Chapter 1

This manual is based entirely on the keyword SURVIVAL. The letters in this word can help guide your actions in any survival situation. Learn what each letter represents and practice applying these guidelines when conducting survival training. Remember the word SURVIVAL.

! . The "ollowing paragraphs e#pand on the meaning o" each letter o" the word survival. Study and remember what each letter signi"ies because some day you may have to make the word work "or you. S—Size Up the Situation !$. I" you are in a combat situation% "ind a place where you can conceal yoursel" "rom the enemy. Remember% security takes priority. Use your senses o" hearing% smell% and sight to get a "eel "or the battlespace. &etermine i" the enemy is attacking% de"ending% or withdrawing. 'ou will have to consider what is developing on the battlespace when you make your survival plan. Surroundings !(. &etermine the pattern o" the area. )et a "eel "or what is going on around you. *very environment% whether "orest% +ungle% or desert% has a rhythm or pattern. This tempo includes animal and bird noises and movements and insect sounds. It may also include enemy tra""ic and civilian movements. Physica Condition !,. The pressure o" the battle you were in or the trauma o" being in a survival situation may have caused you to overlook wounds you received. -heck your wounds and give yoursel" "irst aid. Take care to prevent "urther bodily harm. .or instance% in any climate% drink plenty o" water to prevent dehydration. I" you are in a cold or wet climate% put on additional clothing to prevent hypothermia. !"uip#ent !/. 0erhaps in the heat o" battle% you lost or damaged some o" your e1uipment. -heck to see what e1uipment you have and what condition it is in. !2. 3ow that you have si4ed up your situation% surroundings% physical condition% and e1uipment% you are ready to make your survival plan. In doing so% keep in mind your basic physical needs5 water% "ood% and shelter.

U—Use A $our Senses% Undue &aste 'a(es )aste !6. 'ou may make a wrong move when you react 1uickly without thinking or planning. That move may result in your capture or death. &on7t move +ust "or the sake o" taking action. -onsider all aspects o" your situation be"ore you make a decision and a move. I" you act in haste% you may "orget or lose some o" your e1uipment. In your haste you may also become disoriented so that you don7t know which way to go. 0lan your moves. 8e ready to move out 1uickly without endangering yoursel" i" the enemy is near you. Use all your senses to evaluate the situation. 3ote sounds and smells. 8e sensitive to temperature changes. Always be observant. R—Re#e#*er )here $ou Are !9. Spot your location on your map and relate it to the surrounding terrain. This basic principle is one that you must a +ays "ollow. I" there are other persons with you% make sure they also know their location. Always know who in your group% vehicle% or aircra"t has a map and compass. I" that person is killed% you will have to get the map and compass "rom him. 0ay close attention to where you are and where you are going. &o not rely on others in the group to keep track o" the route. -onstantly orient yoursel". Always try to determine% as a minimum% how your location relates to the location o"5
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*nemy units and controlled areas. .riendly units and controlled areas. Local water sources :especially important in the desert;. Areas that will provide good cover and concealment.

!<. This in"ormation will allow you to make intelligent decisions when you are in a survival and evasion situation. V—Van"uish ,ear and Panic ! =. The greatest enemies in a combat survival and evasion situation are "ear and panic. I" uncontrolled% they can destroy your ability to make an intelligent decision. They may cause you to react to your "eelings and imagination rather than to your situation. These emotions can drain your energy and thereby cause other negative emotions. 0revious survival and evasion training and sel"! con"idence will enable you to van1uish "ear and panic. I—I#pro-ise ! . In the United States :U.S.;% we have items available "or all our needs. >any o" these items are cheap to replace when damaged. ?ur easy!come% easy!go% easy!to!replace culture makes it unnecessary "or us to improvise. This ine#perience in @making do@ can be an enemy in a survival

situation. Learn to improvise. Take a tool designed "or a speci"ic purpose and see how many other uses you can make o" it. ! $. Learn to use natural ob+ects around you "or di""erent needs. An e#ample is using a rock "or a hammer. 3o matter how complete a survival kit you have with you% it will run out or wear out a"ter a while. 'our imagination must take over when your kit wears out. V—Va ue Li-ing ! (. All o" us were born kicking and "ighting to live% but we have become used to the so"t li"e. Ae have become creatures o" com"ort. Ae dislike inconveniences and discom"orts. Ahat happens when we are "aced with a survival situation with its stresses% inconveniences% and discom"ortsB This is when the will to live5placing a high value on living5is vital. The e#perience and knowledge you have gained through li"e and your Army training will have a bearing on your will to live. Stubbornness% a re"usal to give in to problems and obstacles that "ace you% will give you the mental and physical strength to endure. A—Act Li(e the Nati-es ! ,. The natives and animals o" a region have adapted to their environment. To get a "eel o" the area% watch how the people go about their daily routine. Ahen and what do they eatB Ahen% where% and how do they get their "oodB Ahen and where do they go "or waterB Ahat time do they usually go to bed and get upB These actions are important to you when you are trying to avoid capture. ! /. Animal li"e in the area can also give you clues on how to survive. Animals also re1uire "ood% water% and shelter. 8y watching them% you can "ind sources o" water and "ood.

WARNING Animals cannot serve as an absolute guide to what you can eat and drink. Many animals eat plants that are toxic to humans.
! 2. Ceep in mind that the reaction o" animals can reveal your presence to the enemy. ! 6. I" in a "riendly area% one way you can gain rapport with the natives is to show interest in their tools and how they get "ood and water. 8y studying the people% you learn to respect them% you o"ten make valuable "riends% and% most important% you learn how to adapt to their environment and increase your chances o" survival. L—Li-e *y $our )its% But for Now, Learn .asic S(i s

! 9. Aithout training in basic skills "or surviving and evading on the battlespace% your chances o" living through a combat survival and evasion situation are slight. ! <. Learn these basic skills no+—not when you are headed "or or are in the battle. Dow you decide to e1uip yoursel" be"ore deployment will a""ect whether or not you survive. 'ou need to know about the environment to which you are going% and you must practice basic skills geared to that environment. .or instance% i" you are going to a desert% you need to know how to get water. !$=. 0ractice basic survival skills during all training programs and e#ercises. Survival training reduces "ear o" the unknown and gives you sel"!con"idence. It teaches you to live by your wits.

!$ . &evelop a survival pattern that lets you beat the enemies o" survival. This survival pattern must include "ood% water% shelter% "ire% "irst aid% and signals placed in order o" importance. .or e#ample% in a cold environment% you would need a /ire to get warmE a she ter to protect you "rom the cold% wind% and rain or snowE traps or snares to get /oodE a means to signa "riendly aircra"tE and /irst aid to maintain health. I" you are in+ured% "irst aid has top priority no matter what climate you are in. !$$. -hange your survival pattern to meet your immediate physical needs as the environment changes. As you read the rest o" this manual% keep in mind the keyword SURVIVAL% what each letter signi"ies :.igure ! ;% and the need "or a survival pattern.

Chapter 0

Psycho ogy o/ Sur-i-a

It takes much more than the knowledge and skills to build shelters% get "ood% make "ires% and travel without the aid o" standard navigational devices to live success"ully through a survival situation. Some people with little or no survival training have managed to survive li"e!threatening circumstances. Some people with survival training have not used their skills and died. A key ingredient in any survival situation is the mental attitude o" the individual involved. Daving survival skills is importantE having the will to survive is essential. Aithout a desire to survive% ac1uired skills serve little purpose and invaluable knowledge goes to waste. There is a psychology to survival. 'ou will "ace many stressors in a survival environment that ultimately will a""ect your mind. These stressors can produce thoughts and emotions that% i" poorly understood% can trans"orm a con"ident% well!trained person into an indecisive% ine""ective individual with 1uestionable ability to survive. Thus% you must be aware o" and be able to recogni4e those stressors commonly associated with survival. It is also imperative that you be aware o" your reactions to the wide variety o" stressors associated with survival. This chapter identi"ies and e#plains the nature o" stress% the stressors o" survival% and those internal reactions that you will naturally e#perience when "aced with the stressors o" a real!world survival situation. The knowledge you gain "rom this chapter and the remainder o" this manual% will prepare you to come through the toughest times a i-e.

$! . 8e"ore we can understand our psychological reactions in a survival setting% it is help"ul to "irst know a little bit about stress and its e""ects. Stress is not a disease that you cure and eliminate. Instead% it is a condition we all e#perience. Stress can be described as our reaction to pressure. It is the name given to the e#perience we have as we physically% mentally% emotionally% and spiritually respond to li"e7s tensions. N!!2 ,OR STR!SS $!$. Ae need stress because it has many positive bene"its. Stress provides us with challengesE it gives us chances to learn about our values and strengths. Stress can show our ability to handle pressure without breaking. It tests our adaptability and "le#ibility% and can stimulate us to do our best. 8ecause we usually do not consider unimportant events stress"ul% stress can also be an e#cellent indicator o" the signi"icance we attach to an event5in other words% it highlights what is important to us. $!(. Ae need to have some stress in our lives% but too much o" anything can be bad. The goal is to have stress% but not an e#cess o" it. Too much stress can take its toll on people and organi4ations. Too much stress leads to distress. &istress causes an uncom"ortable tension that we try to escape or% pre"erably% avoid. Listed below are a "ew o" the common signs o" distress that you may encounter when "aced with too much stressF

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&i""iculty making decisions. Angry outbursts. .orget"ulness. Low energy level. -onstant worrying. 0ropensity "or mistakes. Thoughts about death or suicide. Trouble getting along with others. Aithdrawing "rom others. Diding "rom responsibilities. -arelessness.

$!,. As you can see% stress can be constructive or destructive. It can encourage or discourage% move us along or stop us dead in our tracks% and make li"e meaning"ul or seemingly meaningless. Stress can inspire you to operate success"ully and per"orm at your ma#imum e""iciency in a survival situation. It can also cause you to panic and "orget all your training. 'our key to survival is your ability to manage the inevitable stresses you will encounter. The person that survives is one who works with his stresses instead o" letting his stresses work on him. SURVIVAL STR!SSORS $!/. Any event can lead to stress and% as everyone has e#perienced% events don7t always come one at a time. ?"ten% stress"ul events occur simultaneously. These events are not stress% but they produce it and are called @stressors.@ Stressors are the obvious cause while stress is the response. ?nce the body recogni4es the presence o" a stressor% it then begins to act to protect itsel". $!2. In response to a stressor% the body prepares either to @"ight or "lee.@ This preparation involves an internal S?S sent throughout the body. As the body responds to this S?S% the "ollowing actions take placeF
• • • •

The body releases stored "uels :sugar and "ats; to provide 1uick energy. 8reathing rate increases to supply more o#ygen to the blood. >uscle tension increases to prepare "or action. 8lood clotting mechanisms are activated to reduce bleeding "rom cuts.

Senses become more acute :hearing becomes more sensitive% pupils dilate% smell becomes sharper; so that you are more aware o" your surroundings.

Deart rate and blood pressure rise to provide more blood to the muscles.

This protective posture lets you cope with potential dangers. Dowever% you cannot maintain this level o" alertness inde"initely. $!6. Stressors are not courteousE one stressor does not leave because another one arrives. Stressors add up. The cumulative e""ect o" minor stressors can be a ma+or distress i" they all happen too close together. As the body7s resistance to stress wears down and the sources o" stress continue :or increase;% eventually a state o" e#haustion arrives. At this point% the ability to resist stress or use it in a positive way gives out and signs o" distress appear. Anticipating stressors and developing strategies to cope with them are two ingredients in the e""ective management o" stress. There"ore% it is essential that you be aware o" the types o" stressors that you will encounter. The "ollowing paragraphs e#plain a "ew o" these. In3ury% I ness% or 2eath $!9. In+ury% illness% and death are real possibilities that you have to "ace. 0erhaps nothing is more stress"ul than being alone in an un"amiliar environment where you could die "rom hostile action% an accident% or "rom eating something lethal. Illness and in+ury can also add to stress by limiting your ability to maneuver% get "ood and drink% "ind shelter% and de"end yoursel". *ven i" illness and in+ury don7t lead to death% they add to stress through the pain and discom"ort they generate. It is only by controlling the stress associated with the vulnerability to in+ury% illness% and death that you can have the courage to take the risks associated with survival tasks. Uncertainty and Lac( o/ Contro $!<. Some people have trouble operating in settings where everything is not clear!cut. The only guarantee in a survival situation is that nothing is guaranteed. It can be e#tremely stress"ul operating on limited in"ormation in a setting where you have limited control o" your surroundings. This uncertainty and lack o" control also add to the stress o" being ill% in+ured% or killed. !n-iron#ent $! =. *ven under the most ideal circumstances% nature is 1uite "ormidable. In survival% you will have to contend with the stressors o" weather% terrain% and the variety o" creatures inhabiting an area. Deat% cold% rain% winds% mountains% swamps% deserts% insects% dangerous reptiles% and other animals are +ust a "ew o" the challenges that you will encounter while working to survive. &epending on how you handle the stress o" your environment% your surroundings can be either a source o" "ood and protection or can be a cause o" e#treme discom"ort leading to in+ury% illness% or death.

&unger and Thirst $! . Aithout "ood and water you will weaken and eventually die. Thus% getting and preserving "ood and water takes on increasing importance as the length o" time in a survival setting increases. .oraging can also be a big source o" stress since you are used to having your provisions issued. ,atigue $! $. .orcing yoursel" to continue surviving is not easy as you grow more tired. It is possible to become so "atigued that the act o" +ust staying awake is stress"ul in itsel". Iso ation $! (. There are some advantages to "acing adversity with others. As a soldier you learn individual skills% but you train to "unction as part o" a team. Although we complain about higher head1uarters% we become used to the in"ormation and guidance it provides% especially during times o" con"usion. 8eing in contact with others also provides a greater sense o" security and a "eeling someone is available to help i" problems occur. A signi"icant stressor in survival situations is that o"ten you have to rely solely on your own resources. $! ,. The survival stressors mentioned in this section are by no means the only ones you may "ace. Remember% what is stress"ul to one person may not be stress"ul to another. 'our e#periences% training% personal outlook on li"e% physical and mental conditioning% and level o" sel"!con"idence contribute to what you will "ind stress"ul in a survival environment. The ob+ect is not to avoid stress% but rather to manage the stressors o" survival and make them work "or you. $! /. Ae now have a general knowledge o" stress and the stressors common to survival. The ne#t step is to e#amine your reactions to the stressors you may "ace.

$! 2. >an has been able to survive many shi"ts in his environment throughout the centuries. Dis ability to adapt physically and mentally to a changing world kept him alive while other species around him gradually died o"". The same survival mechanisms that kept our "ore"athers alive can help keep you alive as wellG Dowever% the survival mechanisms that can help you can also work against you i" you do not understand and anticipate their presence. $! 6. It is not surprising that the average person will have some psychological reactions in a survival situation. The "ollowing paragraphs e#plain some o" the ma+or internal reactions that you or anyone with you might e#perience with the previously stated survival stressors. ,!AR

$! 9. .ear is our emotional response to dangerous circumstances that we believe have the potential to cause death% in+ury% or illness. This harm is not +ust limited to physical damageE the threat to your emotional and mental well!being can generate "ear as well. I" you are trying to survive% "ear can have a positive "unction i" it encourages you to be cautious in situations where recklessness could result in in+ury. Un"ortunately% "ear can also immobili4e you. It can cause you to become so "rightened that you "ail to per"orm activities essential "or survival. >ost people will have some degree o" "ear when placed in un"amiliar surroundings under adverse conditions. There is no shame in thisG 'ou must train yoursel" not to be overcome by your "ears. Ideally% through realistic training% you can ac1uire the knowledge and skills needed to increase your con"idence and thereby manage your "ears. AN4I!T$ $! <. Associated with "ear is an#iety. 8ecause it is natural "or you to be a"raid% it is also natural "or you to e#perience an#iety. An#iety can be an uneasy% apprehensive "eeling you get when "aced with dangerous situations :physical% mental% and emotional;. Ahen used in a healthy way% an#iety can urge you to act to end% or at least master% the dangers that threaten your e#istence. I" you were never an#ious% there would be little motivation to make changes in your li"e. In a survival setting you can reduce your an#iety by per"orming those tasks that will ensure you come through the ordeal alive. As you reduce your an#iety% you also bring under control the source o" that an#iety5your "ears. In this "orm% an#iety is goodE however% an#iety can also have a devastating impact. An#iety can overwhelm you to the point where you become easily con"used and have di""iculty thinking. ?nce this happens% it will become increasingly di""icult "or you to make good +udgments and sound decisions. To survive% you must learn techni1ues to calm your an#ieties and keep them in the range where they help% not hurt. AN5!R AN2 ,RUSTRATION $!$=. .rustration arises when you are continually thwarted in your attempts to reach a goal. The goal o" survival is to stay alive until you can reach help or until help can reach you. To achieve this goal% you must complete some tasks with minimal resources. It is inevitable% in trying to do these tasks% that something will go wrongE that something will happen beyond your controlE and that with your li"e at stake% every mistake is magni"ied in terms o" its importance. Thus% eventually% you will have to cope with "rustration when a "ew o" your plans run into trouble. ?ne outgrowth o" this "rustration is anger. There are many events in a survival situation that can "rustrate or anger you. )etting lost% damaged or "orgotten e1uipment% the weather% inhospitable terrain% enemy patrols% and physical limitations are +ust a "ew sources o" "rustration and anger. .rustration and anger generate impulsive reactions% irrational behavior% poorly thought!out decisions% and% in some instances% an @I 1uit@ attitude :people sometimes avoid doing something they can7t master;. I" you can harness and properly channel the emotional intensity associated with anger and "rustration% you can productively act as you answer the challenges o" survival. I" you do not properly "ocus your angry "eelings% you can

waste much energy in activities that do little to "urther either your chances o" survival or the chances o" those around you. 2!PR!SSION $!$ . 'ou would be a rare person indeed i" you did not get sad% at least momentarily% when "aced with the hardships o" survival. As this sadness deepens% it becomes @depression.@ &epression is closely linked with "rustration and anger. .rustration will cause you to become increasingly angry as you "ail to reach your goals. I" the anger does not help you succeed% then the "rustration level goes even higher. A destructive cycle between anger and "rustration will continue until you become worn down 5physically% emotionally% and mentally. Ahen you reach this point% you start to give up% and your "ocus shi"ts "rom @Ahat can I do@ to @There is nothing I can do.@ &epression is an e#pression o" this hopeless% helpless "eeling. There is nothing wrong with being sad as you temporarily think about your loved ones and remember what li"e is like back in @civili4ation@ or @the world.@ Such thoughts% in "act% can give you the desire to try harder and live one more day. ?n the other hand% i" you allow yoursel" to sink into a depressed state% then it can sap all your energy and% more important% your will to survive. It is imperative that you resist succumbing to depression. LON!LIN!SS AN2 .OR!2O' $!$$. >an is a social animal. Duman beings en+oy the company o" others. Very "ew people want to be alone all the timeG There is a distinct chance o" isolation in a survival setting. Isolation is not bad. Loneliness and boredom can bring to the sur"ace 1ualities you thought only others had. The e#tent o" your imagination and creativity may surprise you. Ahen re1uired to do so% you may discover some hidden talents and abilities. >ost o" all% you may tap into a reservoir o" inner strength and "ortitude you never knew you had. -onversely% loneliness and boredom can be another source o" depression. I" you are surviving alone% or with others% you must "ind ways to keep your mind productively occupied. Additionally% you must develop a degree o" sel"!su""iciency. 'ou must have "aith in your capability to @go it alone.@ 5UILT $!$(. The circumstances leading to your being in a survival setting are sometimes dramatic and tragic. It may be the result o" an accident or military mission where there was a loss o" li"e. 0erhaps you were the only survivor or one o" a "ew survivors. Ahile naturally relieved to be alive% you simultaneously may be mourning the deaths o" others who were less "ortunate. It is not uncommon "or survivors to "eel guilty about being spared "rom death while others were not. This "eeling% when used in a positive way% has encouraged people to try harder to survive with the belie" they were allowed to live "or some greater purpose in li"e. Sometimes% survivors tried to stay alive so that they could carry on the work o" those killed. Ahatever reason you give yoursel"% do not let guilt "eelings prevent you "rom living. The living who abandon their chance to survive accomplish nothing. Such an act would be the greatest tragedy.

$!$,. 'our mission in a survival situation is to stay alive. The assortment o" thoughts and emotions you will e#perience in a survival situation can work "or you% or they can work to your down"all. .ear% an#iety% anger% "rustration% guilt% depression% and loneliness are all possible reactions to the many stressors common to survival. These reactions% when controlled in a healthy way% help to increase your likelihood o" surviving. They prompt you to pay more attention in training% to "ight back when scared% to take actions that ensure sustenance and security% to keep "aith with your "ellow team members% and to strive against large odds. Ahen you cannot control these reactions in a healthy way% they can bring you to a standstill. Instead o" rallying your internal resources% you listen to your internal "ears. These "ears will cause you to e#perience psychological de"eat long be"ore you physically succumb. Remember% survival is natural to everyoneE being une#pectedly thrust into the li"e!or!death struggle o" survival is not. &o not be a"raid o" your @natural reactions to this unnatural situation.@ 0repare yoursel" to rule over these reactions so they serve your ultimate interest5staying alive with honor and dignity. $!$/. 8eing prepared involves knowing that your reactions in a survival setting are productive% not destructive. The challenge o" survival has produced countless e#amples o" heroism% courage% and sel"! sacri"ice. These are the 1ualities a survival situation can bring out in you i" you have prepared yoursel". 8elow are a "ew tips to help prepare yoursel" psychologically "or survival. Through studying this manual and attending survival training you can develop the @survival attitude.@ 1NO) $OURS!L, $!$2. 'ou should take the time through training% "amily% and "riends to discover who you are on the inside. Strengthen your stronger 1ualities and develop the areas that you know are necessary to survive. ANTICIPAT! ,!ARS $!$6. &on7t pretend that you will have no "ears. 8egin thinking about what would "righten you the most i" "orced to survive alone. Train in those areas o" concern to you. The goal is not to eliminate the "ear% but to build con"idence in your ability to "unction despite your "ears. .! R!ALISTIC $!$9. &on7t be a"raid to make an honest appraisal o" situations. See circumstances as they are% not as you want them to be. Ceep your hopes and e#pectations within the estimate o" the situation. Ahen you go into a survival setting with unrealistic e#pectations% you may be laying the groundwork "or bitter disappointment. .ollow the adage% @Dope "or the best% prepare "or the worst.@ It is much easier to ad+ust to pleasant surprises about your une#pected good "ortunes than to be upset by your une#pected harsh circumstances.

A2OPT A POSITIV! ATTITU2! $!$<. Learn to see the potential good in everything. Looking "or the good not only boosts morale% it also is e#cellent "or e#ercising your imagination and creativity. R!'IN2 $OURS!L, )&AT IS AT STA1! $!(=. .ailure to prepare yoursel" psychologically to cope with survival leads to reactions such as depression% carelessness% inattention% loss o" con"idence% poor decision making% and giving up be"ore the body gives in. Remember that your li"e and the lives o" others who depend on you are at stake. TRAIN $!( . Through military training and li"e e#periences% begin today to prepare yoursel" to cope with the rigors o" survival. &emonstrating your skills in training will give you the con"idence to call upon them should the need arise. Remember% the more realistic the training% the less overwhelming an actual survival setting will be. L!ARN STR!SS 'ANA5!'!NT T!C&NI6U!S $!($. 0eople under stress have a potential to panic i" they are not well!trained and not prepared psychologically to "ace whatever the circumstances may be. Ahile you o"ten cannot control the survival circumstances in which you "ind yoursel"% it is within your ability to control your response to those circumstances. Learning stress management techni1ues can signi"icantly enhance your capability to remain calm and "ocused as you work to keep yoursel" and others alive. A "ew good techni1ues to develop include rela#ation skills% time management skills% assertiveness skills% and cognitive restructuring skills :the ability to control how you view a situation;. Remember% @the will to survive@ can also be considered @the re"usal to give up.@

Sur-i-a P anning and Sur-i-a 1its
A survival plan is dependent on three separate but intertwined parts to be success"ulF planning% preparation% and practice. Survival planning is nothing more than reali4ing something could happen that would put you in a survival situation and% with that in mind% taking steps to increase your chances o" survival. It can happen to anyone% anywhere% anytime% so rememberF /ai ure to p an is a p an to /ai . 0lans are based on evasion and recovery :*HR; considerations and the availability o" resupply or emergency bundles. 'ou must take into consideration the mission duration and the distance to "riendly linesE the environment% to include the terrain and weather and possible changes in the weather during a protracted missionE and the plat"orm you will be operating with% such as an aircra"t% a multipurpose vehicle% or perhaps +ust a rucksack. 0lanning also entails looking at those *HR routes and knowing

by memory the ma+or geographical "eatures in case your map and compass are lost. 'ou can use classi"ied and unclassi"ied sources such as the Internet% encyclopedias% and geographic maga4ines to assist you in planning. 0reparation means preparing yoursel" and your survival kit "or those contingencies that you have in your plan. A plan without any preparation is +ust a piece o" paper. It will not keep you alive. 0repare yoursel" by making sure your immuni4ations and dental work are up!to!date. 0repare your uni"orm by having the newest uni"orm "or emergencies. It will have the most in"rared!de"eating capabilities possible. 'ou can have signal devices and snare wire sewn into it ahead o" time. 8reak in your boots and make sure that the boots have good soles and water!repellent properties. Study the area% climate% terrain% and indigenous methods o" "ood and water procurement. 'ou should continuously assess data% even a"ter the plan is made% to update the plan as necessary and give you the greatest possible chance o" survival. Another e#ample o" preparation is "inding the emergency e#its on an aircra"t when you board it "or a "light. 0ractice those things that you have planned with the items in your survival kit. -hecking ensures that items work and that you know how to use them. 8uild a "ire in the rain so you know that when it is critical to get warm% you can do it. Review the medical items in your kit and have instructions printed on their use so that even in times o" stress% you will not make li"e! threatening errors.

(! . &etailed prior planning is essential in potential survival situations. Including survival considerations in mission planning will enhance your chances o" survival i" an emergency occurs. .or e#ample% i" your +ob re1uires that you work in a small% enclosed area that limits what you can carry on your person% plan where you can put your rucksack or your load!bearing e1uipment :L8*;. 0ut it where it will not prevent you "rom getting out o" the area 1uickly% yet where it is readily accessible. (!$. ?ne important aspect o" prior planning is preventive medicine. *nsuring that you have no dental problems and that your immuni4ations are current will help you avoid potential dental or health problems. Some dental problems can progress to the point that you may not be able to eat enough to survive. .ailure to keep your shots current may mean your body is not immune to diseases that are prevalent in the area. (!(. 0reparing and carrying a survival kit is as important as the considerations mentioned above. All Army aircra"t have survival kits on board "or the type o" area over which they will "ly. There are kits "or over!water% hot climate% and cold climate survival. *ach crewmember will also be wearing an aviator survival vest :Appendi# A describes these survival kits;. Cnow the location o" these kits on the aircra"t and what they contain in case o" crash or ditching. There are also soldier kits "or tropical and temperate survival. These kits are e#pensive and not always available to every soldier. Dowever% i" you know what these kits contain% and on what basis they are built% you will be able to plan and to prepare your own survival kit that may be better suited to you than an o""!the!shel" one.

(!,. *ven the smallest survival kit% i" properly prepared% is invaluable when "aced with a survival problem. Dowever% be"ore making your survival kit% consider your unit7s mission% the operational environment% and the e1uipment and vehicles assigned to your unit.

(!/. The environment is the key to the types o" items you will need in your survival kit. Dow much e1uipment you put in your kit depends on how you will carry the kit. A kit carried on your body will have to be smaller than one carried in a vehicle. Always layer your survival kit5body% load!bearing vest or e1uipment% and plat"orm :rucksack% vehicle% or aircra"t;. Ceep the most important items on your body. .or e#ample% your map and compass should always be on your body% as should your basic li"e!sustaining items :kni"e% lighter;. -arry less important items on your L8*. 0lace bulky items in the rucksack. (!2. In preparing your survival kit% select items that are multipurpose% compact% lightweight% durable% and most importantly% "unctional. An item is not good i" it looks great but doesn7t do what it was designed "or. Items should complement each other "rom layer to layer. A signal mirror in your pocket can be backed up by pen "lares in your L8* and a signal panel in your rucksack. A lighter in your uni"orm can be augmented by a magnesium bar in your L8* and additional dry tinder in your rucksack. (!6. 'our survival kit need not be elaborate. 'ou need only "unctional items that will meet your needs and a case to hold the items. .or the case% you might want to use a bandage bo#% soap dish% tobacco tin% "irst!aid case% ammunition pouch% or another suitable case. This case should be5
• • • •

Aater!repellent or waterproo". *asy to carry or attach to your body. Suitable to accept various!si4ed components. &urable.

(!9. 'our survival kit should be broken down into the "ollowing categoriesF
• • • • • •

Aater. .ire. Shelter. .ood. >edical. Signal.


(!<. *ach category should contain items that allow you to sustain your basic needs. .or e#ample% water5you should have items that allow you to scoop up% draw up% soak up% or suck up waterE something to gather rainwater% condensation% or perspirationE something to transport waterE and something to puri"y or "ilter water. Some e#amples o" each category are as "ollowsF

Aater5puri"ication tablets% non!lubricated condoms "or carrying water% bleach% povidone!iodine drops% cravats% sponges% small plastic or rubber tubing% collapsible canteens or water bags. .ire5lighter% metal match% waterproo" matches% magnesium bar% candle% magni"ying lens.

Shelter5//= parachute cord% large kni"e% machete or hatchet% poncho% space blanket% hammock% mos1uito net% wire saw.

.ood5kni"e% snare wire% "ishhooks% "ish and snare line% bouillon cubes or soup packets% high!energy "ood bars% granola bars% gill or yeti net% aluminum "oil% "ree4er bags.

>edical5o#ytetracycline tablets :to treat diarrhea or in"ection;% surgical blades or surgical preparation kni"e% butter"ly sutures% lip balm% sa"ety pins% sutures% antidiarrheal medication :imodium;% antimalarial medication :do#ycycline;% broad!spectrum antibiotics :rocephin and 4ithroma#; and broad spectrum topical ophthalmic :eye; antibiotic% anti"ungal% anti!in"lammatory :ibupro"en;% petrolatum gau4e% and soap. >edical items may make up appro#imately /= percent o" your survival kit.

Signal5signaling mirror% strobe% pen "lares% whistle% U.S. "lag% pilot scar" or other bright orange silk scar"% glint tape% "lashlight% laser pointer% solar blanket.

>iscellaneous5wrist compass% needle and thread% money% e#tra eyeglasses% kni"e sharpener% cork% camou"lage stick% and survival manual.

(! =. Include a weapon only i" the situation so dictates. Ambassadors and theater commanders may prohibit weapons even in e#treme circumstances. Read and practice the survival techni1ues in this manual and apply these basic concepts to those you read about in other civilian publications. -onsider your mission and the environment in which you will operate. Then prepare your survival kit with items that are durable% multipurpose% and lightweight. Imagination may be the largest part o" your kit. It can replace many o" the items in a kit. -ombined with the will to live% it can mean the di""erence between surviving to return home with honor or not returning at all.

Chapter 7

.asic Sur-i-a 'edicine

.oremost among the many problems that can compromise your survival ability are medical problems resulting "rom unplanned events% such as a "orced landing or crash% e#treme climates% ground combat% evasion% and illnesses contracted in captivity. >any evaders and survivors have reported di""iculty in treating in+uries and illness due to the lack o" training and medical supplies. .or some% this led to capture or surrender. Survivors have related "eelings o" apathy and helplessness because they could not treat themselves in this environment. The ability to treat yoursel" increases your morale and aids in your survival and eventual return to "riendly "orces. ?ne man with a "air amount o" basic medical knowledge can make a di""erence in the lives o" many. Aithout 1uali"ied medical personnel available% it is you who must know what to do to stay alive.

,! . To survive% you need water and "ood. 'ou must also have and apply high personal hygiene standards. )AT!R ,!$. 'our body loses water through normal body processes :sweating% urinating% and de"ecating;. &uring average daily e#ertion when the atmospheric temperature is $= degrees -elsius :-; :29 degrees .ahrenheit I.J;% the average adult loses and there"ore re1uires $ to ( liters o" water daily. ?ther "actors% such as heat e#posure% cold e#posure% intense activity% high altitude% burns% or illness% can cause your body to lose more water. 'ou must replace this water. ,!(. &ehydration results "rom inade1uate replacement o" lost body "luids. It decreases your e""iciency and% i" you are in+ured% it increases your susceptibility to severe shock. -onsider the "ollowing results o" body "luid lossF
• •

A /!percent loss results in thirst% irritability% nausea% and weakness. A =!percent loss results in di44iness% headache% inability to walk% and a tingling sensation in the limbs.

A /!percent loss results in dim vision% pain"ul urination% swollen tongue% dea"ness% and a numb "eeling in the skin.

A loss greater than / percent may result in death.

,!,. The most common signs and symptoms o" dehydration are5

&ark urine with a very strong odor.

• • • • • • • •

Low urine output. &ark% sunken eyes. .atigue. *motional instability. Loss o" skin elasticity. &elayed capillary re"ill in "ingernail beds. Trench line down center o" tongue. Thirst. :Last on the list because you are already $!percent dehydrated by the time you crave "luids.;

,!/. 'ou should replace the water as you lose it. Trying to make up a de"icit is di""icult in a survival situation% and thirst is not a sign o" how much water you need. ,!2. >ost people cannot com"ortably drink more than liter o" water at a time. So% even when not thirsty% drink small amounts o" water at regular intervals each hour to prevent dehydration. ,!6. I" you are under physical and mental stress or sub+ect to severe conditions% increase your water intake. &rink enough li1uids to maintain a urine output o" at least =./ liters every $, hours. ,!9. In any situation where "ood intake is low% drink 2 to 9 liters o" water per day. In an e#treme climate% especially an arid one% the average person can lose $./ to (./ liters o" water per hour. In this type o" climate% you should drink 9 to $ ounces o" water every (= minutes. It is better to regulate water loss through work or rest cycles because overhydration can occur i" water intake e#ceed K$ 1uarts per hour. ?verhydration can cause low serum sodium levels resulting in cerebral and pulmonary edema% which can lead to death. ,!<. Aith the loss o" water there is also a loss o" electrolytes :body salts;. The average diet can usually keep up with these losses but in an e#treme situation or illness% additional sources need to be provided. 'ou should maintain an intake o" carbohydrates and other necessary electrolytes. ,! =. ?" all the physical problems encountered in a survival situation% the loss o" water is the most preventable. The "ollowing are basic guidelines "or the prevention o" dehydrationF
• •

Always drink water when eating. Aater is used and consumed as a part o" the digestion process and can lead to dehydration. Acclimatize. The body per"orms more e""iciently in e#treme conditions when acclimati4ed.

• •

Conserve sweat, not water. Limit sweat!producing activities but drink water. Ration water. Until you "ind a suitable source% ration your sweat% not your water. Limit activity and heat gain or loss.

,! . 'ou can estimate "luid loss by several means. A "ield dressing holds about =.$/ liters : K, canteen; o" "luid. A soaked T!shirt holds =./ to =.6/ liters. ,! $. 'ou can also use the pulse and breathing rate to estimate "luid loss. Use the "ollowing as a guideF
• •

Aith a =.6/!liter loss the wrist pulse rate will be under == beats per minute and the breathing rate $ to $= breaths per minute. Aith a =.6/! to ./!liter loss the pulse rate will be == to $= beats per minute and $= to (= breaths per minute.

Aith a ./! to $!liter loss the pulse rate will be $= to ,= beats per minute and (= to ,= breaths per minute. Vital signs above these rates re1uire more advanced care.

,OO2 ,! (. Although you can live several weeks without "ood% you need an ade1uate amount to stay healthy. Aithout "ood your mental and physical capabilities will deteriorate rapidly and you will become weak. .ood provides energy and replenishes the substances that your body burns. .ood provides vitamins% minerals% salts% and other elements essential to good health. 0ossibly more important% it helps morale. ,! ,. The three basic sources o" "ood are plants% animals :including "ish;% and issued rations. In varying degrees% both provide the calories% carbohydrates% "ats% and proteins needed "or normal daily body "unctions. 'ou should use rations to augment plant and animal "oods% which will e#tend and help maintain a balanced diet. ,! /. -alories are a measure o" heat and potential energy. The average person needs $%=== calories per day to "unction at a minimum level. An ade1uate amount o" carbohydrates% "ats% and proteins without an ade1uate caloric intake will lead to starvation and cannibalism o" the body7s own tissue "or energy. P ants ,! 2. 0lant "oods provide carbohydrates5the main source o" energy. >any plants provide enough protein to keep the body at normal e""iciency. Although plants may not provide a balanced diet% they will sustain you even in the arctic% where meat7s heat!producing 1ualities are normally essential. >any plant "oods such as nuts and seeds will give you enough protein and oils "or normal e""iciency.

Roots% green vegetables% and plant "oods containing natural sugar will provide calories and carbohydrates that give the body natural energy. ,! 6. The "ood value o" plants becomes more and more important i" you are eluding the enemy or i" you are in an area where wildli"e is scarce. .or instance5
• •

'ou can dry plants by wind% air% sun% or "ire. This retards spoilage so that you can store or carry the plant "ood with you to use when needed. 'ou can obtain plants more easily and more 1uietly than meat. This is e#tremely important when the enemy is near.

Ani#a s ,! 9. >eat is more nourishing than plant "ood. In "act% it may even be more readily available in some places. Dowever% to get meat% you need to know the habits o" and how to capture the various wildli"e. ,! <. To satis"y your immediate "ood needs% "irst seek the more abundant and more easily obtained wildli"e% such as insects% crustaceans% mollusks% "ish% and reptiles. These can satis"y your immediate hunger while you are preparing traps and snares "or larger game. P!RSONAL &$5I!N! ,!$=. In any situation% cleanliness is an important "actor in preventing in"ection and disease. It becomes even more important in a survival situation. 0oor hygiene can reduce your chances o" survival. ,!$ . A daily shower with hot water and soap is ideal% but you can stay clean without this lu#ury. Use a cloth and soapy water to wash yoursel". 0ay special attention to the "eet% armpits% crotch% hands% and hair as these are prime areas "or in"estation and in"ection. I" water is scarce% take an @air@ bath. Remove as much o" your clothing as practical and e#pose your body to the sun and air "or at least hour. 8e care"ul not to sunburn. ,!$$. I" you don7t have soap% use ashes or sand% or make soap "rom animal "at and wood ashes i" your situation allows. To make soap5

*#tract grease "rom animal "at by cutting the "at into small pieces and cooking it in a pot. Add enough water to the pot to keep the "at "rom sticking as it cooks. -ook the "at slowly% stirring "re1uently. A"ter the "at is rendered% pour the grease into a container to harden.

• • •

• •

0lace ashes in a container with a spout near the bottom. 0our water over the ashes and collect the li1uid that drips out o" the spout in a separate container. This li1uid is the potash or lye.

,!$(. Another way to get the lye is to pour the slurry :the mi#ture o" ashes and water; through a straining cloth.
• •

In a cooking pot% mi# two parts grease to one part lye. 0lace this mi#ture over a "ire and boil it until it thickens.

A"ter the mi#ture :the soap; cools% you can use it in the semili1uid state directly "rom the pot. 'ou can also pour it into a pan% allow it to harden% and cut it into bars "or later use. 1eep $our &ands C ean ,!$,. )erms on your hands can in"ect "ood and wounds. Aash your hands a"ter handling any material that is likely to carry germs% a"ter urinating or de"ecating% a"ter caring "or the sick% and be"ore handling any "ood% "ood utensils% or drinking water. Ceep your "ingernails closely trimmed and clean% and keep your "ingers out o" your mouth. 1eep $our &air C ean ,!$/. 'our hair can become a haven "or bacteria or "leas% lice% and other parasites. Ceeping your hair clean% combed% and trimmed helps you avoid this danger. 1eep $our C othing C ean ,!$2. Ceep your clothing and bedding as clean as possible to reduce the chances o" skin in"ection or parasitic in"estation. -lean your outer clothing whenever it becomes soiled. Aear clean underclothing and socks each day. I" water is scarce% @air@ clean your clothing by shaking% airing% and sunning it "or $ hours. I" you are using a sleeping bag% turn it inside out a"ter each use% "lu"" it% and air it. 1eep $our Teeth C ean ,!$6. Thoroughly clean your mouth and teeth with a toothbrush at least once each day. I" you don7t have a toothbrush% make a chewing stick. .ind a twig about $= centimeters :cm; :9 inches; long and centimeter : K( inch; wide. -hew one end o" the stick to separate the "ibers. Then brush your teeth thoroughly. Another way is to wrap a clean strip o" cloth around your "ingers and rub your teeth with it to wipe away "ood particles. 'ou can also brush your teeth with small amounts o" sand% baking soda% salt% or soap. Rinse your mouth with water% salt water% or willow bark tea. Also% "lossing your teeth with string or "iber helps oral hygiene.

,!$9. I" you have cavities% you can make temporary "illings by placing candle wa#% tobacco% hot pepper% toothpaste or powder% or portions o" a gingerroot into the cavity. >ake sure you clean the cavity by rinsing or picking the particles out o" the cavity be"ore placing a "illing in the cavity. Ta(e Care o/ $our ,eet ,!$<. To prevent serious "oot problems% break in your shoes be"ore wearing them on any mission. Aash and massage your "eet daily. Trim your toenails straight across. Aear an insole and the proper si4e o" dry socks. 0owder and check your "eet daily "or blisters. ,!(=. I" you get a small blister% do not open it. An intact blister is sa"e "rom in"ection. Apply a padding material around the blister to relieve pressure and reduce "riction. I" the blister bursts% treat it as an open wound. -lean and dress it daily and pad around it. Leave large blisters intact. To avoid having the blister burst or tear under pressure and cause a pain"ul and open sore% do the "ollowingF
• • •

?btain a sewing!type needle and a clean or sterili4ed thread. Run the needle and thread through the blister a"ter cleaning the blister. &etach the needle and leave both ends o" the thread hanging out o" the blister. The thread will absorb the li1uid inside. This reduces the si4e o" the hole and ensures that the hole does not close up.

0ad around the blister.

5et Su//icient Rest ,!( . 'ou need a certain amount o" rest to keep going. 0lan "or regular rest periods o" at least = minutes per hour during your daily activities. Learn to make yoursel" com"ortable under less!than! ideal conditions. A change "rom mental to physical activity or vice versa can be re"reshing when time or situation does not permit total rela#ation. 1eep Ca#psite C ean ,!($. &o not soil the ground in the campsite area with urine or "eces. Use latrines% i" available. Ahen latrines are not available% dig @cat holes@ and cover the waste. -ollect drinking water upstream "rom the campsite. 0uri"y all water.

'!2ICAL !'!R5!NCI!S
,!((. >edical problems and emergencies you may "ace include breathing problems% severe bleeding% and shock. The "ollowing paragraphs e#plain each o" these problems and what you can e#pect i" they occur.

.R!AT&IN5 PRO.L!'S ,!(,. Any one o" the "ollowing can cause airway obstruction% resulting in stopped breathingF
• • •

.oreign matter in mouth o" throat that obstructs the opening to the trachea. .ace or neck in+uries. In"lammation and swelling o" mouth and throat caused by inhaling smoke% "lames% and irritating vapors or by an allergic reaction.

@Cink@ in the throat :caused by the neck bent "orward so that the chin rests upon the chest;.

Tongue blocks passage o" air to the lungs upon unconsciousness. Ahen an individual is unconscious% the muscles o" the lower +aw and tongue rela# as the neck drops "orward% causing the lower +aw to sag and the tongue to drop back and block the passage o" air.

S!V!R! .L!!2IN5 ,!(/. Severe bleeding "rom any ma+or blood vessel in the body is e#tremely dangerous. The loss o" liter o" blood will produce moderate symptoms o" shock. The loss o" $ liters will produce a severe state o" shock that places the body in e#treme danger. The loss o" ( liters is usually "atal. S&OC1 ,!(2. Shock :acute stress reaction; is not a disease in itsel". It is a clinical condition characteri4ed by symptoms that arise when cardiac output is insu""icient to "ill the arteries with blood under enough pressure to provide an ade1uate blood supply to the organs and tissues.

