Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary

Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Contents
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
II
CONTENTS
Page
CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................................. II
FIGURES ................................................................................................................................................................. III
TABLES ................................................................................................................................................................. IV
ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................................................. V
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Project’s Background and Rationales ........................................................................ 1-1
1.2 The Project’s Objectives ....................................................................................................... 1-1
1.3 The Project’s Area .................................................................................................................. 1-2
1.4 The Project’s Activities .......................................................................................................... 1-2
1.5 The Project’s Period ............................................................................................................... 1-2
SECTION 2 THE PROJECT’S OPERATION AND RESULTS
2.1 The Project’s Area Hydrogeological Survey ...................................................................... 2-1
2.1.1 Topographical Features .............................................................................................. 2-1
2.1.2 Geological Features ..................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1.3 Geological Structures .................................................................................................. 2-4
2.1.4 Hydrogeological Features .......................................................................................... 2-5
2.1.5 Prioritizing of the Groundwater Spring High-Potential Areas ............................ 2-7
2.2 The Study and Detailed-Hydrogeological Surveys in the Groundwater Spring
High Potential Areas .............................................................................................................. 2-12
2.2.1 Ban O Kham Area....................................................................................................... 2-12
2.2.2 Ban Rak Chat Area ..................................................................................................... 2-14
2.2.3 Ban Nat Area ............................................................................................................... 2-19
2.2.4 Results of Exploration Drilling and Selection of the Project’s Pilot Area ...... 2-23
2.3 The Development of Groundwater Spring and Erection of the Pilot System ....... 2-23
2.3.1 Organizing the Meeting of Agriculturalists and Stake-holders ........................ 2-25
2.3.2 Drilling and Development of the Production Wells ......................................... 2-25
2.3.3 Installation of the Automatic Water-Level Recorders ...................................... 2-25
2.3.4 Development of the Pilot System for Sustainable Utilization of
Groundwater Spring ................................................................................................... 2-26


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Contents
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
III
CONTENTS
Page
SECTION 3 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
3.1 Conclusion on the Operation Results ............................................................................. 3-1
3.2 Suggestion .............................................................................................................................. 3-3
FIGURES
Page
1-1 The Project’s Area covering as parts of Khon Kaen, Maha Sarakham, Roi-Et,
and Kalasin provinces ............................................................................................................. 1-2
2-1 Topographic map of the Project’s Area ............................................................................. 2-2
2-2 Geological map of the Project’s Area ................................................................................. 2-3
2-3 Hydrogeological map of the Project’s Area .......................................................................... 2-6
2-4 The location map of observed groundwater wells in the Project’s Area ................... 2-8
2-5 The GIS classification for groundwater spring potential areas ..................................... 2-10
2-6 The map of groundwater spring potential areas ............................................................ 2-11
2-7 Geological map of the Ban O Kham Area ........................................................................ 2-13
2-8 Hydrological map of the Ban O Kham Area ..................................................................... 2-15
2-9 Geological map of the Ban Rak Chat Area ....................................................................... 2-17
2-10 Hydrological map of the Ban Rak Chat Area ................................................................... 2-18
2-11 Geological map of the Ban Nat Area ................................................................................. 2-20
2-12 Hydrological map of the Ban Nat Area ............................................................................. 2-22
2-13 The location map of horizontally cylindrical water tanks and the
irrigational piping system of the Ban O Kham Area ........................................................ 2-27
2-14 The 5 fiber-glass horizontally cylindrical water tanks ................................................... 2-28


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Contents
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
IV
TABLES
Page
1-1 Type and quantity of the completed works ....................................................................... 1-3
2-1 The number and condition of groundwater wells ............................................................ 2-9
2-2 The groundwater wells classification following their usage types .............................. 2-10
2-3 Standards for the pilot area selection ................................................................................ 2-24
2-4 Details of standard for selection of groundwater spring potential areas ..................... 2-24
2-5 The summary results of the pilot area selection ............................................................ 2-24
2-6 Details of observation wells equipped with automatic water level measuring set ...... 2-25
2-7 Results of Project’s economic evaluation ......................................................................... 2-30
3-1 Correlation of the completed works and the TOR ones. ................................................ 3-2

Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources

Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
V
ABSTRACT
The Department of Groundwater Resources (DGR) has assigned Thana Thoranee
Co.,Ltd. to carry out Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi
River Basin Project with the total allocated budget of 64,448,000.00 Baht from the Groundwater
Development Funds.
The Project’s Area covers approximately 8,500 km
2
of the central Chi river basin
which is politically located as parts of Khon Kaen, Maha Sarakham, Kalasin, and Roi-Et provinces.
While having been announced to be the repeatedly dry zone, the area has been found by the DGR to
be hydrogeologically promising for groundwater spring.
The Project’s survey results have revealed hydrogeological features of the Project’s
Area to be composed of consolidated aquifers as the Phu Thok (Pt), the Khok Kraut (Kk), the Phu Phan
(Pp), the Sao Khua (Sk), and the Phra Wihan (Pw) and the most groundwater promising unconsolidated
aquifer comprises in major of gravel and sand as the old terrace deposits (Gs) of the Chi river. This Gs
aquifer has been found to be 1-10 km wide crossing the Project’s Area from NW corner towards the
SE one.
Several groundwater spring potential areas have been delineated by the Project’s
works and, subsequently, 3 of them have been selected as the high potential areas for further
detailed survey. They are the area of Ban O Kham, Kranuan Sub-district, Sam Sung District; Ban Rak Chat
of Bua Yai Sub-district, Nam Phong District of Khon Kaen Province, and Ban Nat of Nuea Sub-district,
Muaeng District of Kalasin Province. With reference to aquifers’ hydrological tests of those 3 areas:
their Hydraulic Conductivity values (K) are between 0.39-3.92, 0.28-0.80, and 1.10-3.61 m/day,
respectively; their Storativity values (S) are between 2.96 x 10
-4
-3.15 x 10
-2
, 3.00 x 10
-4
-5.72 x 10
-3
, and
2.10 x 10
-4
-9.14 x 10
-3
, respectively; and their Transmissivity values (T) are between 4.62-50.69, 5.18-11.58,
and 13.23-57.89 m
2
/day, respectively. Finally, the area of Ban O Kham has been prioritized to be the
Project’s pilot area for the sustainable development of groundwater spring.
The Ban O Kham pilot area covers agricultural areas of totally 572 rais of 86 deeds and
66 different landlords. The pilot system on groundwater spring development constructed by the
Projects are as follows: 3 wells of 28 inches in diameter (PW 1 of 108 m. deep, PW 2-2 of 92 m. deep,
and PW 3 of 120 m. deep), which are all spring wells with good quality groundwater, 5 horizontally
cylindrical fiber-glass water tanks of 3.0-3.15 m. in diameter and with total capacity of 300 cu.m., the
irrigational piping system of totally 4,700 m. long covering the pilot area, and lastly, formulating the
Ban O Kham Agriculturalist Group for the future sustainable management of this valuable resource
and its pilot system.
The study of groundwater models of the Project’s Area showed somewhat
equilibrium recharge and discharge the groundwater of about 2,000 m
3
/year and its safe yield is 1,487
million m
3
/year. As well, the Ban O Kham pilot area showed the figure of 79 m
3
/year of equilibrium
recharge and discharge and its safe yield is about 39 million m
3
/year.
Key Words: Department of Groundwater Resources (DGR), Groundwater Development Funds,
Groundwater Spring, Repeatedly Dry Zone, Hydrogeology, Consolidated Aquifer,
Unconsolidated Aquifer, Ban O Kham, Groundwater Equilibrium, and Safe Yield

Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 1

Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
1-1
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
His Majesty the King Bhumibhol Adulyadej has really realized the
importance of water and has compaired that “Water Is Life”. His Majesty has also taken his
interests on all aspects concerning water resources development. One of the most peculiar
example is the Royal Speech given at Chitralada Villa Royal Residence on March 17
th
, 1986,
that “The Most important principle is enough water for consumption and agriculture
because life is there. Human can live if there is water but cannot live if there is no
water. Human can live even if there is no electricity but if there is electricity but no water
human cannot live”
1.1 The Project’s Background and Rationales
The Chi river basin covers the total area of about 49,477 km
2
of Khon Kaen,
Maha Sarakham, Kalasin, Roi Et, and Yasothorn provinces. The Chi river is originated from a
mountain range in Chaiyaphum province, then joins the Phong river at Khon Kaen province and
Lam Pouw river at Kalasin province, and flows through Maha Sarakham, Roi Et, Yasothorn before
merging with the Mun river at Ubon Ratchathani province. Generally, this is the low flood-plain
area suitable for agriculture and urbanization. Thus, it is presently crowded urban zone. Most of
the population are agriculturalist and their major plantations are rice, cassava, hemp, and corn. On
the other hand, the area has been recorded to be one of the repeatedly drought zone due to less
precipitation and very loosely sandy soil, uncapable to collect water. This causes inadequacy in
surface water for consumption, as well as incapability in growing any other alternative crops during
dry season.
The Department of Groundwater Resources (DGR) has carried out preliminarily
hydrogeological surveys in the middle Chi river basin area and found several groundwater potential
areas of which some of them can be springs. The areas cover parts of Khon Kaen, Maha Sarakham,
Kalasin, and Roi Et provinces have then been located as a study area for potentials and
development of groundwater springs and their utilization. Subsequently, the DGR has set the
Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project
with the allocated budget of 64,448,000 Baht and assigned Thana Thoranee Company Limited
as a consulting company to carry out the Project.
1.2 The Project’s Objectives
1) To study the unconsolidated-confined aquifers within the Project’s area in
order to reveal their groundwater resources, annual recharges, and safe yield.
2) To set the groundwater observation network of the area for monitoring
significant changes in groundwater level, quantity, and quality.

Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 1

Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
1-2
3) To construct the groundwater models in order for sustainable management
of groundwater resource of the area
4) To design and establish the pilot systems on development of groundwater
springs for both consumption and agriculture as well as to formulate a well trained
groundwater-spring users group from all the stake-holders in order to perform a self-
management of such systems.
5) To study and design of the most suitable groundwater recharge system for
maintaining such groundwater pressure and, ultimately, for sustainable preserving of such springs.
1.3 The Project’s Area
The Project’s area covers a total area of about 8,500 km
2
(Figure 1-1) which
includes the area of groundwater-spring potentials of about 1,700 km
2
(the elliptic zone).

Figure 1-1 The Project’s Area located as parts of Khon Kaen, Maha Sarakham, Roi-Et,
and Kalasin provinces.
1.4 The Project’s Activities
The Project’s activities include 3 major subjects of which their details have
been illustrated in Table 1-1.
1.5 The Project’s Period
The Project’s has been designed for a total period of 700 days since October 14
th
,
2010 or shall be completed within the date of September 12
th
, 2012.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 1

Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
1-3
Table 1-1 Types and quantity of completed works.
Types of works Quantity of works
Hydrogeological study and survey over the Project’s area
1. Data collection and preparation of GIS system
- Data collection
- Preparation of GIS system
1 Project’s area
2. General survey for topography, geology, geological structure,
and hydrogeology
- Topographic survey
- Aerial photo interpretation
- Geological and hydrogeological survey
1 Project’s area
3. Wells inventory
- Wells inventory
- Groundwater seepage survey
- Flowing artesian wells survey

407
36
37

wells
locations
wells
4. Surveys on land-use and water utilization for agricultural
purpose
- Land-use survey
- Water utilization survey
1 Project’s area
5. Soil/Rock infiltration tests
- Soil/Rock infiltration tests
- Soil infiltration tests by hand-auger

101
15

samples
samples
6. Geophysical survey
- Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES)
- 2 Dimension resistivity survey

300
15

locations
lines of 500 m each
7. Exploration drilling (coring)
- Coring
- Geophysical logging (e-logging)
- Grainsize analysis (sieve analysis)
- Groundwater sample analysis

370
4
12
4

M (4 drilled holes)
holes
samples
samples
8. Selection of 3 groundwater spring high-potential areas
- Selection with GIS techniques
- Public hearings in the high-potential areas
4 Areas (for 3 areas)
9. Observation wells development
- Exploration drilling
- Geophysical logging (e-logging)
- Grainsize analysis (sieve analysis)
- Development of observation wells
- Measuring of well heights

21
21
43
21
21

holes (1,801 เมตร)
holes
samples
wells
wells
10. Observation wells (150 mm) pumping test
- Pumping test
- Complete analysis of groundwater samples

9
64

wells
samples

Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 1

Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
1-4
Table 1-1 Types and quantity of works in the Project (cont.)
Types of works Quantity of works
11. Selection of aquifer’s representative wells and collection of
groundwater samples
- Selection of aquifer’s representative wells and samples collection
- Practical analysis of groundwater samples


125
125


Wells/samples
samples
12. Study on artificial recharge in the Project’s area 1 Project’s area
13. Groundwater modeling 1 Project’s area
14. Construction of a 1:50,000 hydrogeological map of the
Project’s area
1 Project’s area
Detailed hydrogeological study and survey in the
groundwater springs high potential areas
1. Survey and mapping of 1:4,000 hydrogeological map


3


areas
2. Geophysical survey (resistivity survey)
- Vertically Electrical Sounding (VES)
- 2 Dimension resistivity survey

322
15

locations
lines of 500 m each
3. Exploration drilling (coring)
- Coring
- Geophysical logging (e-logging)
- Grainsize analysis (sieve analysis)
- Groundwater sample analysis

360
4
10
4

m (4 drilled holes)
holes
samples
samples
4. Soil infiltration test in the high-potential area 31 locations
5. Study of artificial recharge 3 areas
6. Groundwater modeling 3 areas
7. Selection of the most suitable area to be the Project’s pilot area 3 areas (for 1 area)
Groundwater springs development and formulation of
the pilot system for sustainable management and
utilization of the springs
1. Organizing the meeting of agriculturalists and stake-holders

3

times
2. Drilling of production wells
- Drilling and development of the production wells
- Geophysical logging (e-logging)
- Grainsize analysis (sieve analysis)
- Pumping test
- Complete analysis of groundwater samples

3
3
6
3
39

wells
wells
samples
wells
samples
3. Installation of automatic water-level recorders 9 sets
4. Development of the pilot system for sustainable utilization
of groundwater spring
- Survey and design of water collection and distribution system
- Fiber-glass cylindrical tanks
- Establishment of groundwater spring users group
- Training of the agriculturalists group
- Organizing of the Project’s final conference


1
5
1
1
1


system
tanks (total 300 m
3
)
group
time
time (100 participants)

Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 1

Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
1-5


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-1
SECTION 2
THE PROJECT’S OPERATION AND RESULTS
The Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River
Basin Project comprises 3 major works of the followings :
1) Hydrogeological study and survey over the Project’s area,
2) Detailed hydrogeological study and survey in the groundwater springs high
potential areas, and
3) The springs resource development and formulation of the pilot system for
sustainable management and utilization of the springs.
2.1 The Project’s Area Hydrogeological Survey
This is the regional surveys of 1:50,000 scale which includes topography,
natural and man-made surface-water conditions, and the repeated flooded and drought zones.
Followings are their results.
2.1.1 Topographical Features
Elevation of the Project’s area is between 130-530 m MSL. The NW-SE high
mountain ranges have been found in its NE-side and Phu Lum Pha Guan located in Na Ku
District of Kalasin province is the highest peak of 530 m MSL. Its N and SW sections are rolling
areas of 130-300 m high. Whereas, the Chi river basin of 130-180 m high is located in the NW,
W, S, and SE zones of the Project’s area (Figure 2-1).
The Chi river is the major tributary found in the area. It flows from the west to
the east with meandering features and several oxblow lakes. It is more than 900 km long
which covers the total basin of 49,477 km
2
and yields average annual run-off of 11,244 million
cubic meters.
2.1.2 Geological Features
Geology of the Project’s area comprises 8 units of sedimentary rocks and 2
units of unconsolidated sediments (Figure 2-2).
1) Sedimentary Rock
The Jurassic Rocks : There is only 1 formation found
The Phu Kradung Unit (Jpk Formation) has been located as a narrow zone in
the NE section. The Jpk consists of siltstone, mudstone, and sandstone.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-4
The Jurassic-Cretaceous Rocks : There is also only 1 formation found.
The Phra Wihan Formation (Jpw) has been located along the NE edge of the area
and composes of sandstone, conglomerate, conglomeratic sandstone, and quartzite. Siltstone
alternating has been locally found.
The Cretaceous Rocks : There are 3 units
- The Sao Khua Formation (Ksk) has been mapped onto the NE parts and
comprises siltstone with alternation of sandstone and conglomerate.
- The Phu Phan Formation (Kpp) has been located in the NE and NW sections
and comprises conglomeratic sandstone, sandstone, and conglomerate.
- The Khok Kruat Formation (Kkk) crops out as wide zones in the NW, NE, and
E parts and composes mainly of sandstone and siltstone.
The Cretaceous-Tertiary Rocks : This can be correlated with the Phu Thok
Formation (KTpt) and its 3 classified units have been found in the area.
- The Phu Thok 1 (KTpt1) has been mapped into the central part of the area
and comprises mudstone and claystone with alternation of siltstone.
- The Phu Thok 2 (KTpt2) crops out in the eastern and southwestern central
portions and consists of siltstone with alternation of feldsparthic sandstone.
- The Phu Thok 3 (KTpt3) has been found as small spots in the SW part and
composes of arkosic sandstone with sandstone alternation.
2) Quaternary Sediment
There are 2 types of Quaternary sediment found in the area.
a) The Terrace deposit (Qt) has been found between foothill and river-flood
plain areas, as well as along the high river-terrace zones. The Qt has been located following
the NW-SE trend in NW, central, and S parts of the Project’s area. It consists in general of
gravel, sand, silt, rock fragment, and lateritic soil.
b) The Alluvial deposit (Qa) covers the major flood plains of the Chi river and
her tributaries which are mostly in the southern and western central zones of the area. The
Qa composes mainly of gravel, sand, clay, and laterite.
2.1.3 Geological Structures
The major alignment of sedimentary rocks found in the Project’s area is the
NW-SE trend with inclination of both eastwards and westwards. Folds of both anticlinal and
synclinal types with NW-SE axial planes have been usually found in the rocks of Khorat Group.
As well, joints of both NW-SE and NE-SW directions have been noted.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-5
2.1.4 Hydrogeological Features
Hydrogeology of the Project’s area comprises both unconsolidated and consolidated
aquifers of totally 6 units (Figure 2-3). The unconsolidated aquifers comprise the unconfined
one of those sand, silt, and clay (Sc aquifer) and the confined one of those gravel and sand (Gs
aquifer). The consolidated aquifers compose of Phu Thok (Pt), Khok Kruat (Kk), Phu Phan (Pp),
Sao Khua (Sk), and Phra Wihan (Pw) aquifers.
A) The Unconsolidated aquifers comprise all types of unconsolidated
sediments as clay, mud, silt, sand, gravel, and rock fragment which have been deposited within
the basin, plain, and hill-slope areas. They have been mapped as NW-SE narrow zones in the
central portion of the area and classified into 2 units.
- The Unconfined aquifer comprises in major of sand and silt (sand-silt
aquifer: Sc) of the uppermost layer. Groundwater can be expected at 10-40 m deep which
may have direct recharges from both river and rain. The Sc yields good quality fresh water.
Locally, it overlies brackish water which may cause brackish to salty water in dry season. The
6 inches diameter wells could yield groundwater of less than 5 m
3
/hr with permeability
coefficient (K) of 1-15 m/day.
- The Consolidated aquifer covers a long-narrow portion of contact zone
between the Khok Kruat and Phu Thok Formations which is in the NW-SE direction. It
comprises gravel and sand of white quartz and black chert and, thus, has been classified to be
gravel and sand aquifer (Gs). The coarse sediment is generally well rounded and moderately
to well sorted. Petrified wood and charcoal are usually found within this Gs aquifer. The Gs is
about 10-15 m thick with intercalated clay layers of 3-15 m thick. Any groundwater well
developed at 150-170 m MSL could give spring of 0.5-8.0 m high above the surface and with
free-flow rate of 1-5 m
3
/hr and permeability coefficient of 9x10
-15
-20 m/day.
B) The Consolidated aquifers compose of 5 aquifers as follows.
- The Phu Thok aquifer (Pt) comprises alternation of red fine-grained
sandstone and siltstone of the Middle Phu Thok Unit and alternation of reddish brown
mudstone, shale and siltstone of the Lower Phu Thok Unit. The Pt covers major central
portion of the Project’s area and extends towards the western, southwestern, and
southeastern parts too. Groundwater is trapped within bedding planes and fractures of rocks
and it has been found of both unconfined and confined types.
The unconfined Pt is about 20-50 m deep and, generally, yields good
quality water. This is except for its lower part which may yield brackish water influenced by
rock salt of Mahasarakham Formation. Wells of 6 inches diameter yield 2-10 m
3
/hr with
permeability coefficient of 5x10
-13
-17 m/day.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-7
The confined Pt covers the southwestern part of the area. It is 60-110 m
deep. Flowing artesian well or spring can be expected from elevation of 150-170 m MSL. The
confined Pt yield good quality water with free-flow rate of 5-100 m
3
/hr and permeability
coefficient of 0.01-15 m/day.
- The Khok Kruat aquifers (Kk) cover large area in the NW, N, NE, and E of
the Project’s area. The Kk comprises alternation of reddish brown to reddish purple
sandstone, siltstone and shale with, locally, gravelly texture and intercalation of thin layers of
gypsum or anhydrite. Except for intrusion of salt water from the overlain rock-salt layer in
some specific area, the Kk yields good quality groundwater from depth of 20-60 meters.
Groundwater wells of 6 inches diameter yield less than 5 m
3
/hr with permeability coefficient of
0.04-2 m/day.
- The Phu Phan aquifer (Pp) has been located in the NE part of the
Project’s area. It consists of medium-to coarse-grained sandstone, gravelly sandstone, and
conglomerate. As well, groundwater can be expected from bedding planes and fractures. The
Pp yields good quality groundwater from depth of 30-50 meters. Wells of 6 inches diameter
yield less than 2 m
3
/hr with permeability coefficient of 0.04-15 m/day.
- The Sao Khua aquifer (Sk) has been mapped into the NE portion of the
Project’s area. It comprises alternation of siltstone, fine-to medium-grained sandstone, and
conglomerate. Again, groundwater can be found from bedding planes and fractures. The Sk
yields fresh water from 30-50 m deep. Wells of 6 inches diameter yields less than 2 m
3
/hr
with permeability coefficient of 0.07-4 m/day. The Sk yields low productivity or even non-
productivity if fractures were not found.
- The Phra Wihan aquifer (Pw) covers the NE portion of the Project’s area.
It consists of fine-to coarse-grained quartzitic sandstone, conglomerate, and conglomeratic
sandstone with, locally, alternation of siltstone. The Pw is relatively high resistive to erosion.
It is therefore less fractured and becomes an aquitard. However, good quality groundwater
can be expected from 40-60 m deep. Wells of 6 inches diameter yield less than 5 m
3
/hr and
with permeability coefficient of 0.04-3 m/day.
2.1.5 Prioritizing of the Groundwater Spring High-Potential Areas
A total of 407 groundwater wells located within the Project’s area (Figure 2-4) has
been inspected and classified following their conditions (Table 2-1). Among them, 273 wells
(67.08 %) are still usable with good conditions and 294 well (72.24 %) are for consumption (Table 2-2).
There are 36 locations of groundwater seepage found in the area. They follow
the NW-SE trend from Nam Phong district towards Kranuan, Sam Sung districts of Khon Kaen
province; Yang Talat, Nong Krung Si, Mueang Kalasin, Don Chan, Kamalasai, and Rong Kham
Districts of Kalasin province; and Pho Chai and Phon Thong districts of Roi-Et province. This
seepage is generally found in the paddy fields and low land areas which are geologically
overlain by gravel, sand, and silt (Figure 2-4).

