 Buddhist Councils

:
 1
st
– Rajagriha (483 BC)
 2
nd
– Vaisali (383)
 3
rd
– Pataliputrs (250 BC)
 4
th
– Kashmir (1 AD).


 3
rd
Buddhist council was held during Ashoka period.
 During 4
th
council Buddhism was divided into Hinayana and
Mahayana.
 Linga raja temple is present in Bhubaneswar. It represents the
Nagara style of architecture. It was built by Jajati Keshari in 11
AD.
 Dasavatara temple is present in Deogarh in UP. It was built during
Gupta period.
 Ashoka Pillar or Allahabad inscription at Allahabad provided the
information of Samudra Gupta.

 Avesta was the oldest Iranian texts.
 Swapnavasavadatta was written by Bhasa. Vasavadatta was the
prince of Avanti.
 Mahajanapadas and capital:

o Kashi - Varanasi
o Anga - Champa
o Vajji -Vaisali
  Vasta - Kausambi.

 Bimbisara (founder of Haryanka dynasty) was the contemporary of
Buddha.
 Selucas Nicator was the contemporary of Chandra Gupta Maurya.
 Bimbisara, Ajatasatru and Udayin are the 3 important kings
belong to Haryanka dynasty.
 Haryanka, Naga, Nanda, Maurya and Sunga are the sequence of
dynasties that ruled Magadha.
 Terracotta was used for making Harappa seals.
 Bronze dancing girl was found at Mohenjo-Daro.
 Mohammad-Bin-Tuglaq introduced token copper currency.
 Firoz-shah-Tuglaq set up a separate department to maintain
slaves.
 Alexander was the king of Macedonia. He crossed Hindukush
Mountains and Indus River in the year 326 BC.
 The battle of Hydespes was fought on the river Jhelum between
Alexander and Porus and Porus was defeated.
 Rishaba was the first Jain Thirthankara. Rishaba means bull.
 Parshva was the 23
rd
Jain Thirthankara.
 Mahavira was the 24
th
Thirthankara.
 Mahavira died at Pavapuri in 468 BC. According to Jainism plants
and trees have 2 jivas. Animals have 3 or more jivas.
 Mahavira preached in Magadhi. The teachings of Jainism were
recorded at a council conducted at Pataliputra in 5 AD.
 The Third Battle of Panipat took place in1761. Fought between
Marathas and Afghans led by Ahmad shah Durrani also called
Ahmad Shah Abdali. Marathas were defeated.
 Rahim was the court poet of Akbar.
 Taj Mahal was finest Mughal architecture in Marble.
 Babur tomb is present in Kabul (Afghanistan).
 Jaipala (Shaka king) was the 1
st
ruler to face the invasion of
Mahmud of Ghazni.
 Bengal Gazette was the first major news paper started in India in
1780.
 Liver is the largest gland in the human body.
 Lord Canning was the Governor-General of India when 1857 revolt
broke out.
 Lord Canning was the last Governor-General and the first Viceroy
of India.
 Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie. Satara
(Maharashtra) was the 1
st
to be annexed in the year 1848.
 Portugal was the first country to establish trade relations with
India.
 Lord Macaulay introduced English education in India.
 Sir Clement Atlee was the PM of England when India got the
independence.
 Mount Batten Plan or June 3
rd
plan is envisaged the partition of
India into India and Pakistan.
 Lord Mountbatten was appointed as the 1
st
Governor-General of
free India.
 First Indian Governor-General was C. Rajagopala Chari.
 Mohammad Ali Jinnah was the 1
st
Governor-General of Pakistan.
o *********
 Insulin was discovered by Fredrick Banting and Charles Best of
Canada in the year 1921.
 Insulin is a hormone secreted by the Pancreas that regulates
sugar levels in the body.
 The Attorney-General cannot vote but has right to speak and take
part in the proceedings of Parliament without being a member.
 The Advocate-General cannot vote but has right to speak and take
part in the proceeding of state legislature without being a
member.
 As per the estimations of UN World Population India will be the
most populous country by the year 2050.
 Dadabhai Naoroji (Grand Old Man of India) was the first Indian to
be elected to the British House of commons in the year 1892.
 Lunar eclipse occurs when the earth is between Sun and Moon.
 Solar eclipse occurs when the Moon is in between the Sun and the
Earth.
 Fourth estate refers to “Press”. The term was first used by Thomas
Macaulay in 1828.
 Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India which has a
separate Constitution which came into force in 1957. Article 370
of Indian Constitution provides for the special status for Jammu
and Kashmir.
 India’s first fast Breeder Test Reactor located at Indira Gandhi
Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpak am near Chennai.
 Apsara is India’s first nuclear research reactor.
 Kamini is India’s first neutron reactor.
 38
th
parallel is the boundary between North Korea and South
Korea.
 49
th
parallel is the boundary between USA and Canada.
 The Joint session of the Parliament is summoned by the President.
 The Joint session of the parliament is presided over by the
Speaker.
 As per 2001 census Kerala registered lowest decadal population
growth rate and highest was Nagaland.
 Pipavav (Gujarat) is the first private port in India.
 In India there are 12 major ports. 6 on east coast and 6 on west
coast.