,!(6. -ontrol panic% both your own and the victim7s. Reassure him and try to keep him 1uiet. 0er"orm a rapid physical e#am. Look "or the cause o" the in+ury and "ollow the A8-s o" "irst aid. Start with the airway and breathing% but be discerning. In some cases% a person may die "rom arterial bleeding more 1uickly than "rom an airway obstruction. The "ollowing paragraphs describe how to treat airway% bleeding% and shock emergencies. OP!N AIR)A$ AN2 'AINTAIN ,!(9. 'ou can open an airway and maintain it by using the "ollowing stepsF

Step 1. 'ou should check to see i" the victim has a partial or complete airway obstruction. I" he can cough or speak% allow him to clear the obstruction naturally. Stand by%

reassure the victim% and be ready to clear his airway and per"orm mouth!to!mouth resuscitation should he become unconscious. I" his airway is completely obstructed% administer abdominal thrusts until the obstruction is cleared. Step 2. Using a "inger% 1uickly sweep the victim7s mouth clear o" any "oreign ob+ects% broken teeth% dentures% and sand.

Step 3. Using the +aw thrust method% grasp the angles o" the victim7s lower +aw and li"t with both hands% one on each side% moving the +aw "orward. .or stability% rest your elbows on the sur"ace on which the victim is lying. I" his lips are closed% gently open the lower lip with your thumb :.igure ,! ;.

,igure 7819 :a+ Thrust 'ethod

Step 4. Aith the victim7s airway open% pinch his nose closed with your thumb and "ore"inger and blow two complete breaths into his lungs. Allow the lungs to de"late a"ter the second in"lation and per"orm the "ollowingF  Loo( "or his chest to rise and "all.
 

Listen "or escaping air during e#halation. ,ee "or "low o" air on your cheek. Step . I" the "orced breaths do not stimulate spontaneous breathing% maintain the

victim7s breathing by per"orming mouth!to!mouth resuscitation.

Step !. There is danger o" the victim vomiting during mouth!to!mouth resuscitation. -heck the victim7s mouth periodically "or vomit and clear as needed.

NOT!; -ardiopulmonary resuscitation :-0R; may be necessary a"ter cleaning the airway% but only a"ter ma+or bleeding is under control. See .> $ !$=% "hysical #itness $raining% the American Deart Association manual% the Red -ross manual% or most other "irst aid books "or detailed instructions on -0R.

CONTROL .L!!2IN5 ,!(<. In a survival situation% you must control serious bleeding immediately because replacement "luids normally are not available and the victim can die within a matter o" minutes. *#ternal bleeding "alls into the "ollowing classi"ications :according to its source;F

Arterial. 8lood vessels called arteries carry blood away "rom the heart and through the body. A cut artery issues %right red blood "rom the wound in distinct sp&rts or p&lses that correspond to the rhythm o" the heartbeat. 8ecause the blood in the arteries is under high pressure% an individual can lose a large volume o" blood in a short period when damage to an artery o" signi"icant si4e occurs. There"ore% arterial bleeding is the most serious type o" bleeding. I" not controlled promptly% it can be "atal. 'eno&s. Venous blood is blood that is returning to the heart through blood vessels called veins. A steady "low o" dark red, maroon, or %l&ish %lood characteri4es bleeding "rom a vein. 'ou can usually control venous bleeding more easily than arterial bleeding.

Capillary. The capillaries are the e#tremely small vessels that connect the arteries with the veins. -apillary bleeding most commonly occurs in minor cuts and scrapes. This type o" bleeding is not di""icult to control.

,!,=. 'ou can control e#ternal bleeding by direct pressure% indirect :pressure points; pressure% elevation% digital ligation% or tourni1uet. *ach method is e#plained below. 2irect Pressure ,!, . The most e""ective way to control e#ternal bleeding is by applying pressure directly over the wound. This pressure must not only be "irm enough to stop the bleeding% but it must also be maintained long enough to @seal o""@ the damaged sur"ace. ,!,$. I" bleeding continues a"ter having applied direct pressure "or (= minutes% apply a pressure dressing. This dressing consists o" a thick dressing o" gau4e or other suitable material applied directly over the wound and held in place with a tightly wrapped bandage :.igure ,!$;. It should be tighter than an ordinary compression bandage but not so tight that it impairs circulation to the rest o" the limb. ?nce you apply the dressing% do not re#o-e it% even when the dressing becomes blood soaked.

,igure 7809 App ication o/ a Pressure 2ressing ,!,(. Leave the pressure dressing in place "or or $ days% a"ter which you can remove and replace it with a smaller dressing. In the long!term survival environment% make "resh% daily dressing changes and inspect "or signs o" in"ection. ! e-ation ,!,,. Raising an in+ured e#tremity as high as possible above the heart7s level slows blood loss by aiding the return o" blood to the heart and lowering the blood pressure at the wound. Dowever% elevation alone will not control bleeding entirelyE you must also apply direct pressure over the wound. Ahen treating a snakebite% be sure to keep the e#tremity o+er than the heart. Pressure Points ,!,/. A pressure point is a location where the main artery to the wound lies near the sur"ace o" the skin or where the artery passes directly over a bony prominence :.igure ,!(;. 'ou can use digital

pressure on a pressure point to slow arterial bleeding until the application o" a pressure dressing. 0ressure point control is not as e""ective "or controlling bleeding as direct pressure e#erted on the wound. It is rare when a single ma+or compressible artery supplies a damaged vessel.

,igure 78<9 Pressure Points ,!,2. I" you cannot remember the e#act location o" the pressure points% "ollow this ruleF Apply pressure at the end o" the +oint +ust above the in+ured area. ?n hands% "eet% and head% this will be the wrist% ankle% and neck% respectively.

WARNING Use caution when applying pressure to the neck. Too much pressure for too long may cause unconsciousness or death. Never place a tourniquet around the neck.
,!,6. >aintain pressure points by placing a round stick in the +oint% bending the +oint over the stick% and then keeping it tightly bent by lashing. 8y using this method to maintain pressure% it "rees your hands to work in other areas. 2igita Ligation ,!,9. 'ou can stop ma+or bleeding immediately or slow it down by applying pressure with a "inger or two on the bleeding end o" the vein or artery. >aintain the pressure until the bleeding stops or slows down enough to apply a pressure bandage% elevation% and so "orth.

Tourni"uet ,!,<. Use a tourni1uet only when direct pressure over the bleeding point and all other methods did not control the bleeding. I" you leave a tourni1uet in place too long% the damage to the tissues can progress to gangrene% with a loss o" the limb later. An improperly applied tourni1uet can also cause permanent damage to nerves and other tissues at the site o" the constriction. I" you must use a tourni1uet% place it around the e#tremity% between the wound and the heart% / to = centimeters :$ to , inches; above the wound site. 3ever place it directly over the wound or a "racture. .igure ,! , e#plains how to apply a tourni1uet.

,igure 7879 App ication o/ Tourni"uet ,!/=. A"ter you secure the tourni1uet% clean and bandage the wound. A lone survivor does not remove or release an applied tourni1uet. Dowever% in a buddy system% the buddy can release the tourni1uet pressure every = to / minutes "or or $ minutes to let blood "low to the rest o" the e#tremity to prevent limb loss.

PR!V!NT AN2 TR!AT S&OC1 ,!/ . Anticipate shock in all in+ured personnel. Treat all in+ured persons as "ollows% regardless o" what symptoms appear :.igure ,!/;F
• •

I" the victim is conscious% place him on a level sur"ace with the lower e#tremities elevated / to $= centimeters :2 to 9 inches;. I" the victim is unconscious% place him on his side or abdomen with his head turned to one side to prevent choking on vomit% blood% or other "luids.

I" you are unsure o" the best position% place the victim per"ectly "lat. ?nce the victim is in a shock position% do not move him.

>aintain body heat by insulating the victim "rom the surroundings and% in some instances% applying e#ternal heat.

I" wet% remove all the victim7s wet clothing as soon as possible and replace with dry clothing.

• •

Improvise a shelter to insulate the victim "rom the weather. Use warm li1uids or "oods% a prewarmed sleeping bag% another person% warmed water in canteens% hot rocks wrapped in clothing% or "ires on either side o" the victim to provide e#ternal warmth.

I" the victim is conscious% slowly administer small doses o" a warm salt or sugar solution% i" available.

• • •

I" the victim is unconscious or has abdominal wounds% do not give "luids by mouth. Dave the victim rest "or at least $, hours. I" you are a lone survivor% lie in a depression in the ground% behind a tree% or any other place out o" the weather% with your head lower than your "eet.

I" you are with a buddy% reassess your patient constantly.

,igure 78=9 Treat#ent /or Shoc(

,!/$. 'ou could "ace bone and +oint in+uries that include "ractures% dislocations% and sprains. .ollow the steps e#plained below "or each in+ury. ,RACTUR!S ,!/(. There are basically two types o" "racturesF open and closed. Aith an open :or compound; "racture% the bone protrudes through the skin and complicates the actual "racture with an open wound. Any bone protruding "rom the wound should be cleaned with an antiseptic and kept moist. 'ou should splint the in+ured area and continually monitor blood "low past the in+ury. ?nly reposition the break i" there is no blood "low.

,!/,. The closed "racture has no open wounds. .ollow the guidelines "or immobili4ation and splint the "racture. ,!//. The signs and symptoms o" a "racture are pain% tenderness% discoloration% swelling de"ormity% loss o" "unction% and grating :a sound or "eeling that occurs when broken bone ends rub together;. ,!/2. The dangers with a "racture are the severing or the compression o" a nerve or blood vessel at the site o" "racture. .or this reason minimum manipulation should be done% and only very cautiously. I" you notice the area below the break becoming numb% swollen% cool to the touch% or turning pale% and the victim showing signs o" shock% a ma+or vessel may have been severed. 'ou must control this internal bleeding. Reset the "racture and treat the victim "or shock and replace lost "luids. ,!/6. ?"ten you must maintain traction during the splinting and healing process. 'ou can e""ectively pull smaller bones such as the arm or lower leg by hand. 'ou can create traction by wedging a hand or "oot in the V!notch o" a tree and pushing against the tree with the other e#tremity. 'ou can then splint the break. ,!/9. Very strong muscles hold a broken thighbone :"emur; in place making it di""icult to maintain traction during healing. 'ou can make an improvised traction splint using natural material :.igure ,!2; as e#plained below.

,igure 78>9 I#pro-ised Traction Sp int

)et two "orked branches or saplings at least / centimeters :$ inches; in diameter. >easure one "rom the patient7s armpit to $= to (= centimeters :9 to $ inches; past his unbroken leg. >easure the other "rom the groin to $= to (= centimeters :9 to $ inches; past the unbroken leg. *nsure that both e#tend an e1ual distance beyond the end o" the leg.

0ad the two splints. 3otch the ends without "orks and lash a $=! to (=!centimeter :9! to $!inch; cross member made "rom a /!centimeter :$!inch; diameter branch between them.

Using available material :vines% cloth% rawhide;% tie the splint around the upper portion o" the body and down the length o" the broken leg. .ollow the splinting guidelines.

Aith available material% "ashion a wrap that will e#tend around the ankle% with the two "ree ends tied to the cross member.

0lace a =! by $./!centimeter :,! by !inch; stick in the middle o" the "ree ends o" the ankle wrap between the cross member and the "oot. Using the stick% twist the material to make the traction easier.

-ontinue twisting until the broken leg is as long or slightly longer than the unbroken leg.

Lash the stick to maintain traction.

NOT!; ?ver time% you may lose traction because the material weakened. -heck the traction periodically. I" you must change or repair the splint% maintain the traction manually "or a short time. 2ISLOCATIONS ,!/<. &islocations are the separations o" bone +oints causing the bones to go out o" proper alignment. These misalignments can be e#tremely pain"ul and can cause an impairment o" nerve or circulatory "unction below the area a""ected. 'ou must place these +oints back into alignment as 1uickly as possible. ,!2=. Signs and symptoms o" dislocations are +oint pain% tenderness% swelling% discoloration% limited range o" motion% and de"ormity o" the +oint. 'ou treat dislocations by reduction% immobili4ation% and rehabilitation. ,!2 . Reduction or @setting@ is placing the bones back into their proper alignment. 'ou can use several methods% but manual traction or the use o" weights to pull the bones are the sa"est and easiest. ?nce per"ormed% reduction decreases the victim7s pain and allows "or normal "unction and circulation. Aithout an L ray% you can +udge proper alignment by the look and "eel o" the +oint and by comparing it to the +oint on the opposite side. ,!2$. Immobili4ation is nothing more than splinting the dislocation a"ter reduction. 'ou can use any "ield!e#pedient material "or a splint or you can splint an e#tremity to the body. The basic guidelines "or splinting are as "ollowsF
• •

Splint above and below the "racture site. 0ad splints to reduce discom"ort.

-heck circulation below the "racture a"ter making each tie on the splint.

,!2( To rehabilitate the dislocation% remove the splints a"ter 6 to , days. )radually use the in+ured +oint until "ully healed. SPRAINS ,!2,. The accidental overstretching o" a tendon or ligament causes sprains. The signs and symptoms are pain% swelling% tenderness% and discoloration :black and blue;. ,!2/. Ahen treating sprains% you should "ollow the letters in RI-* as de"ined belowF
• • •

R!Rest in+ured area. I!Ice "or $, to ,9 hours. -!-ompression!wrap or splint to help stabili4e. I" possible% leave the boot on a sprained ankle unless circulation is compromised.

*!*levate the a""ected area.

NOT!; Ice is pre"erred "or a sprain but cold spring water may be more easily obtained in a survival situation.

,!22. Insects and related pests are ha4ards in a survival situation. They not only cause irritations% but they are o"ten carriers o" diseases that cause severe allergic reactions in some individuals. In many parts o" the world you will be e#posed to serious% even "atal% diseases not encountered in the United States.
• • •

Ticks can carry and transmit diseases% such as Rocky >ountain spotted "ever common in many parts o" the United States. Ticks also transmit Lyme disease. >os1uitoes may carry malaria% dengue% and many other diseases. .lies can spread disease "rom contact with in"ectious sources. They are causes o" sleeping sickness% typhoid% cholera% and dysentery.

• •

.leas can transmit plague. Lice can transmit typhus and relapsing "ever.

,!26. The best way to avoid the complications o" insect bites and stings is to keep immuni4ations :including booster shots; up!to!date% avoid insect!in"ested areas% use netting and insect repellent% and wear all clothing properly.

,!29. I" you are bitten or stung% do not scratch the bite or stingE it might become in"ected. Inspect your body at least once a day to ensure there are no insects attached to you. I" you "ind ticks attached to your body% cover them with a substance :such as petroleum +elly% heavy oil% or tree sap; that will cut o"" their air supply. Aithout air% the tick releases its hold% and you can remove it. Take care to remove the whole tick. Use twee4ers i" you have them. )rasp the tick where the mouthparts are attached to the skin. &o not s1uee4e the tick7s body. Aash your hands a"ter touching the tick. -lean the tick wound daily until healed. TR!AT'!NT ,!2<. It is impossible to list the treatment o" all the di""erent types o" bites and stings. Dowever% you can generally treat bites and stings as "ollowsF
• •

I" antibiotics are available "or your use% become "amiliar with them be"ore deployment and use them. 0redeployment immuni4ations can prevent most o" the common diseases carried by mos1uitoes and some carried by "lies.

The common "ly!borne diseases are usually treatable with penicillins or erythromycin.

• •

>ost tick!% "lea!% louse!% and mite!borne diseases are treatable with tetracycline. >ost antibiotics come in $/= milligram :mg; or /== mg tablets. I" you cannot remember the e#act dose rate to treat a disease% $ tablets% , times a day% "or = to , days will usually kill any bacteria.

.!! AN2 )ASP STIN5S ,!6=. I" stung by a bee% immediately remove the stinger and venom sac% i" attached% by scraping with a "ingernail or a kni"e blade. &o not s1uee4e or grasp the stinger or venom sac% as s1uee4ing will "orce more venom into the wound. Aash the sting site thoroughly with soap and water to lessen the chance o" a secondary in"ection. ,!6 . I" you know or suspect that you are allergic to insect stings% always carry an insect sting kit with you. ,!6$. Relieve the itching and discom"ort caused by insect bites by applying5
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-old compresses. A cooling paste o" mud and ashes. Sap "rom dandelions.

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-oconut meat. -rushed cloves o" garlic. ?nion.

SPI2!R .IT!S AN2 SCORPION STIN5S ,!6(. The black widow spider is identi"ied by a red hourglass on its abdomen. ?nly the "emale bites% and it has a neuroto#ic venom. The initial pain is not severe% but severe local pain rapidly develops. The pain gradually spreads over the entire body and settles in the abdomen and legs. Abdominal cramps and progressive nausea% vomiting% and a rash may occur. Aeakness% tremors% sweating% and salivation may occur. Anaphylactic reactions can occur. Symptoms may worsen "or the ne#t three days and then begin to subside "or the ne#t week. Treat "or shock. 8e ready to per"orm -0R. -lean and dress the bite area to reduce the risk o" in"ection. An antivenin is available. ,!6,. The "unnelweb spider is a large brown or gray spider "ound in Australia. The symptoms and the treatment "or its bite are as "or the black widow spider. ,!6/. The brown house spider or brown recluse spider is a small% light brown spider identi"ied by a dark brown violin on its back. There is no pain% or so little pain% that usually a victim is not aware o" the bite. Aithin a "ew hours a pain"ul red area with a mottled cyanotic center appears. 3ecrosis does not occur in all bites% but usually in ( to , days% a star!shaped% "irm area o" deep purple discoloration appears at the bite site. The area turns dark and mummi"ied in a week or two. The margins separate and the scab "alls o""% leaving an open ulcer. Secondary in"ection and regional swollen lymph glands usually become visible at this stage. The outstanding characteristic o" the brown recluse bite is an ulcer that does not heal but persists "or weeks or months. In addition to the ulcer% there is o"ten a systemic reaction that is serious and may lead to death. Reactions :"ever% chills% +oint pain% vomiting% and a generali4ed rash; occur chie"ly in children or debilitated persons. ,!62. Tarantulas are large% hairy spiders "ound mainly in the tropics. >ost do not in+ect venom% but some South American species do. They have large "angs. I" bitten% pain and bleeding are certain% and in"ection is likely. Treat a tarantula bite as "or any open wound% and try to prevent in"ection. I" symptoms o" poisoning appear% treat as "or the bite o" the black widow spider. ,!66. Scorpions are all poisonous to a greater or lesser degree. There are two di""erent reactions% depending on the speciesF
• •

Severe local reaction only% with pain and swelling around the area o" the sting. 0ossible prickly sensation around the mouth and a thick!"eeling tongue. Severe systemic reaction% with little or no visible local reaction. Local pain may be present. Systemic reaction includes respiratory di""iculties% thick!"eeling tongue% body

spasms% drooling% gastric distention% double vision% blindness% involuntary rapid movement o" the eyeballs% involuntary urination and de"ecation% and heart "ailure. &eath is rare% occurring mainly in children and adults with high blood pressure or illnesses. ,!69. Treat scorpion stings as you would a black widow bite. SNA1!.IT!S ,!6<. The chance o" a snakebite in a survival situation is rather small% i" you are "amiliar with the various types o" snakes and their habitats. Dowever% it could happen and you should know how to treat a snakebite. &eaths "rom snakebites are rare. >ore than one!hal" o" the snakebite victims have little or no poisoning% and only about one!1uarter develop serious systemic poisoning. Dowever% the chance o" a snakebite in a survival situation can a""ect morale% and "ailure to take preventive measures or "ailure to treat a snakebite properly can result in needless tragedy. ,!9=. The primary concern in the treatment o" snakebite is to limit the amount o" eventual tissue destruction around the bite area. ,!9 . A bite wound% regardless o" the type o" animal that in"licted it% can become in"ected "rom bacteria in the animal7s mouth. Aith nonpoisonous as well as poisonous snakebites% this local in"ection is responsible "or a large part o" the residual damage that results. ,!9$. Snake venoms not only contain poisons that attack the victim7s central nervous system :neuroto#ins; and blood circulation :hemoto#ins;% but also digestive en4ymes :cytoto#ins; to aid in digesting their prey. These poisons can cause a very large area o" tissue death% leaving a large open wound. This condition could lead to the need "or eventual amputation i" not treated. ,!9(. Shock and panic in a person bitten by a snake can also a""ect the person7s recovery. *#citement% hysteria% and panic can speed up the circulation% causing the body to absorb the to#in 1uickly. Signs o" shock occur within the "irst (= minutes a"ter the bite. ,!9,. 8e"ore you start treating a snakebite% determine whether the snake was poisonous or nonpoisonous. 8ites "rom a nonpoisonous snake will show rows o" teeth. 8ites "rom a poisonous snake may have rows o" teeth showing% but will have one or more distinctive puncture marks caused by "ang penetration. Symptoms o" a poisonous bite may be spontaneous bleeding "rom the nose and anus% blood in the urine% pain at the site o" the bite% and swelling at the site o" the bite within a "ew minutes or up to $ hours later. ,!9/. 8reathing di""iculty% paralysis% weakness% twitching% and numbness are also signs o" neuroto#ic venoms. These signs usually appear ./ to $ hours a"ter the bite. ,!92. I" you determine that a poisonous snake bit an individual% take the "ollowing stepsF

• • • • •

Reassure the victim and keep him still. Set up "or shock and "orce "luids or give by intravenous :IV; means. Remove watches% rings% bracelets% or other constricting items. -lean the bite area. >aintain an airway :especially i" bitten near the "ace or neck; and be prepared to administer mouth!to!mouth resuscitation or -0R.

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Use a constricting band between the wound and the heart. Immobili4e the site. Remove the poison as soon as possible by using a mechanical suction device. &o not s1uee4e the site o" the bite.

,!96. 'ou should also remember "our very important guidelines during the treatment o" snakebites. 2o not5
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)ive the victim alcoholic beverages or tobacco products. 3ever give atropineG )ive morphine or other central nervous system :-3S; depressors. >ake any deep cuts at the bite site. -utting opens capillaries that in turn open a direct route into the blood stream "or venom and in"ection.

NOT!; I" medical treatment is over hour away% make an incision :no longer than 2 millimeters I K, inchJ and no deeper than ( millimeters I K9 inchJ; over each puncture% cutting +ust deep enough to enlarge the "ang opening% but only through the "irst or second layer o" skin. 0lace a suction cup over the bite so that you have a good vacuum seal. Suction the bite site ( to , times. Suction "or a 'INI'U' o/ <? 'INUT!S9 Use mouth suction on y as a last resort and on y i" you do not have open sores in your mouth. Spit the envenomed blood out and rinse your mouth with water. This method will draw out $/ to (= percent o" the venom.
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0ut your hands on your "ace or rub your eyes% as venom may be on your hands. Venom may cause blindness. 8reak open the large blisters that "orm around the bite site.

,!99. A"ter caring "or the victim as described above% take the "ollowing actions to minimi4e local e""ectsF
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I" in"ection appears% keep the wound open and clean. Use heat a"ter $, to ,9 hours to help prevent the spread o" local in"ection. Deat also helps to draw out an in"ection.

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Ceep the wound covered with a dry% sterile dressing. Dave the victim drink large amounts o" "luids until the in"ection is gone.

,!9<. An interruption o" the skin7s integrity characteri4es wounds. These wounds could be open wounds% skin diseases% "rostbite% trench "oot% or burns. OP!N )OUN2S ,!<=. ?pen wounds are serious in a survival situation% not only because o" tissue damage and blood loss% but also because they may become in"ected. 8acteria on the ob+ect that made the wound% on the individual7s skin and clothing% or on other "oreign material or dirt that touches the wound may cause in"ection. ,!< . 8y taking proper care o" the wound you can reduce "urther contamination and promote healing. -lean the wound as soon as possible a"ter it occurs by5
• •

Removing or cutting clothing away "rom the wound. Always looking "or an e#it wound i" a sharp ob+ect% gunshot% or pro+ectile caused a wound.

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Thoroughly cleaning the skin around the wound. Rinsing :not scrubbing; the wound with large amounts o" water under pressure. 'ou can use "resh urine i" water is not available.

,!<$. The @open treatment@ method is the sa"est way to manage wounds in survival situations. &o not try to close any wound by suturing or similar procedures. Leave the wound open to allow the drainage o" any pus resulting "rom in"ection. As long as the wound can drain% it generally will not become li"e!threatening% regardless o" how unpleasant it looks or smells. ,!<(. -over the wound with a clean dressing. 0lace a bandage on the dressing to hold it in place. -hange the dressing daily to check "or in"ection. ,!<,. I" a wound is gaping% you can bring the edges together with adhesive tape cut in the "orm o" a @butter"ly@ or @dumbbell@ :.igure ,!6;. Use this method with e#treme caution in the absence o" antibiotics. 'ou must always allow "or proper drainage o" the wound to avoid in"ection.

,igure 78@9 .utter/ y C osure ,!</. In a survival situation% some degree o" wound in"ection is almost inevitable. 0ain% swelling% and redness around the wound% increased temperature% and pus in the wound or on the dressing indicate in"ection is present. ,!<2. I" the wound becomes in"ected% you should treat as "ollowsF

0lace a warm% moist compress directly on the in"ected wound. -hange the compress when it cools% keeping a warm compress on the wound "or a total o" (= minutes. Apply the compresses three or "our times daily. &rain the wound. ?pen and gently probe the in"ected wound with a sterile instrument.

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&ress and bandage the wound. &rink a lot o" water. In the event o" gunshot or other serious wounds% it may be better to rinse the wound out vigorously every day with the cleanest water available. I" drinking water or methods to puri"y drinking water are limited% do not use your drinking water. .lush the wound "orce"ully daily until the wound is healed over. 'our scar may be larger but your chances o" in"ection are greatly reduced.

-ontinue this treatment daily until all signs o" in"ection have disappeared.

,!<6. I" you do not have antibiotics and the wound has become severely in"ected% does not heal% and ordinary debridement is impossible% consider maggot therapy as stated below% despite its ha4ardsF
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*#pose the wound to "lies "or one day and then cover it. -heck daily "or maggots.

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?nce maggots develop% keep wound covered but check daily. Remove all maggots when they have cleaned out all dead tissue and be"ore they start on healthy tissue. Increased pain and bright red blood in the wound indicate that the maggots have reached healthy tissue.

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.lush the wound repeatedly with sterile water or "resh urine to remove the maggots. -heck the wound every , hours "or several days to ensure all maggots have been removed.

8andage the wound and treat it as any other wound. It should heal normally.

S1IN 2IS!AS!S AN2 AIL'!NTS ,!<9. 8oils% "ungal in"ections% and rashes rarely develop into a serious health problem. They cause discom"ort and you should treat them as "ollowsF .oi s ,!<<. Apply warm compresses to bring the boil to a head. Another method that can be used to bring a boil to a head is the bottle suction method. Use an empty bottle that has been boiled in water. 0lace the opening o" the bottle over the boil and seal the skin "orming an airtight environment that will create a vacuum. This method will draw the pus to the skin sur"ace when applied correctly. Then open the boil using a sterile kni"e% wire% needle% or similar item. Thoroughly clean out the pus using soap and water. -over the boil site% checking it periodically to ensure no "urther in"ection develops. ,unga In/ections ,! ==. Ceep the skin clean and dry% and e#pose the in"ected area to as much sunlight as possible. 2o not scratch the a""ected area. &uring the Southeast Asian con"lict% soldiers used anti"ungal powders% lye soap% chlorine bleach% alcohol% vinegar% concentrated salt water% and iodine to treat "ungal in"ections with varying degrees o" success. As with any AunorthodoBA method o" treatment% use these with caution. Rashes ,! = . To treat a skin rash e""ectively% "irst determine what is causing it. This determination may be di""icult even in the best o" situations. ?bserve the "ollowing rules to treat rashesF
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I" it is moist% keep it dry. I" it is dry% keep it moist. &o not scratch it.

,! =$. Use a compress o" vinegar or tannic acid derived "rom tea or "rom boiling acorns or the bark o" a hardwood tree to dry weeping rashes. Ceep dry rashes moist by rubbing a small amount o" rendered animal "at or grease on the a""ected area. ,! =(. Remember% treat rashes as open woundsE clean and dress them daily. There are many substances available to survivors in the wild or in captivity "or use as antiseptics to treat wounds. .ollow the recommended guidance belowF
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(odine ta%lets. Use / to / tablets in a liter o" water to produce a good rinse "or wounds during healing. )arlic. Rub it on a wound or boil it to e#tract the oils and use the water to rinse the a""ected area.

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Salt water. Use $ to ( tablespoons per liter o" water to kill bacteria. *ee honey. Use it straight or dissolved in water. Sphagn&m moss. .ound in boggy areas worldwide% it is a natural source o" iodine. Use as a dressing.

S&gar. 0lace directly on wound and remove thoroughly when it turns into a gla4ed and runny substance. Then reapply.

Syr&p. In e#treme circumstances% some o" the same bene"its o" honey and sugar can be reali4ed with any high!sugar!content item.

NOT!; Again% use noncommercially prepared materials with caution. .URNS ,! =,. The "ollowing "ield treatment "or burns relieves the pain somewhat% seems to help speed healing% and o""ers some protection against in"ectionF

.irst% stop the burning process. 0ut out the "ire by removing clothing% dousing with water or sand% or by rolling on the ground. -ool the burning skin with ice or water. .or burns caused by white phosphorous% pick out the white phosphorous with twee4ersE do not douse with water. Soak dressings or clean rags "or = minutes in a boiling tannic acid solution :obtained "rom tea% inner bark o" hardwood trees% or acorns boiled in water;.

-ool the dressings or clean rags and apply over burns. Sugar and honey also work "or burns with honey being especially e""ective at promoting new skin growth and stopping in"ections. Use both as you would in an open wound above.

• •

Treat as an open wound. Replace "luid loss. .luid replacement can be achieved through oral :pre"erred; and intravenous routes :when resources are available;. ?ne alternate method through which rehydration can be achieved is through the rectal route. .luids do not need to be sterile% only puri"ied. A person can e""ectively absorb appro#imately to ./ liters per hour by using a tube to deliver "luids into the rectal vault.

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>aintain airway. Treat "or shock. -onsider using morphine% unless the burns are near the "ace.

,! =/. Deatstroke% hypothermia% diarrhea% and intestinal parasites are environmental in+uries you could "ace in a survival situation. Read and "ollow the guidance provided below. &!ATSTRO1! ,! =2. The breakdown o" the body7s heat regulatory system :body temperature more than ,=./ degrees - I =/ degrees .J; causes a heatstroke. ?ther heat in+uries% such as cramps or dehydration% do not always precede a heatstroke. Signs and symptoms o" heatstroke are5
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Swollen% beet!red "ace. Reddened whites o" eyes. Victim not sweating. Unconsciousness or delirium% which can cause pallor% a bluish color to lips and nail beds :cyanosis;% and cool skin.

NOT!; 8y this time% the victim is in severe shock. -ool the victim as rapidly as possible. -ool him by dipping him in a cool stream. I" one is not available% douse the victim with urine% water% or at the very least% apply cool wet compresses to all the +oints% especially the neck% armpits% and crotch. 8e sure to wet the victim7s head. Deat loss through the scalp is great. Administer IVs and provide drinking "luids. 'ou may "an the individual. ,! =6. 'ou can e#pect the "ollowing symptoms during coolingF
• •

Vomiting. &iarrhea.

• • • • • •

Struggling. Shivering. Shouting. 0rolonged unconsciousness. Rebound heatstroke within ,9 hours. -ardiac arrestE be ready to per"orm -0R.

NOT!; Treat "or dehydration with lightly salted water. C&IL.LAINS ,! =9. .rostnip begins as "irm% cold and white or gray areas on the "ace% ears% and e#tremities that can blister or peel +ust like sunburn as late as $ to ( days a"ter the in+ury. .rostnip% or chilblains as it is sometimes called% is the result o" tissue e#posure to "ree4ing temperatures and is the beginning o" "rostbite. The water in and around the cells "ree4es% rupturing cell walls and thus damaging the tissue. Aarming the a""ected area with hands or a warm ob+ect treats this in+ury. Aind chill plays a "actor in this in+uryE preventative measures include layers o" dry clothing and protection against wetness and wind. TR!NC& ,OOT ,! =<. Immersion or trench "oot results "rom many hours or days o" e#posure to wet or damp conditions at a temperature +ust above "ree4ing. The nerves and muscles sustain the main damage% but gangrene can occur. In e#treme cases the "lesh dies and it may become necessary to have the "oot or leg amputated. The best prevention is to keep your "eet dry. -arry e#tra socks with you in a waterproo" packet. &ry wet socks against your body. Aash your "eet daily and put on dry socks. ,ROST.IT! ,! =. This in+ury results "rom "ro4en tissues. .rostbite e#tends to a depth below the skin. The tissues become solid and immovable. 'our "eet% hands% and e#posed "acial areas are particularly vulnerable to "rostbite. ,! . Ahen with others% prevent "rostbite by using the buddy system. -heck your buddy7s "ace o"ten and make sure that he checks yours. I" you are alone% periodically cover your nose and lower part o" your "ace with your mittens. ,! $. &o not try to thaw the a""ected areas by placing them close to an open "lame. .rostbitten tissue may be immersed in (6 to ,$ degrees - :<< to =< degrees .; water until thawed. :Aater

temperature can be determined with the inside wrist or baby "ormula method.; &ry the part and place it ne#t to your skin to warm it at body temperature. &$POT&!R'IA ,! (. It is de"ined as the body7s "ailure to maintain an inner core temperature o" (2 degrees - :<6 degrees .;. *#posure to cool or cold temperature over a short or long time can cause hypothermia. &ehydration and lack o" "ood and rest predispose the survivor to hypothermia. ,! ,. Immediate treatment is the key. >ove the victim to the best shelter possible away "rom the wind% rain% and cold. Remove all wet clothes and get the victim into dry clothing. Replace lost "luids with warm "luids% and warm him in a sleeping bag using two people :i" possible; providing skin!to! skin contact. I" the victim is unable to drink warm "luids% rectal rehydration may be used. 2IARR&!A ,! /. A common% debilitating ailment caused by changing water and "ood% drinking contaminated water% eating spoiled "ood% becoming "atigued% and using dirty dishes. 'ou can avoid most o" these causes by practicing preventive medicine. Dowever% i" you get diarrhea and do not have antidiarrheal medicine% one o" the "ollowing treatments may be e""ectiveF
• •

Limit your intake o" "luids "or $, hours. &rink one cup o" a strong tea solution every $ hours until the diarrhea slows or stops. The tannic acid in the tea helps to control the diarrhea. 8oil the inner bark o" a hardwood tree "or $ hours or more to release the tannic acid.

>ake a solution o" one hand"ul o" ground chalk% charcoal% or dried bones and treated water. I" you have some apple pomace or the rinds o" citrus "ruit% add an e1ual portion to the mi#ture to make it more e""ective. Take $ tablespoons o" the solution every $ hours until the diarrhea slows or stops.

INT!STINAL PARASIT!S ,! 2. 'ou can usually avoid worm in"estations and other intestinal parasites i" you take preventive measures. .or e#ample% never go bare"oot. The most e""ective way to prevent intestinal parasites is to avoid uncooked meat% never eat raw vegetables contaminated by raw sewage% and try not to use human waste as a "ertili4er. Dowever% should you become in"ested and lack proper medicine% you can use home remedies. Ceep in mind that these home remedies work on the principle o" changing the environment o" the gastrointestinal tract. The "ollowing are home remedies you could useF

Salt water. &issolve , tablespoons o" salt in liter o" water and drink. &o not repeat this treatment.

$o%acco. *at to

K$ cigarettes or appro#imately teaspoon :pinch; o" smokeless

tobacco. The nicotine in the tobacco will kill or stun the worms long enough "or your system to pass them. I" the in"estation is severe% repeat the treatment in $, to ,9 hours% *ut no sooner.

+erosene. &rink $ tablespoons o" kerosene% *ut no #ore. I" necessary% you can repeat this treatment in $, to ,9 hours. 8e care"ul not to inhale the "umes. They may cause lung irritation.

NOT!; Tobacco and kerosene treatment techni1ues are very dangerous% be care"ul.

,ot peppers. 0eppers are e""ective only i" they are a steady part o" your diet. 'ou can eat them raw or put them in soups or rice and meat dishes. They create an environment that is prohibitive to parasitic attachment. )arlic. -hop or crush , cloves% mi# with glass o" li1uid% and drink daily "or ( weeks.

&!R.AL '!2ICIN!S
,! 6. ?ur modern wonder drugs% laboratories% and e1uipment have obscured more primitive types o" medicine involving determination% common sense% and a "ew simple treatments. Dowever% in many areas o" the world the people still depend on local @witch doctors@ or healers to cure their ailments. >any o" the herbs :plants; and treatments they use are as e""ective as the most modern medications available. In "act% many modern medications come "rom re"ined herbs.

WARNING Use herbal medicines with extreme care and only when you lack or have limited medical supplies. !ome herbal medicines are dangerous and may cause further damage or even death."hapter # explains some basic herbal medicine treatments.

Chapter =

She ters
A shelter can protect you "rom the sun% insects% wind% rain% snow% hot or cold temperatures% and enemy observation. It can give you a "eeling o" well!being and help you maintain your will to survive.

In some areas% your need "or shelter may take precedence over your need "or "ood and possibly even your need "or water. .or e#ample% prolonged e#posure to cold can cause e#cessive "atigue and weakness :e#haustion;. An e#hausted person may develop a @passive@ outlook% thereby losing the will to survive. Seek natural shelters or alter them to meet your needs% there"ore% saving energy. A common error in making a shelter is to make it too large. A shelter must be large enough to protect you and small enough to contain your body heat% especially in cold climates.

/! . 'our primary shelter in a survival situation will be your uni"orm. This point is true regardless o" whether you are in a hot% cold% tropical% desert% or arctic situation. .or your uni"orm to protect you% it must be in as good o" a condition as possible and be worn properly. Ae use the term -?L&*R which is addressed in -hapter / to remind us o" what to do.

/!$. Ahen you are in a survival situation and reali4e that shelter is a high priority% start looking "or shelter as soon as possible. As you do so% remember what you will need at the site. Two re1uisites "or shelter are that it must5
• •

-ontain material to make the type o" shelter you need. 8e large enough and level enough "or you to lie down com"ortably.

/!(. 'ou should "ocus on your tactical situation and your sa"ety when considering these re1uisites. 'ou must also consider whether the site5
• • • • •

0rovides concealment "rom enemy observation. Das camou"laged escape routes. Is suitable "or signaling% i" necessary. 0rovides protection against wild animals and rocks and dead trees that might "all. Is "ree "rom insects% reptiles% and poisonous plants.

/!,. 'ou must remember the problems that could arise in your environment. .or instance% avoid5
• • •

.lash "lood areas in "oothills. Avalanche or rockslide areas in mountainous terrain. Sites near bodies o" water that are below the high!water mark.

/!/. In some areas% the season o" the year has a strong bearing on the site you select. Ideal sites "or a shelter di""er in winter and summer. &uring cold winter months you will want a site that will protect you "rom the cold and wind% but will have a source o" "uel and water. &uring summer months in the same area you will want a source o" water% but you will also want the site to be almost insect "ree. /!2. Ahen you are considering shelter site selection% remember the word 8LISS and the "ollowing guidelinesF
• • • • •

8!8lend in with the surroundings. L!Low silhouette. I!Irregular shape. S!Small. S!Secluded location.

/!6. Ahen looking "or a shelter site% keep in mind the type o" shelter you need. Dowever% you must also consider the 1uestions belowF
• • • •

Dow much time and e""ort will you need to build the shelterB Aill the shelter ade1uately protect you "rom the elements :sun% wind% rain% snow;B &o you have the tools to build itB I" not% can you make improvised toolsB &o you have the type and amount o" materials needed to build itB

/!9. To answer these 1uestions% you need to know how to make various types o" shelters and what materials you need to make them. PONC&O L!AN8TO /!<. It takes only a short time and minimal e1uipment to build this lean!to :.igure /! ;. 'ou need a poncho% $ to ( meters :6 to = "eet; o" rope or parachute suspension line% three stakes about (= centimeters : "oot; long% and two trees or two poles $ to ( meters :6 to = "eet; apart. 8e"ore selecting the trees you will use or the location o" your poles% check the wind direction. *nsure that the back o" your lean!to will be into the wind.

,igure =819 Poncho Lean8to /! =. To make the lean!to% you should5
• •

Tie o"" the hood o" the poncho. 0ull the drawstring tight% roll the hood longways% "old it into thirds% and tie it o"" with the drawstring. -ut the rope in hal". ?n one long side o" the poncho% tie hal" o" the rope to the corner grommet. Tie the other hal" to the other corner grommet.

Attach a drip stick :about a =!centimeter I,!inchJ stick; to each rope about $./ centimeters :about inch; "rom the grommet. These drip sticks will keep rainwater "rom running down the ropes into the lean!to. Tying strings :about = centimeters I, inchesJ long; to each grommet along the poncho7s top edge will allow the water to run to and down the line without dripping into the shelter.

Tie the ropes about waist high on the trees. Use a round turn and two hal" hitches with a 1uick!release knot.

Spread the poncho and anchor it to the ground% putting sharpened sticks through the grommets and into the ground.

/! . I" you plan to use the lean!to "or more than one night% or you e#pect rain% make a center support "or the lean!to. >ake this support with a line. Attach one end o" the line to the poncho hood and the other end to an overhanging branch. >ake sure there is no slack in the line. /! $. Another method is to place a stick upright under the center o" the lean!to. Dowever% this method will restrict your space and movements in the shelter. /! (. .or additional protection "rom wind and rain% place some brush% your rucksack% or other e1uipment at the sides o" the lean!to. /! ,. To reduce heat loss to the ground% place some type o" insulating material% such as leaves or pine needles% inside your lean!to.

NOT!; Ahen at rest% you lose as much as 9= percent o" your body heat to the ground. /! /. To increase your security "rom enemy observation% lower the lean!to7s silhouette by making two changes. .irst% secure the support lines to the trees at knee height :not at waist height; using two knee!high sticks in the two center grommets :sides o" lean!to;. Second% angle the poncho to the ground% securing it with sharpened sticks% as above. PONC&O T!NT /! 2. This tent :.igure /!$; provides a low silhouette. It also protects you "rom the elements on two sides. It has% however% less usable space and observation area than a lean!to% decreasing your reaction time to enemy detection. To make this tent% you need a poncho% two ./! to $./!meter :/! to 9!"oot; ropes% si# sharpened sticks about (= centimeters : "oot; long% and two trees $ to ( meters :6 to = "eet; apart.

,igure =809 Poncho Tent Using O-erhanging .ranch /! 6. To make the tent% you should5
• •

Tie o"" the poncho hood in the same way as the poncho lean!to. Tie a ./! to $./!meter :/! to 9!"oot; rope to the center grommet on each side o" the poncho.

Tie the other ends o" these ropes at about knee height to two trees $ to ( meters :6 to = "eet; apart and stretch the poncho tight.

&raw one side o" the poncho tight and secure it to the ground pushing sharpened sticks through the grommets.

.ollow the same procedure on the other side.

/! 9. I" you need a center support% use the same methods as "or the poncho lean!to. Another center support is an A!"rame set outside but over the center o" the tent :.igure /!(;. Use two <=! to $=!

centimeter!long : $! to 2!"oot!long; sticks% one with a "orked end% to "orm the A!"rame. Tie the hood7s drawstring to the A!"rame to support the center o" the tent.

,igure =8<9 Poncho Tent )ith A8,ra#e T&R!!8POL! PARAC&UT! T!P!! /! <. I" you have a parachute and three poles and the tactical situation allows% make a parachute tepee. It is easy and takes very little time to make this tepee. It provides protection "rom the elements and can act as a signaling device by enhancing a small amount o" light "rom a "ire or candle. It is large enough to hold several people and their e1uipment and to allow sleeping% cooking% and storing "irewood. /!$=. 'ou can make this tepee :.igure /!,; using parts o" or a whole personnel main or reserve parachute canopy. I" using a standard personnel parachute% you need three poles (./ to ,./ meters : $ to / "eet; long and about / centimeters :$ inches; in diameter.

,igure =879 Three8Po e Parachute Tepee /!$ . To make this tepee% you should5
• • •

Lay the poles on the ground and lash them together at one end. Stand the "ramework up and spread the poles to "orm a tripod. .or more support% place additional poles against the tripod. .ive or si# additional poles work best% but do not lash them to the tripod.

&etermine the wind direction and locate the entrance <= degrees or more "rom the mean wind direction.

Lay out the parachute on the @backside@ o" the tripod and locate the bridle loop :nylon web loop; at the top :ape#; o" the canopy.

0lace the bridle loop over the top o" a "reestanding pole. Then place the pole back up against the tripod so that the canopy7s ape# is at the same height as the lashing on the three poles.

Arap the canopy around one side o" the tripod. The canopy should be o" double thickness% as you are wrapping an entire parachute. 'ou need only wrap hal" o" the tripod% as the remainder o" the canopy will encircle the tripod in the opposite direction.

-onstruct the entrance by wrapping the "olded edges o" the canopy around two "ree! standing poles. 'ou can then place the poles side by side to close the tepee7s entrance.