Susta
Groun
Than




ainable Develop
ndwater Conse
a Thoranee Co
pment of Flowi
ervation and Re
.,Ltd.
ing Artesian We
estoration Burea

ellfield in the C
au, Departmen
Central Chi River
t of Groundwat
r Basin Project
ter Resources
Executiv ve Summary
Section 2

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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-9
Table 2-1 The number and conditions of groundwater wells
Well conditions
Groundwater wells
Total
DGR Orther Private Shallow
1.Usable well
1.1 Existed well 156 83 21 5 265
1.2 Reserved well 3 3 2 - 8
2.Unusable well
2.1.Abandoned 44 24 5 - 73
2.2 Broken pump 7 6 - - 13
2.3 No pump 2 2 - - 4
2.4 Damaged well 7 12 - - 19
2.5 Clogged well 1 1 - - 2
2.6 Brackish water 3 1 - - 4
2.7 Rusty/Stinking/Turbid 6 1 - - 7
3. Completely abandoned well
3.1 Plugged well 3 2 - - 5
3.2 Concealed well 3 1 - 1 5
3.3 Non-discovered well - - - - -
4. Observation well 2 - - - 2
Total 237 136 28 6 407
Remarks
Existed well : A good condition well with pump.
Reserved well : A good condition well with pump but to be used as a reserved one.
Abandoned well : A good condition well with pump but was abandoned by the villager.
Broken pump : A well with broken pumping devices.
No pump : A well without pumping devices.
Damaged well : A completely damaged well.
Clogged well : A well completely clogged with clay, rock fragment, or waste.
Brackish water : A well with bad quality (brackish to salty) water.
Rusty/Stinking/Turbid : A well with rusty or stinking or turbid water.
Plugged well : A well officially plugged by Department of Groundwater Resources or
Department of Mineral Resources.
Concealed well : A well already concealed by overlain soil as influences of road
construction or house building.
Non-discovered well : A well already abandoned for along time until its position connot
be located.
Observation well : A well drilled and developed by Department of Groundwater Resources
as for observing of groundwater.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-10
Table 2-2 The groundwater wells classification following their usage types
Type of groundwater usage Well number (wells)
Consumption
294
Agriculture
4
Consumption and Agriculture
5
Unclassified utilization
104
Likewise, a total of 37 spring groundwater wells has been found. Their
elevations are between 140-180 m MSL. Most of them are for agricultural purposes and yield
good quality fresh water. However, only 25 wells still spring.
The general concepts for prioritizing of the groundwater spring high-potential areas
comprise : the study, compilation, and analysation of all hydrogeological data-base and then
evaluation for preliminary delineate of the high-potential areas. With refence to the works of Saraf
et al. (2009), this evaluation has been carried out using the Weighted Index Overay Analysis (WIOA).
The applied data and evaluation results have been shown in Figure 2-5 and 2-6, respectively.
The major factors of this evaluation and prioritization are weighted in order of
the followings : discovering of groundwater spring, its potentials, cooperation of the villagers
and stakeholders, and necessity of groundwater for agricultural perpose.
Following the above-mentioned prioritization, 3 areas have been selected for
being high-potential areas of groundwater spring.
- Ban Rak Chat area, Bua Yai sub-district, Nam Phong district, Khon Khaen province,
- Ban O Kham area, Kra Nuan sub-district, Sam Sung district, Khon Khaen province, and
- Ban Nat area, Nua sub-district, Mueang district, Kalasin province.















Figure 2-5 The GIS classification for groundwater spring potential areas
Geological Information
Water Information
Groundwater Quality
Information
Sediment Thickness
Information
Drought Area
Information
Elevation Information
Primary high potential areas
of groundwater spring
Superimposed using the factor scores.
Seepage and Spring
location
Irrigation Area
Landuse Information

Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-11




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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-12
2.2 The Study and Detailed-Hydrogeological Surveys in the Groundwater
Spring High Potential Areas
The consultant has carried out detailed surveys over all the 3 selected
groundwater spring high potential areas. Their results are as follows.
2.2.1 Ban O Kham Area
Ban O Kham area covers a tract of about 572 rais. It is a flat area which is
mostly paddy field with, locally, cassava and eucaluptus. It si 158-170 m high above MSL. A
gravelly-sandy hill of 170-184 m high has been mapped northwards, out of the area. Huay
Sokkrog which is an intermittent strem flows from NE to SW direction through central part of
the area. Nong (swamp) Kham Yai located in the SE section is the major source of surface water.
2.2.1.1 Geological Features of Ban O Kham Area
Geological features of the area comprises 2 units of Cretaceous to Tertiary sedimentary
rocks and 2 units of Quaternary unconsolidated sediments (Figure 2-7). They are as follows.
Khok Kruat Formation (Kkk) : The Kkk formation of early Creataceous period
comprises mainly of sandstone and siltstone and has been located in the NE direction out of
the area.
Phu Thok 1 Unit (KTpt1) : The KTpt1 unit of Cretaceous to Tertiary period
composes of sandstone, claystone, and intercalated siltstone. It has been found in the
southern direction out of area and, as well as, from the exploration wells
Terrace Deposits (Qt) : This is the Quaternary unconsolidated to
semiconsolidated sediments. The Qt consists of 3 sub-units; grey to black sandy gravel (Qtgb),
red sandy gravel (Qtgr), and clayey sand (Qts). However, only the Qts has been found to
overlie the whole Ban O Kham area. Followings are details of the 3 sub-units.
- The Qtgb has not been found in the area but its samples have been taken
from exploration wells. It comprises brownish grey to dark grey sandy gravel and gravel of 2-
10 mm. in diameter. Generally, the Qtgb is overlain by a clay layer.
- The Qtgr has been located in the northern and southern parts, out of Ban O
Kham area. It consists of reddish brown sandy gravel and gravel of 2-30 mm in diameter.
Intercalated clay layer has been usually found within this Qtgr.
- The Qts has been mapped covering the whole Ban O Kham area and
vicinity. It comprises in major of sand and clayey sand.
Alluvial Deposit (Qa) : The Qa is considered to be the present stream
sediment deposits. It covers the eastern and southeastern parts out of Ban O Kham area
which are entirely paddy field low-land area. The Qa composes sandy clay and clay.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-13



