Four Seasons of India 1. Winter Season 2. Pre Monsoon Season 3. Northwest Monsoon Season 4.

Southeast Monsoon Season Winter Season Months of January and February are considered as winter period . Extented effects of the 'North East Monsoon activity' in the south and the 'Western Disturbances' in the north of the country are the features of this period. The extra- tropical low pressure systems passing through the northern part of the country from west to east, mainly during November to April ,is termed as 'Western Disturbances. Winter rains and severe cold waves are the result of the movement of these systems. In Tamil Nadu January is the coldest month when the daily minimum temperature for the state as a whole is 21C varing from about 16C in the north to about 24C in the south. The lowest temperature ever recorded at an individual station in the plain is 10.2C. at Tirupattur on 15th December 1974 which is 5.9C lower than the normal of the coldest month. In the ghat areas Uthagamandalam registered the lowest minimum temperature of -2.1C on 7th January 1976 which is 7.3C lower than the normal of the coldest month.

Performance of Winter season (2005)

Pre -Monsoon season The hot season from March to May is the traditional period when the winter pattern of pressure and winds gets disturbed prior to the establishment of the summer monsoon and hence, is often referred to as 'Pre - Monsoon' season. This season is characterised by heavy dust haze and extremely high temperature over North India. Land and sea breeze effect is prominant over the coastal areas during this season. The frequency of thunderstorms increases progressively over south India with increased influx of moist air from the sea. As the season advances, a few tropical cyclones form in the Indian seas, but they generally move north or northeast and strike the Bengal, Bangladesh or Burma coasts. Convective activity is essential for the occurrence of thunder and dust storms. With the advance of summer, thunder activity becomes pronounced in April and May due to ground heating mainly over inland stations. In Tamil Nadu May is the hottest Month with the mean daily maximum temperature os 36C in the plains, hilly region in the west recording about 13C lowest. The highest temp ever recorded at an individual station in the plains is 46.3 at Thirupattur on 4th May 1976 which is 9.6C higher than the normal for the warmest month. Uthagamandalam a hill station registered the highest maximum temperature of 28.5C on 29th April 1986 which was 5.8C higher than the normal for the warmest month.

Performance of Pre -Monsoon (2005)

Southwest Monsoon season

The period June to September is referred to as the 'Southwest Monsoon' period. Southwest Monsoon period is the principal rainy season for the Indian subcontinent. This is the summer monsoon period where the southwest monsoon holds away over the country. The whole country receives nearly 75% of its rainfall during this period. Southwest monsoon sets in over the extreme southwestern tip of the peninsula by the end of May. The onset of Monsoon is characterized by a sudden spurt of rainfall activity. It progresses inland in stages and covers the entire country by the middle of July. It starts retrieving from the extreme northwest by the beginning of September, progressively receding southwards. Out of the thirty-six (36) meteorological sub divisions of the country , Coastal Karnataka receives the heighest area weighted rainfall of about 297 cms during the season. Other subdivisions of the state also receives considerable rainfall in this period. Subdivision consisting of Kerala and Lakshadweep receives about --% of its annual rainfall during SW Monsoon. Tamil Nadu is considered as a rain shadow region as it lies on the eastern (leaward side) side of Western Ghats The total annual rainfall is maximum over the southmost part of the state. In this period the state receives only 32% of its annual rainfall. The highest mean point rainfall of about 837 cms occurs over Mausingram in Meghalaya where as the lowest of about 5.2 cms occurs over Pamban in Tamilnadu. Chirapunji in Meghalaya recorded 156.3 cms of rainfall on 16th June 1995. This is World's highest recorded rainfall in a day. Performance of Southwest Monsoon (2005)

Northeast Monsoon season The period October to Deceember is referred to as Northeast Monsoon season over peninsular India. Earlier this period was also referred to as "Post-Monsoon Season" or "Retreating southwest Monsoon Season". Northeast Monsoon season is the major period of rainfall activity over south peninsula, particularly in the eastern half comprising of the meteorological subdivisions of Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Rayalaseema and Tamilnadu-Pondicherry. For Tamilnadu this is the main rainy season accounting for about 48% of the annual rainfall. Coastal districts of the State get nearly 60% of the annual rainfall and the interior districts get about 40-50% of the annual rainfall. Though the principal rainy season for Interior Karnataka, Kerala and Lakshadweep is the Southwest Monsoon season, rainfall continues till December in these sub-divisions, the period October-December (Northeast Monsoon ) contributing about 20 % of the annual total. The increase in rainfall activity over Andhra-Tamilnadu coasts which takes place sometime around middle of October is generally considered as the "setting in of Northeast Monsoon". Normal date of onset of the northeast monsoon is around 20 October with a deviation of about a week on either side. The rainfall over south peninsula towards the end of southwest monsoon season is mainly in the interior districts and it generally occurs in the afternoon , evening or early part of the night. As the season advances the rainfall is mainly in the coastal districts with the interior districts getting less rain. It generally occurs during night and early morning hours . Maximum rainfall mostly occurs between 2100 and 0300 hrs IST. Along the east coast rainfall during late night

and morning hours (2400 to 0900 hrs) is an usual feature of northeast monsoon. When there is a low, depression or cyclone close by the rainfall occurs throughout the day. Northeast monsoon rains occur in spells of about 3 to 4 days duration. Spells exceeding 4 days are much less (20%). There are at times long spells of dry weather with little or no rain. Performance of Northeast Monsoon (2005)

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