0lace all e#tra canopy underneath the tepee poles and inside to create a "loor "or the shelter.

Leave a (=! to /=!centimeter : $! to $=!inch; opening at the top "or ventilation i" you intend to have a "ire inside the tepee.

/!$$. 'ou need a ,!gore section :normally; o" canopy% stakes% a stout center pole% and an inner core and needle to construct this tepee :.igure /!/;. 'ou cut the suspension lines e#cept "or ,=! to ,/! centimeter : 2! to 9!inch; lengths at the canopy7s lower lateral band.

,igure =8=9 One8Po e Parachute Tepee /!$(. To make this tepee% you should5
• •

Select a shelter site and scribe a circle about , meters : ( "eet; in diameter on the ground. Stake the parachute material to the ground using the lines remaining at the lower lateral band.

A"ter deciding where to place the shelter door% emplace a stake and tie the "irst line :"rom the lower lateral band; securely to it.

Stretch the parachute material taut to the ne#t line% emplace a stake on the scribed line% and tie the line to it.

• •

-ontinue the staking process until you have tied all the lines. Loosely attach the top o" the parachute material to the center pole with a suspension line you previously cut and% through trial and error% determine the point at which the parachute material will be pulled tight once the center pole is upright.

• •

Securely attach the material to the pole. Using a suspension line :or inner core;% sew the end gores together leaving to .$ meters :( to , "eet; "or a door.

NO8POL! PARAC&UT! T!P!! /!$,. *#cept "or the center pole% you use the same materials "or a no!pole parachute tepee :.igure /! 2;% as "or the one!pole parachute tepee.

,igure =8>9 No8Po e Parachute Tepee /!$/. To make this tepee% you should5
• • •

Tie a line to the top o" parachute material with a previously cut suspension line. Throw the line over a tree limb% and tie it to the tree trunk. Starting at the opposite side "rom the door% emplace a stake on the scribed (./! to ,.(! meter : $! to ,!"oot; circle.

• •

Tie the "irst line on the lower lateral band. -ontinue emplacing the stakes and tying the lines to them.

/!$2. A"ter staking down the material% un"asten the line tied to the tree trunk% tighten the tepee material by pulling on this line% and tie it securely to the tree trunk.

ON!8'AN S&!LT!R /!$6. A one!man shelter :.igure /!6; you can easily make using a parachute re1uires a tree and three poles. ?ne pole should be about ,./ meters : / "eet; long and the other two about ( meters : = "eet; long.

,igure =8@9 One8'an She ter /!$9. To make this shelter% you should5
• •

Secure the ,./!meter : /!"oot; pole to the tree at about waist height. Lay the two (!meter : =!"oot; poles on the ground on either side o" and in the same direction as the ,./!meter : /!"oot; pole.

Lay the "olded canopy over the ,./!meter : /!"oot; pole so that about the same amount o" material hangs on both sides.

Tuck the e#cess material under the (!meter : =!"oot; poles and spread it on the ground inside to serve as a "loor.

Stake down or put a spreader between the two (!meter : =!"oot; poles at the shelter7s entrance so they will not slide inward.

Use any e#cess material to cover the entrance.

/!$<. The parachute cloth makes this shelter wind!resistant% and the shelter is small enough that it is easily warmed. A candle% used care"ully% can keep the inside temperature com"ortable. Dowever% this shelter is unsatis"actory when snow is "alling% as even a light snow"all will cave it in. PARAC&UT! &A''OC1

/!(=. 'ou can make a hammock using si# to eight gores o" parachute canopy and two trees about ,./ meters : / "eet; apart :.igure /!9;.

,igure =8C9 Parachute &a##oc( ,I!L28!4P!2I!NT L!AN8TO /!( . I" you are in a wooded area and have enough natural materials% you can make a "ield!e#pedient lean!to :.igure /!<; without the aid o" tools or with only a kni"e. It takes longer to make this type o" shelter than it does to make other types% but it will protect you "rom the elements.

,igure =8D9 ,ie d8!Bpedient Lean8to and ,ire Re/ ector /!($. 'ou will need two trees :or upright poles; about $ meters :6 "eet; apartE one pole about $ meters :6 "eet; long and $./ centimeters : inch; in diameterE "ive to eight poles about ( meters : = "eet; long and $./ centimeters : inch; in diameter "or beamsE cord or vines "or securing the hori4ontal support to the treesE and other poles% saplings% or vines to crisscross the beams. /!((. To make this lean!to% you should5

Tie the $!meter :6!"oot; pole to the two trees at waist to chest height. This is the hori4ontal support. I" a standing tree is not available% construct a bipod using '!shaped sticks or two tripods. 0lace one end o" the beams :(!meter I =!"ootJ poles; on one side o" the hori4ontal support. As with all lean!to type shelters% be sure to place the lean!to7s backside into the wind.

• •

-risscross saplings or vines on the beams. -over the "ramework with brush% leaves% pine needles% or grass% starting at the bottom and working your way up like shingling.

0lace straw% leaves% pine needles% or grass inside the shelter "or bedding.

/!(,. In cold weather% add to your lean!to7s com"ort by building a "ire re"lector wall :.igure /!<;. &rive "our ./!meter!long :/!"oot!long; stakes into the ground to support the wall. Stack green logs on top o" one another between the support stakes. .orm two rows o" stacked logs to create an inner space within the wall that you can "ill with dirt. This action not only strengthens the wall but makes it more heat re"lective. 8ind the top o" the support stakes so that the green logs and dirt will stay in place. /!(/. Aith +ust a little more e""ort you can have a drying rack. -ut a "ew $!centimeter!diameter :(K,! inch!diameter; poles long enough to span the distance between the lean!to7s hori4ontal support and

the top o" the "ire re"lector wall. Lay one end o" the poles on the lean!to support and the other end on top o" the re"lector wall. 0lace and tie smaller sticks across these poles. 'ou now have a place to dry clothes% meat% or "ish. S)A'P .!2 /!(2. In a marsh or swamp% or any area with standing water or continually wet ground% the swamp bed :.igure /! =; keeps you out o" the water. Ahen selecting such a site% consider the weather% wind% tides% and available materials.

,igure =81?9 S+a#p .ed /!(6. To make a swamp bed% you should5

Look "or "our trees clustered in a rectangle% or cut "our poles :bamboo is ideal; and drive them "irmly into the ground so they "orm a rectangle. They should be "ar enough apart and strong enough to support your height and weight% to include e1uipment. -ut two poles that span the width o" the rectangle. They% too% must be strong enough to support your weight.

Secure these two poles to the trees :or poles;. 8e sure they are high enough above the ground or water to allow "or tides and high water.

-ut additional poles that span the rectangle7s length. Lay them across the two side poles and secure them.

-over the top o" the bed "rame with broad leaves or grass to "orm a so"t sleeping sur"ace.

8uild a "ire pad by laying clay% silt% or mud on one corner o" the swamp bed and allow it to dry.

/!(9. Another shelter designed to get you above and out o" the water or wet ground uses the same rectangular con"iguration as the swamp bed. 'ou simply lay sticks and branches lengthwise on the

inside o" the trees :or poles; until there is enough material to raise the sleeping sur"ace above the water level. NATURAL S&!LT!RS /!(<. &o not overlook natural "ormations that provide shelter. *#amples are caves% rocky crevices% clumps o" bushes% small depressions% large rocks on leeward sides o" hills% large trees with low! hanging limbs% and "allen trees with thick branches. Dowever% when selecting a natural "ormation5

Stay away "rom low ground such as ravines% narrow valleys% or creek beds. Low areas collect the heavy cold air at night and are there"ore colder than the surrounding high ground. Thick% brushy% low ground also harbors more insects. -heck "or poisonous snakes% ticks% mites% scorpions% and stinging ants. Look "or loose rocks% dead limbs% coconuts% or other natural growth than could "all on your shelter.

• •

2!.RIS &UT /!,=. .or warmth and ease o" construction% the debris hut :.igure /! ; is one o" the best. Ahen shelter is essential to survival% build this shelter.

,igure =8119 2e*ris &ut /!, . To make a debris hut% you should5

8uild it by making a tripod with two short stakes and a long ridgepole or by placing one end o" a long ridgepole on top o" a sturdy base.

Secure the ridgepole :pole running the length o" the shelter; using the tripod method or by anchoring it to a tree at about waist height.

0rop large sticks along both sides o" the ridgepole to create a wedge!shaped ribbing e""ect. *nsure the ribbing is wide enough to accommodate your body and steep enough to shed moisture.

0lace "iner sticks and brush crosswise on the ribbing. These "orm a latticework that will keep the insulating material :grass% pine needles% leaves; "rom "alling through the ribbing into the sleeping area.

Add light% dry% i" possible% so"t debris over the ribbing until the insulating material is at least meter :( "eet; thick5the thicker the better.

• •

0lace a (=!centimeter : !"oot; layer o" insulating material inside the shelter. At the entrance% pile insulating material that you can drag to you once inside the shelter to close the entrance or build a door.

As a "inal step in constructing this shelter% add shingling material or branches on top o" the debris layer to prevent the insulating material "rom blowing away in a storm.

TR!!8PIT SNO) S&!LT!R /!,$. I" you are in a cold% snow!covered area where evergreen trees grow and you have a digging tool% you can make a tree!pit shelter :.igure /! $;.

,igure =8109 Tree8Pit Sno+ She ter /!,(. To make this shelter% you should5

• •

.ind a tree with bushy branches that provides overhead cover. &ig out the snow around the tree trunk until you reach the depth and diameter you desire% or until you reach the ground.

• •

0ack the snow around the top and the inside o" the hole to provide support. .ind and cut other evergreen boughs. 0lace them over the top o" the pit to give you additional overhead cover. 0lace evergreen boughs in the bottom o" the pit "or insulation.

/!,,. See -hapter / "or other arctic or cold weather shelters. .!AC& S&A2! S&!LT!R /!,/. The beach shade shelter :.igure /! (; protects you "rom the sun% wind% rain% and heat. It is easy to make using natural materials.

,igure =81<9 .each Shade She ter /!,2. To make this shelter% you should5
• • •

.ind and collect dri"twood or other natural material to use as support beams and as a digging tool. Select a site that is above the high water mark. Scrape or dig out a trench running north to south so that it receives the least amount o" sunlight. >ake the trench long and wide enough "or you to lie down com"ortably.

>ound soil on three sides o" the trench. The higher the mound% the more space inside the shelter.

Lay support beams :dri"twood or other natural material; that span the trench on top o" the mound to "orm the "ramework "or a roo".

*nlarge the shelter7s entrance by digging out more sand in "ront o" it.

Use natural materials such as grass or leaves to "orm a bed inside the shelter.

2!S!RT S&!LT!RS /!,6. In an arid environment% consider the time% e""ort% and material needed to make a shelter. I" you have material such as a poncho% canvas% or a parachute% use it along with such terrain "eatures as rock outcroppings% mounds o" sand% or depressions between dunes or rocks to make your shelter. /!,9. Ahen using rock outcroppings% you should5
• •

Anchor one end o" your poncho :canvas% parachute% or other material; on the edge o" the outcrop using rocks or other weights. *#tend and anchor the other end o" the poncho so it provides the best possible shade.

/!,<. In a sandy area% you should5
• • •

8uild a mound o" sand or use the side o" a sand dune "or one side o" the shelter. Anchor one end o" the material on top o" the mound using sand or other weights. *#tend and anchor the other end o" the material so it provides the best possible shade.

NOT!; I" you have enough material% "old it in hal" and "orm a (=! to ,/!centimeter : $! to 9!inch; airspace between the two halves. This airspace will reduce the temperature under the shelter. /!/=. A belowground shelter :.igure /! ,; can reduce the midday heat as much as 2 to $$ degrees :(= to ,= degrees .;. Dowever% building it re1uires more time and e""ort than "or other shelters. Since your physical e""ort will make you sweat more and increase dehydration% construct it be"ore the heat o" the day.

,igure =8179 .e o+ground 2esert She ter /!/ . To make this shelter% you should5

.ind a low spot or depression between dunes or rocks. I" necessary% dig a trench ,/ to 2= centimeters : 9 to $, inches; deep% and long and wide enough "or you to lie in com"ortably. 0ile the sand you take "rom the trench to "orm a mound around three sides. ?n the open end o" the trench% dig out more sand so you can get in and out o" your shelter easily.

• •

• •

-over the trench with your material. Secure the material in place using sand% rocks% or other weights.

/!/$. I" you have e#tra material% you can "urther decrease the midday temperature in the trench by securing the material (= to ,/ centimeters : $ to 9 inches; above the other cover. This layering o" the material will reduce the inside temperature to $$ degrees - :$= to ,= degrees .;. /!/(. The open desert shelter is o" similar construction% e#cept all sides are open to air currents and circulation. .or ma#imum protection% you need a minimum o" two layers o" parachute material :.igure /! /;. Ahite is the best color to re"lect heatE the innermost layer should be o" darker material.

,igure =81=9 Open 2esert She ter

Chapter >

)ater Procure#ent
Aater is one o" your most urgent needs in a survival situation. 'ou can7t live long without it% especially in hot areas where you lose water rapidly through perspiration. *ven in cold areas% you need a minimum o" $ liters o" water each day to maintain e""iciency. >ore than three!"ourths o" your body is composed o" "luids. 'our body loses "luid because o" heat% cold% stress% and e#ertion. To "unction e""ectively% you must replace the "luid your body loses. So% one o" your "irst goals is to obtain an ade1uate supply o" water.

2! . Almost any environment has water present to some degree. .igure 2! lists possible sources o" water in various environments. It also provides in"ormation on how to make the water potable. NOT!; I" you do not have a canteen% cup% can% or other type o" container% improvise one "rom plastic or water!resistant cloth. Shape the plastic or cloth into a bowl by pleating it. Use pins or other suitable items5even your hands5to hold the pleats.

,igure >819 )ater Sources in 2i//erent !n-iron#ents

,igure >819 )ater Sources in 2i//erent !n-iron#ents EContinuedF 2!$. I" you do not have a reliable source to replenish your water supply% stay alert "or ways in which your environment can help you. NOT!; 2O NOT substitute the "luids listed in .igure 2!$ "or water.

,igure >809 The !//ects o/ Su*stitute , uids 2!(. Deavy dew can provide water. Tie rags or tu"ts o" "ine grass around your ankles and walk through dew!covered grass be"ore sunrise. As the rags or grass tu"ts absorb the dew% wring the water into a container. Repeat the process until you have a supply o" water or until the dew is gone. Australian natives sometimes mop up as much as liter an hour this way. 2!,. 8ees or ants going into a hole in a tree may point to a water!"illed hole. Siphon the water with plastic tubing or scoop it up with an improvised dipper. 'ou can also stu"" cloth in the hole to absorb the water and then wring it "rom the cloth. 2!/. Aater sometimes gathers in tree crotches or rock crevices. Use the above procedures to get the water. In arid areas% bird droppings around a crack in the rocks may indicate water in or near the crack. 2!2. )reen bamboo thickets are an e#cellent source o" "resh water. Aater "rom green bamboo is clear and odorless. To get the water% bend a green bamboo stalk% tie it down% and cut o"" the top :.igure 2! (;. The water will drip "reely during the night. ?ld% cracked bamboo may also contain water.

,igure >8<9 )ater ,ro# 5reen .a#*oo

CAUTION $urify the water before drinking it.
2!6. Aherever you "ind banana trees% plantain trees% or sugarcane% you can get water. -ut down the tree% leaving about a (=!centimeter : $!inch; stump% and scoop out the center o" the stump so that the hollow is bowl!shaped. Aater "rom the roots will immediately start to "ill the hollow. The "irst three "illings o" water will be bitter% but succeeding "illings will be palatable. The stump :.igure 2!,; will supply water "or up to , days. 8e sure to cover it to keep out insects.

,igure >879 )ater ,ro# P antain or .anana Tree Stu#p 2!9. Some tropical vines can give you water. -ut a notch in the vine as high as you can reach% then cut the vine o"" close to the ground. -atch the dropping li1uid in a container or in your mouth :.igure 2! /;.

CAUTION %nsure that the vine is not poisonous.

,igure >8=9 )ater ,ro# a Vine 2!<. The milk "rom young% green :unripe; coconuts is a good thirst 1uencher. Dowever% the milk "rom mature% brown% coconuts contains an oil that acts as a la#ative. &rink in moderation only.

CAUTION &o not drink the liquid if it is sticky milky or bitter tasting.
2! =. In the American tropics you may "ind large trees whose branches support air plants. These air plants may hold a considerable amount o" rainwater in their overlapping% thickly growing leaves. Strain the water through a cloth to remove insects and debris. 2! . 'ou can get water "rom plants with moist pulpy centers. -ut o"" a section o" the plant and s1uee4e or smash the pulp so that the moisture runs out. -atch the li1uid in a container. 2! $. 0lant roots may provide water. &ig or pry the roots out o" the ground% cut them into short pieces% and smash the pulp so that the moisture runs out. -atch the li1uid in a container. 2! (. .leshy leaves% stems% or stalks% such as bamboo% contain water. -ut or notch the stalks at the base o" a +oint to drain out the li1uid. 2! ,. The "ollowing trees can also provide waterF
• •

"alms. The buri% coconut% sugar% rattan% and nips contain li1uid. 8ruise a lower "rond and pull it down so the tree will @bleed@ at the in+ury. $raveler-s tree. .ound in >adagascar% this tree has a cuplike sheath at the base o" its leaves in which water collects.

.m%rella tree. The lea" bases and roots o" this tree o" western tropical A"rica can provide water.

*ao%a% tree. This tree o" the sandy plains o" northern Australia and A"rica collects water in its bottlelike trunk during the wet season. .re1uently% you can "ind clear% "resh water in these trees a"ter weeks o" dry weather.

CAUTION &o not keep the sap from plants longer than '( hours. )t begins fermenting becoming dangerous as a water source.

2! /. 'ou can use stills in various areas o" the world. They draw moisture "rom the ground and "rom plant material. 'ou need certain materials to build a still% and you need time to let it collect the water. It takes about $, hours to get =./ to liter o" water. A.OV!5ROUN2 STILLS 2! 2. 'ou can construct two types o" aboveground stills. To make the -egetation *ag sti % you need a sunny slope on which to place the still% a clear plastic bag% green lea"y vegetation% and a small rock :.igure 2!2;.

,igure >8>9 Vegetation .ag Sti 2! 6. To make the still% you should5

• •

.ill the bag with air by turning the opening into the bree4e or by @scooping@ air into the bag. .ill the plastic bag one!hal" to three!"ourths "ull o" green lea"y vegetation. 8e sure to remove all hard sticks or sharp spines that might puncture the bag.

• •

0lace a small rock or similar item in the bag. -lose the bag and tie the mouth securely as close to the end o" the bag as possible to keep the ma#imum amount o" air space. I" you have a piece o" tubing% a small straw% or a hollow reed% insert one end in the mouth o" the bag be"ore you tie it securely. Then tie o"" or plug the tubing so that air will not escape. This tubing will allow you to drain out condensed water without untying the bag.

CAUTION &o not use poisonous vegetation. )t will provide poisonous liquid.
• •

0lace the bag% mouth downhill% on a slope in "ull sunlight. 0osition the mouth o" the bag slightly higher than the low point in the bag. Settle the bag in place so that the rock works itsel" into the low point in the bag.

2! 9. To get the condensed water "rom the still% loosen the tie around the bag7s mouth and tip the bag so that the water collected around the rock will drain out. Then retie the mouth securely and reposition the still to allow "urther condensation. 2! <. -hange the vegetation in the bag a"ter e#tracting most o" the water "rom it. This will ensure ma#imum output o" water. 2!$=. >aking a transpiration *ag sti is similar to the vegetation bag% only easier. Simply tie the plastic bag over a lea"y tree limb with a tube inserted% and tie the mouth o" the bag o"" tightly around the branch to "orm an airtight seal. Tie the end o" the limb so that it hangs below the level o" the mouth o" the bag. The water will collect there :.igure 2!6;.

,igure >8@9 )ater Transpiration .ag 2!$ . The same limb may be used "or ( to / days without causing long!term harm to the limb. It will heal itsel" within a "ew hours o" removing the bag. .!LO)5ROUN2 STILL 2!$$. To make a belowground still% you need a digging tool% a container% a clear plastic sheet% a drinking tube% and a rock :.igure 2!9;.

,igure >8C9 .e o+ground Sti 2!$(. Select a site where you believe the soil will contain moisture :such as a dry streambed or a low spot where rainwater has collected;. The soil at this site should be easy to dig% and sunlight must hit the site most o" the day. 2!$,. To construct the still% you should5

&ig a bowl!shaped hole about meter :( "eet; across and 2= centimeters :$, inches; deep.

&ig a sump in the center o" the hole. The sump7s depth and perimeter will depend on the si4e o" the container that you have to place in it. The bottom o" the sump should allow the container to stand upright.

Anchor the tubing to the container7s bottom by "orming a loose overhand knot in the tubing.

• • • • •

0lace the container upright in the sump. *#tend the unanchored end o" the tubing up% over% and beyond the lip o" the hole. 0lace the plastic sheet over the hole% covering its edges with soil to hold it in place. 0lace a rock in the center o" the plastic sheet. Lower the plastic sheet into the hole until it is about ,= centimeters : 2 inches; below ground level. It now "orms an inverted cone with the rock at its ape#. >ake sure that the cone7s ape# is directly over your container. Also make sure the plastic cone does not touch the sides o" the hole because the earth will absorb the condensed water.

0ut more soil on the edges o" the plastic to hold it securely in place and to prevent the loss o" moisture.

0lug the tube when not in use to keep the moisture "rom evaporating and to keep insects out.

2!$/. 'ou can drink water without disturbing the still by using the tube as a straw. 8y opening the still% you release the moist% warm air that has accumulated. 2!$2. 'ou may want to use plants in the hole as a moisture source. I" so% dig out additional soil "rom the sides o" the hole to "orm a slope on which to place the plants. Then proceed as above. 2!$6. I" polluted water is your only moisture source% dig a small trough outside the hole about $/ centimeters : = inches; "rom the still7s lip :.igure 2!<;. &ig the trough about $/ centimeters : = inches; deep and 9 centimeters :( inches; wide. 0our the polluted water in the trough. 8e sure you do not spill any polluted water around the rim o" the hole where the plastic sheet touches the soil. The trough holds the polluted water and the soil "ilters it as the still draws it. The water then condenses on the plastic and drains into the container. This process works e#tremely well when your only water source is salt water.

,igure >8D9 .e o+ground Sti to 5et Pota* e )ater ,ro# Po uted )ater 2!$9. 'ou will need at least three stills to meet your individual daily water intake needs. In comparison to the belowground still and the water transpiration bag still% the vegetation bag produces the best yield o" water.

2!$<. Rainwater collected in clean containers or in plants is usually sa"e "or drinking. Dowever% puri"y water "rom lakes% ponds% swamps% springs% or streams% especially the water near human settlements or in the tropics. 2!(=. Ahen possible% puri"y all water you get "rom vegetation or "rom the ground by boiling or using iodine or chlorine. A"ter puri"ying a canteen o" water% you must partially unscrew the cap and turn the canteen upside down to rinse unpuri"ied water "rom the threads o" the canteen where your mouth touches. 2!( . 0uri"y water by the "ollowing methodsF
• •

Use water puri"ication tablets. :.ollow the directions provided.; 0lace / drops o" $ percent tincture o" iodine in a canteen "ull o" clear water. I" the canteen is "ull o" cloudy or cold water% use = drops. :Let the canteen o" water stand "or (= minutes be"ore drinking.;

Use $ drops o" = percent :military strength; povidone!iodine or percent titrated povidone!iodine. The civilian e1uivalent is usually $ percent strength% so = drops will be needed. Let stand "or (= minutes. I" the water is cold and clear% wait 2= minutes. I" it7s very cold or cloudy% add , drops and wait 2= minutes.

0lace $ drops o" chlorine bleach :/.$/ percent sodium hypochlorite; in a canteen o" water. Let stand (= minutes. I" the water is cold or cloudy% wait 2= minutes. Remember that not all bleach is the same around the worldE check the available level o" sodium hypochlorite.

Use potassium permanganate% commonly marketed as -ondy7s -rystals% "or a number o" applications% including emergency disin"ection o" water. The crystals are o" a nonuni"orm si4e% so you must +udge the actual dosage by the color o" the water a"ter adding the crystals. Add three small crystals to liter : 1uart; o" water. I" the water turns a bright pink a"ter waiting (= minutes% the water is considered puri"ied. I" the water turns a dark pink% there is too much potassium permanganate to drink sa"ely. *ither add more water to dilute the mi#ture or save it "or use as an antiseptic solution. I" the water becomes a "ull red% like the color o" cranberry +uice% the solution may be used as an anti"ungal solution.

8oil your drinking water. This is the sa"est method o" puri"ying your drinking water. 8y achieving a rolling boil% you can ensure that you are destroying all living waterborne pathogens.

2!($. 8y drinking nonpotable water you may contract diseases or swallow organisms that can harm you and may easily lead to potentially "atal waterborne illnesses. 2!((. Two o" the most prevalent pathogens "ound in most water sources throughout the world are5
• •

)iardia% which causes )iardiasis :beaver "ever;. It is characteri4ed by an e#plosive% watery diarrhea accompanied by severe cramps lasting 6 to , days. -ryptosporidium% which causes -ryptosporidiosis. It is much like )iardiasis% only more severe and prolonged% and there is no known cure but time. &iarrhea may be mild and can last "rom ( days to $ weeks.

NOT!; The only e""ective means o" neutrali4ing -ryptosporidium is by boiling or by using a commercial micro"ilter or reverse!osmosis "iltration system. -hemical disin"ectants such as iodine tablets or bleach have not shown to be == percent e""ective in eliminating -ryptosporidium. 2!(,. *#amples o" other diseases or organisms are5
• •

/ysentery. 'ou may e#perience severe% prolonged diarrhea with bloody stools% "ever% and weakness. Cholera and typhoid. 'ou may be susceptible to these diseases regardless o" inoculations. -holera can cause pro"use% watery diarrhea% vomiting% and leg cramps. Typhoid symptoms include "ever% headache% loss o" appetite% constipation% and bleeding in the bowel.

,epatitis A. Symptoms include diarrhea% abdominal pain% +aundice% and dark urine. This in"ection can spread through close person!to!person contact or ingestion o" contaminated water or "ood.

#l&kes. Stagnant% polluted water5especially in tropical areas5o"ten contains blood "lukes. I" you swallow "lukes% they will bore into the bloodstream% live as parasites% and cause disease.

0eeches. I" you swallow a leech% it can hook onto the throat passage or inside the nose. It will suck blood% create a wound% and move to another area. *ach bleeding wound may become in"ected.

2!(/. I" the water you "ind is also muddy% stagnant% and "oul!smelling% you can clear the water5
• •

8y placing it in a container and letting it stand "or $ hours. 8y pouring it through a "iltering system.

NOT!; These procedures only clear the water and make it more palatable. 'ou will have to puri"y it. 2!(2. To make a "iltering system% place several centimeters or layers o" "iltering material such as sand% crushed rock% charcoal% or cloth in bamboo% a hollow log% or an article o" clothing :.igure 2! =;.

,igure >81?9 )ater ,i tering Syste#s 2!(6. Remove the odor "rom water by adding charcoal "rom your "ire. -harcoal is also help"ul in absorbing some agricultural and industrial chemicals. Let the water stand "or ,/ minutes be"ore drinking it.

Chapter @

In many survival situations% the ability to start a "ire can make the di""erence between living and dying. .ire can "ul"ill many needs. It can provide warmth and com"ort. It not only cooks and

preserves "ood% it also provides warmth in the "orm o" heated "ood that saves calories our body normally uses to produce body heat. 'ou can use "ire to puri"y water% sterili4e bandages% signal "or rescue% and provide protection "rom animals. It can be a psychological boost by providing peace o" mind and companionship. 'ou can also use "ire to produce tools and weapons. .ire can cause problems% as well. The enemy can detect the smoke and light it produces. It can cause "orest "ires or destroy essential e1uipment. .ire can also cause burns and carbon mono#ide poisoning when used in shelters. Aeigh your need "or "ire against your need to avoid enemy detection.

6! . To build a "ire% it helps to understand the basic principles o" a "ire. .uel :in a nongaseous state; does not burn directly. Ahen you apply heat to a "uel% it produces a gas. This gas% combined with o#ygen in the air% burns. 6!$. Understanding the concept o" the "ire triangle is very important in correctly constructing and maintaining a "ire. The three sides o" the triangle represent air% heat% and /ue . I" you remove any o" these% the "ire will go out. The correct ratio o" these components is very important "or a "ire to burn at its greatest capability. The only way to learn this ratio is to practice.

6!(. 'ou will have to decide what site and arrangement to use. 8e"ore building a "ire consider5
• • • • •

The area :terrain and climate; in which you are operating. The materials and tools available. TimeE how much time do you haveB 3eedE why do you need a "ireB SecurityE how close is the enemyB

6!,. Look "or a dry spot that5
• • • •

Is protected "rom the wind. Is suitably placed in relation to your shelter :i" any;. Aill concentrate the heat in the direction you desire. Das a supply o" wood or other "uel available. :.igure 6!, lists types o" material you can use.;

6!/. I" you are in a wooded or brush!covered area% clear the brush and scrape the sur"ace soil "rom the spot you have selected. -lear a circle at least meter :( "eet; in diameter so there is little chance o" the "ire spreading. 6!2. I" time allows% construct a "ire wall using logs or rocks. This wall will help to re"lect or direct the heat where you want it :.igure 6! ;. It will also reduce "lying sparks and cut down on the amount o" wind blowing into the "ire. Dowever% you will need enough wind to keep the "ire burning.

CAUTION &o not use wet or porous rocks as they may explode when heated.

,igure @819 Types o/ ,ire )a s 6!6. In some situations% you may "ind that an underground "ireplace will best meet your needs. It conceals the "ire and serves well "or cooking "ood. To make an underground "ireplace or &akota "ire hole :.igure 6!$;5
• • •

&ig a hole in the ground. ?n the upwind side o" this hole% poke or dig a large connecting hole "or ventilation. 8uild your "ire in the hole as illustrated.

,igure @809 2a(ota ,ire &o e 6!9. I" you are in a snow!covered area% use green logs to make a dry base "or your "ire :.igure 6!(;. Trees with wrist!si4ed trunks are easily broken in e#treme cold. -ut or break several green logs and lay them side by side on top o" the snow. Add one or two more layers. Lay the top layer o" logs opposite those below it.

,igure @8<9 .ase /or ,ire in Sno+8co-ered Area

6!<. 'ou need three types o" materials :.igure 6!,; to build a "ire.

,igure @879 'ateria s /or .ui ding ,ires

,igure @879 'ateria s /or .ui ding ,ires EContinuedF 6! =. Tinder is dry material that ignites with little heat5a spark starts a "ire. The tinder must be absolutely dry to be sure +ust a spark will ignite it. I" you have a device that generates only sparks% charred cloth will be almost essential. It holds a spark "or long periods% allowing you to put tinder on

the hot area to generate a small "lame. 'ou can make charred cloth by heating cotton cloth until it turns black% but does not burn. ?nce it is black% you must keep it in an airtight container to keep it dry. 0repare this cloth well in advance o" any survival situation. Add it to your individual survival kit. ?ther impromptu items could be alcohol pads or petroleum +elly gau4e. 6! . Cindling is readily combustible material that you add to the burning tinder. Again% this material should be absolutely dry to ensure rapid burning. Cindling increases the "ire7s temperature so that it will ignite less combustible material. 6! $. .uel is less combustible material that burns slowly and steadily once ignited.

&O) TO .UIL2 A ,IR!
6! (. There are several methods "or laying a "ire and each one has advantages. The situation you are in will determine which o" the "ollowing "ires to use. T!P!! 6! ,. To make a tepee "ire :.igure 6!/;% arrange the tinder and a "ew sticks o" kindling in the shape o" a tepee or cone. Light the center. As the tepee burns% the outside logs will "all inward% "eeding the "ire. This type o" "ire burns well even with wet wood. L!AN8TO 6! /. To lay a lean!to "ire :.igure 6!/;% push a green stick into the ground at a (=!degree angle. 0oint the end o" the stick in the direction o" the wind. 0lace some tinder deep under this lean!to stick. Lean pieces o" kindling against the lean!to stick. Light the tinder. As the kindling catches "ire "rom the tinder% add more kindling. CROSS82ITC& 6! 2. To use the cross!ditch method :.igure 6!/;% scratch a cross about (= centimeters : $ inches; in si4e in the ground. &ig the cross 6./ centimeters :about ( inches; deep. 0ut a large wad o" tinder in the middle o" the cross. 8uild a kindling pyramid above the tinder. The shallow ditch allows air to sweep under the tinder to provide a dra"t. P$RA'I2 6! 6. To lay the pyramid "ire :.igure 6!/;% place two small logs or branches parallel on the ground. 0lace a solid layer o" small logs across the parallel logs. Add three or "our more layers o" logs% each layer smaller than and at a right angle to the layer below it. >ake a starter "ire on top o" the pyramid.

As the starter "ire burns% it will ignite the logs below it. This gives you a "ire that burns downward% re1uiring no attention during the night.

,igure @8=9 'ethods /or Laying ,ires 6! 9. There are several other ways to lay a "ire that are 1uite e""ective. 'our situation and the material available in the area may make another method more suitable.

&O) TO LI5&T A ,IR!
6! <. Always light your "ire "rom the upwind side. >ake sure you lay the tinder% kindling% and "uel so that your "ire will burn as long as you need it. Igniters provide the initial heat re1uired to start the tinder burning. They "all into two categoriesF modern methods and primitive methods. 'O2!RN '!T&O2S 6!$=. >odern igniters use modern devices. These are items that we normally think o" to start a "ire. 'atches 6!$ . >ake sure these matches are waterproo". Also% store them in a waterproo" container along with a dependable striker pad. Con-eB Lens 6!$$. Use this method :.igure 6!2; only on bright% sunny days. The lens can come "rom binoculars% a camera% telescopic sights% or magni"ying glasses. Angle the lens to concentrate the sun7s rays on the tinder. Dold the lens over the same spot until the tinder begins to smolder. )ently blow or "an the tinder into a "lame and apply it to the "ire lay.

,igure @8>9 Lens 'ethod 'eta 'atch 6!$(. 0lace a "lat% dry lea" under your tinder with a portion e#posed. 0lace the tip o" the metal match on the dry lea"% holding the metal match in one hand and a kni"e in the other. Scrape your kni"e against the metal match to produce sparks. The sparks will hit the tinder. Ahen the tinder starts to smolder% proceed as above. .attery 6!$,. Use a battery to generate a spark. Use o" this method depends on the type o" battery available. Attach a wire to each terminal. Touch the ends o" the bare wires together ne#t to the tinder so the sparks will ignite it. 5unpo+der 6!$/. ?"ten% you will have ammunition with your e1uipment. I" so% care"ully e#tract the bullet "rom the shell casing by moving the bullet back and "orth. Use the gunpowder as tinder. &iscard the casing and primers. A spark will ignite the powder. NOT!; 8e e#tremely care"ul during this operation as the primers are still sensitive and even a small pile o" gunpowder can give surprising results. PRI'ITIV! '!T&O2S 6!$2. 0rimitive igniters are those attributed to our early ancestors. They can be time!consuming% which re1uires you to be patient and persistent. , int and Stee 6!$6. The direct spark method is the easiest o" the primitive methods to use. The "lint and steel method is the most reliable o" the direct spark methods. Strike a "lint or other hard% sharp!edged rock with a piece o" carbon steel :stainless steel will not produce a good spark;. This method re1uires

a loose!+ointed wrist and practice. Ahen the tinder catches a spark% blow on it. The spark will spread and burst into "lames. ,ire8P o+ 6!$9. The "ire!plow :.igure 6!6; is a "riction method o" ignition. To use this method% cut a straight groove in a so"twood base and plow the blunt tip o" a hardwood sha"t up and down the groove. The plowing action o" the sha"t pushes out small particles o" wood "ibers. Then% as you apply more pressure on each stroke% the "riction ignites the wood particles.

,igure @8@9 ,ire8P o+ .o+ and 2ri 6!$<. The techni1ue o" starting a "ire with a bow and drill :.igure 6!9; is simple% but you must e#ert much e""ort and be persistent to produce a "ire. 'ou need the "ollowing items to use this methodF
• •

Socket. The socket is an easily grasped stone or piece o" hardwood with a slight depression in one side. Use it to hold the drill in place and to apply downward pressure. /rill. The drill should be a straight% seasoned hardwood stick about $ centimeters :(K, inch; in diameter and $/ centimeters : = inches; long. The top end is round and the low end blunt :to produce more "riction;.

#ire %oard. Although any board may be used% a seasoned so"twood board about $./ centimeters : inch; thick and = centimeters :, inches; wide is pre"erable. -ut a depression about $ centimeters :(K, inch; "rom the edge on one side o" the board. ?n the underside% make a V!shaped cut "rom the edge o" the board to the depression.

*ow. The bow is a resilient% green stick about $./ centimeters :(K, inch; in diameter with a bowstring. The type o" wood is not important. The bowstring can be any type o" cordage. Tie the bowstring "rom one end o" the bow to the other% without any slack.

,igure @8C9 .o+ and 2ri 6!(=. To use the bow and drill% "irst prepare the "ire lay. Then place a bundle o" tinder under the V! shaped cut in the "ire board. 0lace one "oot on the "ire board. Loop the bowstring over the drill and place the drill in the precut depression on the "ire board. 0lace the socket% held in one hand% on the top o" the drill to hold it in position. 0ress down on the drill and saw the bow back and "orth to twirl the drill :.igure 6!9;. ?nce you have established a smooth motion% apply more downward pressure and work the bow "aster. This action will grind hot black powder into the tinder% causing a spark to catch. 8low on the tinder until it ignites. 6!( . 0rimitive "ire!building methods are e#hausting and re1uire practice to ensure success. I" your survival situation re1uires the use o" primitive methods% remember the "ollowing hints to help you construct and maintain the "ireF
• • • • • • •

I" possible% use nonaromatic seasoned hardwood "or "uel. -ollect kindling and tinder along the trail. Add insect repellent to the tinder. Ceep the "irewood dry. &ry damp "irewood near the "ire. 8ank the "ire to keep the coals alive overnight. -arry lighted punk% when possible.

• •

8e sure the "ire is out be"ore leaving camp. &o not select wood lying on the ground. It may appear to be dry but generally doesn7t provide enough "riction.

hapter C

,ood Procure#ent
?ne o" man7s most urgent re1uirements is "ood. In contemplating virtually any hypothetical survival situation% the mind immediately turns to thoughts o" "ood. Unless the situation occurs in an arid environment% even water% which is more important to maintaining body "unctions% will usually "ollow "ood in our initial thoughts. The survivor must remember that the three essentials o" survival5water% "ood% and shelter5are prioriti4ed according to the estimate o" the actual situation. This estimate must not only be timely but accurate as well. Ae can live "or weeks without "ood but it may take days or weeks to determine what is sa"e to eat and to trap animals in the area. There"ore% you need to begin "ood gathering in the earliest stages o" survival as your endurance will decrease daily. Some situations may well dictate that shelter precede both "ood and water.

9! . Unless you have the chance to take large game% concentrate your e""orts on the smaller animals. They are more abundant and easier to prepare. 'ou need not know all the animal species that are suitable as "oodE relatively "ew are poisonous% and they make a smaller list to remember. Dowever% it is important to learn the habits and behavioral patterns o" classes o" animals. .or e#ample% animals that are e#cellent choices "or trapping% those that inhabit a particular range and occupy a den or nest% those that have somewhat "i#ed "eeding areas% and those that have trails leading "rom one area to another. Larger% herding animals% such as elk or caribou% roam vast areas and are somewhat more di""icult to trap. Also% you must understand the "ood choices o" a particular species to select the proper bait. 9!$. 'ou can% with relatively "ew e#ceptions% eat anything that crawls% swims% walks% or "lies. 'ou must "irst overcome your natural aversion to a particular "ood source. Distorically% people in starvation situations have resorted to eating everything imaginable "or nourishment. A person who ignores an otherwise healthy "ood source due to a personal bias% or because he "eels it is unappeti4ing% is risking his own survival. Although it may prove di""icult at "irst% you must eat what is available to maintain your health. Some classes o"

animals and insects may be eaten raw i" necessary% but you should% i" possible% thoroughly cook all "ood sources whenever possible to avoid illness. INS!CTS 9!(. The most abundant and easily caught li"e!"orm on earth are insects. >any insects provide 2/ to 9= percent protein compared to $= percent "or bee". This "act makes insects an important% i" not overly appeti4ing% "ood source. Insects to avoid include all adults that sting or bite% hairy or brightly colored insects% and caterpillars and insects that have a pungent odor. Also avoid spiders and common disease carriers such as ticks% "lies% and mos1uitoes. 9!,. Rotting logs lying on the ground are e#cellent places to look "or a variety o" insects including ants% termites% beetles% and grubs% which are beetle larvae. &o not overlook insect nests on or in the ground. )rassy areas% such as "ields% are good areas to search because the insects are easily seen. Stones% boards% or other materials lying on the ground provide the insects with good nesting sites. -heck these sites. Insect larvae are also edible. Insects that have a hard outer shell such as beetles and grasshoppers will have parasites. -ook them be"ore eating. Remove any wings and barbed legs also. 'ou can eat most so"t!shelled insects raw. The taste varies "rom one species to another. Aood grubs are bland% but some species o" ants store honey in their bodies% giving them a sweet taste. 'ou can grind a collection o" insects into a paste. 'ou can mi# them with edible vegetation. 'ou can cook them to improve their taste. )OR'S 9!/. Aorms :Annelidea; are an e#cellent protein source. &ig "or them in damp humus soil and in the rootball o" grass clumps% or watch "or them on the ground a"ter a rain. A"ter capturing them% drop them into clean% potable water "or about / minutes. The worms will naturally purge or wash themselves out% a"ter which you can eat them raw. CRUSTAC!ANS 9!2. .reshwater shrimp range in si4e "rom =.$/ centimeter : K 2 inch; up to $./ centimeters : inch;. They can "orm rather large colonies in mats o" "loating algae or in mud bottoms o" ponds and lakes. 9!6. -ray"ish are akin to marine lobsters and crabs. 'ou can distinguish them by their hard e#oskeleton and "ive pairs o" legs% the "ront pair having oversi4ed pincers. -ray"ish are active at night% but you can locate them in the daytime by looking under and around stones in streams. 'ou can also "ind them by looking in the so"t mud near the chimney!like breathing holes o" their nests. 'ou can catch cray"ish by tying bits o" o""al or internal organs to a string. Ahen the cray"ish grabs the bait% pull it to shore be"ore it has a chance to release the bait.

9!9. 'ou can "ind saltwater lobsters% crabs% and shrimp "rom the sur"7s edge out to water = meters :(( "eet; deep. Shrimp may come to a light at night where you can scoop them up with a net. 'ou can catch lobsters and crabs with a baited trap or a baited hook. -rabs will come to bait placed at the edge o" the sur"% where you can trap or net them. Lobsters and crabs are nocturnal and caught best at night. NOT!; 'ou must cook all "reshwater crustaceans% mollusks% and "ish. .resh water tends to harbor many dangerous organisms :see -hapter 2;% animal and human contaminants% and possibly agricultural and industrial pollutants. 'OLLUS1S 9!<. This class includes octopuses and "reshwater and saltwater shell"ish such as snails% clams% mussels% bivalves% barnacles% periwinkles% chitons% and sea urchins :.igure 9! ;. 'ou "ind bivalves similar to our "reshwater mussel and terrestrial and a1uatic snails worldwide under all water conditions.

,igure C819 !di* e 'o us(s

9! =. River snails or "reshwater periwinkles are plenti"ul in rivers% streams% and lakes o" northern coni"erous "orests. These snails may be pencil point or globular in shape. 9! . In "resh water% look "or mollusks in the shallows% especially in water with a sandy or muddy bottom. Look "or the narrow trails they leave in the mud or "or the dark elliptical slit o" their open valves. 9! $. 3ear the sea% look in the tidal pools and the wet sand. Rocks along beaches or e#tending as ree"s into deeper water o"ten bear clinging shell"ish. Snails and limpets cling to rocks and seaweed "rom the low water mark upward. Large snails% called chitons% adhere tightly to rocks above the sur" line. 9! (. >ussels usually "orm dense colonies in rock pools% on logs% or at the base o" boulders.

CAUTION Mussels may be poisonous in tropical *ones during the summer+ )f a noticeable red tide has occurred within ,' hours do not eat any fish or shellfish from that water source.
9! ,. Steam% boil% or bake mollusks in the shell. They make e#cellent stews in combination with greens and tubers.

