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Four Seasons of India

1. Winter Season
2. Pre Monsoon Season
3. Northwest Monsoon Season
4. Southeast Monsoon Season
Winter Season
Months of January and February are considered as winter period . Extented effects of the
'North East Monsoon activity' in the south and the 'Western Disturbances' in the north of the
country are the features of this period.
The extra- tropical low pressure systems passing through the northern part of the country from
west to east, mainly during November to April ,is termed as 'Western Disturbances. Winter
rains and severe cold waves are the result of the movement of these systems.
In Tamil Nadu January is the coldest month when the daily minimum temperature for the state
as a whole is 21C varing from about 16C in the north to about 24C in the south. The lowest
temperature ever recorded at an individual station in the plain is 10.2C. at Tirupattur on 15th
December 1974 which is 5.9C lower than the normal of the coldest month. In the ghat areas
Uthagamandalam registered the lowest minimum temperature of -2.1C on 7th January 1976
which is 7.3C lower than the normal of the coldest month.

Performance of Winter season (2005)

Pre -Monsoon season
The hot season from March to May is the traditional period when the winter pattern of
pressure and winds gets disturbed prior to the establishment of the summer monsoon and
hence, is often referred to as 'Pre - Monsoon' season. This season is characterised by heavy
dust haze and extremely high temperature over North India. Land and sea breeze effect is
prominant over the coastal areas during this season. The frequency of thunderstorms
increases progressively over south India with increased influx of moist air from the sea. As
the season advances, a few tropical cyclones form in the Indian seas, but they generally move
north or northeast and strike the Bengal, Bangladesh or Burma coasts.
Convective activity is essential for the occurrence of thunder and dust storms. With the
advance of summer, thunder activity becomes pronounced in April and May due to ground
heating mainly over inland stations.
In Tamil Nadu May is the hottest Month with the mean daily maximum temperature os 36C in
the plains, hilly region in the west recording about 13C lowest. The highest temp ever
recorded at an individual station in the plains is 46.3 at Thirupattur on 4th May 1976 which is
9.6C higher than the normal for the warmest month. Uthagamandalam a hill station registered
the highest maximum temperature of 28.5C on 29th April 1986 which was 5.8C higher than the
normal for the warmest month.
Performance of Pre -Monsoon (2005)
Southwest Monsoon season

The period June to September is referred to as the 'Southwest Monsoon' period. Southwest
Monsoon period is the principal rainy season for the Indian subcontinent. This is the summer
monsoon period where the southwest monsoon holds away over the country. The whole
country receives nearly 75% of its rainfall during this period.
Southwest monsoon sets in over the extreme southwestern tip of the peninsula by the end of
May. The onset of Monsoon is characterized by a sudden spurt of rainfall activity. It
progresses inland in stages and covers the entire country by the middle of July. It starts
retrieving from the extreme northwest by the beginning of September, progressively receding
southwards. Out of the thirty-six (36) meteorological sub divisions of the country , Coastal
Karnataka receives the heighest area weighted rainfall of about 297 cms during the season.
Other subdivisions of the state also receives considerable rainfall in this period. Subdivision
consisting of Kerala and Lakshadweep receives about --% of its annual rainfall during SW
Tamil Nadu is considered as a rain shadow region as it lies on the eastern (leaward side) side
of Western Ghats The total annual rainfall is maximum over the southmost part of the state.
In this period the state receives only 32% of its annual rainfall. The highest mean point rainfall
of about 837 cms occurs over Mausingram in Meghalaya where as the lowest of about 5.2
cms occurs over Pamban in Tamilnadu. Chirapunji in Meghalaya recorded 156.3 cms of
rainfall on 16th June 1995. This is World's highest recorded rainfall in a day.
Performance of Southwest Monsoon (2005)
Northeast Monsoon season
The period October to Deceember is referred to as Northeast Monsoon season over
peninsular India. Earlier this period was also referred to as "Post-Monsoon Season" or
"Retreating southwest Monsoon Season".
Northeast Monsoon season is the major period of rainfall activity over south peninsula,
particularly in the eastern half comprising of the meteorological subdivisions of Coastal Andhra
Pradesh, Rayalaseema and Tamilnadu-Pondicherry. For Tamilnadu this is the main rainy
season accounting for about 48% of the annual rainfall. Coastal districts of the State get nearly
60% of the annual rainfall and the interior districts get about 40-50% of the annual rainfall.
Though the principal rainy season for Interior Karnataka, Kerala and Lakshadweep is the
Southwest Monsoon season, rainfall continues till December in these sub-divisions, the period
October-December (Northeast Monsoon ) contributing about 20 % of the annual total.
The increase in rainfall activity over Andhra-Tamilnadu coasts which takes place sometime
around middle of October is generally considered as the "setting in of Northeast Monsoon".
Normal date of onset of the northeast monsoon is around 20 October with a deviation of about
a week on either side.
The rainfall over south peninsula towards the end of southwest monsoon season is mainly in
the interior districts and it generally occurs in the afternoon , evening or early part of the night.
As the season advances the rainfall is mainly in the coastal districts with the interior districts
getting less rain. It generally occurs during night and early morning hours . Maximum rainfall
mostly occurs between 2100 and 0300 hrs IST. Along the east coast rainfall during late night
and morning hours (2400 to 0900 hrs) is an usual feature of northeast monsoon. When there
is a low, depression or cyclone close by the rainfall occurs throughout the day. Northeast
monsoon rains occur in spells of about 3 to 4 days duration. Spells exceeding 4 days are much
less (20%). There are at times long spells of dry weather with little or no rain.
Performance of Northeast Monsoon (2005)