
not need any argument for itself, yet it
accepts parameters for is base
constructor and then invokes base
constructor with these parameter.
CONSTRUCTORS RULES
class base
{
int a;
float b;
public:
base(int i, float j )
{
a=i;
b=j;
}
……..
};
class derived : public base
{ int x; float y;
public:
derived(int i, float j , int p , float q ): base(p, q)
{ x=i; y=j; }
};
Here the derived constructor is
accepting parameters for itself (i,j) as
well as for its base constructor (p,q).
Then it invokes its base constructor
with appropriate parameters and uses
rest of the parameters for initializing
its own member .
Execution of base class constructor
Method of inheritance Order of execution
class B:public A
{
};
A(); base constructor
B(); derived constructor
class A : public B, public C
{
};
B(); base(first)
C(); base(second)
A(); derived
class A: public B, virtual
public C
{
};
C(); virtual base
C(); ordinary base
A(); derived
class alpha
{
int x;
public:
alpha(int i)
{
x=i
cout<<“alpha intialized\n”;
}
void show_x(void)
{ cout<<“x =“<<x<<“\n”;}
~alpha()
{cout<<“\n alpha destructing”;}
};
class beta
{
float y;
public:
beta (float j)
{
y=j;
cout<<“beta intialized\n”;
}
void show_y(void)
{ cout<<“y =“<<y<<“\n”;}
~beta()
{cout<<“\n alpha destructing”;}
};
class gamma: public beta, public
alpha
{
int m,n;
public:
gamma(int a, float b , int c, int d):
alpha(a),beta(b)
{
m=c;
n=d;
cout<<“gamma intialized\n”;
}
void show_mn(void)
{ cout<<“m =“<<m<<“\n”;
cout<<“n =“<<n<<“\n”;
}
~gamma()
{cout<<“\n gamma destructing”;}
};
int main()
{
gamma g (5, 10.75, 20, 30);
cout<<“\n”;
g.show_x();
g.show_y();
g.show_mn();
return 0;
}
beta initialized
alpha initialized
gamma initialized
x=5
y=10.75
m=20
n=30
gamma destructing
alpha destructing
beta destructing
Virtual Base Class
 When a class inherits from multiple
base classes, it can lead to an
ambiguous situation. This is
especially when the base classes
themselves are derived from a
common base class
 As shown in the figure, A is a base
class from which two classes are
derived, B and C. These further acts
as base classes for D.
Virtual Base Class
 D wants to access a function which is inherited from base class
A, into B and C. Obviously, since D is inheriting from both B
and C, it receives two copies of the members they inherited
from their base class A.
 When this member is accessed, compiler faces an ambiguous
situation, which can be resolved in two ways.
 Using Scope resolution operator
 B :: member or C :: member
 The other way is to make the common base class (here, A) as
virtual class
Virtual Base Class
class A
{ ….
public :
int a;
};
class B : virtual public A
{ ….
public :
int b;
};
class C : virtual public A
{ ….
public :
int c;
};
class D : public B, public C
{ ….
public :
int c;
};
Now, because of the keyword
virtual, classes B and C will
share a single common base
class member a. Thus there will
be no ambiguity when
accessing it.
Q What is the difference
between base class and normal
class?
Abstract Class
A class that serves only as a base class
from which other classes are derived ,
but no object of this base class type
exists, is known as Abstract Class
Containership or Aggregation
When a class contains objects of other
class types as its member, it is
referred to as Containership or
Containment or Aggregation.
class X
{ ……};
class Y
{…….};
class Z
{
X ob1; //object of X class
Y ob1; //object of Y class
};
All the objects of Z class
type will be containing
objects of ob1 and ob2 of
X and Y types
respectively. This type of
relationship is called
containership or
nesting
Containership or Aggregation
 Invocation of Constructor in containership.
 With reference to previous example, when we create an object
of class Z, first constructor of class X followed by Y ( order in
which they are declared) and then Z is invoked
 Constructor X
 Constructor Y
 Constructor Z
Containership or Aggregation
 If constructor requires arguments for the object creation then
this is accomplished by using an initialization list in the
constructor of the enclosing class:-
class Z
{
X ob1; //object of X class
Y ob1; //object of Y class
public:
Z(arg-list):ob1(arg-list), ob2(arg-list)
{
// Z constructor body
}
};
Relationship between Classes
When a class inherits from another class, the
derived class has IS-A relationship with its base
class.
When a class contains object of another class-
type, then containing/enclosing class HAS-A
relationship with contain/enclosed class