CAUTION &o not eat shellfish that are not covered by water at high tide+
,IS& 9! /. .ish represent a good source o" protein and "at. They o""er some distinct advantages to the survivor or evader. They are usually more abundant than mammal wildli"e% and the ways to get them are silent. To be success"ul at catching "ish% you must know their habits. .or instance% "ish tend to "eed heavily be"ore a storm. .ish are not likely to "eed a"ter a storm when the water is muddy and swollen. Light o"ten attracts "ish at night. Ahen there is a heavy current% "ish will rest in places where there is an eddy% such as near rocks. .ish will also gather where there are deep pools% under overhanging brush% and in and around submerged "oliage% logs% or other ob+ects that o""er them shelter.

9! 2. There are no poisonous "reshwater "ish. Dowever% the cat"ish species has sharp% needlelike protrusions on its dorsal "ins and barbels. These can in"lict pain"ul puncture wounds that 1uickly become in"ected. 9! 6. -ook all "reshwater "ish to kill parasites. As a precaution% also cook saltwater "ish caught within a ree" or within the in"luence o" a "reshwater source. Any marine li"e obtained "arther out in the sea will not contain parasites because o" the saltwater environment. 'ou can eat these raw. 9! 9. >ost "ish encountered are edible. The organs o" some species are always poisonous to manE other "ish can become to#ic because o" elements in their diets. -iguatera is a "orm o" human poisoning caused by the consumption o" subtropical and tropical marine "ish which have accumulated naturally occurring to#ins through their diet. These to#ins build up in the "ish7s tissues. The to#ins are known to originate "rom several algae species that are common to ciguatera endemic regions in the lower latitudes. -ooking does not eliminate the to#insE neither does drying% smoking% or marinating. >arine "ish most commonly implicated in ciguatera poisoning include the barracudas% +acks% mackerel% trigger"ish% snappers% and groupers. >any other species o" warm water "ishes harbor ciguatera to#ins. The occurrence o" to#ic "ish is sporadic% and not all "ish o" a given species or "rom a given locality will be to#ic. This e#plains why red snapper and grouper are a coveted "ish o"" the shores o" .lorida and the *ast -oast. Ahile they are a restaurant and "isherman7s "avorite% and a common "ish market choice% they can also be associated with == cases o" "ood poisonings in >ay <99% 0alm 8each -ounty% .lorida. The poisonings resulted in a statewide warning against eating hog"ish% grouper% red snapper% amber+ack% and barracuda caught at the &ry Tortuga 8ank. A ma+or outbreak o" ciguatera occurred in 0uerto Rico between April and Mune <9 prompting a ban on the sale o" barracuda% amber+ack% and black+ack. ?ther e#amples o" poisonous saltwater "ish are the porcupine "ish% cow"ish% thorn "ish% oil"ish% and pu""er :.igure 9!$;.

,igure C809 ,ish )ith Poisonous , esh A'P&I.IANS 9! <. .rogs are easily "ound around bodies o" "resh water. .rogs seldom move "rom the sa"ety o" the water7s edge. At the "irst sign o" danger% they plunge into the water and bury themselves in the mud and debris. .rogs are characteri4ed by smooth% moist skin. There are "ew poisonous species o" "rogs. Avoid any brightly colored "rog or one that has a distinct @L@ mark on its back as well as all tree "rogs. &o not con"use toads with "rogs. Toads may be recogni4ed by their dry% @warty@ or bumpy skin. They are usually "ound on land in drier environments. Several species o" toads secrete a poisonous substance through their skin as a de"ense against attack. There"ore% to avoid poisoning% do not handle or eat toads. 9!$=. &o not eat salamandersE only about $/ percent o" all salamanders are edible% so it is not worth the risk o" selecting a poisonous variety. Salamanders are "ound around the water. They are characteri4ed by smooth% moist skin and have only "our toes on each "oot.

R!PTIL!S 9!$ . Reptiles are a good protein source and relatively easy to catch. Thorough cooking and hand washing is imperative with reptiles. All reptiles are considered to be carriers o" salmonella% which e#ists naturally on their skin. Turtles and snakes are especially known to in"ect man. I" you are in an undernourished state and your immune system is weak% salmonella can be deadly. -ook "ood thoroughly and be especially "astidious washing your hands a"ter handling any reptile. Li4ards are plenti"ul in most parts o" the world. They may be recogni4ed by their dry% scaly skin. They have "ive toes on each "oot. The only poisonous ones are the )ila monster and the >e#ican beaded li4ard. -are must be taken when handling and preparing the iguana and the monitor li4ard% as they commonly harbor the salmonellal virus in their mouth and teeth. The tail meat is the best tasting and easiest to prepare. 9!$$. Turtles are a very good source o" meat. There are actually seven di""erent "lavors o" meat in each snapping turtle. >ost o" the meat will come "rom the "ront and rear shoulder area% although a large turtle may have some on its neck. The bo# turtle :.igure 9!(; is a commonly encountered turtle that you should not eat. It "eeds on poisonous mushrooms and may build up a highly to#ic poison in its "lesh. -ooking does not destroy this to#in. Also avoid the hawksbill turtle :.igure 9!(;% "ound in the Atlantic ?cean% because o" its poisonous thora# gland. 0oisonous snakes% alligators% crocodiles% and large sea turtles present obvious ha4ards to the survivor.

,igure C8<9 Turt es )ith Poisonous , esh .IR2S 9!$(. All species o" birds are edible% although the "lavor will vary considerably. The only poisonous bird is the 0itohui% native only to 3ew )uinea. 'ou may skin "ish!eating birds to improve their taste. As with any wild animal% you must understand birds7 common habits to have a realistic chance o" capturing them. 'ou can take pigeons% as well as some other species% "rom their roost at night by hand. &uring the nesting season% some species will not

leave the nest even when approached. Cnowing where and when the birds nest makes catching them easier :.igure 9!,;. 8irds tend to have regular "lyways going "rom the roost to a "eeding area% to water% and so "orth. -are"ul observation should reveal where these "lyways are and indicate good areas "or catching birds in nets stretched across the "lyways :.igure 9! /;. Roosting sites and waterholes are some o" the most promising areas "or trapping or snaring.

,igure C879 .irdsG Nesting P aces

,igure C8=9 Catching .irds in a Net

9!$,. 3esting birds present another "ood source5eggs. Remove all but two or three eggs "rom the clutch% marking the ones that you leave. The bird will continue to lay more eggs to "ill the clutch. -ontinue removing the "resh eggs% leaving the ones you marked. 'A''ALS 9!$/. >ammals are e#cellent protein sources and% "or Americans% the tastiest "ood source. There are some drawbacks to obtaining mammals. In a hostile environment% the enemy may detect any traps or snares placed on land. The amount o" in+ury an animal can in"lict is in direct proportion to its si4e. All mammals have teeth and nearly all will bite in sel"!de"ense. *ven a s1uirrel can in"lict a serious wound and any bite presents a serious risk o" in"ection. Also% any mother can be e#tremely aggressive in de"ense o" her young. Any animal with no route o" escape will "ight when cornered. 9!$2. All mammals are edibleE however% the polar bear and bearded seal have to#ic levels o" vitamin A in their livers. The platypus% native to Australia and Tasmania% is an egg!laying% semia1uatic mammal that has poisonous claws on its hind legs. Scavenging mammals% such as the opossum% may carry diseases.

9!$6. .or an unarmed survivor or evader% or when the sound o" a ri"le shot could be a problem% trapping or snaring wild game is a good alternative. Several well!placed traps have the potential to catch much more game than a man with a ri"le is likely to shoot. To be e""ective with any type o" trap or snare% you must5
  

8e "amiliar with the species o" animal you intend to catch. 8e capable o" constructing a proper trap and properly masking your scent. 3ot alarm the prey by leaving signs o" your presence.

9!$9. There are no catchall traps you can set "or all animals. 'ou must determine what species are in the area and set your traps speci"ically with those animals in mind. Look "or the "ollowingF
    

Runs and trails. Tracks. &roppings. -hewed or rubbed vegetation. 3esting or roosting sites.

.eeding and watering areas.

9!$<. 0osition your traps and snares where there is proo" that animals pass through. 'ou must determine i" it is a @run@ or a @trail.@ A trail will show signs o" use by several species and will be rather distinct. A run is usually smaller and less distinct and will only contain signs o" one species. 'ou may construct a per"ect snare% but it will not catch anything i" hapha4ardly placed in the woods. Animals have bedding areas% water holes% and "eeding areas with trails leading "rom one to another. 'ou must place snares and traps around these areas to be e""ective. 9!(=. I" you are in a hostile environment% trap and snare concealment is important. Dowever% it is e1ually important not to create a disturbance that will alarm the animal and cause it to avoid the trap. There"ore% i" you must dig% remove all "resh dirt "rom the area. >ost animals will instinctively avoid a pit"all!type trap. 0repare the various parts o" a trap or snare away "rom the site% carry them in% and set them up. Such actions make it easier to avoid disturbing the local vegetation% thereby alerting the prey. &o not use "reshly cut% live vegetation to construct a trap or snare. .reshly cut vegetation will @bleed@ sap that has an odor the prey will be able to smell. It is an alarm signal to the animal. 9!( . 'ou must remove or mask the human scent on and around the trap you set. Although birds do not have a developed sense o" smell% nearly all mammals depend on smell even more than on sight. *ven the slightest human scent on a trap will alarm the prey and cause it to avoid the area. Actually removing the scent "rom a trap is di""icult but masking it is relatively easy. Use the "luid "rom the gall and urine bladders o" previous kills. &o not use human urine. >ud% particularly "rom an area with plenty o" rotting vegetation% is also good. Use it to coat your hands when handling the trap and to coat the trap when setting it. In nearly all parts o" the world% animals know the smell o" burned vegetation and smoke. It is only when a "ire is actually burning that they become alarmed. There"ore% smoking the trap parts is an e""ective means to mask your scent. I" one o" the above techni1ues is not practical% and i" time permits% allow a trap to weather "or a "ew days and then set it. &o not handle a trap while it is weathering. Ahen you position the trap% camou"lage it as naturally as possible to prevent detection by the enemy and to avoid alarming the prey. 9!($. Traps or snares placed on a trail or run should use "unneling or channeli4ation. To build a channel% construct a "unnel!shaped barrier e#tending "rom the sides o" the trail toward the trap% with the narrowest part nearest the trap. -hanneli4ation should be inconspicuous to avoid alerting the prey. As the animal gets to the trap% it cannot turn le"t or right and continues into the trap. .ew wild animals will back up% pre"erring to "ace the direction o" travel. -hanneli4ation does not have to be an impassable barrier. 'ou only have to make it inconvenient "or the animal to go over or through the barrier. .or best e""ect% the channeli4ation should reduce the trail7s width to +ust slightly wider than the targeted animal7s

body. >aintain this constriction at least as "ar back "rom the trap as the animal7s body length% then begin the widening toward the mouth o" the "unnel. US! O, .AIT 9!((. 8aiting a trap or snare increases your chances o" catching an animal. Ahen catching "ish% you must bait nearly all the devices. Success with an unbaited trap depends on its placement in a good location. A baited trap can actually draw animals to it. The bait should be something the animal knows. Dowever% this bait should not be so readily available in the immediate area that the animal can get it close by. .or e#ample% baiting a trap with corn in the middle o" a corn"ield would not be likely to work. Likewise% i" corn is not grown in the region% a corn!baited trap may arouse an animal7s curiosity and keep it alerted while it ponders the strange "ood. Under such circumstances it may not go "or the bait. ?ne bait that works well on small mammals is the peanut butter "rom a meal% ready!to!eat :>R*; ration. Salt is also a good bait. Ahen using such baits% scatter bits o" it around the trap to give the prey a chance to sample it and develop a craving "or it. The animal will then overcome some o" its caution be"ore it gets to the trap. 9!(,. I" you set and bait a trap "or one species but another species takes the bait without being caught% try to determine what the animal was. Then set a proper trap "or that animal% using the same bait. NOT!; ?nce you have success"ully trapped an animal% you will not only gain con"idence in your ability% you will also have resupplied yoursel" with bait "or several more traps. CONSTRUCTION 9!(/. Traps and snares cr&sh, choke, hang, or entangle the prey. A single trap or snare will commonly incorporate two or more o" these principles. The mechanisms that provide power to the trap are usually very simple. The struggling victim% the "orce o" gravity% or a bent sapling7s tension provides the power. 9!(2. The heart o" any trap or snare is the trigger. Ahen planning a trap or snare% ask yoursel" how it should a""ect the prey% what is the source o" power% and what will be the most e""icient trigger. 'our answers will help you devise a speci"ic trap "or a speci"ic species. Traps are designed to catch and hold or to catch and kill. Snares are traps that incorporate a noose to accomplish either "unction. Si#p e Snare 9!(6. A simple snare :.igure 9!2; consists o" a noose placed over a trail or den hole and attached to a "irmly planted stake. I" the noose is some type o" cordage placed upright on a

game trail% use small twigs or blades o" grass to hold it up. .ilaments "rom spider webs are e#cellent "or holding nooses open. >ake sure the noose is large enough to pass "reely over the animal7s head. As the animal continues to move% the noose tightens around its neck. The more the animal struggles% the tighter the noose gets. This type o" snare usually does not kill the animal. I" you use cordage% it may loosen enough to slip o"" the animal7s neck. Aire is there"ore the best choice "or a simple snare.

,igure C8>9 Si#p e Snare 2rag Noose 9!(9. Use a drag noose on an animal run :.igure 9!6;. 0lace "orked sticks on either side o" the run and lay a sturdy crossmember across them. Tie the noose to the crossmember and hang it at a height above the animal7s head. :3ooses designed to catch by the head should never be low enough "or the prey to step into with a "oot.; As the noose tightens around the animal7s neck% the animal pulls the crossmember "rom the "orked sticks and drags it along. The surrounding vegetation 1uickly catches the crossmember and the animal becomes entangled.

,igure C8@9 2rag Noose T+itch8Up 9!(<. A twitch!up is a supple sapling that% when bent over and secured with a triggering device% will provide power to a variety o" snares. Select a hickory or other hardwood sapling along the trail. A twitch!up will work much "aster and with more "orce i" you remove all the branches and "oliage. T+itch8Up Snare 9!,=. A simple twitch!up snare uses two "orked sticks% each with a long and short leg :.igure 9!9;. 8end the twitch!up and mark the trail below it. &rive the long leg o" one "orked stick "irmly into the ground at that point. *nsure the cut on the short leg o" this stick is parallel to the ground. Tie the long leg o" the remaining "orked stick to a piece o" cordage secured to the twitch!up. -ut the short leg so that it catches on the short leg o" the other "orked stick. *#tend a noose over the trail. Set the trap by bending the twitch!up and engaging the short legs o" the "orked sticks. Ahen an animal catches its head in the noose% it pulls the "orked sticks apart% allowing the twitch!up to spring up and hang the prey. NOT!; &o not use green sticks "or the trigger. The sap that oo4es out could glue them together.

,igure C8C9 T+itch8Up Snare S"uirre Po e 9!, . A s1uirrel pole is a long pole placed against a tree in an area showing a lot o" s1uirrel activity :.igure 9!<;. 0lace several wire nooses along the top and sides o" the pole so that a s1uirrel trying to go up or down the pole will have to pass through one or more o" them. 0osition the nooses :/ to 2 centimeters I$ to $ K,!inchesJ in diameter; about $./ centimeters : inch; o"" the pole. 0lace the top and bottom wire nooses ,/ centimeters : 9 inches; "rom the top and bottom o" the pole to prevent the s1uirrel "rom getting its "eet on a solid sur"ace. I" this happens% the s1uirrel will chew through the wire. S1uirrels are naturally curious. A"ter an initial period o" caution% they will try to go up or down the pole and will be caught in the noose. The struggling animal will soon "all "rom the pole and strangle. ?ther s1uirrels will soon be drawn to the commotion. In this way% you can catch several s1uirrels. 'ou can emplace multiple poles to increase the catch.

,igure9 C8D9 S"uirre Po e O3i*+a .ird Po e

9!,$. An ?+ibwa bird pole is a snare that has been used by 3ative Americans "or centuries :.igure 9! =;. To be e""ective% it should be placed in a relatively open area away "rom tall trees. .or best results% pick a spot near "eeding areas% dusting areas% or watering holes. -ut a pole .9 to $. meters :2 to 6 "eet; long and trim away all limbs and "oliage. &o not use resinous wood such as pine. Sharpen the upper end to a point% then drill a small!diameter hole / to 6./ centimeters :$ to ( inches; down "rom the top. -ut a small stick = to / centimeters :, to 2 inches; long and shape one end so that it will almost "it into the hole. This is the perch. 0lant the long pole in the ground with the pointed end up. Tie a small weight% about e1ual to the weight o" the targeted species% to a length o" cordage. 0ass the "ree end o" the cordage through the hole% and tie a slip noose that covers the perch. Tie a single overhand knot in the cordage and place the perch against the hole. Allow the cordage to slip through the hole until the overhand knot rests against the pole and the top o" the perch. The tension o" the overhand knot against the pole and perch will hold the perch in position. Spread the noose over the perch% ensuring it covers the perch and drapes over on both sides. >ost birds pre"er to rest on something above ground and will land on the perch. As soon as the bird lands% the perch will "all% releasing the overhand knot and allowing the weight to drop. The noose will tighten around the bird7s "eet% capturing it. I" the weight is too heavy% it will cut o"" the bird7s "eet% allowing it to escape. Another variation would be to use spring tension such as a tree branch in place o" the weight.

,igure C81?9 O3i*+a .ird Po e Noosing )and 9!,(. A noose stick or @noosing wand@ is use"ul "or capturing roosting birds or small mammals :.igure 9! ;. It re1uires a patient operator. This wand is more a weapon than a trap. It consists o" a pole :as long as you can e""ectively handle; with a slip noose o" wire or sti"" cordage at the small end. To catch an animal% you slip the noose over the neck o" a roosting bird and pull it tight. 'ou can also place it over a den hole and hide in a nearby blind. Ahen the animal emerges "rom the den% you +erk the pole to tighten the noose and thus capture the animal. -arry a stout club to kill the prey.

,igure C8119 Noosing )and Tread e Spring Snare 9!,,. Use a treadle snare against small game on a trail :.igure 9! $;. &ig a shallow hole in the trail. Then drive a "orked stick :"ork down; into the ground on each side o" the hole on the same side o" the trail. Select two "airly straight sticks that span the two "orks. 0osition these two sticks so that their ends engage the "orks. 0lace several sticks over the hole in the trail by positioning one end over the lower hori4ontal stick and the other on the ground on the other side o" the hole. -over the hole with enough sticks so that the prey must step on at least one o" them to set o"" the snare. Tie one end o" a piece o" cordage to a twitch!up or to a weight suspended over a tree limb. 8end the twitch!up or raise the suspended weight to determine where you will tie the trigger. The trigger should be about / centimeters :$ inches; long. .orm a noose with the other end o" the cordage. Route and spread the noose over the top o" the sticks over the hole. 0lace the trigger stick against the hori4ontal sticks and route the cordage behind the sticks so that the tension o" the power source will hold it in place. Ad+ust the bottom hori4ontal stick so that it will barely hold against the trigger. As the animal places its "oot on a stick across the hole% the bottom hori4ontal stick moves down% releasing the trigger and allowing the noose to catch the animal by the "oot. 8ecause o" the disturbance on the trail% an animal will be wary. 'ou must there"ore use channeli4ation. To increase the e""ectiveness o" this trap% a small bait well may be dug into the bottom o" the hole. 0lace some bait in the bottom o" the hole to lure the animal to the snare.

,igure C8109 Tread e Spring Snare ,igure 7 2ead/a 9!,/. The "igure , dead"all is a trigger used to drop a weight onto a prey and crush it :.igure 9! (;. The type o" weight used may vary% but it should be heavy enough to kill or incapacitate the prey immediately. -onstruct the "igure , using three notched sticks. These notches hold the sticks together in a "igure , pattern when under tension. 0ractice making this trigger be"orehandE it re1uires close tolerances and precise angles in its construction.

,igure C81<9 ,igure 7 2ead/a Paiute 2ead/a 9!,2. The 0aiute dead"all is similar to the "igure , but uses a piece o" cordage and a catch stick :.igure 9! ,;. It has the advantage o" being easier to set than the "igure ,. Tie one end o" a piece o" cordage to the lower end o" the diagonal stick. Tie the other end o" the cordage to another stick about / centimeters :$ inches; long. This stick is the catch stick. 8ring the cord hal"way around the vertical stick with the catch stick at a <=!degree angle. 0lace the bait stick with one end against the drop weight% or a peg driven into the ground% and the other against the catch stick. Ahen a prey disturbs the bait stick% it "alls "ree% releasing the catch stick. As the diagonal stick "lies up% the weight "alls% crushing the prey. To increase the e""ectiveness o" this trap% a small bait well may be dug into the bottom o" the hole. 0lace some bait in the bottom o" the hole to lure the animals to the snare.

,igure C8179 Paiute 2ead/a .o+ Trap

9!,6. A bow trap is one o" the deadliest traps :.igure 9! /;. It is dangerous to man as well as animals. To construct this trap% build a bow and anchor it to the ground with pegs. Ad+ust the aiming point as you anchor the bow. Lash a toggle stick to the trigger stick. Two upright sticks driven into the ground hold the trigger stick in place at a point where the toggle stick will engage the pulled bowstring. 0lace a catch stick between the toggle stick and a stake driven into the ground. Tie a trip wire or cordage to the catch stick and route it around stakes and across the game trail where you tie it o"" :as in .igure 9! /;. Ahen the prey trips the trip wire% the bow looses an arrow into it. A notch in the bow serves to help aim the arrow.

,igure C81=9 .o+ Trap

WARNING This is a lethal trap. Approach it with caution and from the rear only+
Pig Spear Sha/t 9!,9. To construct the pig spear sha"t% select a stout pole about $./ meters :9 "eet; long :.igure 9! 2;. At the smaller end% "irmly lash several small stakes. Lash the large end tightly to a tree along the game trail. Tie a length o" cordage to another tree across the trail. Tie a sturdy% smooth stick to the other end o" the cord. .rom the "irst tree% tie a trip wire or cord low to the ground% stretch it across the trail% and tie it to a catch stick. >ake a slip ring "rom vines or other suitable material. *ncircle the trip wire and the smooth stick with the slip ring. *mplace one end o" another smooth stick within the slip ring and its other end against the second tree. 0ull the smaller end o" the spear sha"t across the trail and position it between the short cord and the smooth stick. As the animal trips the trip wire% the catch stick pulls the slip ring o"" the smooth sticks% releasing the spear sha"t that springs across the trail and impales the prey against the tree.

,igure C81>9 Pig Spear Sha/t

WARNING This is a lethal trap. Approach it with caution and from the rear only+
.ott e Trap 9!,<. A bottle trap is a simple trap "or mice and voles :.igure 9! 6;. &ig a hole (= to ,/ centimeters : $ to 9 inches; deep that is wider at the bottom than at the top. >ake the top o" the hole as small as possible. 0lace a piece o" bark or wood over the hole with small stones under it to hold it up $./ to / centimeters : to $ inches; o"" the ground. >ice or voles will hide under the cover to escape danger and "all into the hole. They cannot climb out because o" the wall7s backward slope. Use caution when checking this trapE it is an e#cellent hiding place "or snakes.

,igure C81@9 .ott e Trap


9!/=. There are several killing devices that you can construct to help you obtain small game to help you survive. The rabbit stick% the spear% the bow and arrow% and the sling are such devices. RA..IT STIC1 9!/ . ?ne o" the simplest and most e""ective killing devices is a stout stick as long as your arm% "rom "ingertip to shoulder% called a @rabbit stick.@ 'ou can throw it either overhand or sidearm and with considerable "orce. It is best thrown so that it "lies sideways% increasing the chance o" hitting the target. It is very e""ective against small game that stops and "ree4es as a de"ense. SP!AR 9!/$. 'ou can make a spear to kill small game and to "ish. Mab with the spear5do not throw it. 0aragraph 9!26 e#plains spear"ishing. .O) AN2 ARRO) 9!/(. A good bow is the result o" many hours o" work. 'ou can construct a suitable short! term bow "airly easily. Ahen it loses its spring or breaks% you can replace it. Select a hardwood stick about meter :( "eet; long that is "ree o" knots or limbs. -are"ully scrape the large end down until it has the same pull as the small end. -are"ul e#amination will show the natural curve o" the stick. Always scrape "rom the side that "aces you% or the bow will break the "irst time you pull it. &ead% dry wood is pre"erable to green wood. To increase the pull% lash a second bow to the "irst% "ront to "ront% "orming an @L@ when viewed "rom the side. Attach the tips o" the bows with cordage and only use a bowstring on one bow. 9!/,. Select arrows "rom the straightest dry sticks available. The arrows should be about hal" as long as the bow. Scrape each sha"t smooth all around. 'ou will probably have to straighten the sha"t. 'ou can bend an arrow straight by heating the sha"t over hot coals. &o not allow the sha"t to scorch or burn. Dold the sha"t straight until it cools. 9!//. 'ou can make arrowheads "rom bone% glass% metal% or pieces o" rock. 'ou can also sharpen and "ire!harden the end o" the sha"t. .ire hardening is actually a misnomer. To "ire! harden wood% hold it over hot coals or plunge it deep under the coals in the ashes% being care"ul not to burn or scorch the wood. The purpose o" "ire hardening is to harden the wood by drying the moisture out o" it. 9!/2. 'ou must notch the ends o" the arrows "or the bowstring. -ut or "ile the notchE do not split it. .letching :adding "eathers to the notched end o" an arrow; improves the arrow7s "light characteristics. .letching is recommended but not necessary on a "ield!e#pedient arrow.

SLIN5 9!/6. 'ou can make a sling by tying two pieces o" cordage% each about 2= centimeters :$, inches; long% at opposite ends o" a palm!si4ed piece o" leather or cloth. 0lace a rock in the cloth and wrap one cord around your middle "inger and hold in your palm. Dold the other cord between your "ore"inger and thumb. To throw the rock% spin the sling several times in a circle and release the cord between your thumb and "ore"inger. 0ractice to gain pro"iciency. The sling is very e""ective against small game.

9!/9. 'ou can make your own "ishhooks% nets% and traps. The paragraphs below discuss several methods to obtain "ish. I'PROVIS!2 ,IS&&OO1S 9!/<. 'ou can make "ield!e#pedient "ishhooks "rom pins% needles% wire% small nails% or any piece o" metal. 'ou can also use wood% bone% coconut shell% thorns% "lint% seashell% or tortoise shell. 'ou can also make "ishhooks "rom any combination o" these items :.igure 9! 9;.

,igure C81C9 I#pro-ised ,ishhoo(s 9!2=. To make a wooden hook% cut a piece o" hardwood about $./ centimeters : inch; long and about 2 millimeters : K, inch; in diameter to "orm the shank. -ut a notch in one end in which to place the point. 0lace the point :piece o" bone% wire% nail; in the notch. Dold the point in the notch and tie securely so that it does not move out o" position. This is a "airly large hook. To make smaller hooks% use smaller material. 9!2 . A gorge or skewer is a small sha"t o" wood% bone% metal% or other material. It is sharp on both ends and notched in the middle where you tie cordage. 8ait the gorge by placing a piece o" bait on it lengthwise. Ahen the "ish swallows the bait% it also swallows the gorge. I" you are tending the "ishing line when the "ish bites% do not attempt to pull on the line to set the hook

as you would with a conventional hook. Allow the "ish to swallow the bait to get the gorge as "ar down its throat be"ore the gorge sets itsel". STA1!OUT 9!2$. A stakeout is a "ishing device you can use in a hostile environment :.igure 9! <;. To construct a stakeout% drive two supple saplings into the bottom o" the lake% pond% or stream with their tops +ust below the water sur"ace. Tie a cord between them +ust slightly below the sur"ace. Tie two short cords with hooks or gorges to this cord% ensuring that they cannot wrap around the poles or each other. They should also not slip along the long cord. 8ait the hooks or gorges.

,igure C81D9 Sta(eout 5ILL N!T 9!2(. I" a gill net is not available% you can make one using parachute suspension line or similar material :.igure 9!$=;. Remove the core lines "rom the suspension line and tie the casing between two trees. Attach several core lines to the casing by doubling them over and tying them with prusik knots or girth hitches. These lines should be si# times the desired depth o" the net :"or e#ample% a 2!"oot I 9=!centimeterJ piece o" string girth!hitched over the casing will give you two (!"oot I<=!centimeterJ pieces% which a"ter completing the net% will provide a !"oot I(=!centimeterJ deep net;. The length o" the desired net and the si4e o" the mesh determine the number o" core lines used and the space between them. The recommended si4e o" the spaces in the net mesh is about inch :$./ centimeters; s1uare. Starting at one end o" the casing% tie the second and the third core lines together using an overhand knot. Then tie the "ourth and "i"th% si#th and seventh% and so on% until you reach the last core line. 'ou should now have all core lines tied in pairs with a single core line hanging at each end. Start the second row with the "irst core line% tie it to the second% the third to the "ourth% and so on.

,igure C80?9 'a(ing a 5i Net 9!2,. To keep the rows even and to regulate the si4e o" the mesh% tie a guideline to the trees. 0osition the guideline on the opposite side o" the net you are working on. >ove the guideline down a"ter completing each row. The lines will always hang in pairs and you always tie a cord "rom one pair to a cord "rom an ad+oining pair. -ontinue tying rows until the net is the desired width. Thread a suspension line casing along the bottom o" the net to strengthen it. Use the gill net as shown in .igure 9!$ . Angling the gill net will help to reduce the amount o" debris that may accumulate in the net. 8e sure to check it "re1uently.

,igure C8019 Setting a 5i Net in the Strea# ,IS& TRAPS

9!2/. 'ou may trap "ish using several methods :.igure 9!$$;. .ish baskets are one method. 'ou construct them by lashing several sticks together with vines into a "unnel shape. 'ou close the top% leaving a hole large enough "or the "ish to swim through.

,igure C8009 Various Types o/ ,ish Traps 9!22. 'ou can also use traps to catch saltwater "ish% as schools regularly approach the shore with the incoming tide and o"ten move parallel to the shore. 0ick a location at high tide and build the trap at low tide. ?n rocky shores% use natural rock pools. ?n coral islands% use natural pools on the sur"ace o" ree"s by blocking the openings as the tide recedes. ?n sandy shores% use sandbars and the ditches they enclose. 8uild the trap as a low stone wall e#tending outward into the water and "orming an angle with the shore. SP!AR,IS&IN5 9!26. I" you are near shallow water :about waist deep; where the "ish are large and plenti"ul% you can spear them. To make a spear% cut a long% straight sapling :.igure 9!$(;. Sharpen the end to a point or attach a kni"e% +agged piece o" bone% or sharpened metal. 'ou can also make a spear by splitting the sha"t a "ew inches down "rom the end and inserting a piece o" wood to act as a spreader. 'ou then sharpen the two separated halves to points. To spear "ish% "ind an area where "ish either gather or where there is a "ish run. 0lace the spear point into the water

and slowly move it toward the "ish. Then% with a sudden push% impale the "ish on the stream bottom. &o not try to li"t the "ish with the spear% as it with probably slip o"" and you will lose itE hold the spear with one hand and grab and hold the "ish with the other. &o not throw the spear% especially i" the point is a kni"e. 'ou cannot a""ord to lose a kni"e in a survival situation. 8e alert to the problems caused by light re"raction when looking at ob+ects in the water. 'ou must aim lower than the ob+ect% usually at the bottom o" the "ish% to hit your mark.

,igure C80<9 Types o/ Spear Points C&OP ,IS&IN5 9!29. At night% in an area with high "ish density% you can use a light to attract "ish. Then% armed with a machete or similar weapon% you can gather "ish using the back side o" the blade to strike them. &o not use the sharp side as you will cut them in two pieces and end up losing some o" the "ish. ,IS& POISON 9!2<. Another way to catch "ish is by using poison. 0oison works 1uickly. It allows you to remain concealed while it takes e""ect. It also enables you to catch several "ish at one time. Ahen using "ish poison% be sure to gather all o" the a""ected "ish% because many dead "ish "loating downstream could arouse suspicion. Some plants that grow in warm regions o" the world contain rotenone% a substance that stuns or kills cold!blooded animals but does not harm persons who eat the animals. The best place to use rotenone% or rotenone!producing plants% is in ponds or the headwaters o" small streams containing "ish. Rotenone works 1uickly on "ish in water $ degrees - :6= degrees .; or above. The "ish rise helplessly to the sur"ace. It works slowly in water = to $ degrees - :/= to 6= degrees .; and is ine""ective in water below = degrees - :/= degrees .;. The "ollowing plants% used as indicated% will stun or kill "ishF

Anamirta cocc&l&s :.igure 9!$,;. This woody vine grows in southern Asia and on islands o" the South 0aci"ic. -rush the bean!shaped seeds and throw them in the water.  Croton tigli&m :.igure 9!$,;. This shrub or small tree grows in waste areas on islands o" the South 0aci"ic. It bears seeds in three angled capsules. -rush the seeds and throw them into the water.
 

*arringtonia :.igure 9!$,;. These large trees grow near the sea in >alaya and parts o" 0olynesia. They bear a "leshy one!seeded "ruit. -rush the seeds and bark and throw into the water. /erris eliptica :.igure 9!$,;. This large genus o" tropical shrubs and woody vines is the main source o" commercially produced rotenone. )rind the roots into a powder and mi# with water. Throw a large 1uantity o" the mi#ture into the water. /&%oisia :.igure 9!$,;. This shrub grows in Australia and bears white clusters o" "lowers and berrylike "ruit. -rush the plants and throw them into the water. $ephrosia :.igure 9!$,;. This species o" small shrubs% which bears beanlike pods% grows throughout the tropics. -rush or bruise bundles o" leaves and stems and throw them into the water.

,igure C8079 ,ish8Poisoning P ants 0ime. 'ou can get lime "rom commercial sources and in agricultural areas that use large 1uantities o" it. 'ou may produce your own by burning coral or seashells. Throw the lime into the water.  1&t h&sks. -rush green husks "rom butternuts or black walnuts. Throw the husks into the water.

COO1IN5 AN2 STORA5! O, ,IS& AN2 5A'!
9!6=. 'ou must know how to prepare "ish and game "or cooking and storage in a survival situation. Improper cleaning or storage can result in inedible "ish or game. ,IS& 9!6 . &o not eat "ish that appears spoiled. -ooking does not ensure that spoiled "ish will be edible. Signs o" spoilage are5
  

Sunken eyes. 0eculiar odor. Suspicious color. :)ills should be red to pink. Scales should be a pronounced shade o" gray% not "aded.; &ents that stay in the "ish7s "lesh a"ter pressed with your thumb. Slimy% rather than moist or wet% body. Sharp or peppery taste.

  

9!6$. *ating spoiled or rotten "ish may cause diarrhea% nausea% cramps% vomiting% itching% paralysis% or a metallic taste in the mouth. These symptoms appear suddenly% to 2 hours a"ter eating. Induce vomiting i" symptoms appear. 9!6(. .ish spoils 1uickly a"ter death% especially on a hot day. 0repare "ish "or eating as soon as possible a"ter catching it. -ut out the gills and the large blood vessels that lie near the spine. )ut "ish that are more than = centimeters :, inches; long. Scale or skin the "ish. 9!6,. 'ou can impale a whole "ish on a stick and cook it over an open "ire. Dowever% boiling the "ish with the skin on is the best way to get the most "ood value. The "ats and oil are under the skin and% by boiling% you can save the +uices "or broth. 'ou can use any o" the methods used to cook plant "ood to cook "ish. 0ack "ish into a ball o" clay and bury it in the coals o" a "ire until the clay hardens. 8reak open the clay ball to get to the cooked "ish. .ish is done

when the meat "lakes o"". I" you plan to keep the "ish "or later% smoke or "ry it. To prepare "ish "or smoking% cut o"" the head and remove the backbone. SNA1!S 9!6/. To skin a snake% "irst cut o"" its head% to include = to / centimeters :, to 2 inches; behind the head. This will ensure you remove the venom sac% which is located at the base o" the head. 8ury the sac to prevent "urther contact. Then cut the skin down the body $ to , centimeters : to K$ inches;. 0eel the skin back% then grasp the skin in one hand and the body in the other and pull apart :.igure 9!$/;. ?n large% bulky snakes it may be necessary to slit the belly skin. -ook snakes in the same manner as small game. Remove the entrails and discard. -ut the snake into small sections and boil or roast it.

,igure C80=9 C eaning a Sna(e .IR2S 9!62. A"ter killing the bird% remove its "eathers by either plucking or skinning. Remember% skinning removes some o" the "ood value. ?pen up the body cavity and remove the entrails% saving the craw :in seed!eating birds;% heart% and liver. -ut o"" the "eet. -ook by boiling or roasting over a spit. 8e"ore cooking scavenger birds% boil them at least $= minutes to kill parasites. S1INNIN5 AN2 .UTC&!RIN5 5A'! 9!66. 8leed the animal by cutting its throat. I" possible% clean the carcass near a stream. 0lace the carcass belly up and split the hide "rom throat to tail% cutting around all se#ual organs :.igure 9!$2;. Remove the musk glands at points A and 8 to avoid tainting the meat. .or

smaller mammals% cut the hide around the body and insert two "ingers under the hide on both sides o" the cut and pull both pieces o"" :.igure 9!$6;. NOT!; Ahen cutting the hide% insert the kni"e blade under the skin and turn the blade up so that only the hide gets cut. This will also prevent cutting hair and getting it on the meat.

,igure C80>9 S(inning and .utchering Large 5a#e

,igure C80@9 S(inning S#a 5a#e 9!69. Remove the entrails "rom smaller game by splitting the body open and pulling them out with the "ingers. &o not "orget the chest cavity. .or larger game% cut the gullet away "rom the diaphragm. Roll the entrails out o" the body. -ut around the anus% then reach into the lower abdominal cavity% grasp the lower intestine% and pull to remove. Remove the urine bladder by pinching it o"" and cutting it below the "ingers. I" you spill urine on the meat% wash it to avoid tainting the meat. Save the heart and liver. -ut these open and inspect "or signs o" worms or other parasites. Also inspect the liver7s colorE it could indicate a diseased animal. The liver7s sur"ace should be smooth and wet and its color deep red or purple. I" the liver appears diseased% discard it. Dowever% a diseased liver does not indicate you cannot eat the muscle tissue.

9!6<. -ut along each leg "rom above the "oot to the previously made body cut. Remove the hide by pulling it away "rom the carcass% cutting the connective tissue where necessary. -ut o"" the head and "eet. 9!9=. -ut larger game into manageable pieces. .irst% slice the muscle tissue connecting the "ront legs to the body. There are no bones or +oints connecting the "ront legs to the body on "our!legged animals. -ut the hind1uarters o"" where they +oin the body. 'ou must cut around a large bone at the top o" the leg and cut to the ball!and!socket hip +oint. -ut the ligaments around the +oint and bend it back to separate it. Remove the large muscles :the tenderloin or @backstrap@; that lie on either side o" the spine. Separate the ribs "rom the backbone. There is less work and less wear on your kni"e i" you break the ribs "irst% then cut through the breaks. 9!9 . 8oil large meat pieces or cook them over a spit. 'ou can stew or boil smaller pieces% particularly those that remain attached to bone a"ter the initial butchering% as soup or broth. 'ou can cook body organs such as the heart% liver% pancreas% spleen% and kidneys using the same methods as "or muscle meat. 'ou can also cook and eat the brain. -ut the tongue out% skin it% boil it until tender% and eat it. S'O1IN5 '!AT 9!9$. To smoke meat% prepare an enclosure around a "ire .igure 9!$9;. Two ponchos snapped together will work. The "ire does not need to be big or hot. The intent is to produce smoke and heat% not "lame. &o not use resinous wood because its smoke will ruin the meat. Use hardwoods to produce good smoke. The wood should be somewhat green. I" it is too dry% soak it. -ut the meat into thin slices% no more than 2 millimeters :about K, inch; thick% and drape them over a "ramework. >ake sure none o" the meat touches another piece. Ceep the poncho enclosure around the meat to hold the smoke and keep a close watch on the "ire. &o not let the "ire get too hot. >eat smoked overnight in this manner will last about week. Two days o" continuous smoking will preserve the meat "or $ to , weeks. 0roperly smoked meat will look like a dark% curled% brittle stick and you can eat it without "urther cooking. 'ou can also use a pit to smoke meat :.igure 9!$<;.

,igure C80C9 Tepee S#o(er

,igure C80D9 S#o(ing 'eat O-er a Pit 2R$IN5 '!AT 9!9(. To preserve meat by drying% cut it into 2!millimeter : K,!inch; strips with the grain. Dang the meat strips on a rack in a sunny location with good air"low. Ceep the strips out o" the reach o" animals. -over the strips to keep o"" blow"lies. Allow the meat to dry thoroughly be"ore eating. 0roperly dried meat will have a dry% crisp te#ture and will not "eel cool to the touch. OT&!R PR!S!RVATION '!T&O2S 9!9,. 'ou can also preserve meats using the "ree4ing or brine and salt methods. In cold climates% you can "ree4e and keep meat inde"initely. .ree4ing is not a means o" preparing meat. 'ou must still cook it be"ore eating. 'ou can also preserve meat by soaking it

thoroughly in a saltwater solution. The solution must cover the meat. 'ou can use salt by itsel" but make sure you wash o"" the salt be"ore cooking.

Chapter D

Sur-i-a Use o/ P ants
A"ter having solved the problems o" "inding water% shelter% and animal "ood% you will have to consider the use o" plants you can eat. In a survival situation you should always be on the lookout "or "amiliar wild "oods and live o"" the land whenever possible. 'ou must not count on being able to go "or days without "ood as some sources would suggest. *ven in the most static survival situation% maintaining health through a complete and nutritious diet is essential to maintaining strength and peace o" mind. 3ature can provide you with "ood that will let you survive almost any ordeal% i" you don7t eat the wrong plant. 'ou must there"ore learn as much as possible be"orehand about the "lora o" the region where you will be operating. 0lants can provide you with medicines in a survival situation. 0lants can supply you with weapons and raw materials to construct shelters and build "ires. 0lants can even provide you with chemicals "or poisoning "ish% preserving animal hides% and "or camou"laging yoursel" and your e1uipment. NOT!; 'ou will "ind illustrations o" the plants described in this chapter in Appendi#es 8 and -.

<! . 0lants are valuable sources o" "ood because they are widely available% easily procured% and% in the proper combinations% can meet all your nutritional needs.

WARNING The critical factor in using plants for food is to avoid accidental poisoning. %at only those plants you can positively identify and you know are safe to eat.

<!$. Absolutely identi"y plants be"ore using them as "ood. 0oison hemlock has killed people who mistook it "or its relatives% wild carrots and wild parsnips. <!(. 'ou may "ind yoursel" in a situation where you have had the chance to learn the plant li"e o" the region in which you must survive. In this case you can use the Universal *dibility Test to determine which plants you can eat and which to avoid. <!,. It is important to be able to recogni4e both cultivated and wild edible plants in a survival situation. >ost o" the in"ormation in this chapter is directed toward identi"ying wild plants because in"ormation relating to cultivated plants is more readily available. <!/. -onsider the "ollowing when collecting wild plants "or "oodF 0lants growing near homes and occupied buildings or along roadsides may have been sprayed with pesticides. Aash these plants thoroughly. In more highly developed countries with many automobiles% avoid roadside plants% i" possible% due to contamination "rom e#haust emissions.  0lants growing in contaminated water or in water containing )iardia lam%lia and other parasites are contaminated themselves. 8oil or disin"ect them.
 

Some plants develop e#tremely dangerous "ungal to#ins. To lessen the chance o" accidental poisoning% do not eat any "ruit that is starting to spoil or is showing signs o" mildew or "ungus. 0lants o" the same species may di""er in their to#ic or subto#ic compounds content because o" genetic or environmental "actors. ?ne e#ample o" this is the "oliage o" the common chokecherry. Some chokecherry plants have high concentrations o" deadly cyanide compounds but others have low concentrations or none. Dorses have died "rom eating wilted wild cherry leaves. Avoid any weed% leaves% or seeds with an almondlike scent% a characteristic o" the cyanide compounds. Some people are more susceptible to gastric distress :"rom plants; than others. I" you are sensitive in this way% avoid unknown wild plants. I" you are e#tremely sensitive to poison ivy% avoid products "rom this "amily% including any parts "rom sumacs% mangoes% and cashews. Some edible wild plants% such as acorns and water lily rhi4omes% are bitter. These bitter substances% usually tannin compounds% make them unpalatable. 8oiling them in several changes o" water will usually remove these bitter properties. >any valuable wild plants have high concentrations o" o#alate compounds% also known as o#alic acid. ?#alates produce a sharp burning sensation in your mouth and throat and damage the kidneys. 8aking% roasting% or drying usually destroys

these o#alate crystals. The corm :bulb; o" the +ack!in!the!pulpit is known as the @Indian turnip%@ but you can eat it only a"ter removing these crystals by slow baking or by drying.