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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-14
2.2.1.2 Hydrogeological Features of Ban O Kham Area
The major hydrogeological units or aquifers of Ban O Kham area (Figure 2-8) are
those of the stream sediment deposits which overlie Khok Kruat aquifer (Kk), as follows.
A) The Unconsolidated aquifer comprises alluvial and terrace deposits. It
covers entire area of Ban O Kham and composes of both unconfined and confined types.
- The unconfined aquifer composes of sand, clayey sand, and clay which
are the younger deposits of both alluvium and terrace deposit. Its sandy part is fine-to
medium-grained, well sorted, subangular to subrounded, and well sphericity. Groundwater
can be expected from 10-30 m deep with yield capacity of 5-20 m
3
/hr and permeability
coefficient of 1-15 m/day.
- The confined aquifer comprises sandy gravel and gravel of terrace deposit.
Flowing artesian well of 0.5-8.0 m high with free-flow rate of 1-5 m
3
/hr can be expected elsewhere
of 150-170 m MSL in elevation. The aquifer yields good quality water of 5 to less than 20 m
3
/hr
and with permeability coefficient of 0.39-3.92 m/day. It has been classified into 2 sub-aquifers.
The red sandy gravel sub-aquifer (Gs-r) is the upper one and composes
of reddish brown sandy gravel and gravel of 2-30 mm in diameter, poorly to moderately
sorted, subangular to rounded, and well sphericity. The Gs-r contains mostly of quartz, chert,
and petrified wood. It is 10-60 m deep.
The black sandy gravel sub-aquifer (Gs-b) is the lower one and consists
of dark brown to dark grey sandy gravel and gravel of 2-10 mm in diameter, poorly to
moderately sorted, subangular to rounded, and well sphericity. The Gs-b contains mostly of
quartz, chert, and charcoal. It is 50-120 m deep.
B) The Phu Thok aguifer (Pt) is the Lower Phu Thok (Phu Thok 1) Unit
comprises orangish red mudstone, claystone, and intercalated siltstone. Its permeability
coefficient is generally less than 1 m/day.
C) The Khok Kruat Aquifer (Kk) composes of purplish brown to reddish
brown sandstone, fine-to medium-grained, moderately sorted; and reddish brown siltstone,
micaceous and calcareous texture.
2.2.2 Ban Rak Chat Area
Ban Rak Chat area covers a plot of about 518 rais. It is also a flat area of mostly
paddy field with, locally, grove, eucalyptus, sugar-cane, cassava, and rubber tree. It is 158-172 m
high above MSL. A gravelly-sandy hill of 172-188 m high has been located northwards, out of the
area. A small intermittent stream flows from NE to SW direction through central part of the area.
The important sources of surface water are Nong Bua Yai in the south and irrigation canal in the west.
2.2.2.1 Geological Features of Ban Rak Chat Area
Geological features of the area comprises 2 units of Cretaceous to Tertiary sedimentary
rocks and 2 units of Quaternary unconsolidated sediments (Figure 2-9). They are as follows.

Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-16
Khok Kruat Formation (Kkk) : The Kkk formation of early Cretaceous period
comprises mainly of sandstone and siltstone and has been mapped into the NE direction, out
of the area.
Phu Thok 1 Unit (KTpt1) : The KTpt1 unit of Cretaceous to Tertiary period
composes of mudstone, claystone, and intercalated siltstone. Outcrops of the KTpt1 have not
yet been found in the area but some samples have been obtained from the exploration wells.
Terrace deposits (Qt) : This is the Quaternary unconsolidated to
semiconsolidated sediments. The Qt consists of 3 sub-units; black sandy gravel (Qtgb), red
sandy gravel (Qtgr), and clayey sand (Qts). However, only the Qts has been found to overlie
the whole Ban Rak Chat area. Followings are details of the 3 sub-units.
- The Qtgb has not yet been found in the area but its samples have been
taken from exploration wells. It comprises brownish grey to dark grey sandy gravel and gravel
of 2-10 mm in diameter. Generally, the Qtgb is overlain by a clay layer.
- The Qtgr has been located in the northern part, out of Ban Rak Chat area, at
the elevation of 170 m MSL and above. The Qtgr consists mainly of reddish brown sandy
gravel and gravel.
- The Qts has been mapped covering the whole Ban Rak Chat area and
vicinity. It comprises finer-grained sediment as clayey sand and sand.
Alluvial deposits (Qa) : The Qa is considered to be the present stream
sediment deposits. It covers southern vicinity of Ban Rak Chat area which is entirely paddy
field low-land area. The Qa comprises sandy clay, sand, and clay.
2.2.2.2 Hydrogeological Features of Ban Rak Chat Area.
The major hydrogeological units or aquifers of Ban Rak Chat area (Figure 2-10)
are those of the stream sediment deposits which overlie Khok Kruat (Kk) and Phu Thok
aquifers (Pt), as follows.
A) The Unconsolidated aquifer comprises alluvial and terrace deposits. It
covers entire area of Ban Rak Chat and composes of both unconfined and confined types.
- The unconfined aquifer composes of sand, clayey sand, and clay which
are the younger deposits of both alluvium and terrace deposit. Laterite has been found in
some portions. Groundwater can be expected from 10-40 m deep with yield capacity of 5-20
m
3
/hr and permeability coefficient of 1-15 m/day.
- The confined aquifer comprises sandy gravel and gravel of terrace deposit.
Flowing artesian well of 0.5-3.0 m high with free-flow rate of 0.20 m
3
/hr can be expected
elsewhere of 155-170 m MSL in elevation. The aquifer yields good quality water of 5-20 m
3
/hr and
with permeability coefficient of 0.28-0.80 m/day. It has been classified into 2 sub-aquifers.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-18




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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-19
The red sandy gravel sub-aquifer (Gs-r) is the upper one and composes
of reddish brown sandy gravel and gravel of 2-30 mm in diameter, poorly to moderately
sorted, subangular to rounded, and well sphericity. The Gs-r contains mostly of quartz, chert,
and petrified wood. It is 10-60 m deep.
The black sandy gravel sub-aquifer (Gs-b) is the lower one and consists
of dark brown to dark grey sandy gravel and gravel of 2-10 mm in diameter, poorly to
moderately sorted, subangular to rounded and well sphericity. The Gs-b contains mostly of
quartz, chert, and charcoal. It is 30-140 m deep.
B) The Phu Thok aguifer (Pt) is the Lower Phu Thok (Phu Thok 1) Unit
comprises orangish red mudstone, claystone, and intercalated siltstone.
C) The Khok Kruat Aquifer (Kk) composes of purplish brown to reddish
brown sandstone, fine-to medium-grained, moderately sorted; and reddish brown siltstone,
micaceous and calcareous texture.
2.2.3 Ban Nat Area
Ban Nat area covers a tract of about 523 rais. It is also a flat area of mostly
cassava plantation with some paddy-field, eucalyptus, rubber tree, grove, mango and grass-
field. It is 150-160 m high above MSL. A gravelly- sandy hill of 164-180 m high has been
located northwards, out of the area. Nong Khaen and irrigation canal in its western portion are
the major sources of surface water.
2.2.3.1 Geological Features of Ban Nat Area
Geological Features of the area comprises 2 units of Cretaceous to Tertiary
sedimentary rocks and 2 units of Quaternary unconsolidated sediments (Figure 2-11). They are
as follows.
Khok Kruat1 Formation (Kkk) : The Kkk formation of early Cretaceous period
comprises mainly of sandstone and siltstone and has been mapped into the NE direction out of
the area.
Phu Thok 1 Unit (KTpt1) : The KTpt1 unit of Cretaceous to Tertiary period
composes of mudstone, claystone, and intercalated siltstone. Outcrops of the KTpt1 have
been mapped into the southern vicinity of the area but some samples have been obtained
from the exploration and observation wells.
Terrace deposits (Qt) : This is the Quaternary unconsolidated to
semiconsolidated sediments. The Qt consists of 3 sub-units; black sandy gravel (Qtgb), red
sandy gravel (Qtgr), and clayey sand (Qts). However, only the Qts has been found to overlie
the whole Ban Nat area. Followings are detatils of the 3 sub-units.
- The Qtgb has not yet been found in the area but its samples have been
taken from exploration wells. It comprises brownish grey to dark grey sandy gravel and gravel.
Generally, the Qtgb is overlain by a clay layer.

Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-20




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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-21
- The Qtgr has not yet been found also in the area but its samples have
been taken from exploration wells. It comprises reddish brown sandy gravel.
- The Qts has been mapped covering the entire area and vicinity. It
comprises finer-grained sediment as clayey sand and sand.
Alluvial deposits (Qa) : The Qa is considered to be the present stream
sediment deposits. It covers northern, southern, and northeastern vicinity of Ban Nat area
which are entirely paddy field low-land areas. The Qa consists mainly of sandy clay and clay.
2.2.3.2 Hydrogeological Features of Ban Nat Area
The major hydrogeological units or aquifers of Ban Nat area (Figure 2-12) are
those of the stream sediment deposits which overlie Khok Kruat aquifer (Kk), as follows.
A) The Unconsolidated aquifer comprises alluvial and terrace deposits. It
covers entire area of Ban Nat and composes of both unconfined and confined types.
- The unconfined aquifer composes of sand, clayey sand, and clay which
are the younger deposits of both alluvium and terrace deposit. The sandy part is fine-to
medium-grained, well sorted, subangular to subrounded, and well sphericity. Groundwater
can be expected from 10-20 m deep with yield capacity of 5-20 m
3
/hr and permeability
coefficient of 1-15 m/day.
- The confined aquifer comprises sandy gravel and gravel of terrace deposit.
Flowing artesian well of 0.2-4.5 m high with free-flow rate of 0.30-2.40 m
3
/hr can be expected
elsewhere of 148-155 m MSL in elevation. The aquifer yields good quality water of 5 to less
than 20 m
3
/hr and with permeability coefficient of 1.10-3.61 m/day. It has been classified into
2 sub-aquifers.
The red sandy gravel sub-aquifer (Gs-r) is the upper one and composes
of reddish brown sandy gravel and gravel of 2-30 mm in diameter, poorly to moderately
sorted, subangular to rounded, and well sphericity. The Gs-r contains mostly of quartz, chert,
and petrified wood. It is 20-60 m deep.
The black sandy gravel sub-aquifer (Gs-b) is the lower one and consists
of dark brown to dark grey sandy gravel and gravel of 2-10 mm in diameter, poorly to
moderately sorted, subangular to rounded and well sphericity. The Gs-b contains mostly of
quartz, chert, and charcoal. It is 40-80 m deep.
B) The Phu Thok aguifer (Pt) is the Lower Phu Thok (Phu Thok 1) unit
comprises orangish red mudstone, claystone, and intercalated siltstone.
C) The Khok Kruat Aquifer (Kk) composes of purplish brown to reddish
brown sandstone, fine-to medium-grained, moderately sorted; and reddish brown siltstone,
micaceous and calcareous texture.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-22




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Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-23
2.2.4 Results of Exploration Drilling and Selection of the Project’s Pilot Area
2.2.4.1 Results of Exploration Drilling
Positions for exploration drilling have been located within the recharge zone,
production zone, and discharge zone of all 3 groundwater spring high-potential areas. Within
each zone, two exploration holes of approximately 5 m. apart have been penetrated to the
bedrock. Subsequently, they have been developed to be groundwater observation wells of
150 mm and 100 mm, respectively. For all 3 areas, 21 observation wells with a total
penetration depths of 1,801 m. have been completed (Figure 2-7, 2-9 and 2-11). Among them, 9
wells have been checked by pumping-test. As well, their geological and hydrogeological
features, including groundwater quality have been analysed, studied, and evaluated.
As a result, it has been found that piezometric levels (head) of groundwater at
Ban Rak Chat, Ban O Kham, and Ban Nat are between 0.05-1.41, 2.50-8.00, and 0.20-4.50 m
above the surface, respectively. Meanwhile, their Transmissivity (T), Storativity (S), and
Permeability (K) values are 5.18-11.58, 4.62-50.69, and 13.23-57.89 m
2
/day; 3.00 x 10
-4
-5.72 x 10
-3
,
2.96 x 10
-4
-3.15 x 10
-2
, and 3.00 x 10
-4
-5.72 x 10
-3
; 0.28-0.80, 0.39-3.92, and 1.10-3.61 m/day,
respectively. Following such hydrological properties, Ban O Kham area has been considered to
be the highest potential area for groundwater spring.
2.2.4.2 Results of the Project’s Pilot Area Selection
The Project’s pilot area has been selected following evaluation of the
designed-related factors, as : piezometric head, size of the potential area, free-flow rate,
transmissivity, electrical conductivity (Ec) of groundwater, groundwater quality for agriculture
following Sodium Absorbing Ratio (SAR), and distance from irrigation cannal. Consequently,
their standards and evaluating weights have been defined (Table 2-3)
Table 2-4 concludes all of the above-mentioned factors of all 3 area.
Table 2-5 shows the evaluation results that Ban O Kham area of Sam Sung sub-
district, Kranuan district, Khon Kaen province is the most suitable area for being the Project’s
pilot area. It is followed by Ban Nat and Ban Rak Chat areas, respectively.
2.3 The Development of Groundwater Spring and Erection of the Pilot System
The groundwater spring resource at Ban O Kham area has been developed by
drilling and developing of 3 production wells and establishing of the pilot system for
sustainable utilization of such resources, as follows.



Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-24
Table 2-3 Standards for the pilot area selection
Conditions
Weight of the
Conditon
Criteria Scores
1. Piezometric head 3 > 6 meters
> 3 - 6 meters
1 – 3 meters
3
2
1
2. Size of the potential area 3
> 300 rais
100 - 300 rais
< 100 rais
3
2
1
3. Free flow rate 3
≥ 3 m
3
/hr
1.5 - < 3 m
3
/hr
< 1.5 m
3
/hr
3
2
1
4. Transmissivity (T) 3
≥ 20 m
2
/day
10 - < 20 m
2
/day
< 10 m
2
/day
3
2
1
5. Electical Conductivity (Ec) 1 < 750 µS/cm
750 – 1,500 µS/cm
> 1,500 µS/cm
3
2
1
6. Sodium Absorbing Ratio (SAR) 1 Excellent (<10 epm)
Good - moderate (10-26 epm)
Unsuitable (>26 epm)
3
2
1
7. Distance from irrigation cannal 1 > 500 meters
100 - 500 meters
< 100 meters
3
2
1
Table 2-4 Details of standards for selection of groundwater spring potential areas
Factors Ban Rak Chat Ban O Kham Ban Nat
1. Piezometric head (meters) 0.05-1.41 2.50-8.00 0.20-4.50
2. Size of the potential area (rais) 26 427 96
3. Free flow rate (m
3
/hr) 0.15-1.20 0.60-5.00 0.30-2.37
4. Transmissivity (T : m
2
/day) 5.18 50.69 13.23
5. Electical Conductivity (EC : µS/cm) 116-461 77-340 74-488
6. Sodium Absorbing Ratio (SAR : eqm) 0.55-3.44 0.26-0.66 0.04-3.37
7. Distance from irrigation cannal (meters) 5 >2,000 5
Table 2-5 The summary results of the pilot area selection
Factors
Ban Rak Chat
(score)
Ban O Kham
(score)
Ban Nat
(score)
1. Piezometric head 3 9 6
2. Size of the potential area 3 9 3
3. Free flow rate 3 9 6
4. Transmissivity (T) 3 9 6
5. Electical Conductivity (EC) 3 3 3
6. Sodium Absorbing Ratio (SAR) 3 3 3
7. Distance from irrigation cannal 1 3 1
Total Score 19 45 28

Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-25
2.3.1 Organizing the Meeting of Agriculturalists and Stake-holders
The meeting and conferences of the agriculturalists and stake-holders in Ban O
Kham area have been continuously organized throughout the Project’s period. These are to
promote the Project’s objectives and activities, as well as, to gain additional information and
advices from the meeting. Ultimately it is aimed for establishment of a cluster of
groundwater spring agriculturalist-user for the future self-reliant management of the system.
2.3.2 Drilling and Development of the Production Wells
Three (3) production wells of 28 inches in diameter and 12 inches screen have
been completely drilled and developed in Ban O Kham area. Particle sizes of every aquifer
have been studied for the most appropriate selection of the gravel-packed and screen-slotted
sizes. Following the groundwater-well development standards of the Department of
Groundwater Resources, all 3 production wells have been tested by long-termed pumping test (72 hrs).
The water samples have been collected before and every 6 hrs during the test and,
subsequently, sent for complete-qualitative analysis. As well, well efficiency tests have been
done for every well. As a conclusion, it has been found that the major aquifer consists of
coarse to very course-grained sand, the suitable gravel-packed size is 4-8 mm. and the slot
numbers are 20 for PW1 well and 160 for PW2-2 and PW3 wells.
2.3.3 Installation of the Automatic Water-Level Recorders
Under approval of the Project’s Inspection Committee, the consulting company
has purchased 9 sets of the Data Logger MDS Floater-3, a product of SEBA Hydrometric
GmbH&Co.KG of Germany, to be the Project’s automatic water-level recorders. They have
been installed into the 9 selected 4-inches diameter observation wells in all 3 groundwater
spring high potential areas. Each well represents recharge, development, and discharge zone
of each area, respectively (Table 2-6).
Table 2-6 Details of observation wells equipped with automatic water-level recorders
Area Well No.
UTM
Elevation
(m)
Well
Depth
(m)
Development
Depth
(m)
Slotted
Zone
(m)
Groundwater
Level
(m)
Remarks
Easting Northing
Ban Rak Chat
Bua Yai
Nam Phong
Khon Kaen
SPA11 280257.62 1839462.64 174.84 62 52 36-48 3.00 Non-flowing well
SPA40 279745.55 1838885.76 169.06 140 126 102-122 -1.06 Flowing well
SPA31 278136.37 1837778.45 158.33 90 86 70-82 -1.10 Flowing well
Ban O Kham
Kranuan
Sam Sung
Khon Kaen
SPB11 292131.30 1831598.00 192.535 66 56 40-52 12.00 Non-flowing well
SPB21-1 291716.04 1831124.48 177.85 84 78 62-74 0.30 Non-flowing well
SPB31 291151.37 1829279.86 160.62 96 92 68-88 -6.50 Flowing well
Ban Nat
Nuea
Mueang
Kalasin
SPC11 348854.82 1820191.26 163.07 114 94 74-90 7.60 Non-flowing well
SPC21 348474.64 1819974.07 154.498 98 76 56-72 -0.20 Flowing well
SPC31 348080.50 1819737.88 149.19 72 68 52-64 -4.5 Flowing well l

Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-26
2.3.4 Development of the Pilot System for Sustainable Utilization
of Groundwater Spring
2.3.4.1 Survey and Design of Water Collection and Distribution System
The water collection tanks have been designed following wells’ production
capacity for a total of 300 cubic meters and the water distribution system has been designed
through 4-inches, 2-inches, and 1-inch diameter PVC pipe. It has been calculated that with
only groundwater piezometric pressure the system should distribute water covering the entire
Project’s pilot area (572 rais). This shall be a principle water source during dry season and, as
well, shall be an additional one during rainy season.
The system comprises 4 major sections a follows (Figure 2-13)
1) Three (3) spring wells as PW1, PW2-2, and PW3 have been completely
developed to be Project’s production wells with 2 additional observation wells (SPB50 and SPB40).
2) Five (5) fiber-glass cylindrical tanks comprise two of 100 m
3
and each of 75,
15, and 10 m
3
. They have been installed for an approximate head of 3.0-3.5 meters above the
surface (Figure 2-14).
3) The connection between wells and tanks is the 4 ½-inches diameter PVC
pipe with 3-way pipe, check-valve, pressure gauge, and stop-cock for water sampling.
4) Water distribution pipes and controlling parts composes of major,
secondary, and small pipes
- The major pipes are the 4-inches diameter PVC pipes of totally 2,741 m
long including stop-valves and connectors.
- The secondary pipes are the 2-inches diameter PVC pipe of totally 1,710 m
long including stop-valves and connectors of 2 to 1 inch, 2 to ¾ inch, and 2 to ½ inch.
- The small pipes are the 1-inch diameter PVC pipe of totally 217 m long
including stop-valves and pressure gauges.
2.3.4.2 Establishment Groundwater Spring Users Group
The Groundwater Spring Agricultural Users Group has been established
following the group meeting held on August 11, 2012. This establishment aims to be one
among other ways for gaining cooperation of the villagers which will, subsequently, result in
the self-reliance, and, ultimately, their sustainable development. The group has selected 17
members to be the group’s committee. They are as follows.



Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-27

Figure 2-13 The location map of horizontally cylindrical water tanks and the irrigational piping
system of the Ban O Kham Area



Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-28


Figure 2-14 The 5 fiber-glass horizontally cylindrical water tanks
1. Mr. Phanuphong Suphengkham Chairman
2. Mr. Thanongsak Phosi Vice-Chairman
3. Mr. Suksan Nonthing Registrar/Secretary
4. Mr. Kuay Saenboot Treasurer
5. Mr. Samrej Suphengkham Receptionist
6. Ms. Sujitra Thapsi PW1 Head
7. Ms. Pathana Saengkham PW2-2 Head
8. Mr. Thongchan Phosi PW3 Head
9. Ms. Khammong Sompharn Committee
10. Mr. Thom Naklang Committee
11. Mr. Boonrod Kaewsai Committee
12. Mr. Sook Phosi Committee
13. Mr. Prasit Phosi Committee
14. Mr. Waen Wichapha Committee
15. Ms. Janla Phiwphan Committee
16. Mr. Wirat Sithala Committee
17. Mr. Prayong Mongkhunkhamsao Committee
The committee shall be responsible for designation of policy and direction of
the group including managing of the pilot system and the groundwater spring for the
ultimately sustainable utilization.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-29
2.3.4.3 Training of the Agriculteralists Group
For the optimum utilization of the groundwater spring and the land, 20
representatives of the group members have been selected to join a training course of the
“One Rai for One Hundred Thousand Bahts” of Pol. Sergeant Samai Sye-on-ta at Ban Non
Tae, Ban Dong sub-district, Ubonrat district of Khon Kaen province on October 29, 2012.
Subsequently, the group’s regulations have been drawn for being policy and direction of the group.
2.3.4.4 The Project’s Economic Analysis Results
The Project’s economic analysis aimed to consider whether the Project is
feasible to invest or not. The technique used was that of the Benefit-Cost analysis. The study
area is Ban O Kham pilot area. The study consisted of financial economic, and sensitivity
analysis. Data were randomly collected from 50 farmers within the study area and the other
50 farmers from nearby irrigated area. Secondary data as documents and related researches of
various agencies were also collected.
The study resulted in the Project’s NPV of 233,794,591.11 bahts and its BOR of
10.97 which means every 1 baht investment could have the return of 10.97 bahts. Meanwhile,
the EMIRR was 24.49%. As a conclusion, the Project’s NPV and BCR were both greater than 1
and its MIRR was much greater than capital cost. It is therefore concluded that the Project is
economically feasible. Lastly, the sensitivity analysis of 15 scenarios (Table 2-7) showed that
under such circumstances the Project was still economically feasible.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 2
Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
2-30
Table 2-7 Results of Project’s economic evaluation
Economic Scenaries
Economic Index
ENPV BCR ERR MIRR
The present study conditions 233,794,591.11 10.97 3.48 24.49
1. Products’ price decreasing 10% 208,863,881.09 9.88 3.12 24.02
2. Products’ price decreasing 20% 183,933,171.07 8.78 2.77 23.49
3. Products’ price decreasing 30% 159,002,461.05 7.68 2.41 22.88
4. Production costs increasing 10% 233,370,011.83 10.80 3.17 24.08
5. Production costs increasing 20% 232,945,432.54 10.62 2.92 23.71
6. Production costs increasing 30% 232,520,853.25 10.46 2.71 23.37
7. Planting area decreasing 10% 209,853,857.22 10.72 3.14 24.04
8. Planting area decreasing 20% 185,913,123.32 10.41 2.81 23.53
9. Planting area decreasing 30% 161,972,389.42 10.04 2.47 22.96
10. Products’ price decreasing 10%
and production costs increasing 10%
207,873,904.97 9.16 3.10 24.00
11. Products’ price decreasing 20%
and production costs increasing 20%
181,953,218.82 7.59 2.73 23.44
12. Products’ price decreasing 30%
and production costs increasing 30%
156,032,532.68 6.22 2.35 22.80
13. Products’ price decreasing 10%,
production costs increasing 10%,
and planting area decreasing 10%
186,991,638.91 9.47 2.58 23.16
14. Products’ price decreasing 20%,
production costs increasing 20%,
and planting area decreasing 20%
145,174,828.71 8.01 1.89 21.76
15. Products’ price decreasing 30%,
production costs increasing 30%,
and planting area decreasing 30%
108,344,160.52 6.60 1.36 20.27