 Kandla-Gujarat
 Mumbai-Maharashtra
 Nhava Sheva-Maha
 New Mangalore-Karnataka
 Mormugao-Goa
 Kochi-Kerala
 Tuticorin-Tamil Nadu
 Chennai-TN
 Vishakhapatnam-AP,
 Para dip-Orissa
 Haldia – Kolkata
 Kolkata in West Bengal.


 Kandla is a free port.
 Mumbai is the biggest port.
 Calcutta is riverine port.
 Vishakhapatnam is the deepest port.
 Aiteraya Brahmana is associated with Rig-Veda.
 Shatapatha Brahmana is associated with Yajur Veda.
 Jaiminiya is associated with Sama Veda.
 Gopatha is associated with Atharva Veda.
 Labour party was in power in England when India got
independence.
 Lord Curzon was the viceroy of India when Bengal was partitioned
in the year 1905.
 Red Shirts or Khudai Khidmmatgar movement was led by Khan
Abdul Gaffer Khan. Also called Frontier Gandhi.
 Hunter commission was appointed to look into the tragedy of
Jallianwala Bagh of 1919.
 In the year 1907 INC split into moderates and extremists. This is
popularly called Surat Split.
 Rashbehari Ghosh was the president of INC in 1907.
 Servant’s of India society was launched by Gopala Krishna Gokale
in the year 1905.
 During Tripuri session (1939) S C Bose defeated Pattabhi
sitaramaiah (Gandhi’s nominee). Abdul Kalam Azad withdrew
nomination.
 Direct action was launched by Muslim league in the year 1946 to
achieve Pakistan. Hindu-Muslim riots took place in Calcutta.
 Iron was unknown to the people of Indus Valley civilization.
 In Carnatic region French and British East India Company clashed
for the first time.
 Vinobha Bhave was the first person to start individual Satyagraha
in the year 1940. Jawaharlal Nehru was the second to launch the
same.
 Lord Harding II was the viceroy of India when Bengal was reunited
in the year 1911. Same year capital was shifted from Calcutta to
Delhi.
 Carbohydrates are the compounds consisting of Carbon, Hydrogen
and Oxygen.
 Enzymes are made up of Proteins.
 Enzyme is a catalyst. It promotes action without direct
involvement. Substrate is a substance up on which enzyme acts.
 There are 23 pairs of chromosomes and total 46 present in a
human body cell. Out of these 23 pairs one pair determines the
sex. This pair is called sex chromosomes and others are called
autosomes.
 If the pair contains identical chromosomes XX then the sex is
female. If it is XY the sex is male.
 Human blood was classified into A, B, AB and O by K. Landsteiner.
 Blood Group “AB” carries no antibody, where as “O” carries
antibody “Anti-A and Anti-B”. A carries antibody “Anti-B” and “B”
group carries “Anti-A”.
 Deficiency of Iodine causes “goiter”. This is the enlargement of
thyroid.
 Deficiency of protein leads to Kwashiorkor.
 Deficiency of iron leads to Anemia.
 Deficiency of sodium leads to Hyponatremia.
 Deficiency of calcium leads to Rickets.
 Deficiency of Vitamin A leads to Xerophthalmia/dry eye and Night
Blindness.
 Deficiency of Vitamin B1 leads to Beriberi.
 Deficiency of Vitamin B2 leads to Ariboflavinosis
 Deficiency of Vitamin C leads to Scurvy.
 Deficiency of Vitamin D leads to Rickets.
 Oxygen is a product of Photosynthesis that comes from water.
 Lactic acid is present in milk.
 A bacterium contains only one chromosome.
 A plant cell is differentiated from animal cell with the presence of
cell wall in plant cell.
 Mitochondrion is considered to the power house of a cell.
 Virus that infects a bacterium is called bacteriophage.
 Oceansat-3 is planned for the year 2011-12.
 Chandrayaan –I: Moon Mineralogy Map per (M3) – US supplied
instrument found water and Hydroxyl emanating from Moon.
Hydroxyl is 1 Hydrogen and 1 oxygen atoms.
 Hyper-Spectral Imager (HySI) is an Indian instrument also
detected presence of water on the Moon.
 Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the World’s largest particle acceletor
set a record for high energy collisions by crashing 2 proton beams
into each other at 3 times more force than ever before. Collision
was conducted at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear
Research) Head quarters Geneva.
 K-152 Nerpa (Akula-II) is a nuclear submarine inducted into the
army of Russia. This will be leased to India in 2010 for a period of
10 years and is commissioned as INS Chakra.
 Agni –III Indian long range missile of 3500 km was tested
successfully in Feb, 2010.
 Agni I, II, III tested successfully.