WARNING &o not eat mushrooms in a survival situation+ The only way to tell if a mushroom is edible is by positive identification. There is no room for experimentation. !ymptoms caused by the most dangerous mushrooms affecting the central nervous system may not show up until several days after ingestion. -y that time it is too late to reverse their effects.
PLANT I2!NTI,ICATION <!2. 'ou identi"y plants% other than by memori4ing particular varieties through "amiliarity% by using such "actors as lea" shape and margin% lea" arrangements% and root structure. <!6. The basic lea" margins :.igure <! ; are toothed% lobed% and toothless or smooth.

,igure D819 Lea/ 'argins <!9. These leaves may be lance!shaped% elliptical% egg!shaped% oblong% wedge!shaped% triangular% long!pointed% or top!shaped :.igure <!$;.

,igure D809 Lea/ Shapes <!<. The basic types o" lea" arrangements :.igure <!(; are opposite% alternate% compound% simple% and basal rosette.

,igure D8<9 Lea/ Arrange#ents <! =. The basic types o" root structures are the taproot% tuber% bulb% rhi4ome% clove% corm% and crown :.igure <!,;. 8ulbs are "amiliar to us as onions and% when sliced in hal"% will show concentric rings. -loves are those bulblike structures that remind us o" garlic and will separate into small pieces when broken apart. This characteristic separates wild onions "rom wild garlic. Taproots resemble carrots and may be single!rooted or branched% but usually only one plant stalk arises "rom each root. Tubers are like potatoes and daylilies. 'ou will "ind these structures either on strings or in clusters underneath the parent plants. Rhi4omes are large creeping rootstock or underground stems. >any plants arise "rom the @eyes@ o"

these roots. -orms are similar to bulbs but are solid when cut rather than possessing rings. A crown is the type o" root structure "ound on plants such as asparagus. -rowns look much like a mophead under the soil7s sur"ace.

,igure D879 Root Structures <! . Learn as much as possible about the uni1ue characteristics o" plants you intend to use "or "ood. Some plants have both edible and poisonous parts. >any are edible only at certain times o" the year. ?thers may have poisonous relatives that look very similar to the varieties you can eat or use "or medicine. UNIV!RSAL !2I.ILIT$ T!ST <! $. There are many plants throughout the world. Tasting or swallowing even a small portion o" some can cause severe discom"ort% e#treme internal disorders% and even death. There"ore% i" you have the slightest doubt about a plant7s edibility% apply the Universal *dibility Test :.igure <!/; be"ore eating any portion o" it.

.. Test only one part of a potential food plant at a time. '. !eparate the plant into its basic components/leaves stems roots buds and flowers. 0. !mell the food for strong or acid odors. 1emember smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. (. &o not eat for 2 hours before starting the test.

3. &uring the 2 hours you abstain from eating test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant part you are testing on the inside of your elbow or wrist. Usually .3 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. 4. &uring the test period take nothing by mouth except purified water and the plant part you are testing. ,. !elect a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it. 2. -efore placing the prepared plant part in your mouth touch a small portion 5a pinch6 to the outer surface of your lip to test for burning or itching. #. )f after 0 minutes there is no reaction on your lip place the plant part on your tongue holding it there for .3 minutes. .7. )f there is no reaction thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for .3 minutes. &o not swallow. ... )f no burning itching numbing stinging or other irritation occurs during the .3 minutes swallow the food. .'. 8ait 2 hours. )f any ill effects occur during this period induce vomiting and drink a lot of water. .0. )f no ill effects occur eat 7.'3 cup of the same plant part prepared the same way. 8ait another 2 hours. )f no ill effects occur the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. CAUTION Test all parts of the plant for edibility, as some plants have both edible and inedible parts. Do not ass me that a part that proved edible !hen "oo#ed is also edible !hen ra!. Test the part ra! to ens re edibility before eatin$ ra!. The same part or plant may prod "e varyin$ rea"tions in different individ als.
,igure D8=9 Uni-ersa !di*i ity Test <! (. 8e"ore testing a plant "or edibility% make sure there are enough plants to make the testing worth your time and e""ort. *ach part o" a plant :roots% leaves% "lowers% and so on;

re1uires more than $, hours to test. &o not waste time testing a plant that is not relatively abundant in the area. <! ,. Remember% eating large portions o" plant "ood on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea% nausea% or cramps. Two good e#amples o" this are such "amiliar "oods as green apples and wild onions. *ven a"ter testing plant "ood and "inding it sa"e% eat it in moderation. <! /. 'ou can see "rom the steps and time involved in testing "or edibility +ust how important it is to be able to identi"y edible plants. <! 2. To avoid potentially poisonous plants% stay away "rom any wild or unknown plants that have5
       

>ilky or discolored sap. 8eans% bulbs% or seeds inside pods. A bitter or soapy taste. Spines% "ine hairs% or thorns. .oliage that resembles dill% carrot% parsnip% or parsley. An almond scent in woody parts and leaves. )rain heads with pink% purplish% or black spurs. A three!lea"ed growth pattern.

<! 6. Using the above criteria as eliminators when choosing plants "or the Universal *dibility Test will cause you to avoid some edible plants. >ore important% these criteria will o"ten help you avoid plants that are potentially to#ic to eat or touch. <! 9. An entire encyclopedia o" edible wild plants could be written% but space limits the number o" plants presented here. Learn as much as possible about the plant li"e o" the areas where you train regularly and where you e#pect to be traveling or working. .igure <!2 list some o" the most common edible and medicinal plants. &etailed descriptions and photographs o" these and other common plants are inAppendi# 8.

Temperate %one

Amaranth 5Amaranths retroflex and other species6

                       

Arrowroot 5Sagittarius species6 Asparagus 5Asparagus officials6 -eechnut 5Fags species6 -lackberries 5Rubes species6 -lueberries 5Vaccinium species6 -urdock 5Arctium lappa6 "attail 5Typha species6 "hestnut 5Castanea species6 "hicory 5Cichorium intybus6 "hufa 5Cyperus esculentus6 &andelion 5Taraxacum officinale6 &aylily 5Hemerocallis fulva) Nettle 5Urtica species6 9aks 5 uercus species6 $ersimmon 5!iospyros virginiana6 $lantain 5"lantago species6 $okeweed 5"hytolacca americana6 $rickly pear cactus 5#puntia species6 $urslane 5"ortulaca oleracea6 !assafras 5Sassafras albi$um6 !heep sorrel 5Rumex acetosella6 !trawberries 5Fragaria species6 Thistle 5Cirsium species6 8ater lily and lotus 5%uphar& %elumbo and other species6 8ild onion and garlic 5Allium species6

 

8ild rose 5Rosa species6 8ood sorrel 5#xalis species6
,igure D8>9 ,ood P ants

Tropi"al %one
         

-amboo 5'ambusa and other species6 -ananas 5(usa species6 -readfruit 5Artocarpus incisa6 "ashew nut 5Anacar$ium occi$ental6 "oconut 5Cocoa nucifera) Mango 5(angifera in$ica6 $alms 5various species6 $apaya 5Carica species6 !ugarcane 5Saccharum officinarum6 Taro 5Colocasia species6 Desert %one

    

Acacia 5Acacia farnesiana6 Agave 5Agave species6 "actus 5various species6 &ate palm 5"hoenix $actylifera6 &esert amaranth 5Amaranths palmer6
,igure D8>9 ,ood P ants EContinuedF

S!A)!!2S <! <. ?ne plant you should never overlook is seaweed. It is a "orm o" marine algae "ound on or near ocean shores. There are also some edible "reshwater varieties. Seaweed is a valuable

source o" iodine% other minerals% and vitamin -. Large 1uantities o" seaweed in an unaccustomed stomach can produce a severe la#ative e""ect. .igure <!6 lists various types o" edible seaweed.
      

&ulse 5Rho$ymenia palmata6 :reen seaweed 5Ulva lactuca6 )rish moss 5Chon$rus crispus6 ;elp 5Alaria esculenta6 <aver 5"orphyra species6 Mo=aban 5Sargassum fulvellum6 !ugar wrack 5)aminaria saccharina6
,igure D8@9 Types o/ !di* e Sea+eed

<!$=. Ahen gathering seaweed "or "ood% "ind living plants attached to rocks or "loating "ree. Seaweed washed onshore any length o" time may be spoiled or decayed. 'ou can dry "reshly harvested seaweed "or later use. <!$ . &i""erent types o" seaweed should be prepared in di""erent ways. 'ou can dry thin and tender varieties in the sun or over a "ire until crisp. -rush and add these to soups or broths. 8oil thick% leathery seaweeds "or a short time to so"ten them. *at them as a vegetable or with other "oods. 'ou can eat some varieties raw a"ter testing "or edibility. PR!PARATION O, PLANT ,OO2 <!$$. Although some plants or plant parts are edible raw% you must cook others "or them to be edible or palatable. *dible means that a plant or "ood will provide you with necessary nutrientsE palatable means that it is pleasing to eat. >any wild plants are edible but barely palatable. It is a good idea to learn to identi"y% prepare% and eat wild "oods. <!$(. >ethods used to improve the taste o" plant "ood include soaking% boiling% cooking% or leaching. Leaching is done by crushing the "ood :"or e#ample% acorns;% placing it in a strainer% and pouring boiling water through it or immersing it in running water. <!$,. 8oil leaves% stems% and buds until tender% changing the water% i" necessary% to remove any bitterness.

<!$/. 8oil% bake% or roast tubers and roots. &rying helps to remove caustic o#alates "rom some roots like those in the Ar&m "amily. <!$2. Leach acorns in water% i" necessary% to remove the bitterness. Some nuts% such as chestnuts% are good raw% but taste better roasted. <!$6. 'ou can eat many grains and seeds raw until they mature. Ahen they are hard or dry% you may have to boil or grind them into meal or "lour. <!$9. The sap "rom many trees% such as maples% birches% walnuts% and sycamores% contains sugar. 'ou may boil these saps down to a syrup "or sweetening. It takes about (/ liters o" maple sap to make liter o" maple syrupG

<!$<. In using plants "or medical treatment% positive identi"ication o" the plants involved is as critical as when using them "or "ood. 0roper use o" these plants is e1ually important. T!R'S AN2 2!,INITIONS <!(=. The "ollowing terms and their de"initions are associated with medicinal plant useF "o&ltice. This is crushed leaves or other plant parts% possibly heated% that are applied to a wound or sore either directly or wrapped in cloth or paper. 0oultices% when hot% increase the circulation in the a""ected area and help healing through the chemicals present in the plants. As the poultice dries out% it draws the to#ins out o" a wound. A poultice should be prepared to a @mashed potatoes!like@ consistency and applied as warm as the patient can stand.  (n2&sion or tisane or tea. This blend is the preparation o" medicinal herbs "or internal or e#ternal application. 'ou place a small 1uantity o" a herb in a container% pour hot water over it% and let it steep :covered or uncovered; be"ore use. -are must always be taken to not drink too much o" a tea in the beginning o" treatment as it may have adverse reactions on an empty stomach.
 

/ecoction. This is the e#tract o" a boiled!down or simmered herb lea" or root. 'ou add herb lea" or root to water. 'ou bring them to a sustained boil or simmer them to draw their chemicals into the water. The average ratio is about $9 to /2 grams : to $ ounces; o" herb to =./ liter o" water. 34pressed 5&ice. These are li1uids or saps s1uee4ed "rom plant material and either applied to the wound or made into another medicine.

<!( . >any natural remedies work slower than the medicines you know. There"ore% start with smaller doses and allow more time "or them to take e""ect. 3aturally% some will act more rapidly than others. >any o" these treatments are addressed in more detail in -hapter ,. SP!CI,IC R!'!2I!S <!($. The "ollowing remedies are "or use only in a survival situation. &o not use them routinely as some can be potentially to#ic and have serious long! term e""ects :"or e#ample% cancer;. Antidiarrheals 2or diarrhea. This can be one o" the most debilitating illnesses "or a survivor or prisoner o" war. &rink tea made "rom the roots o" blackberries and their relatives to stop diarrhea. Ahite oak bark and other barks containing tannin are also e""ective when made into a strong tea. Dowever% because o" possible negative e""ects on the kidneys% use them with caution and only when nothing else is available. -lay% ashes% charcoal% powdered chalk% powdered bones% and pectin can be consumed or mi#ed in a tannic acid tea with good results. These powdered mi#tures should be taken in a dose o" two tablespoons every $ hours. -lay and pectin can be mi#ed together to give a crude "orm o" Caopectate. 0ectin is obtainable "rom the inner part o" citrus "ruit rinds or "rom apple pomace. Tea made "rom cowberry% cranberry% or ha4el leaves works% too. 8ecause o" its inherent danger to an already under!nourished survivor% several o" these methods may need to be tried simultaneously to stop debilitating diarrhea% which can 1uickly dehydrate even a healthy individual.  Antihemorrhagics 2or %leeding. >ake medications to stop bleeding "rom plantain leaves% or% most e""ectively% "rom the leaves o" the common yarrow or woundwort 6Achillea mille2oli&m7. These mostly give a physical barrier to the bleeding. 0rickly pear :the raw% peeled part; or witch ha4el can be applied to wounds. 8oth are good "or their astringent properties :they shrink blood vessels;. .or bleeding gums or mouth sores% sweet gum can be chewed or used as a toothpick. This provides some chemical and antiseptic properties as well.
 

Antiseptics to clean in2ections. Use antiseptics to cleanse wounds% snake bites% sores% or rashes. 'ou can make antiseptics "rom the e#pressed +uice o" wild onion or garlic% the e#pressed +uice "rom chickweed leaves% or the crushed leaves o" dock. 'ou can also make antiseptics "rom a decoction o" burdock root% mallow leaves or roots% or white oak bark :tannic acid;. 0rickly pear% slippery elm% yarrow% and sweet gum are all good antiseptics as well. All these medications are "or e#ternal use only. Two o" the best antiseptics are sugar and honey. Sugar should be applied to the wound until it becomes syrupy% then washed o"" and reapplied. Doney should be applied three times daily :see -hapter ,;. Doney is by "ar the best o" the antiseptics "or open wounds and burns% with sugar being second.

Antipyretics 2or 2evers. Treat a "ever with a tea made "rom willow bark% an in"usion o" elder "lowers or "ruit% linden "lower tea% and aspen or slippery elm bark decoction. 'arrow tea is also good. 0eppermint tea is reportedly good "or "evers. Colds and sore throats. Treat these illnesses with a decoction made "rom either plantain leaves or willow bark. 'ou can also use a tea made "rom burdock roots% mallow or mullein "lowers or roots% and yarrow or mint leaves. Analgesics 2or aches, pains, and sprains. Treat these conditions with e#ternally applied poultices o" dock% plantain% chickweed% willow bark% garlic% or sorrel. Sweet gum has some analgesic :pain relie"; properties. -hewing the willow bark or making a tea "rom it is the best "or pain relie" as it contains the raw component o" aspirin. 'ou can also use salves made by mi#ing the e#pressed +uices o" these plants in animal "at or vegetable oils. Antihistamines and astringents 2or itching or contact dermatitis. Relieve the itch "rom insect bites% sunburn% or plant poisoning rashes by applying a poultice o" +ewelweed 6(mpatiens %i2lora7 or witch ha4el% which give a cooling relie" and dry out the weeping 6,amamelis virginiana7 leaves. The +ewelweed +uice will help when applied to poison ivy% rashes% or insect stings. Mewelweed and aloe vera help relieve sunburn. In addition% dandelion sap% crushed cloves o" garlic% and sweet gum have been used. -rushed leaves o" burdock have received only so!so reports o" success% but crushed% green plantain leaves show relie" over a "ew days. Mewelweed is probably the best o" these plants. Tobacco will deaden the nerve endings and can also be used to treat toothaches. Sedatives. )et help in "alling asleep by brewing a tea made "rom mint leaves or passion"lower leaves. ,emorrhoids. Treat them with e#ternal washes "rom elm bark or oak bark tea% "rom the e#pressed +uice o" plantain leaves% or "rom a Solomon7s seal root decoction. Tannic acid or witch ha4el will provide soothing relie" because o" their astringent properties. ,eat rash. Tannic acid or witch ha4el will provide soothing relie" because o" their astringent properties but cornstarch or any crushed and powdered% nonpoisonous plant should help to dry out the rash a"ter a thorough cleansing. Constipation. Relieve constipation by drinking decoctions "rom dandelion leaves% rose hips% or walnut bark. *ating raw daylily "lowers will also help. Large amounts o" water in any "orm are critical to relieving constipation. Antihelminthics 2or worms or intestinal parasites. >ost treatment "or worms or parasites are to#ic5+ust more so "or the worms or parasites than "or humans.

There"ore% all treatments should be used in moderation. Treatments include tea made "rom tansy 6$anacet&m v&lgare7 or "rom wild carrot :poisonous; leaves. Very strong tannic acid can also be used with caution as it is very hard on the liver. See -hapter , "or more deworming techni1ues.

Anti2lat&lents 2or gas and cramps. Use a tea made "rom carrot seedsE use tea made "rom mint leaves to settle the stomach. Anti2&ngal washes. >ake a decoction o" walnut leaves% oak bark% or acorns to treat ringworm and athlete7s "oot. Apply it "re1uently to the site% alternating with e#posure to direct sunlight. 8road!lea" plantain has also been used with success but any treatment should be used in addition to sunlight i" possible. Mewelweed and vinegar make e#cellent washes but are sometimes di""icult to "ind. *&rns. Tannic acid% sugar% and honey can be used as e#plained in -hapter ,. /enti2rices 2or teeth. See -hapter , "or other techni1ues in addition to using twigs o" sweet gum "or its anti!in"lammatory% analgesic% and antiseptic properties. (nsect repellents. )arlic and onions can be eaten and the raw plant +uice rubbed on the skin to repel some insects. Sassa"ras leaves can be rubbed on the skin. -edar chips may help repel insects around your shelter. $annic acid. 8ecause tannic acid is used "or so many treatments :burns% antihemorrhagics% antihelminthics% antiseptics% antidiarrheals% anti"ungals% bronchitis% skin in"lammation% lice;% a note as to its preparation is in order. All thready plants% especially trees% contain tannic acid. Dardwood trees generally contain more than so"twood trees. ?" the hardwoods% oak5especially red and chestnut5contain the highest amount. The warty looking knots in oak trees can contain as much as $9 percent tannic acid. This knot% the inner bark o" trees% and pine needles :cut into $!centimeter I !inchJ strips;% can all be boiled down to e#tract tannic acid. 8oiling can be done in as little as / minutes :very weak;% to $ hours :moderate;% through $ hours to ( days :very strong;. The stronger concoctions will have a dark color that will vary depending on the type o" tree. All will have an increasingly vile taste in relation to their concentration.

 

<!((. 0lants can be your ally as long as you use them cautiously. 8e sure that you know the plant and how to use it. Some additional uses o" plants are as "ollowsF

>ake dyes "rom various plants to color clothing or to camou"lage your skin. Usually% you will have to boil the plants to get the best results. ?nionskins produce yellow% walnut hulls produce brown% and pokeberries provide purple dye.

>ake "ibers and cordage "rom plant "ibers. >ost commonly used are the stems "rom nettles and milkweeds% yucca plants% and the inner bark o" trees like the linden. >ake tinder "or starting "ires "rom cattail "lu""% cedar bark% lighter knot wood "rom pine trees% or hardened sap "rom resinous wood trees. >ake insulation by "lu""ing up "emale cattail heads or milkweed down. >ake insect repellents by placing sassa"ras leaves in your shelter or by burning or smudging cattail seed hair "ibers.

 

<!(,. Ahether you use plants "or "ood% medicine% or the construction o" shelters or e1uipment% the (ey to their sa"e use is positi-e identi/ication.

Chapter 1?

Poisonous P ants
Success"ul use o" plants in a survival situation depends on positive identi"ication. Cnowing poisonous plants is as important to you as knowing edible plants. Cnowing the poisonous plants will help you avoid sustaining in+uries "rom them.

=! . 0lants generally poison by5 Contact. This contact with a poisonous plant causes any type o" skin irritation or dermatitis.  (ngestion. This occurs when a person eats a part o" a poisonous plant.
 

A%sorption or inhalation. This happens when a person either absorbs the poison through the skin or inhales it into the respiratory system.

=!$. 0lant poisoning ranges "rom minor irritation to death. A common 1uestion asked is% @Dow poisonous is this plantB@ It is di""icult to say how poisonous plants are because5

Some plants re1uire a large amount o" contact be"ore you notice any adverse reaction although others will cause death with only a small amount.  *very plant will vary in the amount o" to#ins it contains due to di""erent growing conditions and slight variations in subspecies.
  

*very person has a di""erent level o" resistance to to#ic substances. Some persons may be more sensitive to a particular plant.

=!(. Some common #isconceptions about poisonous plants are5 8atch the animals and eat what they eat. >ost o" the time this statement is true% but some animals can eat plants that are poisonous to humans.  *oil the plant in water and any poisons will %e removed. 8oiling removes many poisons% but not all.
 

"lants with a red color are poisono&s. Some plants that are red are poisonous% but not all.

=!,. The point is there is no one rule to aid in identi"ying poisonous plants. 'ou must make an e""ort to learn as much about them as possible.

=!/. >any poisonous plants look like their edible relatives or like other edible plants. .or e#ample% poison hemlock appears very similar to wild carrot. -ertain plants are sa"e to eat in certain seasons or stages o" growth but poisonous in other stages. .or e#ample% the leaves o" the pokeweed are edible when it "irst starts to grow% but they soon become poisonous. 'ou can eat some plants and their "ruits only when they are ripe. .or e#ample% the ripe "ruit o" >ay apple is edible% but all other parts and the green "ruit are poisonous. Some plants contain both edible and poisonous partsE potatoes and tomatoes are common plant "oods% but their green parts are poisonous. =!2. Some plants become to#ic a"ter wilting. .or e#ample% when the black cherry starts to wilt% hydrocyanic acid develops. Speci"ic preparation methods make some plants edible that are poisonous raw. 'ou can eat the thinly sliced and thoroughly dried :drying may take a year; corms o" the +ack!in!the!pulpit% but they are poisonous i" not thoroughly dried. =!6. Learn to identi"y and use plants be"ore a survival situation. Some sources o" in"ormation about plants are pamphlets% books% "ilms% nature trails% botanical gardens% local markets% and local natives. )ather and cross!re"erence in"ormation "rom as many sources as possible% because many sources will not contain all the in"ormation needed.

=!9. 'our best policy is to be able to positively identi"y plants by sight and to know their uses or dangers. >any times absolute certainty is not possible. I" you have little or no knowledge o" the local vegetation% use the rules to select plants "or the Universal *dibility Test. Remember% a-oid5 All mushrooms. >ushroom identi"ication is very di""icult and must be precise 5even more so than with other plants. Some mushrooms cause death very 1uickly. Some mushrooms have no known antidote. Two general types o" mushroom poisoning are gastrointestinal and central nervous system.  -ontact with or touching plants unnecessarily.

=!<. -ontact dermatitis "rom plants will usually cause the most trouble in the "ield. The e""ects may be persistent% spread by scratching% and particularly dangerous i" there is contact in or around the eyes. =! =. The principal to#in o" these plants is usually an oil that gets on the skin upon contact with the plant. The oil can also get on e1uipment and then in"ect whoever touches the e1uipment. 3ever burn a contact poisonous plant because the smoke may be as harm"ul as the plant. 'ou have a greater danger o" being a""ected when you are overheated and sweating. The in"ection may be local or it may spread over the body. =! . Symptoms may take "rom a "ew hours to several days to appear. Symptoms can include burning% reddening% itching% swelling% and blisters. =! $. Ahen you "irst contact the poisonous plants or when the "irst symptoms appear% try to remove the oil by washing with soap and cold water. I" water is not available% wipe your skin repeatedly with dirt or sand. &o not use dirt i" you have blisters. The dirt may break open the blisters and leave the body open to in"ection. A"ter you have removed the oil% dry the area. 'ou can wash with a tannic acid solution and crush and rub +ewelweed on the a""ected area to treat plant!caused rashes. 'ou can make tannic acid "rom oak bark. =! (. 0oisonous plants that cause contact dermatitis are5
   

-owhage. 0oison ivy. 0oison oak. 0oison sumac.

 

Rengas tree. Trumpet vine.

=! ,. Ingestion poisoning can be very serious and could lead to death very 1uickly. &o not eat any plant unless you have positively identi"ied it "irst. Ceep a log o" all plants eaten. =! /. Symptoms o" ingestion poisoning can include nausea% vomiting% diarrhea% abdominal cramps% depressed heartbeat and respiration% headaches% hallucinations% dry mouth% unconsciousness% coma% and death. =! 2. I" you suspect plant poisoning% try to remove the poisonous material "rom the victim7s mouth and stomach as soon as possible. I" the victim is conscious% induce vomiting by tickling the back o" his throat or by giving him warm saltwater. I" the victim is conscious% dilute the poison by administering large 1uantities o" water or milk. =! 6. The "ollowing plants can cause ingestion poisoning i" eatenF
          

-astor bean. -hinaberry. &eath camas. Lantana. >anchineel. ?leander. 0angi. 0hysic nut. 0oison and water hemlocks. Rosary pea. Strychnine tree.

=! 9. Appendi# - provides photographs and descriptions o" these plants.

Chapter 11

2angerous Ani#a s
The threat "rom animals is less than "rom other parts o" the environment. Dowever% common sense tells you to avoid encounters with lions% bears% and other large or dangerous animals. 'ou should also avoid large gra4ing animals with horns% hooves% and great weight. >ove care"ully through their environment. -aution may prevent une#pected meetings. &o not attract large predators by leaving "ood lying around your camp. -are"ully survey the scene be"ore entering water or "orests. Smaller animals actually present more o" a threat to you than large animals. To compensate "or their si4e% nature has given many small animals weapons such as "angs and stingers to de"end themselves. *ach year% a "ew people are bitten by sharks% mauled by alligators% and attacked by bears. >ost o" these incidents were in some way the victim7s "ault. Dowever% each year more victims die "rom bites by relatively small venomous snakes than by large dangerous animals. *ven more victims die "rom allergic reactions to bee stings. These smaller animals are the ones you are more likely to meet as you unwittingly move into their habitat% or they slip into your environment unnoticed. Ceeping a level head and an awareness o" your surroundings will keep you alive i" you use a "ew simple sa"ety procedures. &o not let curiosity and carelessness kill or in+ure you.

! . Insects% e#cept centipedes and millipedes% have si# legsE arachnids have eight. All these small creatures become pests when they bite% sting% or irritate you. !$. Although their venom can be 1uite pain"ul% bee% wasp% and hornet stings rarely kill a person who is not allergic to that particular to#in. *ven the most dangerous spiders rarely kill% and the e""ects o" tick!borne diseases are very slow!acting. Dowever% in all cases% avoidance is the best de"ense. In environments known to have spiders and scorpions% check your "ootgear and clothing every morning. Also check your bedding and shelter. Use care when turning over rocks and logs. See Appendi# & "or e#amples o" dangerous insects and arachnids. SCORPIONS

!(. 'ou "ind scorpions :*&thot&s species; in deserts% +ungles% and "orests o" tropical% subtropical% and warm temperate areas o" the world. They are mostly nocturnal. &esert scorpions range "rom below sea level in &eath Valley to elevations as high as (%2== meters : $%=== "eet; in the Andes. Typically brown or black in moist areas% they may be yellow or light green in the desert. Their average si4e is about $./ centimeters : inch;. Dowever% there are $=!centimeter :9!inch; giants in the +ungles o" -entral America% 3ew )uinea% and southern A"rica. .atalities "rom scorpion stings are rare% but do occur with children% the elderly% and ill persons. Scorpions resemble small lobsters with raised% +ointed tails bearing a stinger in the tip. 3ature mimics the scorpions with whip scorpions or vinegarroons. These are harmless and have a tail like a wire or whip% rather than the +ointed tail and stinger o" true scorpions. SPI2!RS !,. The brown recluse% or "iddleback spider% o" 3orth America : 0o4osceles recl&sa; is recogni4ed by a prominent violin!shaped light spot on the back o" its body. As its name suggests% this spider likes to hide in dark places. Though its bite is rarely "atal% it can cause e#cessive tissue degeneration around the wound% leading to amputation o" the digits i" le"t untreated. !/. >embers o" the widow "amily :0atrodect&s species; may be "ound worldwide% though the black widow o" 3orth America is perhaps the most well!known. .ound in warmer areas o" the world% the widows are small% dark spiders with o"ten hourglass!shaped white% red% or orange spots on their abdomens. !2. .unnelwebs :Atra4 species; are large% gray or brown Australian spiders. -hunky% with short legs% they are able to move easily up and down the cone!shaped webs "rom which they get their name. The local populace considers them deadly. Avoid them as they move about% usually at night% in search o" prey. Symptoms o" their bite are similar to those o" the widow7s 5severe pain accompanied by sweating and shivering% weakness% and disabling episodes that can last a week. !6. Tarantulas are large% hairy spiders :$heraphosidae and 0ycosa species; best known because they are o"ten sold in pet stores. There is one species in *urope% but most come "rom tropical America. Some South American species do in+ect a dangerous to#in% but most simply produce a pain"ul bite. Some tarantulas can be as large as a dinner plate. They all have large "angs "or capturing "ood such as birds% mice% and li4ards. I" bitten by a tarantula% pain and bleeding are certain% and in"ection is likely. C!NTIP!2!S AN2 'ILLIP!2!S

!9. -entipedes and millipedes are mostly small and harmless% although some tropical and desert species may reach $/ centimeters : = inches;. A "ew varieties o" centipedes have a poisonous bite% but in"ection is the greatest danger% as their sharp claws dig in and puncture the skin. To prevent skin punctures% brush them o"" in the direction they are traveling. .!!S% )ASPS% AN2 &ORN!TS !<. 8ees% wasps% and hornets come in many varieties and have a wide diversity o" habits and habitats. 'ou recogni4e bees by their hairy and usually thick body% while the wasps% hornets% and yellow +ackets have more slender% nearly hairless bodies. Some bees% such as honeybees% live in colonies. They may be either domesticated or living wild in caves or hollow trees. 'ou may "ind other bees% such as carpenter bees% in individual nest holes in wood or in the ground like bumblebees. The main danger "rom bees is the barbed stinger located on their abdomens. Ahen a bee stings you% it rips its stinger out o" its abdomen along with the venom sac% and dies. *#cept "or killer bees% most bees tend to be more docile than wasps% hornets% and yellow +ackets% which have smooth stingers and are capable o" repeated attacks. ! =. Avoidance is the best tactic "or sel"!protection. Aatch out "or "lowers or "ruit where bees may be "eeding. 8e care"ul o" meat!eating yellow +ackets when cleaning "ish or game. The average person has a relatively minor and temporary reaction to bee stings and recovers in a couple o" hours when the pain and headache go away. Those who are allergic to bee venom have severe reactions including anaphylactic shock% coma% and death. I" antihistamine medicine is not available and you cannot "ind a substitute% an allergy su""erer in a survival situation is in grave danger. TIC1S ! . Ticks are common in the tropics and temperate regions. They are "amiliar to most o" us. Ticks are small% round arachnids. They can have either a so"t or hard body. Ticks re1uire a blood host to survive and reproduce. This makes them dangerous because they spread diseases like Lyme disease% Rocky >ountain spotted "ever% encephalitis% and others that can ultimately be disabling or "atal. There is little you can do to treat these diseases once they are contracted% but time is your ally since it takes at least 2 hours o" attachment to the host "or the tick to transmit the disease organisms. Thus% you have time to thoroughly inspect your body "or their presence. 8eware o" ticks when passing through the thick vegetation they cling to% when cleaning host animals "or "ood% and when gathering natural materials to construct a shelter. Always use insect repellents% i" possible.

! $. Leeches are bloodsucking creatures with a wormlike appearance. 'ou "ind them in the tropics and in temperate 4ones. 'ou will certainly encounter them when swimming in

in"ested waters or making e#pedient water crossings. 'ou can "ind them when passing through swampy% tropical vegetation and bogs. 'ou can also "ind them while cleaning "ood animals% such as turtles% "ound in "resh water. Leeches can crawl into small openingsE there"ore% avoid camping in their habitats when possible. Ceep your trousers tucked in your boots. -heck yoursel" "re1uently "or leeches. Swallowed or eaten% leeches can be a great ha4ard. It is there"ore essential to treat water "rom 1uestionable sources by boiling or using chemical water treatments. Survivors have developed severe in"ections "rom wounds inside the throat or nose when sores "rom swallowed leeches became in"ected.

! (. &espite the legends% bats :/esmod&s species; are a relatively small ha4ard to you. There are many bat varieties worldwide% but you "ind the true vampire bats only in -entral and South America. They are small% agile "liers that land on their sleeping victims% mostly cows and horses% to lap a blood meal a"ter biting their victim. Their saliva contains an anticoagulant that keeps the blood slowly "lowing while they "eed. All bats are considered to carry rabies. Any physical contact is considered to be a rabies risk. They can carry other diseases and in"ections and will bite readily when handled. Dowever% taking shelter in a cave occupied by bats presents the much greater ha4ard o" inhaling powdered bat dung% or guano. 8at dung carries many organisms that can cause diseases. *ating thoroughly cooked "lying "o#es or other bats presents no danger "rom rabies and other diseases% but again% the emphasis is on thorough cooking.

! ,. There are no in"allible rules "or e#pedient identi"ication o" venomous snakes in the "ield% because the guidelines all re1uire close observation or manipulation o" the snake7s body. The best strategy is to leave all snakes alone. Ahere snakes are plenti"ul and venomous species are present% the risk o" their bites negates their "ood value. Apply the "ollowing sa"ety rules when traveling in areas where there are venomous snakesF Aalk care"ully and watch where you step. Step onto logs rather than over them in a survival situation. &uring evasion% always step over or go around logs to leave "ewer signs "or trackers.  Look closely when picking "ruit or moving around water.
 

&o not tease% molest% or harass snakes. Snakes cannot close their eyes. There"ore% you cannot tell i" they are asleep. Some snakes% such as mambas% cobras% and bushmasters% will attack aggressively when cornered or guarding a nest. Use sticks to turn logs and rocks. Aear proper "ootgear% particularly at night.

 

 

-are"ully check bedding% shelter% and clothing. 8e calm when you encounter serpents. Snakes cannot hear and you can occasionally surprise them when they are sleeping or sunning. 3ormally% they will "lee i" given the opportunity. Use e#treme care i" you must kill snakes "or "ood or sa"ety. Although it is not common% warm% sleeping human bodies occasionally attract snakes. ! .

! /. Appendi# * provides detailed descriptions o" the snakes listed in .igure

The Ameri"as

American "opperhead 5Ag*istro$on contortrix6 -ushmaster 5)achesis muta6 "oral snake 5(icrurus fulvius6 "ottonmouth 5Ag*istro$on piscivorus6 >er?de?lance 5'othrops atrox6 1attlesnake 5Crotalus species6 & rope

    

 

"ommon adder +Vipers berus) $allas@ viper +Ag*istro$on halys) Afri"a and Asia

 

-oomslang 5!ispholi$us typus6 "obra 5%a,a species6
,igure 11819 Veno#ous Sna(es o/ the )or d

Afri"a and Asia 'Contin ed(
 

:aboon viper 5'itis gabonica6 :reen tree pit viper 5Trimeresurus


Aabu pit viper 5Trimeresurus flavoviri$is6 ;rait 5'ungarus caeruleus6 Malayan pit viper 5Callaselasma rho$ostoma6 Mamba 5!en$raspis species6 $uff adder 5'itis arietans6 1hinoceros viper 5'itis nasicornis6 1ussell@s viper 5Vipera russellii6 !and viper 5Cerastes vipera6 !aw?scaled viper 5-chis carinatus6 8agler@s pit viper 5Trimeresurus .agleri6 A stralia

 

      

   

&eath adder 5Acanthophis antarcticus6 Taipan 5#xyuranus scutellatus6 Tiger snake 5%otechis scutatus6 Bellow?bellied sea snake 5"elamis platurus)

,igure 11819 Veno#ous Sna(es o/ the )or d EContinuedF

SNA1!8,R!! AR!AS
! 2. The polar regions are "ree o" snakes due to their inhospitable environments. ?ther areas considered to be "ree o" venomous snakes are 3ew Nealand% -uba% Daiti% Mamaica% 0uerto Rico% Ireland% 0olynesia% and Dawaii.

! 6. The )ila monster :,eloderma s&spectr&m; o" the American Southwest and >e#ico is a dangerous and poisonous li4ard with dark% highly te#tured skin marked by pinkish mottling.

It is typically (/ to ,/ centimeters : , to 9 inches; in length and has a thick% stumpy tail. The )ila monster is unlikely to bite unless molested but has a poisonous bite. ! 9. The >e#ican beaded li4ard :,eloderma horrid&m; resembles its relative% the )ila monster. Dowever% it has more uni"orm spots rather than bands o" color. It also is poisonous and has a docile nature. 'ou may "ind it "rom >e#ico to -entral America. ! <. The komodo dragon is a giant li4ard :'aran&s komodoensis; that grows to more than ( meters : = "eet; in length. It can be dangerous i" you try to capture it. This Indonesian li4ard can weigh more than (/ kilograms :(== pounds;.

!$=. -ommon sense will tell you to avoid con"rontations with hippopotami% alligators% crocodiles% and other large river creatures. Dowever% there are also the "ollowing smaller river creatures with which you should be cautious. !$ . *lectric eels :3lectrophor&s electric&s; may reach $ meters :6 "eet; in length and $= centimeters :9 inches; in diameter. Avoid them. They are capable o" generating up to /== volts o" electricity in certain organs o" their body. They use this shock to stun prey and enemies. 3ormally% you "ind these eels in the ?rinoco and Ama4on River systems in South America. They seem to pre"er shallow waters that are more highly o#ygenated and provide more "ood. They are bulkier than American eels. Their upper body is dark gray or black with a lighter!colored underbelly. !$$. 0iranhas :Serrasalmo species; are another ha4ard o" the ?rinoco and Ama4on River systems% as well as the 0araguay River 8asin% where they are native. These "ish vary greatly in si4e and coloration% but usually have a combination o" orange undersides and dark tops. They have white% ra4or!sharp teeth that are clearly visible. They may be as long as /= centimeters :$= inches;. Use great care when crossing waters where they live. 8lood attracts them. They are most dangerous in shallow waters during the dry season. !$(. 8e care"ul when handling and capturing large "reshwater turtles% such as the snapping turtles and so"t!shelled turtles o" 3orth America and the matamata and other turtles o" South America. All o" these turtles will bite in sel"!de"ense and can amputate "ingers and toes. !$,. The platypus or duckbill :9rnithorhync&s anatin&s; is the only member o" its "amily and is easily recogni4ed. It has a long body covered with grayish% short hair% a tail like a beaver% and a bill like a duck. )rowing up to 2= centimeters :$, inches; in length% it may appear to be a good "ood source% but this egg!laying mammal% the only one in the world% is very dangerous. The male has a poisonous spur on each hind "oot that can in"lict intensely

pain"ul wounds. 'ou "ind the platypus only in Australia% mainly along mud banks on waterways.

!$/. In areas where seas and rivers come together% there are dangers associated with both "reshwater and saltwater. In shallow saltwaters% there are many creatures that can in"lict pain and cause in"ection to develop. Stepping on sea urchins% "or e#ample% can produce pain and in"ection. Ahen moving about in shallow water% wear some "orm o" "ootgear and shu""le your "eet along the bottom% rather than picking up your "eet and stepping. !$2. Stingrays :/asyatidae species; are a real ha4ard in shallow waters% especially tropical waters. The type o" bottom appears to be irrelevant. There is a great variance between species% but all have a sharp spike in their tail that may be venomous and can cause e#tremely pain"ul wounds i" stepped on. All rays have a typical shape that resembles a kite. 'ou "ind them along the coasts o" the Americas% A"rica% and Australia.

!$6. There are several "ish that you should not handle% touch% or contact. There are also others that you should not eat. These "ish are described below. !$9. Sharks are the most "eared animal in the sea. Usually% shark attacks cannot be avoided and are considered accidents. 'ou should take every precaution to avoid any contact with sharks. There are many shark species% but in general% dangerous sharks have wide mouths and visible teeth% while relatively harmless ones have small mouths on the underside o" their heads. Dowever% any shark can in"lict pain"ul and o"ten "atal in+uries% either through bites or through abrasions "rom their rough skin. !$<. Rabbit"ish or spine"oot :Siganidae species; live mainly on coral ree"s in the Indian and 0aci"ic oceans. They have very sharp% possibly venomous spines in their "ins. Dandle them with care% i" at all. This "ish% like many others o" the dangerous "ish in this section% is considered edible by native peoples where the "ish are "ound% but deaths occur "rom careless handling. Seek other nonpoisonous "ish to eat i" possible. !(=. Tang or surgeon"ish :Acanth&ridae species; average $= to $/ centimeters :9 to = inches; in length and o"ten are beauti"ully colored. They are called surgeon"ish because o" the scalpel!like spines located in the tail. The wounds in"licted by these spines can bring about death through in"ection% envenomation% and loss o" blood% which may incidentally attract sharks.

!( . Toad"ish :*atrachoididae species; live in tropical waters o"" the )ul" -oast o" the United States and along both coasts o" -entral and South America. These dully!colored "ish average 9 to $/ centimeters :6 to = inches; in length. They typically bury themselves in the sand to await "ish and other prey. They have sharp% very to#ic spines along their backs. !($. 0oisonous scorpion "ish or 4ebra "ish :Scorpaenidae species; are mostly around ree"s in the tropical Indian and 0aci"ic oceans and occasionally in the >editerranean and Aegean seas. They average (= to 6/ centimeters : $ to $< inches; in length. Their coloration is highly variable% "rom reddish brown to almost purple or brownish yellow. They have long% wavy "ins and spines and their sting is intensely pain"ul. Less poisonous relatives live in the Atlantic ?cean. !((. Stone"ish :Synance5a species; are in the 0aci"ic and Indian oceans. They can in+ect a pain"ul venom "rom their dorsal spines when stepped on or handled carelessly. They are almost impossible to see because o" their lumpy shape and drab colors. They range in si4e up to ,= centimeters : 2 inches;. !(,. Aeever "ish :$rachinidae species; average (= centimeters : $ inches; long. They are hard to see as they lie buried in the sand o"" the coasts o" *urope% A"rica% and the >editerranean. Their color is usually a dull brown. They have venomous spines on the back and gills. NOT!; Appendi# . provides more details on these venomous "ish and to#ic mollusks. !(/. The livers o" polar bears are considered to#ic due to high concentrations o" vitamin A. There is a chance o" death a"ter eating this organ. Another to#ic meat is the "lesh o" the hawksbill turtle. These animals are distinguished by a down!turned bill and yellow polka dots on their neck and "ront "lippers. They weigh more than $6/ kilograms :2=/ pounds; and are unlikely to be captured. !(2. >any "ish living in lagoons% estuaries% or ree"s near shore are poisonous to eat% though some are only seasonally dangerous. Although the ma+ority are tropical "ishE be wary o" eating any unidenti"iable "ish wherever you are. Some predatory "ish% such as barracuda and snapper% may become to#ic i" the "ish they "eed on in shallow waters are poisonous. The most poisonous types appear to have parrotlike beaks and hard shell!like skins with spines and can o"ten in"late their bodies like balloons. Dowever% at certain times o" the year% indigenous populations consider the pu""er a delicacy. !(6. The blow"ish or pu""er :$etraodontidae species; are more tolerant o" cold water. They live along tropical and temperate coasts worldwide% even in some o" the rivers o" Southeast Asia and A"rica. Stout!bodied and round% many o" these "ish have short spines and can in"late themselves into a ball when alarmed or agitated. Their blood% liver% and gonads are so to#ic

that as little as $9 milligrams : ounce; can be "atal. These "ish vary in color and si4e% growing up to 6/ centimeters :$< inches; in length. !(9. The trigger"ish :*alistidae species; occur in great variety% mostly in tropical seas. They are deep!bodied and compressed% resembling a seagoing pancake up to 2= centimeters :$, inches; in length% with large and sharp dorsal spines. Avoid them all% as many have poisonous "lesh. !(<. Although most people avoid them because o" their "erocity% they occasionally eat barracuda :Sphyraena %arrac&da;. These predators o" mostly tropical seas can reach almost ./ meters :/ "eet; in length and have attacked humans without provocation. They occasionally carry the poison ciguatera in their "lesh% making them deadly i" consumed.