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 3

Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
3-1
SECTION 3
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Drought is considered to be the major natural disaster of the country,
especially in the repeated zone as in our northeastern part. Several policies and directions
have been pushed out to solve such problems by many concerning governmental sectors.
One of the most effective solution proposed and proceeded by Department
of Groundwater Resources (DGR) is the conjunctive use of groundwater, rain, and surface water.
Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi
River Basin Project is one of the most successful example created following the above-
mentioned DGR’s direction. The Project has fully applied hydrogeological principles and
information during it exploration campaign for spring high-potential areas. Discovery of such
areas has led to development of naturally flowing wells. Ultimately, the drought in the
Project’s Area has been effectively solved without any energy consumption.
3.1 Conclusion on the Operation Results
Regarding geological and hydrogeological practices, Thana Thoranee Co., Ltd.
has completely carried out the Project following 3 major successive steps as exploration,
development, and establishment of management system for the flowing wells. The project
major operation comprises compilation of data-base and previous works, 1:50,000 scale
hydrogeological survey covering the Project’s area, 1:4,000 detailed-hydrogeological survey in
the 3 spring high-potential areas, development of spring wells, and erection of the pilot system
for sustainable management and utilization of the spring. This has included construction of
water collection tanks and irrigational piping system, and formulating of the Ban O Kham
Agriculturalist Group for future self-reliant management of the resource and the system.
With realization on sustainable development of such spring and optimum
benefit of the villagers, the consultant has also completed some extra-additional works within
the allocated budget of 64 million baht (Table 3-1).
Thana Thoranee Co., Ltd. (the consultant) has completed all the works of the
Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin
Project as stated in the Contract No.1/2554 and following the accepted standards of
geological and hydrogeological practices. Throughout the Project’s programmes, the
consultant has been under close supervision, surveillance, and guidance with valuable
recommendations of the Project’s inspection committee and surveillance team assigned by
the DGR.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 3

Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
3-2
Table 3-1 Correlation of the completed works and the TOR ones.
Activities TOR Works Completed Works Excess
1. Exploration drilling 6 wells / 720 m 8 wells / 730 m + 2 holes
2. Development of observation wells 18 wells /1,800 m 21 wells /1,801 m + 3 wells
3. Geophysics surveys 600 stations
/ 30 survey lines
622 stations
/ 30 survey lines
+ 22 stations
4. Project’s pilot area 300 rais 572 rais + 272 rais (+90.67 %)
5. Water collection tanks 3 tanks (300m
3
) 5 tanks (300 m
3
) + 2 tanks
6. Irrigational pipes
- Major pipe (φ 4”)
- Secondary pipe (φ 2”)
- Small pipe (φ 1”)
.
1,459 m
1,060 m
24 m

2,741 m
1,710 m
217 m

+ 1,282 m. (+87.87 %)
+ 650 m (+61.32 %)
+ 193 m (+804.17 %)
Under close supervision, surveillance, and guidance of the Project’s Inspection
Committee and Surveillance Team, Thana Thoranee Co., Ltd. (the consultant) has carried out
the works with high efficiency. This has resulted in completion of all the Project’s works as
stated in the Contract No. 1/2554 and following the accepted standards of geological and
hydrogeological practices. Some of the outstanding achievements are as follows.
1) Able to complete all Project’s works following the contract and accepted
standards which resulted in valuable information of the unconsolidated-confined aquifers in
the central Chi river basin. This included their reserves, annual recharges, and safe yields. This
should be very valuable data-base for establishment of groundwater observation network in
order to monitor the groundwater including its level-change, quantity, and quality. Lastly, the
Project has marked a standard for future development of spring in other areas.
2) Incentives in development and capability enhancement of personnel in
hydrogeological field have been greatly stimulated, both among the DGR staff themselves and
those in private sectors. The Projects has also conducted opportunities for technical transfer
among all parties concerned, especially from pioneers to junior geologists and other scientists alike.
3) The Project’ has urged the local people for groundwater and hydrogeological
knowledge and a better concept in understanding natural resources, particularly the
groundwater resource, and eventually leading to the idea of natural resources management
and sustainable development.
4) Incentives in local job initiation for local people and distributed some new
incomes to them.
5) Establishment of the pilot management system for sustainable development of
this spring resources. This included erection of water collection tanks and the irrigational
piping system covering the entire pilot area of 572 rais and formation of the agriculturalist
group for future self-reliant management of this pilot system.


Sustainable Development of Flowing Artesian Wellfield in the Central Chi River Basin Project Executive Summary
Groundwater Conservation and Restoration Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources Section 3

Thana Thoranee Co.,Ltd.
3-3
3.2 Suggestion
The major achievements of the Project are discovery of several spring high-potential
areas. Among them, Ban O Kham area has been prioritized to be the pilot area. Subsequently,
production wells, water collection tanks, water distribution system, and a stakeholder agriculturalist
group have been developed. As being a concerning government sector, this would result in some
direct consequences to the DGR. Thus, some post-projects operations are recommended as follows.
3.2.1 Delineation of Directions for Spring Sustainable Conservation
Generally, there are 3 ways for sustainable conservation of the spring resource
in the area : artificial recharge, controlling to be equilibrium utilization, and plugging of all
abandoned and negative-effected groundwater wells.
a) One of the Project’s results is discovery of a naturally discharge zone
northwards of Ban O Kham area. As a part of this study, the suitable artificial recharge systems
have been proposed. It is, therefore, strongly suggested that the DGR should accelerate in
erection of such systems of which by the DGR itself or out-sourcing.
b) Likewise, practicing in groundwater equilibrium utilization following its safe
yield shall be urgently organized as a post Project’s operation and this shall be cooperated
with the committee of the agriculturalist group already established by the Project.
c) Many brackish groundwater wells have been discovered by the Project’s
survey. Some of them are still in use. This may cause up-welling of the underlying brine, and
later, long-term groundwater contamination. It is strongly recommended that the DGR shall
consider for urgent plug-up of such wells.
3.2.2 Directions on Spring Continuous Development
Development of the flowing artesian wellfield at Ban O Kham pilot area is the
last and most important achievement of the Project that well affirmed benefits of the spring
development for both drought resolution and energy saving. In addition to Ban O Kham area,
several spring potential areas have been located by the present Project’s study. Their
technical supports comprise surface and sub-surface works as geophysical survey, drilling
exploration, and observation wells development. This includes monitoring of groundwater
level and quality from the representative monitoring wells.
With high respect, the consultant would like to give strong advice to the DGR
that all the discovered flowing artesian wellfields shall be developed following those of Ban O
Kham models. This shall be in accordance with the major government policy in resolving
drought disaster of the country. And because of some data available, works in each area may
need only 50%-60% of present Project’s budget.
Additionally, very good quality spring water have been found in many areas.
The DGR’s shall consider for the other downstream development projects, such as mineral
water and drinking water bottling projects, for instances.