 Agni-V is planned for 2011. (Remember there is no Agni-IV).
 K-15 missile is fitted to Arihant (India’s first indigenously
developed nuclear sub marine)
 K-15 land version is Shourya.
 Danush (Ship based anti-surface missile) is the naval version of
Prithvi. It was tested recently on March 11, 2011.
 Prithvi was the first missile developed under Integrated Guided
Missile Development Programme. Prithvi-II was successfully
launched in October 2009.
 “Astra” (Beyond-Visual-Range Air to Air) missile successfully
tested in Jan, 2010. Tested at Balasore, Orissa.
 Astra is the smallest missile that is developed by DRDO.
 UN Climate Change Conference was held in Cancun, Mexico from
November 29 to December 10, 2010. This is officially called COP
16. COP is Conference of the Parties. And also called CMP6 means
conference of the parties serving as the meeting of the parties to
Kyoto protocol.
 COP 17/CMP7 will be held in Durban, South Africa from November
28 to December 9, 2011.
 Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997 and came into force in 2005. It
imposes targets for emission reductions up to 2012 only on
developed nations.
 BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) conference took
place in Beijing in November 2009.
 Green India 2047 report is published annually by TERI (The
Energy and resources Institute) since 1995.
 “Miss Kerala” is India’s most popular fresh water fish. It is also
called Red Line Torpedo Barb.
 India has the target of generating 20000 MW power by 2020 thru
nuclear energy and 20,000 MW by 2022 through solar energy.
 World Future Energy Summit was held in Jan, 2010 in Abu Dhabi.
 The PRITZKER prize is the highest honor in architecture and is
regarded as equivalent to Nobel Prize. For the year 2010 it was
awarded to Japanese duo Kazuyo Seijma and Ryue Nishizawa.
 1st census in India conducted in 1872 and the 14th census in the
year 2001. 2011 will be the 15th census.
 1872 to 1931 caste based census was conducted. Government is
conducting the caste based census for the 1st time in
independent India during 2011.
 19
th
Law Commission chairman is Venkata Rama Reddy.
 MMTS stands for Multi Model Transport System.
 DHMU stands for Diesel Hydraulic Multiple Unit.
 Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) convened by Obama in
Washington on April 12, 2010. Next NSS will be South Korea in
the year 2012
 IED: Improvised Explosive Devise
 BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) Summit 2010 held in Brazil
and for the 2011 it will be in China.
 SaaS (Software as a Service) is an application hosted on a remote
server and accessed through internet.
 India’s first commercial solar power plant is Azure powers located
in Punjab. Inaugurated in 2009.
 WIMAX (World wide interoperability for Microwave access) is a
telecommunication technology that provides wireless data in
various ways.
 Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves
delivering hosted services through internet.
 Bing, Wolframalpha, Kosmix, Cuil are the names of various search
engines.
 Orkut, Face book, Twitter, My Space, LinkedIn are the names of
various Social networks.
 Lord Wellesley established Fort William College in Calcutta in
1800.
 Fort St.George is Madras was set up in Madras in 1812 by east
India Company.
 Sulphuric Acid is the most important industrial chemical in the
world. A most commonly used strong acid.USA is the largest
producer of the same.
 Satyajit ray and Latha Mangeshkar are the two persons who won
both Bharat Ratna and Dada Sahib Phalke awards.
 369 parties contested in 15
th
Loksabha elections of 2009.
 Three Gorges dam (China) is the largest Hydro Power plant in the
world. Capacity 22,500 MW.
 Indian institute of science is located in Bangalore.
 Sputnik I of Russia was the first earth orbiting satellite.(1957)
 Vostok I of Russia- 1st manned earth orbiter with Yuri Gagarin
(1959).
 Luna I of Russia was the first lunar fly. Luna II was the first lunar
impact.
 PHALCON AWACS (Air borne warning and control system)
delivered to India by Israel. This is the radar surveillance
system.
 INS Vikramaditya (Air craft Carrier) will be inducted into Indian
Navy by 2012. This will be delivered b Russia.

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