!,=. The blue!ringed octopus% +elly"ish% and the cone and auger shells are other dangerous sea creatures. There"ore% you should always be alert and move care"ully in any body o" water. !, . >ost octopi are e#cellent when properly prepared. Dowever% the blue!ringed octopus :,apalochlaena l&n&lata ; can in"lict a deadly bite "rom its parrotlike beak. .ortunately% it is restricted to the )reat 8arrier Ree" o" Australia and is very small. It is easily recogni4ed by its grayish white overall color and irridescent blue rings. Authorities warn that all tropical octopus species should be treated with caution because o" their poisonous bites% although their "lesh is edible. !,$. &eaths related to +elly"ish are rare% but the sting they in"lict is e#tremely pain"ul. The 0ortuguese man!o"!war resembles a large pink or purple balloon "loating on the sea. It has poisonous tentacles hanging up to $ meters :,= "eet; below its body. The huge tentacles are actually colonies o" stinging cells. >ost known deaths "rom +elly"ish are attributed to the man!o"!war. ?ther +elly"ish can in"lict very pain"ul stings as well. Avoid the long tentacles o" any +elly"ish% even those washed up on the beach and apparently dead. !,(. The subtropical and tropical cone shells :Conidae species; have a venomous harpoonlike barb. All have a "ine netlike pattern on the shell. A membrane may possibly obscure this coloration. There are some very poisonous cone shells% even some lethal ones in the Indian and 0aci"ic oceans. Avoid any shell shaped like an ice cream cone. !,,. The auger shell or terebra :$ere%ridae species; are much longer and thinner than the cone shells% but can be nearly as deadly. They are "ound in temperate and tropical seas. Those in the Indian and 0aci"ic oceans have a more to#ic venom in their stinging barb. &o not eat these snails% as their "lesh may be poisonous.

Chapter 10

,ie d8!Bpedient )eapons% Too s% and !"uip#ent
As a soldier% you know the importance o" proper care and use o" your weapons% tools% and e1uipment. This is especially true o" your kni"e. 'ou must always keep it sharp and ready to use. A kni"e is your most valuable tool in a survival situation. Imagine being in a survival situation without any weapons% tools% or e1uipment e#cept your kni"e. It could happenG 'ou might even be without a kni"e. 'ou would probably "eel helpless% but with the proper knowledge and skills% you can easily improvise needed items. In survival situations% you may have to "ashion any number and type o" "ield! e#pedient tools and e1uipment to survive. The need "or an item must outweigh the work involved in making it. 'ou should ask% @Is it necessary or +ust nice to haveB@ Remember that undue haste makes waste. *#amples o" tools and e1uipment that could make your li"e much easier are ropes :Appendi# );% rucksacks% clothes% and nets. Aeapons serve a dual purpose. 'ou use them to obtain and prepare "ood and to provide sel"!de"ense. A weapon can also give you a "eeling o" security and provide you with the ability to hunt on the move.

$! . A sta"" should be one o" the "irst tools you obtain. .or walking% it provides support and helps in ascending and descending steep slopes. It provides some weapon7s capabilities i" used properly% especially against snakes and dogs. It should be appro#imately the same height as you or at least eyebrow height. The sta"" should be no larger than you can e""ectively wield when tired and undernourished. It provides invaluable eye protection when you are moving through heavy brush and thorns in darkness.

$!$. 'ou hold clubsE you do not throw them. Dowever% the club can e#tend your area o" de"ense beyond your "ingertips. It also serves to increase the "orce o" a blow without in+uring yoursel". The three basic types o" clubs are e#plained below.

SI'PL! CLU. $!(. A simple club is a sta"" or branch. It must be short enough "or you to swing easily% but long enough and strong enough "or you to damage whatever you hit. Its diameter should "it com"ortably in your palm% but it should not be so thin as to allow the club to break easily upon impact. A straight!grained hardwood is best i" you can "ind it. )!I5&T!2 CLU. $!,. A weighted club is any simple club with a weight on one end. The weight may be a natural weight% such as a knot on the wood% or something added% such as a stone lashed to the club. $!/. To make a weighted club% "irst "ind a stone that has a shape that will allow you to lash it securely to the club. A stone with a slight hourglass shape works well. I" you cannot "ind a suitably shaped stone% then "ashion a groove or channel into the stone by @pecking%@ repeatedly rapping the club stone with a smaller hard stone. $!2. 3e#t% "ind a piece o" wood that is the right length "or you. A straight!grained hardwood is best. The length o" the wood should "eel com"ortable in relation to the weight o" the stone. .inally% lash the stone to the handle using a techni1ue shown in .igure $! . The techni1ue you use will depend on the type o" handle you choose.

,igure 10819 Lashing C u*s SLIN5 CLU. $!6. A sling club is another type o" weighted club. A weight hangs 9 to = centimeters :( to , inches; "rom the handle by a strong% "le#ible lashing :.igure $!$;. This type o" club both e#tends the user7s reach and multiplies the "orce o" the blow.

,igure 10809 S ing C u*

!25!2 )!APONS
$!9. Cnives% spear blades% and arrow points "all under the category o" edged weapons. The "ollowing paragraphs e#plain how to make such weapons. 1NIV!S $!<. A kni"e has three basic "unctions. It can puncture% slash or chop% and cut. A kni"e is also an invaluable tool used to construct other survival items. 'ou may "ind yoursel" without a kni"e or you may need another type kni"e or a spear. To improvise you can use stone% bone% wood% or metal to make a kni"e or spear blade. Stone $! =. To make a stone kni"e% you will need a sharp!edged piece o" stone% a chipping tool% and a "laking tool. A chipping tool is a light% blunt!edged tool used to break o"" small pieces o" stone. A "laking tool is a pointed tool used to break o"" thin% "lattened pieces o" stone. 'ou can make a chipping tool "rom wood% bone% or metal% and a "laking tool "rom bone% antler tines% or so"t iron :.igure $!(;.

,igure 108<9 'a(ing a Stone 1ni/e $! . Start making the kni"e by roughing out the desired shape on your sharp piece o" stone% using the chipping tool. Try to make the kni"e "airly thin. Then% press the "laking tool against the edges. This action will cause "lakes to come o"" the opposite side o" the edge% leaving a ra4or!sharp edge. Use the "laking tool along the entire length o" the edge you need to sharpen. *ventually% you will have a very% sharp cutting edge that you can use as a kni"e. $! $. Lash the blade to some type o" hilt :.igure $!(;. NOT!; Stone will make an e#cellent puncturing tool and a good chopping tool but will not hold a "ine edge. Some stones such as chert or "lint can have very "ine edges. .one $! (. 'ou can also use bone as an e""ective "ield!e#pedient edged weapon. .irst% you will need to select a suitable bone. The larger bones% such as the leg bone o" a deer or another medium!si4ed animal% are best. Lay the bone upon another hard ob+ect. Shatter the bone by hitting it with a heavy ob+ect% such as a rock. .rom the pieces% select a suitable pointed

splinter. 'ou can "urther shape and sharpen this splinter by rubbing it on a rough!sur"aced rock. I" the piece is too small to handle% you can still use it by adding a handle to it. Select a suitable piece o" hardwood "or a handle and lash the bone splinter securely to it. NOT!; Use the bone kni"e only to puncture. It will not hold an edge and it may "lake or break i" used di""erently. )ood $! ,. 'ou can make "ield!e#pedient edged weapons "rom wood. Use these only to puncture. 8amboo is the only wood that will hold a suitable edge. To make a kni"e "rom wood% "irst select a straight!grained piece o" hardwood that is about (= centimeters : $ inches; long and $./ centimeters : inch; in diameter. .ashion the blade about / centimeters :2 inches; long. Shave it down to a point. Use only the straight!grained portions o" the wood. &o not use the core or pith% as it would make a weak point. $! /. Darden the point by a process known as "ire hardening. I" a "ire is possible% dry the blade portion over the "ire slowly until lightly charred. The drier the wood% the harder the point. A"ter lightly charring the blade portion% sharpen it on a coarse stone. I" using bamboo and a"ter "ashioning the blade% remove any other wood to make the blade thinner "rom the inside portion o" the bamboo. Removal is done this way because bamboo7s hardest part is its outer layer. Ceep as much o" this layer as possible to ensure the hardest blade possible. Ahen charring bamboo over a "ire% char only the inside woodE do not char the outside. 'eta $! 2. >etal is the best material to make "ield!e#pedient edged weapons. >etal% when properly designed% can "ul"ill a kni"e7s three uses5puncture% slice or chop% and cut. .irst% select a suitable piece o" metal% one that most resembles the desired end product. &epending on the si4e and original shape% you can obtain a point and cutting edge by rubbing the metal on a rough!sur"aced stone. I" the metal is so"t enough% you can hammer out one edge while the metal is cold. Use a suitable "lat% hard sur"ace as an anvil and a smaller% harder ob+ect o" stone or metal as a hammer to hammer out the edge. >ake a kni"e handle "rom wood% bone% or other material that will protect your hand. Other 'ateria s $! 6. 'ou can use other materials to produce edged weapons. )lass is a good alternative to an edged weapon or tool% i" no other material is available. ?btain a suitable piece in the same manner as described "or bone. )lass has a natural edge but is less durable "or heavy work. 'ou can also sharpen plastic5i" it is thick enough or hard enough5into a durable point "or puncturing.

SP!AR .LA2!S $! 9. To make spears% use the same procedures to make the blade that you used to make a kni"e blade. Then select a sha"t :a straight sapling; .$ to ./ meters :, to / "eet; long. The length should allow you to handle the spear easily and e""ectively. Attach the spear blade to the sha"t using lashing. The pre"erred method is to split the handle% insert the blade% then wrap or lash it tightly. 'ou can use other materials without adding a blade. Select a .$! to ./!meter :,! to /!"oot; long straight hardwood sha"t and shave one end to a point. I" possible% "ire!harden the point. 8amboo also makes an e#cellent spear. Select a piece .$ to ./ meters :, to / "eet; long. Starting 9 to = centimeters :( to , inches; back "rom the end used as the point% shave down the end at a ,/!degree angle :.igure $!,;. Remember% to sharpen the edges% shave only the inner portion.

,igure 10879 .a#*oo Spear ARRO) POINTS $! <. To make an arrow point% use the same procedures "or making a stone kni"e blade. -hert% "lint% and shell!type stones are best "or arrow points. 'ou can "ashion bone like stone5 by "laking. 'ou can make an e""icient arrow point using broken glass.

$!$=. 'ou can make other "ield!e#pedient weapons such as the throwing stick% archery e1uipment% and the bola. The "ollowing paragraphs e#plain how to make these. T&RO)IN5 STIC1 $!$ . The throwing stick% commonly known as the rabbit stick% is very e""ective against small game :s1uirrels% chipmunks% and rabbits;. The rabbit stick itsel" is a blunt stick% naturally curved at about a ,/!degree angle. Select a stick with the desired angle "rom heavy hardwood such as oak. Shave o"" two opposite sides so that the stick is "lat like a boomerang :.igure $! /;. 'ou must practice the throwing techni1ue "or accuracy and speed. .irst% align the target by e#tending the nonthrowing arm in line with the mid! to lower!section o" the target. Slowly

and repeatedly raise the throwing arm up and back until the throwing stick crosses the back at about a ,/!degree angle or is in line with the nonthrowing hip. 8ring the throwing arm "orward until it is +ust slightly above and parallel to the nonthrowing arm. This will be the throwing stick7s release point. 0ractice slowly and repeatedly to attain accuracy.

,igure 108=9 Ra**it Stic( ARC&!R$ !6UIP'!NT $!$$. 'ou can make a bow and arrow :.igure $!2; "rom materials available in your survival area. To make a bow% use the procedure described in paragraphs 9!/( through 9!/2 in -hapter 9.

,igure 108>9 Archery !"uip#ent $!$(. Ahile it may be relatively simple to make a bow and arrow% it is not easy to use one. 'ou must practice using it a long time to be reasonably sure that you will hit your target. Also% a "ield!e#pedient bow will not last very long be"ore you have to make a new one. .or the time and e""ort involved% you may well decide to use another type o" "ield!e#pedient weapon. .OLA $!$,. The bola is another "ield!e#pedient weapon that is easy to make :.igure $!6;. It is especially e""ective "or capturing running game or low!"lying "owl in a "lock. To use the bola%

hold it by the center knot and twirl it above your head. Release the knot so that the bola "lies toward your target. Ahen you release the bola% the weighted cords will separate. These cords will wrap around and immobili4e the "owl or animal that you hit.

,igure 108@9 .o a

$!$/. >any materials are strong enough "or use as cordage and lashing. A number o" natural and man!made materials are available in a survival situation. .or e#ample% you can make a cotton web belt much more use"ul by unraveling it. 'ou can then use the string "or other purposes :"ishing line% thread "or sewing% and lashing;. NATURAL COR2A5! S!L!CTION $!$2. 8e"ore making cordage% there are a "ew simple tests you can do to determine you material7s suitability. .irst% pull on a length o" the material to test "or strength. 3e#t% twist it between your "ingers and roll the "ibers together. I" it withstands this handling and does not snap apart% tie an overhand knot with the "ibers and gently tighten. I" the knot does not break% the material is usable. .igure $!9 shows various methods o" making cordage.

,igure 108C9 'a(ing Lines ,ro# P ant ,i*ers

LAS&IN5 'AT!RIAL $!$6. The best natural material "or lashing small ob+ects is sinew. 'ou can make sinew "rom the tendons o" large game% such as deer. Remove the tendons "rom the game and dry them completely. Smash the dried tendons so that they separate into "ibers. >oisten the "ibers and twist them into a continuous strand. I" you need stronger lashing material% you can braid the strands. Ahen you use sinew "or small lashings% you do not need knots as the moistened sinew is sticky and it hardens when dry. $!$9. 'ou can shred and braid plant "ibers "rom the inner bark o" some trees to make cord. 'ou can use the linden% elm% hickory% white oak% mulberry% chestnut% and red and white cedar trees. A"ter you make the cord% test it to be sure it is strong enough "or your purpose. 'ou can make these materials stronger by braiding several strands together. $!$<. 'ou can use rawhide "or larger lashing +obs. >ake rawhide "rom the skins o" medium or large game. A"ter skinning the animal% remove any e#cess "at and any pieces o" meat "rom the skin. &ry the skin completely. 'ou do not need to stretch it as long as there are no "olds to trap moisture. 'ou do not have to remove the hair "rom the skin. -ut the skin while it is dry. >ake cuts about 2 millimeters : K, inch; wide. Start "rom the center o" the hide and make one continuous circular cut% working clockwise to the hide7s outer edge. Soak the rawhide "or $ to , hours or until it is so"t. Use it wet% stretching it as much as possible while applying it. It will be strong and durable when it dries.

$!(=. The materials "or constructing a rucksack or pack are almost limitless. 'ou can use wood% bamboo% rope% plant "iber% clothing% animal skins% canvas% and many other materials to make a pack. $!( . There are several construction techni1ues "or rucksacks. >any are very elaborate% but those that are simple and easy are o"ten the most readily made in a survival situation. &ORS!S&O! PAC1 $!($. This pack is simple to make and use and relatively com"ortable to carry over one shoulder. Lay available s1uare!shaped material% such as poncho% blanket% or canvas% "lat on the ground. Lay items on one edge o" the material. 0ad the hard items. Roll the material :with the items; toward the opposite edge and tie both ends securely. Add e#tra ties along the length o" the bundle. 'ou can drape the pack over one shoulder with a line connecting the two ends :.igure $!<;.

,igure 108D9 &orseshoe Pac( S6UAR! PAC1 $!((. This pack is easy to construct i" rope or cordage is available. ?therwise% you must "irst make cordage. To make this pack% construct a s1uare "rame "rom bamboo% limbs% or sticks. Si4e will vary "or each person and the amount o" e1uipment carried :.igure $! =;.

,igure 1081?9 S"uare Pac(

$!(,. 'ou can use many materials "or clothing and insulation. 8oth man!made materials% such as parachutes% and natural materials% such as skins and plant materials% are available and o""er signi"icant protection. PARAC&UT! ASS!'.L$

$!(/. -onsider the entire parachute assembly as a resource. Use every piece o" material and hardware% to include the canopy% suspension lines% connector snaps% and parachute harness. 8e"ore disassembling the parachute% consider all o" your survival re1uirements and plan to use di""erent portions o" the parachute accordingly. .or e#ample% consider shelter re1uirements% need "or a rucksack% and any additional clothing or insulation needs. ANI'AL S1INS $!(2. The selection o" animal skins in a survival situation will most o"ten be limited to what you manage to trap or hunt. Dowever% i" there is an abundance o" wildli"e% select the hides o" larger animals with heavier coats and large "at content. &o not use the skins o" in"ected or diseased animals i" possible. Since they live in the wild% animals are carriers o" pests such as ticks% lice% and "leas. 8ecause o" these pests% use water to thoroughly clean any skin obtained "rom any animal. I" water is not available% at least shake out the skin thoroughly. As with rawhide% lay out the skin and remove all "at and meat. &ry the skin completely. Use the hind1uarter +oint areas to make shoes% mittens% or socks. Aear the hide with the "ur to the inside "or its insulating "actor. PLANT ,I.!RS $!(6. Several plants are sources o" insulation "rom cold. -attail is a marshland plant "ound along lakes% ponds% and the backwaters o" rivers. The "u44 on the tops o" the stalks "orms dead air spaces and makes a good down!like insulation when placed between two pieces o" material. >ilkweed has pollenlike seeds that act as good insulation. The husk "ibers "rom coconuts are very good "or weaving ropes and% when dried% make e#cellent tinder and insulation.

$!(9. 'ou can use many materials to make e1uipment "or the cooking% eating% and storing o" "ood. Usually all materials can serve some type o" purpose when in a survival situation. .o+ s $!(<. Use wood% bone% horn% bark% or other similar material to make bowls. To make wooden bowls% use a hollowed out piece o" wood that will hold your "ood and enough water to cook it in. Dang the wooden container over the "ire and add hot rocks to the water and "ood. Remove the rocks as they cool and add more hot rocks until your "ood is cooked.


&o not use rocks with air pockets such as limestone and sandstone. They may explode while heating in the fire.
$!,=. 'ou can also use this method with containers made o" bark or leaves. Dowever% these containers will burn above the waterline unless you keep them moist or keep the "ire low. $!, . A section o" bamboo also works very well "or cooking. 8e sure you cut out a section between two sealed +oints :.igure $! ;.

,igure 108119 Containers /or .oi ing ,ood

CAUTION A sealed section of bamboo will explode if heated because of trapped air and water in the section.
,OR1S% 1NIV!S% AN2 SPOONS $!,$. -arve "orks% knives% and spoons "rom nonresinous woods so that you do not get a wood resin a"tertaste or do not taint the "ood. 3onresinous woods include oak% birch% and other hardwood trees. NOT!; &o not use those trees that secrete a syrup or resinlike li1uid on the bark or when cut. POTS

$!,(. 'ou can make pots "rom turtle shells or wood. As described with bowls% using hot rocks in a hollowed out piece o" wood is very e""ective. 8amboo is the best wood "or making cooking containers. $!,,. To use turtle shells% "irst thoroughly boil the upper portion o" the shell. Then use it to heat "ood and water over a "lame :.igure $! ;. )AT!R .OTTL!S $!,/. >ake water bottles "rom the stomachs o" larger animals. Thoroughly "lush the stomach out with water% then tie o"" the bottom. Leave the top open% with some means o" "astening it closed.

Chapter 1<

2esert Sur-i-a
To survive and evade in arid or desert areas% you must understand and prepare "or the environment you will "ace. 'ou must determine your e1uipment needs% the tactics you will use% and how the environment will a""ect you and your tactics. 'our survival will depend upon your knowledge o" the terrain% basic climatic elements% your ability to cope with these elements% and your will to survive.

(! . >ost arid areas have several types o" terrain. The "ive basic desert terrain types are5
    

>ountainous :high altitude;. Rocky plateau. Sand dunes. Salt marshes. 8roken% dissected terrain :@gebel@ or @wadi@;.

(!$. &esert terrain makes movement di""icult and demanding. Land navigation will be e#tremely di""icult as there may be very "ew landmarks. -over and concealment may be very limitedE there"ore% the threat o" e#posure to the enemy remains constant. 'OUNTAIN 2!S!RTS (!(. Scattered ranges or areas o" barren hills or mountains separated by dry% "lat basins characteri4e mountain deserts. Digh ground may rise gradually or abruptly "rom "lat areas to several thousand meters above sea level. >ost o" the in"re1uent rain"all occurs on high ground and runs o"" rapidly in the "orm o" "lash "loods. These "loodwaters erode deep gullies and ravines and deposit sand and gravel around the edges o" the basins. Aater rapidly evaporates% leaving the land as barren as be"ore% although there may be short!lived vegetation. I" enough water enters the basin to compensate "or the rate o" evaporation% shallow lakes may develop% such as the )reat Salt Lake in Utah or the &ead Sea. >ost o" these lakes have a high salt content. ROC1$ PLAT!AU 2!S!RTS (!,. Rocky plateau deserts have relatively slight relie" interspersed with e#tensive "lat areas with 1uantities o" solid or broken rock at or near the sur"ace. There may be steep!walled% eroded valleys% known as wadis in the >iddle *ast and arroyos or canyons in the United States and >e#ico. Although their "lat bottoms may be super"icially attractive as assembly areas% the narrower valleys can be e#tremely dangerous to men and material due to "lash "looding a"ter rains. The )olan Deights is an e#ample o" a rocky plateau desert. SAN2$ OR 2UN! 2!S!RTS (!/. Sandy or dune deserts are e#tensive "lat areas covered with sand or gravel. is a relative term% as some areas may contain sand dunes that are over (== meters : %=== "eet; high and 2 to $, kilometers : = to / miles; long. Tra""icability in such terrain will depend on the windward or leeward slope o" the dunes and the te#ture o" the sand. Dowever% other areas may be "lat "or (%=== meters : =%=== "eet; and more. 0lant li"e may vary "rom none to scrub over $ meters :6 "eet; high. *#amples o" this type o" desert include the edges o" the Sahara% the empty 1uarter o" the Arabian &esert% areas o" -ali"ornia and 3ew >e#ico% and the Calahari in South A"rica. SALT 'ARS&!S (!2. Salt marshes are "lat% desolate areas% sometimes studded with clumps o" grass but devoid o" other vegetation. They occur in arid areas where rainwater has collected% evaporated% and le"t large deposits o" alkali salts and water with a high salt concentration.

The water is so salty it is undrinkable. A crust that may be $./ to (= centimeters : to $ inches; thick "orms over the saltwater. (!6. In arid areas% there are salt marshes hundreds o" kilometers s1uare. These areas usually support many insects% most o" which bite. Avoid salt marshes. This type o" terrain is highly corrosive to boots% clothing% and skin. A good e#ample is the Shatt al Arab waterway along the Iran!Ira1 border. .RO1!N T!RRAIN (!9. All arid areas contain broken or highly dissected terrain. Rainstorms that erode so"t sand and carve out canyons "orm this terrain. A wadi may range "rom ( meters : = "eet; wide and $ meters :6 "eet; deep to several hundred meters wide and deep. The direction it takes varies as much as its width and depth. It twists and turns and "orms a ma4elike pattern. A wadi will give you good cover and concealment% but do not try to move through it because it is very di""icult terrain to negotiate.

(!<. Surviving and evading the enemy in an arid area depends on what you know and how prepared you are "or the environmental conditions you will "ace. &etermine what e1uipment you will need% the tactics you will use% and the environment7s impact on them and you. (! =. In a desert area there are seven environmental "actors that you must consider5
      

Low rain"all. Intense sunlight and heat. Aide temperature range. Sparse vegetation. Digh mineral content near ground sur"ace. Sandstorms. >irages.

LO) RAIN,ALL (! . Low rain"all is the most obvious environmental "actor in an arid area. Some desert areas receive less than = centimeters :, inches; o" rain annually% and this rain comes in brie" torrents that 1uickly run o"" the ground sur"ace. 'ou cannot survive long without water in

high desert temperatures. In a desert survival situation% you must "irst consider the amount o" water you have and other water sources. INT!NS! SUNLI5&T AN2 &!AT (! $. Intense sunlight and heat are present in all arid areas. Air temperature can rise as high as 2= degrees - : ,= degrees .; during the day. Deat gain results "rom direct sunlight% hot blowing sand!laden winds% re"lective heat :the sun7s rays bouncing o"" the sand;% and conductive heat "rom direct contact with the desert sand and rock :.igure (! ;.

,igure 1<819 Types o/ &eat 5ain (! (. The temperature o" desert sand and rock typically range "rom 2 to $$ degrees - :(= to ,= degrees .; more than that o" the air. .or instance% when the air temperature is ,( degrees - : = degrees .;% the sand temperature may be 2= degrees - : ,= degrees .;. (! ,. Intense sunlight and heat increase the body7s need "or water. To conserve your body "luids and energy% you will need a shelter to reduce your e#posure to the heat o" the day. Travel at night to lessen your use o" water. (! /. Radios and sensitive items o" e1uipment e#posed to direct intense sunlight will mal"unction.

)I2! T!'P!RATUR! RAN5! (! 2. Temperatures in arid areas may get as high as // degrees - : (= degrees .; during the day and as low as = degrees - :/= degrees .; during the night. The drop in temperature at night occurs rapidly and will chill a person who lacks warm clothing and is unable to move about. The cool evenings and nights are the best times to work or travel. I" your plan is to rest at night% you will "ind a wool sweater% long underwear% and a wool stocking cap e#tremely help"ul. SPARS! V!5!TATION (! 6. Vegetation is sparse in arid areas. 'ou will there"ore have trouble "inding shelter and camou"laging your movements. &uring daylight hours% large areas o" terrain are visible and easily controlled by a small opposing "orce. (! 9. I" traveling in hostile territory% "ollow the principles o" desert camou"lageF Dide or seek shelter in dry washes :wadis; with thicker growths o" vegetation and cover "rom obli1ue observation.  Use the shadows cast "rom brush% rocks% or outcroppings. The temperature in shaded areas will be to 6 degrees - :/$ to 2( degrees .; cooler than the air temperature.
 

-over ob+ects that will re"lect the light "rom the sun.

(! <. 8e"ore moving% survey the area "or sites that provide cover and concealment. 'ou will have trouble estimating distance. The emptiness o" desert terrain causes most people to underestimate distance by a "actor o" threeF Ahat appears to be kilometer : K$ mile; away is really ( kilometers : (K, miles; away. &I5& 'IN!RAL CONT!NT (!$=. All arid regions have areas where the sur"ace soil has a high mineral content :bora#% salt% alkali% and lime;. >aterial in contact with this soil wears out 1uickly% and water in these areas is e#tremely hard and undrinkable. Aetting your uni"orm in such water to cool o"" may cause a skin rash. The )reat Salt Lake area in Utah is an e#ample o" this type o" mineral! laden water and soil. There is little or no plant li"eE there"ore% shelter is hard to "ind. Avoid these areas i" possible. SAN2STOR'S

(!$ . Sandstorms :sand!laden winds; occur "re1uently in most deserts. The Seistan desert wind in Iran and A"ghanistan blows constantly "or up to $= days. Aithin Saudi Arabia% winds typically range "rom (.$ to ,.9 kilometers per hour :kph; :$ to ( miles per hour ImphJ; and can reach $ to $9 kph :26 to 66 mph; in early a"ternoon. *#pect ma+or sandstorms and dust storms at least once a week. (!$$. The greatest danger is getting lost in a swirling wall o" sand. Aear goggles and cover your mouth and nose with cloth. I" natural shelter is unavailable% mark your direction o" travel% lie down% and sit out the storm. (!$(. &ust and wind!blown sand inter"ere with radio transmissions. There"ore% be ready to use other means "or signaling% such as pyrotechnics% signal mirrors% or marker panels% i" available. 'IRA5!S (!$,. >irages are optical phenomena caused by the re"raction o" light through heated air rising "rom a sandy or stony sur"ace. They occur in the interior o" the desert about = kilometers :2 miles; "rom the coast. They make ob+ects that are ./ kilometers : mile; or more away appear to move. (!$/. This mirage e""ect makes it di""icult "or you to identi"y an ob+ect "rom a distance. It also blurs distant range contours so much that you "eel surrounded by a sheet o" water "rom which elevations stand out as @islands.@ (!$2. The mirage e""ect makes it hard "or a person to identi"y targets% estimate range% and see ob+ects clearly. Dowever% i" you can get to high ground :( meters I = "eetJ or more above the desert "loor;% you can get above the superheated air close to the ground and overcome the mirage e""ect. >irages make land navigation di""icult because they obscure natural "eatures. 'ou can survey the area at dawn% dusk% or by moonlight when there is little likelihood o" mirage. (!$6. Light levels in desert areas are more intense than in other geographic areas. >oonlit nights are usually crystal clear% winds die down% ha4e and glare disappear% and visibility is e#cellent. 'ou can see lights% red "lashlights% and blackout lights at great distances. Sound carries very "ar. (!$9. -onversely% during nights with little moonlight% visibility is e#tremely poor. Traveling is e#tremely ha4ardous. 'ou must avoid getting lost% "alling into ravines% or stumbling into enemy positions. >ovement during such a night is practical only i" you have a compass and have spent the day resting% observing% and memori4ing the terrain% and selecting your route.

N!!2 ,OR )AT!R
(!$<. The sub+ect o" man and water in the desert has generated considerable interest and con"usion since the early days o" Aorld Aar II when the U.S. Army was preparing to "ight in 3orth A"rica. At one time% the U.S. Army thought it could condition men to do with less water by progressively reducing their water supplies during training. They called it water discipline. It caused hundreds o" heat casualties. (!(=. A key "actor in desert survival is understanding the relationship between physical activity% air temperature% and water consumption. The body re1uires a certain amount o" water "or a certain level o" activity at a certain temperature. .or e#ample% a person per"orming hard work in the sun at ,( degrees - : =< degrees .; re1uires < liters :/ gallons; o" water daily. Lack o" the re1uired amount o" water causes a rapid decline in an individual7s ability to make decisions and to per"orm tasks e""iciently. (!( . 'our body7s normal temperature is (2.< degrees - :<9.2 degrees .;. 'our body gets rid o" e#cess heat :cools o""; by sweating. The warmer your body becomes5whether caused by work% e#ercise% or air temperature5the more you sweat. The more you sweat% the more moisture you lose. Sweating is the principal cause o" water loss. I" you stop sweating during periods o" high air temperature and heavy work or e#ercise% you will 1uickly develop heat stroke. This is an emergency that re1uires immediate medical attention. (!($. .igure (!$ shows daily water re1uirements "or various levels o" work. Understanding how the air temperature and your physical activity a""ect your water re1uirements allows you to take measures to get the most "rom your water supply. These measures are5
   

.ind shadeG )et out o" the sunG 0lace something between you and the hot ground. Limit your movementsG -onserve your sweat. Aear your complete uni"orm to include T!shirt. Roll the sleeves down% cover your head% and protect your neck with a scar" or similar item. These steps will protect your body "rom hot!blowing winds and the direct rays o" the sun. 'our clothing will absorb your sweat% keeping it against your skin so that you gain its "ull cooling e""ect. 8y staying in the shade 1uietly% "ully clothed% not talking% keeping your mouth closed% and breathing through your nose% your water re1uirement "or survival drops dramatically. I" water is scarce% do not eat. .ood re1uires water "or digestionE there"ore% eating "ood will use water that you need "or cooling.

,igure 1<809 2ai y )ater Re"uire#ents /or Three Le-e s o/ Acti-ity (!((. Thirst is not a reliable guide "or your need "or water. A person who uses thirst as a guide will drink only two!thirds o" his daily water re1uirement. To prevent this @voluntary@ dehydration% use the "ollowing guideF At temperatures below (9 degrees - : == degrees .;% drink =./ liter o" water every hour.  At temperatures above (9 degrees - : == degrees .;% drink liter o" water every hour.

(!(,. &rinking water at regular intervals helps your body remain cool and decreases sweating. *ven when your water supply is low% sipping water constantly will keep your body cooler and reduce water loss through sweating. -onserve your "luids by reducing activity during the heat o" day. 2o not ration your waterG I" you try to ration water% you stand a good chance o" becoming a heat casualty.

(!(/. 'our chances o" becoming a heat casualty as a survivor are great% due to in+ury% stress% and lack o" critical items o" e1uipment. .ollowing are the ma+or types o" heat casualties and their treatment when itt e water and no medical help are available. &!AT CRA'PS (!(2. The loss o" salt due to e#cessive sweating causes heat cramps. Symptoms are moderate to severe muscle cramps in legs% arms% or abdomen. These symptoms may start as a mild muscular discom"ort. 'ou should now stop all activity% get in the shade% and drink water. I" you "ail to recogni4e the early symptoms and continue your physical activity% you will have severe muscle cramps and pain. Treat as "or heat e#haustion% below. &!AT !4&AUSTION (!(6. A large loss o" body water and salt causes heat e#haustion. Symptoms are headache% mental con"usion% irritability% e#cessive sweating% weakness% di44iness% cramps% and pale% moist% cold :clammy; skin. Immediately get the patient under shade. >ake him lie on a stretcher or similar item about ,/ centimeters : 9 inches; o"" the ground. Loosen his clothing. Sprinkle him with water and "an him. Dave him drink small amounts o" water every ( minutes. *nsure he stays 1uiet and rests. &!AT STRO1! (!(9. An e#treme loss o" water and salt and your body7s inability to cool itsel" can cause heat stroke. The patient may die i" not cooled immediately. Symptoms are the lack o" sweat% hot and dry skin% headache% di44iness% "ast pulse% nausea and vomiting% and mental con"usion leading to unconsciousness. Immediately get the person to shade. Lay him on a stretcher or similar item about ,/ centimeters : 9 inches; o"" the ground. Loosen his clothing. 0our water on him :it does not matter i" the water is polluted or brackish; and "an him. >assage his arms% legs% and body. I" he regains consciousness% let him drink small amounts o" water every ( minutes.

(!(<. In a desert survival and evasion situation% it is unlikely that you will have a medic or medical supplies with you to treat heat in+uries. There"ore% take e#tra care to avoid heat in+uries. Rest during the day. Aork during the cool evenings and nights. Use the buddy system to watch "or heat in+ury. ?bserve the "ollowing guidelinesF

>ake sure you tell someone where you are going and when you will return.

Aatch "or signs o" heat in+ury. I" someone complains o" tiredness or wanders away "rom the group% he may be a heat casualty. &rink water at least once an hour. )et in the shade when restingE do not lie directly on the ground. &o not take o"" your shirt and work during the day. -heck the color o" your urine. A light color means you are drinking enough water% a dark color means you need to drink more.

   

(!,=. There are several ha4ards uni1ue to desert survival. These include insects% snakes% thorned plants and cacti% contaminated water% sunburn% eye irritation% and climatic stress. (!, . Insects o" almost every type abound in the desert. >an% as a source o" water and "ood% attracts lice% mites% wasps% and "lies. They are e#tremely unpleasant and may carry diseases. ?ld buildings% ruins% and caves are "avorite habitats o" spiders% scorpions% centipedes% lice% and mites. These areas provide protection "rom the elements and also attract other wildli"e. There"ore% take e#tra care when staying in these areas. Aear gloves at all times in the desert. &o not place your hands anywhere without "irst looking to see what is there. Visually inspect an area be"ore sitting or lying down. Ahen you get up% shake out and inspect your boots and clothing. All desert areas have snakes. They inhabit ruins% native villages% garbage dumps% caves% and natural rock outcroppings that o""er shade. 3ever go bare"oot or walk through these areas without care"ully inspecting them "or snakes. 0ay attention to where you place your "eet and hands. >ost snakebites result "rom stepping on or handling snakes. Avoid them. ?nce you see a snake% give it a wide berth.

Chapter 17

Tropica Sur-i-a
>ost people think o" the tropics as a huge and "orbidding tropical rain "orest through which every step taken must be hacked out% and where every inch o" the way is crawling with danger. Actually% over hal" o" the land in the tropics is cultivated in some way.

A knowledge o" "ield skills% the ability to improvise% and the application o" the principles o" survival will increase the prospects o" survival. &o not be a"raid o" being alone in the +ungleE "ear will lead to panic. 0anic will lead to e#haustion and decrease your chance o" survival. *verything in the +ungle thrives% including disease germs and parasites that breed at an alarming rate. 3ature will provide water% "ood% and plenty o" materials to build shelters. Indigenous peoples have lived "or millennia by hunting and gathering. Dowever% it will take an outsider some time to get used to the conditions and the nonstop activity o" tropical survival.

,! . Digh temperatures% heavy rain"all% and oppressive humidity characteri4e e1uatorial and subtropical regions% e#cept at high altitudes. At low altitudes% temperature variation is seldom less than = degrees - :/= degrees .; and is o"ten more than (/ degrees - :</ degrees .;. At altitudes over %/== meters :,%<$ "eet;% ice o"ten "orms at night. The rain has a cooling e""ect% but when it stops% the temperature soars. ,!$. Rain"all is heavy% o"ten with thunder and lightning. Sudden rain beats on the tree canopy% turning trickles into raging torrents and causing rivers to rise. Must as suddenly% the rain stops. Violent storms may occur% usually toward the end o" the summer months. ,!(. Durricanes% cyclones% and typhoons develop over the sea and rush inland% causing tidal waves and devastation ashore. In choosing campsites% make sure you are above any potential "looding. 0revailing winds vary between winter and summer. The dry season has rain once a day and the monsoon has continuous rain. In Southeast Asia% winds "rom the Indian ?cean bring the monsoon% but the area is dry when the wind blows "rom the landmass o" -hina. ,!,. Tropical day and night are o" e1ual length. &arkness "alls 1uickly and daybreak is +ust as sudden.

:UN5L! T$P!S
,!/. There is no standard +ungle. The tropical area may be any o" the "ollowingF
  

Rain "orests. Secondary +ungles. Semievergreen seasonal and monsoon "orests.

   

Scrub and thorn "orests. Savannas. Saltwater swamps. .reshwater swamps.

TROPICAL RAIN ,OR!STS ,!2. The climate varies little in rain "orests. 'ou "ind these "orests across the e1uator in the Ama4on and -ongo basins% parts o" Indonesia% and several 0aci"ic islands. Up to (./ meters : $ "eet; o" rain "alls throughout the year. Temperatures range "rom about ($ degrees - :<= degrees .; in the day to $ degrees - :6= degrees .; at night. ,!6. There are "ive layers o" vegetation in this +ungle :.igure ,! ;. Ahere untouched by man% +ungle trees rise "rom buttress roots to heights o" 2= meters : <9 "eet;. 8elow them% smaller trees produce a canopy so thick that little light reaches the +ungle "loor. Seedlings struggle beneath them to reach light% and masses o" vines and lianas twine up to the sun. .erns% mosses% and herbaceous plants push through a thick carpet o" leaves% and a great variety o" "ungi grow on leaves and "allen tree trunks.

,igure 17819 ,i-e Layers o/ Tropica Rain ,orest Vegetation ,!9. 8ecause o" the lack o" light on the +ungle "loor% there is little undergrowth to hamper movement% but dense growth limits visibility to about /= meters : 2/ "eet;. 'ou can easily lose your sense o" direction in this +ungle% and it is e#tremely hard "or aircra"t to see you. S!CON2AR$ :UN5L!S ,!<. Secondary +ungle is very similar to rain "orest. 0roli"ic growth% where sunlight penetrates to the +ungle "loor% typi"ies this type o" "orest. Such growth happens mainly along riverbanks% on +ungle "ringes% and where man has cleared rain "orest. Ahen abandoned%

tangled masses o" vegetation 1uickly reclaim these cultivated areas. 'ou can o"ten "ind cultivated "ood plants among this vegetation. S!'I!V!R5R!!N S!ASONAL AN2 'ONSOON ,OR!STS ,! =. The characteristics o" the American and A"rican semievergreen seasonal "orests correspond with those o" the Asian monsoon "orests. The characteristics are as "ollowsF Their trees "all into two stories o" tree strata. Those in the upper story range "rom 9 to $, meters :2= to 6< "eet;E those in the lower story range "rom 6 to ( meters :$( to ,( "eet;.  The diameter o" the trees averages =./ meter :$ "eet;.
 

Their leaves "all during a seasonal drought.

,! . *#cept "or the sago% nipa% and coconut palms% the same edible plants grow in these areas as in the tropical rain "orests. ,! $. 'ou "ind these "orests in portions o" -olumbia and Vene4uela and the Ama4on basin in South AmericaE in portions o" southeast coastal Cenya% Tan4ania% and >o4ambi1ue in A"ricaE in 3ortheastern India% much o" 8urma% Thailand% Indochina% Mava% and parts o" other Indonesian islands in Asia. TROPICAL SCRU. AN2 T&ORN ,OR!STS ,! (. The chie" characteristics o" tropical scrub and thorn "orests are as "ollowsF
  

There is a de"inite dry season. Trees are lea"less during the dry season. The ground is bare e#cept "or a "ew tu"ted plants in bunchesE grasses are uncommon. 0lants with thorns predominate. .ires occur "re1uently.

 

,! ,. 'ou "ind tropical scrub and thorn "orests on the west coast o" >e#ico% the 'ucatan peninsula% Vene4uela% and 8ra4ilE on the northwest coast and central parts o" A"ricaE and in Turkestan and India in Asia. ,! /. Aithin the tropical scrub and thorn "orest areas% you will "ind it hard to obtain "ood plants during the dry season. &uring the rainy season% plants are considerably more abundant.

TROPICAL SAVANNAS ,! 2. )eneral characteristics o" the savanna are that it5
   

Is "ound within the tropical 4ones in South America and A"rica. Looks like a broad% grassy meadow% with trees spaced at wide intervals. .re1uently has red soil. )rows scattered trees that usually appear stunted and gnarled like apple trees. 0alms also occur on savannas.

,! 6. 'ou "ind savannas in parts o" Vene4uela% 8ra4il% and the )uianas in South America. In A"rica% you "ind them in the southern Sahara :north!central -ameroon and )abon and southern Sudan;% 8enin% Togo% most o" 3igeria% northeastern Republic o" -ongo% northern Uganda% western Cenya% part o" >alawi% part o" Tan4ania% southern Nimbabwe% >o4ambi1ue% and western >adagascar. SALT)AT!R S)A'PS ,! 9. Saltwater swamps are common in coastal areas sub+ect to tidal "looding. >angrove trees thrive in these swamps. >angrove trees can reach heights o" $ meters :(< "eet;. Their tangled roots are an obstacle to movement. Visibility in this type o" swamp is poor% and movement is e#tremely di""icult. Sometimes% streams that you can ra"t "orm channels% but you usually must travel on "oot through this swamp. ,! <. 'ou "ind saltwater swamps in Aest A"rica% >adagascar% >alaysia% the 0aci"ic islands% -entral and South America% and at the mouth o" the )anges River in India. The swamps at the mouths o" the ?rinoco and Ama4on rivers and rivers o" )uyana consist o" mud and trees that o""er little shade. Tides in saltwater swamps can vary as much as $ meters :( "eet;. ,!$=. *verything in a saltwater swamp may appear hostile to you% "rom leeches and insects to crocodiles and caimans. Avoid the dangerous animals in this swamp. ,!$ . Avoid this swamp altogether i" you can. I" there are water channels through it% you may be able to use a ra"t to escape. ,R!S&)AT!R S)A'PS ,!$$. 'ou "ind "reshwater swamps in low!lying inland areas. Their characteristics are masses o" thorny undergrowth% reeds% grasses% and occasional short palms that reduce visibility and make travel di""icult. There are o"ten islands that dot these swamps% allowing you to get out o" the water. Aildli"e is abundant in these swamps.

,!$(. Aith practice% movement through thick undergrowth and +ungle can be done e""iciently. Always wear long sleeves to avoid cuts and scratches. ,!$,. To move easily% you must develop @+ungle eye%@ that is% you should not concentrate on the pattern o" bushes and trees to your immediate "ront. 'ou must "ocus on the +ungle "urther out and "ind natural breaks in the "oliage. Look thro&gh the +ungle% not at it. Stop and stoop down occasionally to look along the +ungle "loor. This action may reveal game trails that you can "ollow. ,!$/. Stay alert and move slowly and steadily through dense "orest or +ungle. Stop periodically to listen and take your bearings. Use a machete to cut through dense vegetation% but do not cut unnecessarily or you will 1uickly wear yoursel" out. I" using a machete% stroke upward when cutting vines to reduce noise because sound carries long distances in the +ungle. Use a stick to part the vegetation. Using a stick will also help dislodge biting ants% spiders% or snakes. 2o not grasp at brush or vines when climbing slopesE they may have irritating spines or sharp thorns. ,!$2. >any +ungle and "orest animals "ollow game trails. These trails wind and cross% but "re1uently lead to water or clearings. Use these trails i" they lead in your desired direction o" travel. ,!$6. In many countries% electric and telephone lines run "or miles through sparsely inhabited areas. Usually% the right!o"!way is clear enough to allow easy travel. Ahen traveling along these lines% be care"ul as you approach trans"ormer and relay stations. In enemy territory% they may be guarded. ,!$9. >ovement through +ungles or dense vegetation re1uires you to constantly be alert and aware o" your surroundings. The "ollowing travel tips will help you succeedF 0inpoint your initial location as accurately as possible to determine a general line o" travel to sa"ety. I" you do not have a compass% use a "ield!e#pedient direction! "inding method.  Take stock o" water supplies and e1uipment.
 

>ove in one direction% but not necessarily in a straight line. Avoid obstacles. In enemy territory% take advantage o" natural cover and concealment. >ove smoothly through the +ungle. &o not blunder through it since you will get many cuts and scratches. Turn your shoulders% shi"t your hips% bend your body% and shorten or lengthen your stride as necessary to slide between the undergrowth.

,!$<. There is less likelihood o" your rescue "rom beneath a dense +ungle canopy than in other survival situations. 'ou will probably have to travel to reach sa"ety. ,!(=. I" you are the victim o" an aircra"t crash% the most important items to take with you "rom the crash site are a machete% a compass% a "irst aid kit% and a parachute or other material "or use as mos1uito netting and shelter. ,!( . Take shelter "rom tropical rain% sun% and insects. >alaria!carrying mos1uitoes and other insects are immediate dangers% so protect yoursel" against bites. ,!($. &o not leave the crash area without care"ully bla4ing or marking your route. Use your compass. Cnow what direction you are taking. ,!((. In the tropics% even the smallest scratch can 1uickly become dangerously in"ected. 0romptly treat any wound% no matter how minor.

,!(,. Although water is abundant in most tropical environments% you may have trouble "inding it. I" you do "ind water% it may not be sa"e to drink. Some o" the many sources are vines% roots% palm trees% and condensation. 'ou can sometimes "ollow animals to water. ?"ten you can get nearly clear water "rom muddy streams or lakes by digging a hole in sandy soil about meter :( "eet; "rom the bank. Aater will seep into the hole. 'ou must puri"y any water obtained in this manner. ANI'ALS—SI5NS O, )AT!R ,!(/. Animals can o"ten lead you to water. >ost animals re1uire water regularly. )ra4ing animals% such as deer% are usually never "ar "rom water and usually drink at dawn and dusk. -onverging game trails o"ten lead to water. -arnivores :meat eaters; are not reliable indicators o" water. They get moisture "rom the animals they eat and can go without water "or long periods. ,!(2. 8irds can sometimes also lead you to water. )rain eaters% such as "inches and pigeons% are never "ar "rom water. They drink at dawn and dusk. Ahen they "ly straight and low% they are heading "or water. Ahen returning "rom water% they are "ull and will "ly "rom tree to tree% resting "re1uently. &o not rely on water birds to lead you to water. They "ly long distances without stopping. Dawks% eagles% and other birds o" prey get li1uids "rom their victimsE you cannot use them as a water indicator.

,!(6. Insects% especially bees% can be good indicators o" water. 8ees seldom range more than 2 kilometers :, miles; "rom their nests or hives. They will usually have a water source in this range. Ants need water. A column o" ants marching up a tree is going to a small reservoir o" trapped water. 'ou "ind such reservoirs even in arid areas. >ost "lies% especially the *uropean mason "ly% stay within == meters :((= "eet; o" water. This "ly is easily recogni4ed by its iridescent green body. ,!(9. Duman tracks will usually lead to a well% bore hole% or soak. Scrub or rocks may cover it to reduce evaporation. Replace the cover a"ter use. )AT!R—,RO' PLANTS ,!(<. 'ou will encounter many types o" vegetation in a survival situation depending upon your area. 0lants such as vines% roots% and palm trees are good sources o" water. Vines ,!,=. Vines with rough bark and shoots about / centimeters :$ inches; thick can be a use"ul source o" water. 'ou must learn by e#perience which are the water!bearing vines% because not all have drinkable water. Some may even have a poisonous sap. The poisonous ones yield a sticky% milky sap when cut. 3onpoisonous vines will give a clear "luid. Some vines cause a skin irritation on contactE there"ore let the li1uid drip into your mouth% rather than put your mouth to the vine. 0re"erably% use some type o" container. Use the procedure described in -hapter 2 to obtain water "rom a vine. Roots ,!, . In Australia% the water tree% desert oak% and bloodwood have roots near the sur"ace. 0ry these roots out o" the ground and cut them into (=!centimeter : !"oot; lengths. Remove the bark and suck out the moisture% or shave the root to a pulp and s1uee4e it over your mouth. Pa # Trees ,!,$. The buri% coconut% and nipa palms all contain a sugary "luid that is very good to drink. To obtain the li1uid% bend a "lowering stalk o" one o" these palms downward% and cut o"" its tip. I" you cut a thin slice o"" the stalk every $ hours% the "low will renew% making it possible to collect up to a liter per day. 3ipa palm shoots grow "rom the base% so that you can work at ground level. ?n grown trees o" other species% you may have to climb them to reach a "lowering stalk. >ilk "rom coconuts has a large water content% but may contain a strong la#ative in ripe nuts. &rinking too much o" this milk may cause you to lose more "luid than you drink.

)AT!R—,RO' CON2!NSATION ,!,(. ?"ten it re1uires too much e""ort to dig "or roots containing water. It may be easier to let a plant produce water "or you in the "orm o" condensation. Tying a clear plastic bag around a green lea"y branch will cause water in the leaves to evaporate and condense in the bag. 0lacing cut vegetation in a plastic bag will also produce condensation. This is a solar still :-hapter 2;.

,!,,. .ood is usually abundant in a tropical survival situation. To obtain animal "ood% use the procedures outlined in -hapter 9. ,!,/. In addition to animal "ood% you will have to supplement your diet with edible plants. The best places to "orage are the banks o" streams and rivers. Aherever the sun penetrates the +ungle% there will be a mass o" vegetation% but riverbanks may be the most accessible areas. ,!,2. I" you are weak% do not e#pend energy climbing or "elling a tree "or "ood. There are more easily obtained sources o" "ood nearer the ground. &o not pick more "ood than you need. .ood spoils rapidly in tropical conditions. Leave "ood on the growing plant until you need it% and eat it "resh. ,!,6. There are an almost unlimited number o" edible plants "rom which to choose. Unless you can positively identi"y these plants% it may be sa"er at "irst to begin with palms% bamboos% and common "ruits.Appendi# 8 provides detailed descriptions and photographs o" some o" the most common "ood plants located in a tropical 4one.

,!,9. The proportion o" poisonous plants in tropical regions is no greater than in any other area o" the world. Dowever% it may appear that most plants in the tropics are poisonous because o" the great density o" plant growth in some tropical areas :Appendi# -;.

Chapter 1=

Co d )eather Sur-i-a

?ne o" the most di""icult survival situations is a cold weather scenario. Remember% cold weather is an adversary that can be as dangerous as an enemy soldier. *very time you venture into the cold% you are pitting yoursel" against the elements. Aith a little knowledge o" the environment% proper plans% and appropriate e1uipment% you can overcome the elements. As you remove one or more o" these "actors% survival becomes increasingly di""icult. Remember% winter weather is highly variable. 0repare yoursel" to adapt to bli44ard conditions even during sunny and clear weather. -old is a "ar greater threat to survival than it appears. It decreases your ability to think and weakens your will to do anything e#cept to get warm. -old is an insidious enemyE as it numbs the mind and body% it subdues the will to survive. -old makes it very easy to "orget your ultimate goal5to survive.

/! . -old regions include arctic and subarctic areas and areas immediately ad+oining them. 'ou can classi"y about ,9 percent o" the 3orthern Demisphere7s total landmass as a cold region due to the in"luence and e#tent o" air temperatures. ?cean currents a""ect cold weather and cause large areas normally included in the temperate 4one to "all within the cold regions during winter periods. *levation also has a marked e""ect on de"ining cold regions. /!$. Aithin the cold weather regions% you may "ace two types o" cold weather environments 5wet or dry. Cnowing in which environment your area o" operations "alls will a""ect planning and e#ecution o" a cold weather operation. )!T COL2 )!AT&!R !NVIRON'!NTS /!(. Aet cold weather conditions e#ist when the average temperature in a $,!hour period is ! = degrees - : , degrees .; or above. -haracteristics o" this condition are "ree4ing during the colder night hours and thawing during the day. Although the temperatures are warmer during this condition% the terrain is usually very sloppy due to slush and mud. 'ou must concentrate on protecting yoursel" "rom the wet ground and "rom "ree4ing rain or wet snow. 2R$ COL2 )!AT&!R !NVIRON'!NTS /!,. &ry cold weather conditions e#ist when the average temperature in a $,!hour period remains below ! = degrees - : , degrees .;. *ven though the temperatures in this condition are much lower than normal% you do not have to contend with the "ree4ing and thawing. In these conditions% you need more layers o" inner clothing to protect you "rom temperatures as

low as !2= degrees - :!62 degrees .;. *#tremely ha4ardous conditions e#ist when wind and low temperature combine.

/!/. Aindchill increases the ha4ards in cold regions. Aindchill is the e""ect o" moving air on e#posed "lesh. .or instance% with a $6.9!kph : /!knot; wind and a temperature o" ! = degrees - : , degrees .;% the e1uivalent windchill temperature is !$( degrees - :!< degrees .;. .igure /! gives the windchill "actors "or various temperatures and wind speeds.

,igure 1=819 )indchi Ta* e /!2. Remember% even when there is no wind% you will create the e1uivalent wind by skiing% running% being towed on skis behind a vehicle% or working around aircra"t that produce windblasts.

/!6. It is more di""icult "or you to satis"y your basic water% "ood% and shelter needs in a cold environment than in a warm environment. *ven i" you have the basic re1uirements% you must also have ade1uate protective clothing and the will to survive. The will to survive is as

important as the basic needs. There have been incidents when trained and well!e1uipped individuals have not survived cold weather situations because they lacked the will to live. -onversely% this will has sustained individuals less well!trained and e1uipped. /!9. There are many di""erent items o" cold weather e1uipment and clothing issued by the U.S. Army today. Speciali4ed units may have access to newer% lightweight gear such as polypropylene underwear% )ore!Te# outerwear and boots% and other special e1uipment. Dowever% the older gear will keep you warm as long as you apply a "ew cold weather principles. I" the newer types o" clothing are available% use them. I" not% then your clothing should be entirely wool% with the possible e#ception o" a windbreaker. /!<. 'ou must not only have enough clothing to protect you "rom the cold% you must also know how to ma#imi4e the warmth you get "rom it. .or e#ample% always keep your head covered. 'ou can lose ,= to ,/ percent o" body heat "rom an unprotected head and even more "rom the unprotected neck% wrist% and ankles. These areas o" the body are good radiators o" heat and have very little insulating "at. The brain is very susceptible to cold and can stand the least amount o" cooling. 8ecause there is much blood circulation in the head% most o" which is on the sur"ace% you can lose heat 1uickly i" you do not cover your head. /! =. There are "our basic principles to "ollow to keep warm. An easy way to remember these basic principles is to use the word -?L&*R as "ollowsF -!Ceep clothing clean. This principle is always important "or sanitation and com"ort. In winter% it is also important "rom the standpoint o" warmth. -lothes matted with dirt and grease lose much o" their insulation value. Deat can escape more easily "rom the body through the clothing7s crushed or "illed up air pockets.  ?!Avoid overheating. Ahen you get too hot% you sweat and your clothing absorbs the moisture. This a""ects your warmth in two waysF dampness decreases the insulation 1uality o" clothing% and as sweat evaporates% your body cools. Ad+ust your clothing so that you do not sweat. &o this by partially opening your parka or +acket% by removing an inner layer o" clothing% by removing heavy outer mittens% or by throwing back your parka hood or changing to lighter headgear. The head and hands act as e""icient heat dissipaters when overheated.
 

L!Aear your clothing loose and in layers. Aearing tight clothing and "ootgear restricts blood circulation and invites cold in+ury. It also decreases the volume o" air trapped between the layers% reducing its insulating value. Several layers o" lightweight clothing are better than one e1ually thick layer o" clothing% because the layers have dead airspace between them. The dead airspace provides e#tra insulation. Also% layers o" clothing allow you to take o"" or add clothing layers to prevent e#cessive sweating or to increase warmth.

&!Ceep clothing dry. In cold temperatures% your inner layers o" clothing can become wet "rom sweat and your outer layer% i" not water repellent% can become wet "rom snow and "rost melted by body heat. Aear water repellent outer clothing% i" available. It will shed most o" the water collected "rom melting snow and "rost. 8e"ore entering a heated shelter% brush o"" the snow and "rost. &espite the precautions you take% there will be times when you cannot keep "rom getting wet. At such times% drying your clothing may become a ma+or problem. ?n the march% hang your damp mittens and socks on your rucksack. Sometimes in "ree4ing temperatures% the wind and sun will dry this clothing. 'ou can also place damp socks or mittens% un"olded% near your body so that your body heat can dry them. In a campsite% hang damp clothing inside the shelter near the top% using drying lines or improvised racks. 'ou may even be able to dry each item by holding it be"ore an open "ire. &ry leather items slowly. I" no other means are available "or drying your boots% put them between your sleeping bag shell and liner. 'our body heat will help to dry the leather. *!*#amine your uni"orm "or worn areas% tears% and cleanliness. R!Repair your uni"orm early be"ore tears and holes become too large to patch. Improvised sewing kits can be made "rom bones% plant "ibers% //= cord% and large thorns.

 

/! . A heavy% down!lined sleeping bag is a valuable piece o" survival gear in cold weather. *nsure the down remains dry. I" wet% it loses a lot o" its insulation value. I" you do not have a sleeping bag% you can make one out o" parachute cloth or similar material and natural dry material% such as leaves% pine needles% or moss. 0lace the dry material between two layers o" the material. /! $. ?ther important survival items are a kni"eE waterproo" matches in a waterproo" container% pre"erably one with a "lint attachedE a durable compassE mapE watchE waterproo" ground cloth and coverE "lashlightE binocularsE dark glassesE "atty emergency "oodsE "ood gathering gearE and signaling items. /! (. Remember% a cold weather environment can be very harsh. )ive a good deal o" thought to selecting the right e1uipment "or survival in the cold. I" unsure o" an item you have never used% test it in an @overnight backyard@ environment be"ore venturing "urther. ?nce you have selected items that are essential "or your survival% do not lose them a"ter you enter a cold weather environment.


/! ,. Although washing yoursel" may be impractical and uncom"ortable in a cold environment% you must do so. Aashing helps prevent skin rashes that can develop into more serious problems. /! /. In some situations% you may be able to take a snow bath. Take a hand"ul o" snow and wash your body where sweat and moisture accumulate% such as under the arms and between the legs% and then wipe yoursel" dry. I" possible% wash your "eet daily and put on clean% dry socks. -hange your underwear at least twice a week. I" you are unable to wash your underwear% take it o""% shake it% and let it air out "or an hour or two. /! 2. I" you are using a previously used shelter% check your body and clothing "or lice each night. I" your clothing has become in"ested% use insecticide powder i" you have any. ?therwise% hang your clothes in the cold% then beat and brush them. This will help get rid o" the lice% but not the eggs. /! 6. I" you shave% try to do so be"ore going to bed. This will give your skin a chance to recover be"ore e#posing it to the elements.

/! 9. Ahen you are healthy% your inner core temperature :torso temperature; remains almost constant at (6 degrees - :<9.2 degrees .;. Since your limbs and head have less protective body tissue than your torso% their temperatures vary and may not reach core temperature. /! <. 'our body has a control system that lets it react to temperature e#tremes to maintain a temperature balance. There are three main "actors that a""ect this temperature balance5heat production% heat loss% and evaporation. The di""erence between the body7s core temperature and the environment7s temperature governs the heat production rate. 'our body can get rid o" heat better than it can produce it. Sweating helps to control the heat balance. >a#imum sweating will get rid o" heat about as "ast as ma#imum e#ertion produces it. /!$=. Shivering causes the body to produce heat. It also causes "atigue that% in turn% leads to a drop in body temperature. Air movement around your body a""ects heat loss. It has been noted that a naked man e#posed to still air at or about = degrees - :($ degrees .; can maintain a heat balance i" he shivers as hard as he can. Dowever% he can7t shiver "orever. /!$ . It has also been noted that a man at rest wearing the ma#imum arctic clothing in a cold environment can keep his internal heat balance during temperatures well below "ree4ing. Dowever% to withstand really cold conditions "or any length o" time% he will have to become active or shiver.

/!$$. The best way to deal with in+uries and sicknesses is to take measures to prevent them "rom happening in the "irst place. Treat any in+ury or sickness that occurs as soon as possible to prevent it "rom worsening. /!$(. The knowledge o" signs and symptoms and the use o" the buddy system are critical in maintaining health. The "ollowing paragraphs e#plain some cold in+uries that can occur. &$POT&!R'IA /!$,. Dypothermia is the lowering o" the body temperature at a rate "aster than the body can produce heat. -auses o" hypothermia may be general e#posure or the sudden wetting o" the body by "alling into a lake or spraying with "uel or other li1uids. /!$/. The initial symptom is shivering. This shivering may progress to the point that it is uncontrollable and inter"eres with an individual7s ability to care "or himsel". This begins when the body7s core temperature "alls to about (/./ degrees - :<2 degrees .;. Ahen the core temperature reaches (/ to ($ degrees - :</ to <= degrees .;% sluggish thinking% irrational reasoning% and a "alse "eeling o" warmth may occur. -ore temperatures o" ($ to (= degrees :<= to 92 degrees .; and below result in muscle rigidity% unconsciousness% and barely detectable signs o" li"e. I" the victim7s core temperature "alls below $/ degrees - :66 degrees .;% death is almost certain. /!$2. To treat hypothermia% rewarm the entire body. I" there are means available% rewarm the person by "irst immersing the trunk area only in warm water o" (6.6 to ,(.( degrees : == to = degrees .;.

CAUTION 1ewarming the total body in a warm water bath should be done only in a hospital environment because of the increased risk of cardiac arrest and rewarming shock.
/!$6. ?ne o" the 1uickest ways to get heat to the inner core is to give warm water enemas. Dowever% such an action may not be possible in a survival situation. Another method is to wrap the victim in a warmed sleeping bag with another person who is already warmE both should be naked.


The individual placed in the sleeping bag with the victim could also become a hypothermia victim if left in the bag too long.
/!$9. I" the person is conscious% give him hot% sweetened "luids. Doney or de#trose are best% but i" they are unavailable% sugar% cocoa% or a similar soluble sweetener may be used.

CAUTION &o not force an unconscious person to drink.
/!$<. There are two dangers in treating hypothermia5rewarming too rapidly and @a"ter! drop.@ Rewarming too rapidly can cause the victim to have circulatory problems% resulting in heart "ailure. A"ter!drop is the sharp body core temperature drop that occurs when taking the victim "rom the warm water. Its probable cause is the return o" previously stagnant limb blood to the core :inner torso; area as recirculation occurs. -oncentrating on warming the core area and stimulating peripheral circulation will lessen the e""ects o" a"ter!drop. Immersing the torso in a warm bath% i" possible% is the best treatment. ,ROST.IT! /!(=. This in+ury is the result o" "ro4en tissues. Light "rostbite involves only the skin that takes on a dull whitish pallor. &eep "rostbite e#tends to a depth below the skin. The tissues become solid and immovable. 'our "eet% hands% and e#posed "acial areas are particularly vulnerable to "rostbite. /!( . The best "rostbite prevention% when you are with others% is to use the buddy system. -heck your buddy7s "ace o"ten and make sure that he checks yours. I" you are alone% periodically cover your nose and lower part o" your "ace with your mittened hand. /!($. The "ollowing pointers will aid you in keeping warm and preventing "rostbite when it is e#tremely cold or when you have less than ade1uate clothingF
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#ace. >aintain circulation by @making "aces.@ Aarm with your hands. 3ars. Aiggle and move your ears. Aarm with your hands. ,ands. >ove your hands inside your gloves. Aarm by placing your hands close to your body. #eet. >ove your "eet and wiggle your toes inside your boots.

/!((. A loss o" "eeling in your hands and "eet is a sign o" "rostbite. I" you have lost "eeling "or only a short time% the "rostbite is probably light. ?therwise% assume the "rostbite is deep. To rewarm a light "rostbite% use your hands or mittens to warm your "ace and ears. 0lace your hands under your armpits. 0lace your "eet ne#t to your buddy7s stomach. A deep "rostbite in+ury% i" thawed and re"ro4en% will cause more damage than a nonmedically trained person can handle. .igure /!$% lists some @dos and don7ts@ regarding "rostbite.

,igure 1=809 ,rost*ite 2os and 2onGts TR!NC& ,OOT AN2 I''!RSION ,OOT /!(,. These conditions result "rom many hours or days o" e#posure to wet or damp conditions at a temperature +ust above "ree4ing. The symptoms are a sensation o" pins and needles% tingling% numbness% and then pain. The skin will initially appear wet% soggy% white% and shriveled. As it progresses and damage appears% the skin will take on a red and then a bluish or black discoloration. The "eet become cold% swollen% and have a wa#y appearance. Aalking becomes di""icult and the "eet "eel heavy and numb. The nerves and muscles sustain the main damage% but gangrene can occur. In e#treme cases% the "lesh dies and it may become necessary to have the "oot or leg amputated. The best prevention is to keep your "eet dry. -arry e#tra socks with you in a waterproo" packet. 'ou can dry wet socks against your torso :back or chest;. Aash your "eet and put on dry socks daily. 2!&$2RATION /!(/. Ahen bundled up in many layers o" clothing during cold weather% you may be unaware that you are losing body moisture. 'our heavy clothing absorbs the moisture that evaporates in the air. 'ou must drink water to replace this loss o" "luid. 'our need "or water is as great in a cold environment as it is in a warm environment :-hapter (;. ?ne way to tell i" you are becoming dehydrated is to check the color o" your urine on snow. I" your urine makes the snow dark yellow% you are becoming dehydrated and need to replace body "luids. I" it makes the snow light yellow to no color% your body "luids have a more normal balance. COL2 2IUR!SIS

/!(2. *#posure to cold increases urine output. It also decreases body "luids that you must replace. SUN.URN /!(6. *#posed skin can become sunburned even when the air temperature is below "ree4ing. The sun7s rays re"lect at all angles "rom snow% ice% and water% hitting sensitive areas o" skin5 lips% nostrils% and eyelids. *#posure to the sun results in sunburn more 1uickly at high altitudes than at low altitudes. Apply sunburn cream or lip salve to your "ace when in the sun. SNO) .LIN2N!SS /!(9. The re"lection o" the sun7s ultraviolet rays o"" a snow!covered area causes this condition. The symptoms o" snow blindness are a sensation o" grit in the eyes% pain in and over the eyes that increases with eyeball movement% red and teary eyes% and a headache that intensi"ies with continued e#posure to light. 0rolonged e#posure to these rays can result in permanent eye damage. To treat snow blindness% bandage your eyes until the symptoms disappear. /!(<. 'ou can prevent snow blindness by wearing sunglasses. I" you don7t have sunglasses% improvise. -ut slits in a piece o" cardboard% thin wood% tree bark% or other available material :.igure /!(;. 0utting soot under your eyes will help reduce shine and glare.

,igure 1=8<9 I#pro-ised Sung asses CONSTIPATION /!,=. It is very important to relieve yoursel" when needed. &o not delay because o" the cold condition. &elaying relieving yoursel" because o" the cold% eating dehydrated "oods% drinking too little li1uid% and irregular eating habits can cause you to become constipated. Although not disabling% constipation can cause some discom"ort. Increase your "luid intake to at least $ liters above your normal $ to ( liters daily intake and% i" available% eat "ruit and other "oods that will loosen the stool.

INS!CT .IT!S /!, . Insect bites can become in"ected through constant scratching. .lies can carry various disease!producing germs. To prevent insect bites% use insect repellent and netting and wear proper clothing. See-hapter "or in"ormation on insect bites and -hapter , "or treatment.

/!,$. 'our environment and the e1uipment you carry with you will determine the type o" shelter you can build. 'ou can build shelters in wooded areas% open country% and barren areas. Aooded areas usually provide the best location% while barren areas have only snow as building material. Aooded areas provide timber "or shelter construction% wood "or "ire% concealment "rom observation% and protection "rom the wind. NOT!; In e#treme cold% do not use metal% such as an aircra"t "uselage% "or shelter. The metal will conduct away "rom the shelter what little heat you can generate. /!,(. Shelters made "rom ice or snow usually re1uire tools such as ice a#es or saws. 'ou must also e#pend much time and energy to build such a shelter. 8e sure to ventilate an enclosed shelter% especially i" you intend to build a "ire in it. Always block a shelter7s entrance% i" possible% to keep the heat in and the wind out. Use a rucksack or snow block. -onstruct a shelter no larger than needed. This will reduce the amount o" space to heat. A "atal error in cold weather shelter construction is making the shelter so large that it steals body heat rather than helps save it. /!,,. 3ever sleep directly on the ground. Lay down some pine boughs% grass% or other insulating material to keep the ground "rom absorbing your body heat. /!,/. 3ever "all asleep without turning out your stove or lamp. -arbon mono#ide poisoning can result "rom a "ire burning in an unventilated shelter. -arbon mono#ide is a great danger. It is colorless and odorless. Any time you have an open "lame% it may generate carbon mono#ide. Always check your ventilation. *ven in a ventilated shelter% incomplete combustion can cause carbon mono#ide poisoning. Usually% there are no symptoms. Unconsciousness and death can occur without warning. Sometimes% however% pressure at the temples% burning o" the eyes% headache% pounding pulse% drowsiness% or nausea may occur. The one characteristic% visible sign o" carbon mono#ide poisoning is a cherry red coloring in the tissues o" the lips% mouth% and inside o" the eyelids. )et into "resh air at once i" you have any o" these symptoms. /!,2. There are several types o" "ield!e#pedient shelters you can 1uickly build or employ. >any use snow "or insulation.

SNO) CAV! S&!LT!R /!,6. The snow cave shelter :.igure /!,; is a most e""ective dwelling because o" the insulating 1ualities o" snow. Remember that it takes time and energy to build and that you will get wet while building it. .irst% you need to "ind a dri"t about ( meters : = "eet; deep into which you can dig. Ahile building this shelter% keep the roo" arched "or strength and to allow melted snow to drain down the sides. 8uild the sleeping plat"orm higher than the entrance. Separate the sleeping plat"orm "rom the snow cave7s walls or dig a small trench between the plat"orm and the wall. This plat"orm will prevent the melting snow "rom wetting you and your e1uipment. This construction is especially important i" you have a good source o" heat in the snow cave. *nsure the roo" is high enough so that you can sit up on the sleeping plat"orm. 8lock the entrance with a snow block or other material and use the lower entrance area "or cooking. The walls and ceiling should be at least (= centimeters : "oot; thick. Install a ventilation sha"t. I" you do not have a dri"t large enough to build a snow cave% you can make a variation o" it by piling snow into a mound large enough to dig out.

,igure 1=879 Sno+ 2+e ings SNO) TR!NC& S&!LT!R /!,9. The idea behind this shelter :.igure /!,; is to get you below the snow and wind level and use the snow7s insulating 1ualities. I" you are in an area o" compacted snow% cut snow blocks and use them as overhead cover. I" not% you can use a poncho or other material. 8uild only one entrance and use a snow block or rucksack as a door. SNO) .LOC1 AN2 PARAC&UT! S&!LT!R /!,<. Use snow blocks "or the sides and parachute material "or overhead cover :.igure /!,;. I" snow"all is heavy% you will have to clear snow "rom the top at regular intervals to prevent the collapse o" the parachute material. SNO) &OUS! OR I5LOO /!/=. In certain areas% the natives "re1uently use this type o" shelter :.igure /!,; as hunting and "ishing shelters. They are e""icient shelters but re1uire some practice to make them properly. Also% you must be in an area that is suitable "or cutting snow blocks and have the e1uipment to cut them :snow saw or kni"e;. L!AN8TO S&!LT!R /!/ . -onstruct this shelter in the same manner as "or other environments. Dowever% pile snow around the sides "or insulation :.igure /!/;.

,igure 1=8=9 Lean8to 'ade ,ro# Natura She ter ,ALL!N TR!! S&!LT!R

/!/$. To build this shelter% "ind a "allen tree and dig out the snow underneath it :.igure /! 2;. The snow will not be deep under the tree. I" you must remove branches "rom the inside% use them to line the "loor.

,igure 1=8>9 ,a en Tree as She ter TR!!8PIT S&!LT!R /!/(. &ig snow out "rom under a suitable large tree. It will not be as deep near the base o" the tree. Use the cut branches to line the shelter. Use a ground sheet as overhead cover to prevent snow "rom "alling o"" the tree into the shelter. I" built properly% you can have (2=! degree visibility :-hapter /% .igure /! $;. 0?8'AN LI,! RA,T /!/,. This ra"t is the standard overwater ra"t on U.S. Air .orce aircra"t. 'ou can use it as a shelter. &o not let large amounts o" snow build up on the overhead protection. I" placed in an open area% it also serves as a good signal to overhead aircra"t.

/!//. .ire is especially important in cold weather. It not only provides a means to prepare "ood% but also to get warm and to melt snow or ice "or water. It also provides you with a signi"icant psychological boost by making you "eel a little more secure in your situation. /!/2. Use the techni1ues described in -hapter 6 to build and light your "ire. I" you are in enemy territory% remember that the smoke% smell% and light "rom your "ire may reveal your location. Light re"lects "rom surrounding trees or rocks% making even indirect light a source o" danger. Smoke tends to go straight up in cold% calm weather% making it a beacon during the day% but helping to conceal the smell at night. In warmer weather% especially in a wooded area% smoke tends to hug the ground% making it less visible in the day% but making its odor spread.

/!/6. I" you are in enemy territory% cut low tree boughs rather than the entire tree "or "irewood. .allen trees are easily seen "rom the air. /!/9. All wood will burn% but some types o" wood create more smoke than others. .or instance% coni"erous trees that contain resin and tar create more and darker smoke than deciduous trees. /!/<. There are "ew materials to use "or "uel in the high mountainous regions o" the arctic. 'ou may "ind some grasses and moss% but very little. The lower the elevation% the more "uel available. 'ou may "ind some scrub willow and small% stunted spruce trees above the tree line. ?n sea ice% "uels are seemingly none#istent. &ri"twood or "ats may be the only "uels available to a survivor on the barren coastlines in the arctic and subarctic regions. /!2=. Abundant "uels within the tree line are as "ollowsF Spruce trees are common in the interior regions. As a coni"er% spruce makes a lot o" smoke when burned in the spring and summer months. Dowever% it burns almost smoke!"ree in late "all and winter.  The tamarack tree is also a coni"er. It is the only tree o" the pine "amily that loses its needles in the "all. Aithout its needles% it looks like a dead spruce% but it has many knobby buds and cones on its bare branches. Ahen burning% tamarack wood makes a lot o" smoke and is e#cellent "or signaling purposes.
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8irch trees are deciduous and the wood burns hot and "ast% as i" soaked with oil or kerosene. >ost birches grow near streams and lakes% but occasionally you will "ind a "ew on higher ground and away "rom water. Aillow and alder grow in arctic regions% normally in marsh areas or near lakes and streams. These woods burn hot and "ast without much smoke.

/!2 . &ried moss% grass% and scrub willow are other materials you can use "or "uel. These are usually plenti"ul near streams in tundras :open% treeless plains;. 8y bundling or twisting grasses or other scrub vegetation to "orm a large% solid mass% you will have a slower burning% more productive "uel. /!2$. I" "uel or oil is available "rom a wrecked vehicle or downed aircra"t% use it "or "uel. Leave the "uel in the tank "or storage% drawing on the supply only as you need it. ?il congeals in e#tremely cold temperatures% there"ore% drain it "rom the vehicle or aircra"t while still warm i" there is no danger o" e#plosion or "ire. I" you have no container% let the oil drain onto the snow or ice. Scoop up the "uel as you need it.


&o not expose flesh to petroleum oil and lubricants in extremely cold temperatures. The liquid state of these products is deceptive in that it can cause frostbite.
/!2(. Some plastic products% such as >R* spoons% helmet visors% visor housings% and "oam rubber will ignite 1uickly "rom a burning match. They will also burn long enough to help start a "ire. .or e#ample% a plastic spoon will burn "or about = minutes. /!2,. In cold weather regions% there are some ha4ards in using "ires% whether to keep warm or to cook. .or e#ample5 .ires have been known to burn underground% resur"acing nearby. There"ore% do not build a "ire too close to a shelter.  In snow shelters% e#cessive heat will melt the insulating layer o" snow that may also be your camou"lage.
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A "ire inside a shelter lacking ade1uate ventilation can result in carbon mono#ide poisoning. A person trying to get warm or to dry clothes may become careless and burn or scorch his clothing and e1uipment. >elting overhead snow may get you wet% bury you and your e1uipment% and possibly e#tinguish your "ire.

/!2/. In general% a small "ire and some type o" stove is the best combination "or cooking purposes. A hobo stove :.igure /!6; is particularly suitable to the arctic. It is easy to make out o" a tin can% and it conserves "uel. A bed o" hot coals provides the best cooking heat. -oals "rom a crisscross "ire will settle uni"ormly. >ake this type o" "ire by crisscrossing the "irewood. A simple crane propped on a "orked stick will hold a cooking container over a "ire.

,igure 1=8@9 Coo(ing ,ire and Sto-e /!22. .or heating purposes% a single candle provides enough heat to warm an enclosed shelter. A small "ire about the si4e o" a man7s hand is ideal "or use in enemy territory. It re1uires very little "uel% yet it generates considerable warmth and is hot enough to warm li1uids.

/!26. There are many sources o" water in the arctic and subarctic. 'our location and the season o" the year will determine where and how you obtain water. /!29. Aater sources in arctic and subarctic regions are more sanitary than in other regions due to the climatic and environmental conditions. Dowever% a +ays puri/y the water be"ore drinking it. &uring the summer months% the best natural sources o" water are "reshwater lakes% streams% ponds% rivers% and springs. Aater "rom ponds or lakes may be slightly stagnant but still usable. Running water in streams% rivers% and bubbling springs is usually "resh and suitable "or drinking. /!2<. The brownish sur"ace water "ound in a tundra during the summer is a good source o" water. Dowever% you may have to "ilter the water be"ore puri"ying it. /!6=. 'ou can melt "reshwater ice and snow "or water. -ompletely melt both be"ore putting them in your mouth. Trying to melt ice or snow in your mouth takes away body heat and may cause internal cold in+uries. I" on or near pack ice in the sea% you can use old sea ice to melt "or water. In time% sea ice loses its salinity. 'ou can identi"y this ice by its rounded corners and bluish color. /!6 . 'ou can use body heat to melt snow. 0lace the snow in a water bag and place the bag between your layers o" clothing. This is a slow process% but you can use it on the move or when you have no "ire. NOT!; &o not waste "uel to melt ice or snow when drinkable water is available "rom other sources. /!6$. Ahen ice is available% melt it rather than snow. ?ne cup o" ice yields more water than one cup o" snow. Ice also takes less time to melt. 'ou can melt ice or snow in a water bag% >R* ration bag% tin can% or improvised container by placing the container near a "ire. 8egin with a small amount o" ice or snow in the container and% as it turns to water% add more ice or snow.

/!6(. Another way to melt ice or snow is by putting it in a bag made "rom porous material and suspending the bag near the "ire. 0lace a container under the bag to catch the water. /!6,. &uring cold weather% avoid drinking a lot o" li1uid be"ore going to bed. -rawling out o" a warm sleeping bag at night to relieve yoursel" means less rest and more e#posure to the cold. /!6/. ?nce you have water% keep it ne#t to you to prevent re"ree4ing. Also% do not "ill your canteen completely. Allowing the water to slosh around will help keep it "rom "ree4ing.

/!62. There are several sources o" "ood in the arctic and subarctic regions. The type o" "ood5 "ish% animal% "owl% or plant5and the ease in obtaining it depend on the time o" the year and your location. ,IS& /!66. &uring the summer months% you can easily get "ish and other water li"e "rom coastal waters% streams% rivers% and lakes. Use the techni1ues described in -hapter 9 to catch "ish. /!69. The 3orth Atlantic and 3orth 0aci"ic coastal waters are rich in sea"ood. 'ou can easily "ind craw"ish% snails% clams% oysters% and king crab. In areas where there is a great di""erence between the high and low tidewater levels% you can easily "ind shell"ish at low tide. &ig in the sand on the tidal "lats. Look in tidal pools and on o""shore ree"s. In areas where there is a small di""erence between the high! and low!tide water levels% storm waves o"ten wash shell"ish onto the beaches. /!6<. The eggs o" the spiny sea urchin that lives in the waters around the Aleutian Islands and southern Alaska are e#cellent "ood. Look "or the sea urchins in tidal pools. 8reak the shell by placing it between two stones. The eggs are bright yellow in color. /!9=. >ost northern "ish and "ish eggs are edible. *#ceptions are the meat o" the arctic shark and the eggs o" the sculpins. /!9 . The bivalves% such as clams and mussels% are usually more palatable than spiral! shelled sea"ood% such as snails. /!9$. The sea cucumber is another edible sea animal. Inside its body are "ive long white muscles that taste much like clam meat.

WARNING The black mussel a common mollusk of the far north may be poisonous in any season. Toxins sometimes found in the mussel@s tissue are as dangerous as strychnine.
/!9(. In early summer% smelt spawn in the beach sur". Sometimes you can scoop them up with your hands. /!9,. 'ou can o"ten "ind herring eggs on the seaweed in midsummer. Celp% the long ribbonlike seaweed% and other smaller seaweeds that grow among o""shore rocks are also edible. S!A IC! ANI'ALS /!9/. 'ou "ind polar bears in practically all arctic coastal regions% but rarely inland. Avoid them i" possible. They are the most dangerous o" all bears. They are tireless% clever hunters with good sight and an e#traordinary sense o" smell. I" you must kill one "or "ood% approach it cautiously. Aim "or the brainE a bullet elsewhere will rarely kill one. Always cook polar bear meat be"ore eating it.

CAUTION &o not eat polar bear liver as it contains a toxic concentration of vitamin A.
/!92. *arless seal meat is some o" the best meat available. Dowever% you need considerable skill to get close enough to an earless seal to kill it. In spring% seals o"ten bask on the ice beside their breathing holes. They raise their heads about every (= seconds% however% to look "or their enemy% the polar bear. /!96. To approach a seal% do as the *skimos do5stay downwind "rom it% cautiously moving closer while it sleeps. I" it moves% stop and imitate its movements by lying "lat on the ice% raising your head up and down% and wriggling your body slightly. Approach the seal with your body sideways to it and your arms close to your body so that you look as much like another seal as possible. The ice at the edge o" the breathing hole is usually smooth and at an incline% so the least movement o" the seal may cause it to slide into the water. There"ore% try to get within $$ to ,/ meters :6( to ,9 "eet; o" the seal and kill it instantly :aim "or the brain;. Try to reach the seal be"ore it slips into the water. In winter% a dead seal will usually "loat% but it is di""icult to retrieve "rom the water.

/!99. Ceep the seal blubber and skin "rom coming into contact with any scratch or broken skin you may have. 'ou could get @spekk!"inger%@ a reaction that causes the hands to become badly swollen. /!9<. Ceep in mind that where there are seals% there are usually polar bears% and polar bears have stalked and killed seal hunters. /!<=. 'ou can "ind porcupines in southern subarctic regions where there are trees. 0orcupines "eed on barkE i" you "ind tree limbs stripped bare% you are likely to "ind porcupines in the area. /!< . 0tarmigans% owls% -anadian +ays% grouse% and ravens are the only birds that remain in the arctic during the winter. They are scarce north o" the tree line. 0tarmigans and owls are as good "or "ood as any game bird. Ravens are too thin to be worth the e""ort it takes to catch them. 0tarmigans% which change color to blend with their surroundings% are hard to spot. Rock ptarmigans travel in pairs and you can easily approach them. Aillow ptarmigans live among willow clumps in bottomlands. They gather in large "locks and you can easily snare them. &uring the summer months% all arctic birds have a $! to (!week molting period during which they cannot "ly and are easy to catch. Use one o" the techni1ues described in -hapter 9 to catch them. /!<$. Skin and butcher game :-hapter 9; while it is still warm. I" you do not have time to skin the game% at least remove its entrails% musk glands% and genitals be"ore storing. I" time allows% cut the meat into usable pieces and "ree4e each separately so that you can use the pieces as needed. Leave the "at on all animals e#cept seals. &uring the winter% game "ree4es 1uickly i" le"t in the open. &uring the summer% you can store it in underground ice holes. PLANTS /!<(. Although tundras support a variety o" plants during the warm months% all are small when compared to similar plants in warmer climates. .or instance% the arctic willow and birch are shrubs rather than trees. Appendi# 8 consists o" plant "oods and descriptions that are "ound in arctic and subarctic regions. /!<,. There are some plants growing in arctic and subarctic regions that are poisonous i" eaten :Appendi# -;. Use the plants that you know are edible. Ahen in doubt% "ollow the Universal *dibility Test in-hapter <% .igure <!/.


/!</. 'ou will "ace many obstacles i" your survival situation is in an arctic or subarctic region. 'our location and the time o" the year will determine the types o" obstacles and the inherent dangers. 'ou should5 Avoid traveling during a bli44ard.  Take care when crossing thin ice. &istribute your weight by lying "lat and crawling.
 

-ross streams when the water level is lowest. 3ormal "ree4ing and thawing action may cause a stream level to vary as much as $ to $./ meters :6 to 9 "eet; per day. This variance may occur any time during the day% depending on the distance "rom a glacier% the temperature% and the terrain. -onsider this variation in water level when selecting a campsite near a stream. -onsider the clear arctic air. It makes estimating distance di""icult. 'ou more "re1uently underestimate than overestimate distances. Avoid travel in @whiteout@ conditions. The lack o" contrasting colors makes it impossible to +udge the nature o" the terrain. Always cross a snow bridge at right angles to the obstacle it crosses. .ind the strongest part o" the bridge by poking ahead o" you with a pole or ice a#e. &istribute your weight by crawling or by wearing snowshoes or skis. >ake camp early so that you have plenty o" time to build a shelter. -onsider "ro4en or un"ro4en rivers as avenues o" travel. Dowever% some rivers that appear "ro4en may have so"t% open areas that make travel very di""icult or may not allow walking% skiing% or sledding. Use snowshoes i" you are traveling over snow!covered terrain. Snow (= or more centimeters : $ inches or more; deep makes traveling di""icult. I" you do not have snowshoes% make a pair using willow% strips o" cloth% leather% or other suitable material.

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/!<2. It is almost impossible to travel in deep snow without snowshoes or skis. Traveling by "oot leaves a well!marked trail "or any pursuers to "ollow. I" you must travel in deep snow% avoid snow!covered streams. The snow% which acts as an insulator% may have prevented ice "rom "orming over the water. In hilly terrain% avoid areas where avalanches appear possible. Travel in the early morning in areas where there is danger o" avalanches. ?n ridges% snow gathers on the lee side in overhanging piles called cornices. These o"ten e#tend "ar out "rom the ridge and may break loose i" stepped on.


/!<6. In most situations you can determine the e""ects that weather can have on basic survival needs. Several good indicators o" climatic changes include the "ollowingF )IN2 /!<9. 'ou can determine wind direction by dropping grass or a "ew leaves or by watching the treetops. ?nce you determine the wind direction% you can predict the type o" weather that is imminent. Rapidly shi"ting winds indicate an unsettled atmosphere and a likely change in the weather. CLOU2S /!<<. -louds come in a variety o" shapes and patterns. A general knowledge o" clouds and the atmospheric conditions they indicate can help you predict the weather. Appendi# D e#plains cloud "ormations in more detail. S'O1! /! ==. Smoke rising in a thin vertical column indicates "air weather. Low rising or @"lattened out@ smoke indicates stormy weather. .IR2S AN2 INS!CTS /! = . 8irds and insects "ly lower to the ground than normal in heavy% moisture!laden air. Such "light indicates that rain is likely. >ost insect activity increases be"ore a storm% but bee activity increases be"ore "air weather. LO)8PR!SSUR! ,RONT /! =$. Slow!moving or imperceptible winds and heavy% humid air o"ten indicate a low! pressure "ront. Such a "ront promises bad weather that will probably linger "or several days. 'ou can @smell@ and @hear@ this "ront. The sluggish% humid air makes wilderness odors more pronounced than during high!pressure conditions. In addition% sounds are sharper and carry "arther in low!pressure conditions than high!pressure conditions.

Chapter 1>

Sea Sur-i-a

Sea survival is perhaps the most di""icult survival situation. Short! or long! term survival depends upon rations% e1uipment available% and your ingenuity. 'ou must be resource"ul to survive. Aater covers about 6/ percent o" the earth7s sur"ace% with about 6= percent being oceans and seas. 'ou can assume that you will sometime cross vast e#panses o" water. There is always the chance that the plane or ship you are on will become crippled by such ha4ards as storms% collision% "ire% or war.

T&! OP!N S!A
2! . As a survivor on the open sea% you will "ace waves and wind. 'ou may also "ace e#treme heat or cold. To keep these environmental ha4ards "rom becoming serious problems% take precautionary measures as soon as possible. Use the available resources to protect yoursel" "rom the elements and "rom heat or e#treme cold and humidity. 2!$. 0rotecting yoursel" "rom the elements meets only one o" your basic needs. 'ou must also be able to obtain water and "ood. Satis"ying these basic needs will help prevent serious physical and psychological problems. Dowever% you must also know how to treat health problems that may arise. PR!CAUTIONAR$ '!ASUR!S 2!(. 'our survival at sea depends upon your5
  

Cnowledge o" and ability to use the available survival e1uipment. Special skills and ability to cope with the ha4ards you "ace. Aill to live.

2!,. Ahen you board a ship or aircra"t% "ind out what survival e1uipment is on board% where it is stowed% and what it contains. .or instance% how many li"e preservers and li"eboats or ra"ts are on boardB Ahere are they locatedB Ahat type o" survival e1uipment do they haveB Dow much "ood% water% and medicine do they containB Dow many people can be supportedB Also% i" you are responsible "or other personnel on board% make sure you know where they are and they know where you are. 2O)N AT S!A 2!/. I" your aircra"t goes down at sea% take the "ollowing actions. Ahether you are in the water or in a ra"t% you should5

)et clear and upwind o" the aircra"t as soon as possible% but stay in the vicinity until the aircra"t sinks.  )et clear o" "uel!covered water in case the "uel ignites.
 

Try to "ind other survivors.

2!2. A search "or survivors usually takes place around the entire area o" and near the crash site. >issing personnel may be unconscious and "loating low in the water. .igure 2! % illustrates three rescue procedures.

,igure 1>819 Rescue ,ro# )ater 2!6. The best techni1ue "or rescuing personnel "rom the water is to throw them a li"e preserver attached to a line :A;. Another is to send a swimmer :rescuer; "rom the ra"t with a line attached to a "lotation device that will support the rescuer7s weight :8;. This device will help conserve a rescuer7s energy while recovering the survivor. The least acceptable techni1ue is to send an attached swimmer without "lotation devices to retrieve a survivor :-;.

In all cases% the rescuer wears a li"e preserver. A rescuer should not underestimate the strength o" a panic!stricken person in the water. A care"ul approach can prevent in+ury to the rescuer. 2!9. Ahen the rescuer approaches a survivor in trouble "rom behind% there is little danger the survivor will kick% scratch% or grab him. The rescuer swims to a point directly behind the survivor and grasps the li"e preserver7s backstrap. The rescuer uses the sidestroke to drag the survivor to the ra"t. 2!<. I" you are in the water% make your way to a ra"t. I" no ra"ts are available% try to "ind a large piece o" "loating debris to cling to. Rela#E a person who knows how to rela# in ocean water is in very little danger o" drowning. The body7s natural buoyancy will keep at least the top o" the head above water% but some movement is needed to keep the "ace above water. 2! =. .loating on your back takes the least energy. Lie on your back in the water% spread your arms and legs% and arch your back. 8y controlling your breathing in and out% your "ace will always be out o" the water and you may even sleep in this position "or short periods. 'our head will be partially submerged% but your "ace will be above water. I" you cannot "loat on your back or i" the sea is too rough% "loat "acedown in the water as shown in .igure 2!$.

,igure 1>809 , oating Position 2! . The "ollowing are the best swimming strokes during a survival situationF

/og paddle. This stroke is e#cellent when clothed or wearing a li"e +acket. Although slow in speed% it re1uires very little energy.

*reaststroke. Use this stroke to swim underwater% through oil or debris% or in rough seas. It is probably the best stroke "or long!range swimmingF it allows you to conserve your energy and maintain a reasonable speed. Sidestroke. It is a good relie" stroke because you use only one arm to maintain momentum and buoyancy. *ackstroke. This stroke is also an e#cellent relie" stroke. It relieves the muscles that you use "or other strokes. Use it i" an underwater e#plosion is likely.

2! $. I" you are in an area where sur"ace oil is burning5

&iscard your shoes and buoyant li"e preserver.

NOT!; I" you have an unin"lated li"e preserver% keep it.
  

-over your nose% mouth% and eyes and 1uickly go underwater. Swim underwater as "ar as possible be"ore sur"acing to breathe. 8e"ore sur"acing to breathe and while still underwater% use your hands to push burning "luid away "rom the area where you wish to sur"ace. ?nce an area is clear o" burning li1uid% you can sur"ace and take a "ew breaths. Try to "ace downwind be"ore inhaling. Submerge "eet "irst and continue as above until clear o" the "lames.

2! (. I" you are in oil!covered water that is "ree o" "ire% hold your head high to keep the oil out o" your eyes. Attach your li"e preserver to your wrist and then use it as a ra"t. 2! ,. I" you have a li"e preserver% you can stay a"loat "or an inde"inite period. In this case% use the @Deat *scaping Lessening 0osture :D*L0;@ body position :.igure 2!(;. Remain still and assume the "etal position to help you retain body heat. 'ou lose about /= percent o" your body heat through your head. There"ore% keep your head out o" the water. ?ther areas o" high heat loss are the neck% the sides% and the groin.

,igure 1>8<9 &!LP Position 2! /. I" you are in a ra"t :also see Ra"t 0rocedures;5 -heck the physical condition o" all on board. )ive "irst aid i" necessary. Take seasickness pills i" available. The best way to take these pills is to place them under the tongue and let them dissolve. There are also suppositories or in+ections against seasickness. Vomiting% whether "rom seasickness or other causes% increases the danger o" dehydration.  Try to salvage all "loating e1uipment5rationsE canteens% thermos +ugs% and other containersE clothingE seat cushionsE parachutesE and anything else that will be use"ul to you. Secure the salvaged items in or to your ra"t. >ake sure the items have no sharp edges that can puncture the ra"t.
 

I" there are other ra"ts% lash the ra"ts together so they are about 6./ meters :$/ "eet; apart. 8e ready to draw them closer together i" you see or hear an aircra"t. It is easier "or an aircrew to spot ra"ts that are close together rather than scattered. Remember% rescue at sea is a cooperative e""ort. Use all available visual or electronic signaling devices to signal and make contact with rescuers. .or e#ample% raise a "lag or re"lecting material on an oar as high as possible to attract attention. Locate the emergency radio and get it into operation. ?perating instructions are on it. Use the emergency transceiver only when "riendly aircra"t are likely to be in the area. Dave other signaling devices ready "or instant use. I" you are in enemy territory% avoid using a signaling device that will alert the enemy. Dowever% i" your situation is desperate% you may have to signal the enemy "or rescue i" you are to survive.

-heck the ra"t "or in"lation% leaks% and points o" possible cha"ing. >ake sure the main buoyancy chambers are "irm :well rounded; but not overly tight :.igure 2! ,;. -heck in"lation regularly. Air e#pands with heatE there"ore% on hot days% release some air and add air when the weather cools. &econtaminate the ra"t o" all "uel. 0etroleum will weaken its sur"aces and break down its glued +oints. Throw out the sea anchor% or improvise a drag "rom the ra"t7s case% a bailing bucket% or a roll o" clothing. A sea anchor helps you stay close to your ditching site% making it easier "or searchers to "ind you i" you have relayed your location. Aithout a sea anchor% your ra"t may dri"t over 2= kilometers :<2 miles; in a day% making it much harder to "ind you. 'ou can ad+ust the sea anchor to act as a drag to slow down the rate o" travel with the current% or as a means to travel with the current. 'ou make this ad+ustment by opening or closing the sea anchor7s ape#. Ahen open% the sea anchor :.igure 2!/; acts as a drag that keeps you in the general area. Ahen closed% it "orms a pocket "or the current to strike and propels the ra"t in the current7s direction.

,igure 1>879 In/ ating the Ra/t

,igure 1>8=9 Sea Anchor

2! 2. Also ad+ust the sea anchor so that when the ra"t is on the wave7s crest% the sea anchor is in the wave7s trough :.igure 2!2;.

,igure 1>8>9 2ep oy#ent o/ the Sea Anchor Arap the sea anchor rope with cloth to prevent its cha"ing the ra"t. The anchor also helps to keep the ra"t headed into the wind and waves.  In stormy water% rig the spray and windshield at once. In a $/!man ra"t% keep the canopy erected at all times. Ceep your ra"t as dry as possible. Ceep it properly balanced. All personnel should stay seated% the heaviest one in the center.
 

-almly consider all aspects o" your situation and determine what you and your companions must do to survive. Inventory all e1uipment% "ood% and water. Aaterproo" items that salt water may a""ect. These include compasses% watches% se#tant% matches% and lighters. Ration "ood and water. Assign a duty position to each person or assign teams% "or e#ample% water collectors% "ood collectors% lookouts% radio operators% signalers% and water bailers.

NOT!; Lookout duty should not e#ceed $ hours. Ceep in mind and remind others that cooperation is one o" the keys to survival. Ceep a log. Record the navigator7s last "i#% the time o" ditching% the names and physical condition o" personnel% and the ration schedule. Also record the winds% weather% direction o" swells% times o" sunrise and sunset% and other navigational data.  I" you are down in un"riendly waters% take special security measures to avoid detection. &o not travel in the daytime. Throw out the sea anchor and wait "or night"all be"ore paddling or hoisting sail. Ceep low in the ra"tE stay covered with the blue side o" the camou"lage cloth up. 8e sure a passing ship or aircra"t is "riendly or neutral be"ore trying to attract its attention. I" the enemy detects you and you are close to capture% destroy the logbook% radio% navigation e1uipment% maps% signaling e1uipment% and "irearms. Mump overboard and submerge i" the enemy starts stra"ing.

&ecide whether to stay in position or to travel. Ask yoursel"% @Dow much in"ormation was signaled be"ore the accidentB Is your position known to rescuersB &o you know it yoursel"B Is the weather "avorable "or a searchB Are other ships or aircra"t likely to pass your present positionB Dow many days supply o" "ood and water do you haveB@

COL2 )!AT&!R CONSI2!RATIONS 2! 6. I" you are in a cold climate5 0ut on an antie#posure suit. I" unavailable% put on any e#tra clothing available. Ceep clothes loose and com"ortable.  Take care not to snag the ra"t with shoes or sharp ob+ects. Ceep the repair kit where you can readily reach it.
  

Rig a windbreak% spray shield% and canopy. Try to keep the "loor o" the ra"t dry. -over it with canvas or cloth "or insulation. Duddle with others to keep warm% moving enough to keep the blood circulating. Spread an e#tra tarpaulin% sail% or parachute over the group. )ive e#tra rations% i" available% to men su""ering "rom e#posure to cold.

2! 9. The greatest threat you "ace when submerged in cold water is death due to hypothermia. The average ocean temperature around the world is only degrees - :/ degrees .;. Dowever% do not be "ooled by warm water5hypothermia can even occur in $6! degree - :9=!degree .; water. Ahen you are immersed in cold water% hypothermia occurs rapidly due to the decreased insulating 1uality o" wet clothing and the result o" water displacing the layer o" still air that normally surrounds the body. The rate o" heat e#change in water is about $/ times greater than it is in air o" the same temperature. .igure 2!6lists li"e e#pectancy times "or immersion in water.

,igure 1>8@9 Li/e !Bpectancy Ti#es /or I##ersion in )ater

2! <. 'our best protection against the e""ects o" cold water is to get into the li"e ra"t% stay dry% and insulate your body "rom the cold sur"ace o" the bottom o" the ra"t. I" these actions are not possible% wearing an antie#posure suit will e#tend your li"e e#pectancy considerably. Remember% keep your head and neck out o" the water and well insulated "rom the cold water7s e""ects when the temperature is below < degrees - :22 degrees .;. Aearing li"e preservers increases the predicted survival time as body position in the water increases the chance o" survival. &OT )!AT&!R CONSI2!RATIONS 2!$=. I" you are in a hot climate5 Rig a sunshade or canopy. Leave enough space "or ventilation.  -over your skin% where possible% to protect it "rom sunburn. Use sunburn cream% i" available% on all e#posed skin. 'our eyelids% the back o" your ears% and the skin under your chin sunburn easily.

RA,T PROC!2UR!S 2!$ . >ost o" the ra"ts in the U.S. Army and Air .orce inventories can satis"y the needs "or personal protection% mode o" travel% and evasion and camou"lage. NOT!; 8e"ore boarding any ra"t% remove and tether :attach; your li"e preserver to yoursel" or the ra"t. *nsure there are no other metallic or sharp ob+ects on your clothing or e1uipment that could damage the ra"t. A"ter boarding the ra"t% don your li"e preserver again. 2!$$. .or all ra"ts% remember the "ive As. These are the "irst things you should do i" you are the "irst person into the ra"tF Air!-heck that all chambers are in"lated and that all in"lation valves are closed and e1uali4ation tube clamps :"ound on the $/!% (/!% and ,2!man ra"ts; are clamped o"" when "ully in"lated.  Assistance!Assist others into the ra"t. Remove all puncture!producing items "rom pockets and move "lotation devices to the rear o" the body. Use proper boarding techni1uesE "or e#ample% the boarding loop on the seven!man ra"t and the boarding ramps on the $/!% (/!% and ,2!man ra"ts.
 

Anchor!*nsure the sea anchor is properly deployed. It can be "ound 9= degrees away "rom the e1uali4ation tube on the $/!% (/!% and ,2!man ra"ts. Accessory bag!Locate the accessory bag. It will be tethered to the ra"t between the smooth side o" the -?$ bottle and the closest boarding ramp.

Assessment!Assess the situation and keep a positive mental attitude.

One8'an Ra/t 2!$(. The one!man ra"t has a main cell in"lation. I" the -?$ bottle should mal"unction or i" the ra"t develops a leak% you can in"late it by mouth. 2!$,. The spray shield acts as a shelter "rom the cold% wind% and water. In some cases% this shield serves as insulation. The ra"t7s insulated bottom limits the conduction o" cold thereby protecting you "rom hypothermia :.igure 2!9;.

,igure 1>8C9 One8'an Ra/t )ith Spray Shie d 2!$/. 'ou can travel more e""ectively by in"lating or de"lating the ra"t to take advantage o" the wind or current. 'ou can use the spray shield as a sail while the ballast buckets serve to increase drag in the water. 'ou may use the sea anchor to control the ra"t7s speed and direction. 2!$2. There are ra"ts developed "or use in tactical areas that are black. These ra"ts blend with the sea7s background. 'ou can "urther modi"y these ra"ts "or evasion by partially de"lating them to obtain a lower pro"ile. 2!$6. A lanyard connects the one!man ra"t to a parachutist :survivor; landing in the water. 'ou :the survivor; in"late it upon landing. 'ou do not swim to the ra"t% but pull it to you via the lanyard. The ra"t may hit the water upside down% but you can right it by approaching the side to which the bottle is attached and "lipping the ra"t over. The spray shield must be in the ra"t to e#pose the boarding handles. .ollow the "ive As outlined under ra"t procedures above when boarding the ra"t :.igure 2!<;.

,igure 1>8D9 .oarding the One8'an Ra/t 2!$9. I" you have an arm in+ury% the best way to board is by turning your back to the small end o" the ra"t% pushing the ra"t under your buttocks% and lying back. Another way to board the ra"t is to push down on its small end until one knee is inside and lie "orward :.igure 2! =;.

,igure 1>81?9 Other 'ethods o/ .oarding the One8'an Ra/t 2!$<. In rough seas% it may be easier "or you to grasp the small end o" the ra"t and% in a prone position% to kick and pull yoursel" into the ra"t. Ahen you are lying "ace down in the ra"t% deploy and ad+ust the sea anchor. To sit upright% you may have to disconnect one side o" the seat kit and roll to that side. Then you ad+ust the spray shield. There are two variations o" the one!man ra"tE the improved model incorporates an in"latable spray shield and "loor that provide additional insulation. The spray shield helps keep you dry and warm in cold oceans and protects you "rom the sun in the hot climates :.igure 2! ;.

,igure 1>8119 One8'an Ra/t )ith Spray Shie d In/ ated Se-en8'an Ra/t 2!(=. Some multiplace aircra"t carry the seven!man ra"t. It is a component o" the survival drop kit :.igure 2! $;. This ra"t may in"late upside down and re1uire you to right the ra"t be"ore boarding. Always work "rom the bottle side to prevent in+ury i" the ra"t turns over. .acing into the wind% the wind provides additional help in righting the ra"t. Use the handles on the inside bottom o" the ra"t "or boarding :.igure 2! (;.

,igure 1>8109 Se-en8'an Ra/t

,igure 1>81<9 'ethod o/ Righting Ra/t 2!( . Use the boarding ramp i" someone holds down the ra"t7s opposite side. I" you don7t have help% again work "rom the bottle side with the wind at your back to help hold down the ra"t. .ollow the "ive As outlined in paragraph 2!$$. Then grasp an oarlock and boarding handle% kick your legs to get your body prone on the water% and then kick and pull yoursel" into the ra"t. I" you are weak or in+ured% you may partially de"late the ra"t to make boarding easier :.igure 2! ,;.

,igure 1>8179 'ethod o/ .oarding Se-en8'an Ra/t 2!($. Use the hand pump to keep the buoyancy chambers and cross seat "irm. 3ever overin"late the ra"t. 0=8% <=8% and 7>8'an Ra/ts 2!((. 'ou may "ind $/!% (/!% or ,2!man ra"ts in multiplace aircra"t :.igure 2! /;. The $=! man ra"t has been discontinued. The ra"ts are stowed in ra"t compartments on the outside o"

the "uselage% usually on the wings% alongside the upper hal" o" the port :le"t; side o" the aircra"t. There will always be enough ra"t space to accommodate all personnel on each type o" aircra"t. I" the number o" personnel e#ceeds the ma#imum number o" ra"t spaces% additional ra"ts will be centerline!loaded and ratchet!strapped to the cargo bay "loor. Some may be automatically deployed "rom the cockpit or "rom stations within the cargo area% usually near the crew chie"7s station% while others may need manual deployment. 3o matter how the ra"t lands in the water% it is ready "or boarding. A lanyard connects the accessory kit to the ra"t and you retrieve the kit by hand. 'ou must manually in"late the center chamber with the hand pump. 8oard the $/!% (/!% or ,2!man ra"t "rom the aircra"t% i" possible. I" not% board in the "ollowing mannerF Approach the lower boarding ramp% "ollowing the arrows printed on the outside o" the ra"t.  Remove your li"e preserver and tether it to yoursel" so that it trails behind you.
 

)rasp the boarding handles and kick your legs to get your body into a prone position on the water7s sur"aceE then kick and pull until you are inside the ra"t.

,igure 1>81=9 0=8'an Ra/t 2!(,. An incompletely in"lated ra"t will make boarding easier. Approach the intersection o" the ra"t and ramp% grasp the upper boarding handle% and swing one leg onto the center o" the ramp% as in mounting a horse.

2!(/. Immediately tighten the e1uali4er clamp upon entering the ra"t to prevent de"lating the entire ra"t in case o" a puncture :.igure 2! 2;.

,igure 1>81>9 I##ediate Action—'u tip ace Ra/t 2!(2. Use the pump to keep these ra"ts7 chambers and center ring "irm. They should be well rounded but not overly tight. The center rings keep the center o" the "loor a"loat% and give ra"t occupants something to brace their "eet against to prevent all occupants "rom sliding toward the center. SAILIN5 RA,TS 2!(6. Ra"ts do not have keels% there"ore% you can7t sail them into the wind. Dowever% anyone can sail a ra"t downwind. 'ou can success"ully sail the seven!man ra"t = degrees o"" "rom the direction o" the wind. &o not try to sail the ra"t unless land is near. I" you decide to sail and the wind is blowing toward a desired destination% "ully in"late the ra"t% sit high% take in the sea anchor% rig a sail% and use an oar as a rudder. 2!(9. In the seven!man ra"t% erect a s1uare sail in the bow using the oars and their e#tensions as the mast and crossbar :.igure 2! 6;. 'ou may use a waterproo" tarpaulin or parachute material "or the sail. I" the ra"t has no regular mast socket and step% erect the mast by tying it securely to the "ront cross seat using braces. 0ad the bottom o" the mast to prevent it "rom cha"ing or punching a hole through the "loor% whether or not there is a socket. The heel o" a shoe% with the toe wedged under the seat% makes a good improvised mast step. &o

not secure the corners o" the lower edge o" the sail. Dold the lines attached to the corners with your hands so that a gust o" wind will not rip the sail% break the mast% or capsi4e the ra"t.

,igure 1>81@9 Sai Construction 2!(<. Take every precaution to prevent the ra"t "rom turning over. In rough weather% keep the sea anchor away "rom the bow. Dave the passengers sit low in the ra"t% with their weight distributed to hold the upwind side down. To prevent "alling out% they should also avoid sitting on the sides o" the ra"t or standing up. Avoid sudden movements without warning the other passengers. Ahen the sea anchor is not in use% tie it to the ra"t and stow it in such a manner that it will hold immediately i" the ra"t capsi4es. )AT!R 2!,=. Aater is your most important need. Aith it alone% you can live "or ten days or longer% depending on your will to live. Ahen drinking water% moisten your lips% tongue% and throat be"ore swallowing. Short8)ater Rations

2!, . Ahen you have a limited water supply and you can7t replace it by chemical or mechanical means% use the water e""iciently. 0rotect "reshwater supplies "rom seawater contamination. Ceep your body well shaded% both "rom overhead sun and "rom re"lection o"" the sea sur"ace. Allow ventilation o" airE dampen your clothes during the hottest part o" the day. &o not e#ert yoursel". Rela# and sleep when possible. .i# your daily water ration a"ter considering the amount o" water you have% the output o" solar stills and desalting kit% and the number and physical condition o" your party. 2!,$. I" you don7t have water% don7t eat. I" your water ration is two liters or more per day% eat any part o" your ration or any additional "ood that you may catch% such as birds% "ish% shrimp. The li"e ra"t7s motion and your an#iety may cause nausea. I" you eat when nauseated% you may lose your "ood immediately. I" nauseated% rest and rela# as much as you can% and take only water. 2!,(. To reduce your loss o" water through perspiration% soak your clothes in the sea and wring them out be"ore putting them on again. &on7t overdo this during hot days when no canopy or sun shield is available. This is a trade!o"" between cooling and the saltwater boils% sores% and rashes that will result. 8e care"ul not to get the bottom o" the ra"t wet. 2!,,. Aatch the clouds and be ready "or any chance o" showers. Ceep the tarpaulin handy "or catching water. I" it is encrusted with dried salt% wash it in seawater. 3ormally% a small amount o" seawater mi#ed with rain will hardly be noticeable and will not cause any physical reaction. In rough seas you cannot get uncontaminated "resh water. 2!,/. At night% secure the tarpaulin like a sunshade% and turn up its edges to collect dew. It is also possible to collect dew along the sides o" the ra"t using a sponge or cloth. Ahen it rains% drink as much as you can hold. 'anua Re-erse Os#osis 2esa inator 2!,2. >ost ra"ts today are e1uipped with a manual reverse osmosis desalinator :>R?&;. The >R?& is a very highly e""icient water puri"ier designed to remove salt particles "rom seawater% thereby making seawater potable. The two most common models are the Survivor (/ and the Survivor =2% which make (/ and 2 gallons o" potable water in a $,!hour period i" used continuously. Aater procurement at sea is a $,!hour!a!day +ob. The >R?&7s li"e cycle is up to /=%=== gallons o" water. The >R?& has a =!year shel" li"e be"ore it must be repacked by the manu"acturer. To operate the >R?&% place both the intake :larger dual hose; and the potable water supply hose into the water. 8egin a $!second cycle o" pumping the handle5one second up% one second down. A pressure indicator will protrude "rom the pump housing to show that the proper "low is being maintained. An orange band will be visible when the correct rhythm is

maintained. 0urge the antimicrobial packing agent "rom the "ilter medium "or $ minutes. Then begin to collect potable water. NOT!; *nsure that the water is "ree "rom any petroleum residue :+et "uel% hydraulic "luid% or oil; be"ore using an >R?&. The "ilter medium is very sensitive to petroleum% oils% and lubricants% and will render the "ilter useless% destroying your water production capability. So ar Sti 2!,6. Ahen solar stills are available% read the instructions and set them up immediately. Use as many stills as possible% depending on the number o" men in the ra"t and the amount o" sunlight available. Secure solar stills to the ra"t with care. Solar stills only work on "lat% calm seas. 2esa ting 1its 2!,9. Ahen desalting kits are available in addition to solar stills% use them only "or immediate water needs or during long overcast periods when you cannot use solar stills. In any event% keep desalting kits and emergency water stores "or periods when you cannot use solar stills or catch rainwater. )ater ,ro# ,ish 2!,<. &rink the a1ueous "luid "ound along the spine and in the eyes o" large "ish. -are"ully cut the "ish in hal" to get the "luid along the spine and suck the eye. I" you are so short o" water that you need to do this% then do not drink any o" the other body "luids. These other "luids are rich in protein and "at and will use up more o" your reserve water in digestion than they supply. Sea Ice 2!/=. In arctic waters% use old sea ice "or water. This ice is bluish% has rounded corners% and splinters easily. It is nearly "ree o" salt. 3ew ice is gray% milky% hard% and salty. Aater "rom icebergs is "resh% but icebergs are dangerous to approach. Use them as a source o" water only in emergencies. 2!/ . As in any survival situation there are dangers when you are substituting or compromising necessities. *ven though water is one o" your basic needs% keep in mind the "ollowing tips. 2O NOT—

    

&rink seawater. &rink urine. &rink alcohol. Smoke. *at% unless water is available.

2!/$. Sleep and rest are the best ways o" enduring periods o" reduced water and "ood intake. Dowever% make sure that you have enough shade when napping during the day. I" the sea is rough% tie yoursel" to the ra"t% close any cover% and ride out the storm as best you can. Re aB is the key word5at least try to rela#. ,OO2 PROCUR!'!NT 2!/(. In the open sea% "ish will be the main "ood source. There are some poisonous and dangerous ocean "ish% but% in general% when out o" sight o" land% "ish are sa"e to eat. 3earer the shore there are "ish that are both dangerous and poisonous to eat. There are some "ish% such as the red snapper and barracuda% that are normally edible but poisonous when taken "rom the waters o" atolls and ree"s. .lying "ish will even +ump into your ra"tG ,ish 2!/,. Ahen "ishing% do not handle the "ishing line with bare hands and never wrap it around your hands or tie it to a li"e ra"t. The salt that adheres to it can make it a sharp cutting edge% an edge dangerous both to the ra"t and your hands. Aear gloves% i" they are available% or use a cloth to handle "ish and to avoid in+ury "rom sharp "ins and gill covers. 2!//. In warm regions% gut and bleed "ish immediately a"ter catching them. -ut "ish that you do not eat immediately into thin% narrow strips and hang them to dry. A well!dried "ish stays edible "or several days. .ish not cleaned and dried may spoil in hal" a day. .ish with dark meat are very prone to decomposition. I" you do not eat them all immediately% do not eat any o" the le"tovers. Use the le"tovers "or bait. 2!/2. 3ever eat "ish that have pale% shiny gills% sunken eyes% "labby skin and "lesh% or an unpleasant odor. )ood "ish show the opposite characteristics. Sea "ish have a saltwater or clean "ishy odor. &o not con"use eels with sea snakes that have an obviously scaly body and strongly compressed% paddle!shaped tail. 8oth eels and sea snakes are edible% but you must handle the latter with care because o" their poisonous bites. The heart% blood% intestinal wall% and liver o" most "ish are edible. -ook the intestines. Also edible are the partly digested smaller "ish that you may "ind in the stomachs o" large "ish. In addition% sea turtles are edible.

2!/6. Shark meat is a good source o" "ood whether raw% dried% or cooked. Shark meat spoils very rapidly due to the high concentration o" urea in the bloodE there"ore% bleed it immediately and soak it in several changes o" water. 0eople pre"er some shark species over others. -onsider them all edible e#cept the )reenland shark% whose "lesh contains high 1uantities o" vitamin A. &o not eat the livers% due to high vitamin A content. ,ishing Aids 2!/9. The accessory kit contains a very good "ishing kit that should meet your needs +ust about anywhere around the world. 'ou can also use di""erent materials to make "ishing aids as described in the "ollowing paragraphsF #ishing line. Use pieces o" tarpaulin or canvas. Unravel the threads and tie them together in short lengths in groups o" three or more threads. Shoelaces and parachute suspension line also work well.  #ish hooks. 3o one at sea should be without "ishing e1uipment% but i" you are% improvise hooks as shown in -hapter 9.
 

#ish l&res. 'ou can "ashion lures by attaching a double hook to any shiny piece o" metal. )rapple. Use grapples to hook seaweed. 'ou may shake crabs% shrimp% or small "ish out o" the seaweed.

These you may eat or use "or bait. 'ou may eat seaweed itsel"% but only when you have plenty o" drinking water. Improvise grapples "rom wood. Use a heavy piece o" wood as the main sha"t% and lash three smaller pieces to the sha"t as grapples.

*ait. 'ou can use small "ish as bait "or larger ones. Scoop the small "ish up with a net. I" you don7t have a net% make one "rom cloth o" some type. Dold the net under the water and scoop upward. Use all the guts "rom birds and "ish "or bait. Ahen using bait% try to keep it moving in the water to give it the appearance o" being alive.

&e p/u ,ishing &ints 2!/<. 'our "ishing should be success"ul i" you remember the "ollowing important hintsF 8e e#tremely care"ul with "ish that have teeth and spines.  -ut a large "ish loose rather than risk capsi4ing the ra"t. Try to catch small rather than large "ish.
 

&o not puncture your ra"t with hooks or other sharp instruments.

    

&o not "ish when large sharks are in the area. Aatch "or schools o" "ishE try to move close to these schools. .ish at night using a light. The light attracts "ish. In the daytime% shade attracts some "ish. 'ou may "ind them under your ra"t. Improvise a spear by tying a kni"e to an oar blade. This spear can help you catch larger "ish% but you must get them into the ra"t 1uickly or they will slip o"" the blade. Also% tie the kni"e very securely or you may lose it. Always take care o" your "ishing e1uipment. &ry your "ishing lines% clean and sharpen the hooks% and do not allow the hooks to stick into the "ishing lines.

.irds 2!2=. As stated in -hapter 9% all sea birds are edible. *at any birds you can catch. Sometimes birds may land on your ra"t% but usually they are cautious. 'ou may be able to attract some birds by towing a bright piece o" metal behind the ra"t. This will bring the bird within shooting range% provided you have a "irearm. 2!2 . I" a bird lands within your reach% you may be able to catch it. I" the birds do not land close enough or land on the other end o" the ra"t% you may be able to catch them with a bird noose. 8ait the center o" the noose and wait "or the bird to land. Ahen the bird7s "eet are in the center o" the noose% pull it tight. 2!2$. Use all parts o" the bird. Use the "eathers "or insulation% the entrails and "eet "or bait% and so on. Use your imagination. '!2ICAL PRO.L!'S ASSOCIAT!2 )IT& S!A SURVIVAL 2!2(. At sea% you may become seasick% get saltwater sores% or "ace some o" the same medical problems that occur on land% such as dehydration% hypothermia% or sunburn. These problems can become critical i" le"t untreated. Seasic(ness 2!2,. Seasickness is the nausea and vomiting caused by the motion o" the ra"t. It can result in5
 

*#treme "luid loss and e#haustion. Loss o" the will to survive.

  

?thers becoming seasick. Attraction o" sharks to the ra"t. Unclean conditions.

2!2/. To treat seasickness5
   

Aash both the patient and the ra"t to remove the sight and odor o" vomit. Ceep the patient "rom eating "ood until his nausea is gone. Dave the patient lie down and rest. )ive the patient seasickness pills i" available. I" the patient is unable to take the pills orally% insert them rectally "or absorption by the body. &o not take seasickness pills i" you are already seasick. They tend to make the patient even sickerE always take seasickness pills be"ore the symptoms appear.

NOT!; Some people at sea have said that erecting a canopy or using the hori4on or a cloud as a "ocal point helped overcome seasickness. ?thers have said that swimming alongside the ra"t "or short periods helped% but e#treme care must be taken i" swimming. Sa t+ater Sores 2!22. These sores result "rom a break in skin e#posed to saltwater "or an e#tended period. They may also occur at the areas that your clothing binds you5your waist% ankles% or wrist. The sores may "orm scabs and pus. &o not open or drain the sores. .lush them with "reshwater% i" available% and allow to dry. Apply an antiseptic% i" available. I##ersion Rot% ,rost*ite% and &ypother#ia 2!26. These problems are similar to those encountered in cold weather environments. Symptoms and treatment are the same as covered in -hapter /. . indness or &eadache 2!29. I" "lame% smoke% or other contaminants get in the eyes% "lush them immediately with saltwater% then with "reshwater% i" available. Apply ointment% i" available. 8andage both eyes 9 to $, hours% or longer i" damage is severe. I" the glare "rom the sky and water causes your eyes to become bloodshot and in"lamed% bandage them lightly. Try to prevent this problem by wearing sunglasses. Improvise sunglasses i" necessary. Constipation

2!2<. This condition is a common problem on a ra"t. &o not take a la#ative% as this will cause "urther dehydration. *#ercise as much as possible and drink an ade1uate amount o" water% i" available. 2i//icu t Urination 2!6=. This problem is not unusual and is due mainly to dehydration. It is best not to treat it% as it could cause "urther dehydration. Sun*urn 2!6 . Sunburn is a serious problem in sea survival. Try to prevent sunburn by staying in the shade and keeping your head and skin covered. Use cream or lip salve "rom your "irst!aid kit. Remember% re"lection "rom the water also causes sunburn in places where the sun usually doesn7t burn you5tender skin under the earlobes% eyebrows% nose% chin% and underarms. S&AR1S 2!6$. Ahether you are in the water or in a boat or ra"t% you may see many types o" sea li"e around you. Some may be more dangerous than others. )enerally% sharks are the greatest danger to you. ?ther animals% such as whales% porpoises% and stingrays% may look dangerous% but really pose little threat in the open sea. 2!6(. ?" the many hundreds o" shark species% only about $= species are known to attack man. The most dangerous are the great white shark% the hammerhead% the mako% and the tiger shark. ?ther sharks known to attack man include the gray% blue% lemon% sand% nurse% bull% and oceanic white!tip sharks. -onsider any shark longer than meter :( "eet; dangerous. 2!6,. There are sharks in all oceans and seas o" the world. Ahile many live and "eed in the depths o" the sea% others hunt near the sur"ace. The sharks living near the sur"ace are the ones you will most likely see. Their dorsal "ins "re1uently pro+ect above the water. Sharks in the tropical and subtropical seas are "ar more aggressive than those in temperate waters. 2!6/. All sharks are basically eating machines. Their normal diet is live animals o" any type% and they will strike at in+ured or helpless animals. Sight% smell% or sound may guide them to their prey. Sharks have an acute sense o" smell and the smell o" blood in the water e#cites them. They are also very sensitive to any abnormal vibrations in the water. The struggles o" a wounded animal or swimmer% underwater e#plosions% or even a "ish struggling on a "ishline will attract a shark.

2!62. Sharks can bite "rom almost any positionE they do not have to turn on their side to bite. The +aws o" some o" the larger sharks are so "ar "orward that they can bite "loating ob+ects easily without twisting to the side. 2!66. Sharks may hunt alone% but most reports o" attacks cite more than one shark present. The smaller sharks tend to travel in schools and attack in mass. Ahenever one o" the sharks "inds a victim% the other sharks will 1uickly +oin it. Sharks will eat a wounded shark as 1uickly as their prey. 2!69. Sharks "eed at all hours o" the day and night. >ost reported shark contacts and attacks were during daylight% and many o" these have been in the late a"ternoon. Some o" the measures that you can take to protect yoursel" against sharks when you are in the water are5 Stay with other swimmers. A group can maintain a (2=!degree watch. A group can either "righten or "ight o"" sharks better than one man.  Always watch 2or sharks. Ceep all your clothing on% to include your shoes. Distorically% sharks have attacked the unclothed men in groups "irst% mainly in the "eet. -lothing also protects against abrasions should the shark brush against you.
 

Avoid &rinating. I" you must% only do so in small amounts. Let it dissipate between discharges. I" you must de"ecate% do so in small amounts and throw it as "ar away "rom you as possible. &o the same i" you must vomit.

2!6<. I" a shark attack is imminent while you are in the water% splash and yell +ust enough to keep the shark at bay. Sometimes yelling underwater or slapping the water repeatedly will scare the shark away. -onserve your strength "or "ighting in case the shark attacks. 2!9=. I" attacked% kick and strike the shark. Dit the shark on the gills or eyes i" possible. I" you hit the shark on the nose% you may in+ure your hand i" it glances o"" and hits its teeth. 2!9 . Ahen you are in a ra"t and see sharks5
    

&o not "ish. I" you have hooked a "ish% let it go. &o not clean "ish in the water. &o not throw garbage overboard. &o not let your arms% legs% or e1uipment hang in the water. Ceep 1uiet and do not move around. 8ury all dead as soon as possible. I" there are many sharks in the area% conduct the burial at night.

2!9$. Ahen you are in a ra"t and a shark attack is imminent% hit the shark with anything you have% e#cept your hands. 'ou will do more damage to your hands than the shark. I" you strike with an oar% be care"ul not to lose or break it. 2!T!CTIN5 LAN2 2!9(. 'ou should watch care"ully "or any signs o" land. There are many indicators that land is near. 2!9,. A "i#ed cumulus cloud in a clear sky or in a sky where all other clouds are moving o"ten hovers over or slightly downwind "rom an island. 2!9/. In the tropics% the re"lection o" sunlight "rom shallow lagoons or shelves o" coral ree"s o"ten causes a greenish tint in the sky. 2!92. In the arctic% light!colored re"lections on clouds o"ten indicate ice "ields or snow! covered land. These re"lections are 1uite di""erent "rom the dark gray ones caused by open water. 2!96. &eep water is dark green or dark blue. Lighter color indicates shallow water% which may mean land is near. 2!99. At night% or in "og% mist% or rain% you may detect land by odors and sounds. The musty odor o" mangrove swamps and mud "lats carry a long way. 'ou hear the roar o" sur" long be"ore you see the sur". The continued cries o" seabirds coming "rom one direction indicate their roosting place on nearby land. 2!9<. There usually are more birds near land than over the open sea. The direction "rom which "locks "ly at dawn and to which they "ly at dusk may indicate the direction o" land. &uring the day% birds are searching "or "ood and the direction o" "light has no signi"icance. 2!<=. >irages occur at any latitude% but they are more likely in the tropics% especially during the middle o" the day. 8e care"ul not to mistake a mirage "or nearby land. A mirage disappears or its appearance and elevation change when viewed "rom slightly di""erent heights. 2!< . 'ou may be able to detect land by the pattern o" the waves :re"racted; as they approach land :.igure 2! 9;. 8y traveling with the waves and parallel to the slightly turbulent area marked @L@ on the illustration% you should reach land.

,igure 1>81C9 )a-e Patterns A*out an Is and RA,TIN5 OR .!AC&IN5 T!C&NI6U!S 2!<$. ?nce you have "ound land% you must get ashore sa"ely. To ra"t ashore% you can usually use the one!man ra"t without danger. Dowever% going ashore in a strong sur" is dangerous. Take your time. Select your landing point care"ully. Try not to land when the sun is low and straight in "ront o" you. Try to land on the lee side o" an island or on a point o" land +utting out into the water. Ceep your eyes open "or gaps in the sur" line% and head "or them. Avoid coral ree"s and rocky cli""s. There are no coral ree"s near the mouths o" "reshwater streams. Avoid rip currents or strong tidal currents that may carry you "ar out to sea. *ither signal ashore "or help or sail around and look "or a sloping beach where the sur" is gentle. 2!<(. I" you have to go through the sur" to reach shore% take down the mast. Ceep your clothes and shoes on to avoid severe cuts. Ad+ust and in"late your li"e vest. Trail the sea anchor over the stem using as much line as you have. Use the oars or paddles and constantly ad+ust the sea anchor to keep a strain on the anchor line. These actions will keep the ra"t pointed toward shore and prevent the sea "rom throwing the stern around and capsi4ing you. Use the oars or paddles to help ride in on the seaward side o" a large wave. 2!<,. The sur" may be irregular and velocity may vary% so modi"y your procedure as conditions demand. A good method o" getting through the sur" is to have hal" the men sit on one side o" the ra"t% hal" on the other% "acing away "rom each other. Ahen a heavy sea bears down% hal" should row :pull; toward the sea until the crest passesE then the other hal" should row :pull; toward the shore until the ne#t heavy sea comes along. 2!</. Against a strong wind and heavy sur"% the ra"t must have all possible speed to pass rapidly through the oncoming crest to avoid being turned broadside or thrown end over end. I" possible% avoid meeting a large wave at the moment it breaks.

2!<2. I" in a medium sur" with no wind or o""shore wind% keep the ra"t "rom passing over a wave so rapidly that it drops suddenly a"ter topping the crest. I" the ra"t turns over in the sur"% try to grab hold o" it and ride it in. 2!<6. As the ra"t nears the beach% ride in on the crest o" a large wave. 0addle or row hard and ride in to the beach as "ar as you can. &o not +ump out o" the ra"t until it has grounded% then 1uickly get out and beach it. 2!<9. I" you have a choice% do not land at night. I" you have reason to believe that people live on the shore% lay away "rom the beach% signal% and wait "or the inhabitants to come out and bring you in. 2!<<. I" you encounter sea ice% land only on large% stable "loes. Avoid icebergs that may capsi4e and small "loes or those obviously disintegrating. Use oars and hands to keep the ra"t "rom rubbing on the edge o" the ice. Take the ra"t out o" the water and store it well back "rom the "loe7s edge. 'ou may be able to use it "or shelter. Ceep the ra"t in"lated and ready "or use. Any "loe may break up without warning. S)I''IN5 AS&OR! 2! ==. I" ra"ting ashore is not possible and you have to swim% wear your shoes and at least one thickness o" clothing. Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength. 2! = . I" the sur" is moderate% ride in on the back o" a small wave by swimming "orward with it. &ive to a shallow depth to end the ride +ust be"ore the wave breaks. 2! =$. In high sur"% swim toward shore in the trough between waves. Ahen the seaward wave approaches% "ace it and submerge. A"ter it passes% work toward shore in the ne#t trough. I" caught in the undertow o" a large wave% push o"" the bottom or swim to the sur"ace and proceed toward shore as above. 2! =(. I" you must land on a rocky shore% look "or a place where the waves rush up onto the rocks. Avoid places where the waves e#plode with a high% white spray. Swim slowly when making your approach. 'ou will need your strength to hold on to the rocks. 'ou should be "ully clothed and wear shoes to reduce in+ury. 2! =,. A"ter selecting your landing point% advance behind a large wave into the breakers. .ace toward shore and take a sitting position with your "eet in "ront% 2= to <= centimeters :$ or ( "eet; lower than your head. This position will let your "eet absorb the shock when you land or strike submerged boulders or ree"s. I" you do not reach shore behind the wave you picked% swim with your hands only. As the ne#t wave approaches% take a sitting position with your "eet "orward. Repeat the procedure until you land.

2! =/. Aater is 1uieter in the lee o" a heavy growth o" seaweed. Take advantage o" such growth. &o not swim through the seaweedE crawl over the top by grasping the vegetation with overhand movements. 2! =2. -ross a rocky or coral ree" as you would land on a rocky shore. Ceep your "eet close together and your knees slightly bent in a rela#ed sitting posture to cushion the blows against the coral. PIC1UP OR R!SCU! 2! =6. ?n sighting rescue cra"t approaching "or pickup :boat% ship% conventional aircra"t% or helicopter;% 1uickly clear any lines :"ishing lines% desalting kit lines; or other gear that could cause entanglement during rescue. Secure all loose items in the ra"t. Take down canopies and sails to ensure a sa"er pickup. A"ter securing all items% put on your helmet% i" available. .ully in"late your li"e preserver. Remain in the ra"t% unless otherwise instructed% and remove all e1uipment e#cept the preservers. I" possible% you will receive help "rom rescue personnel lowered into the water. Remember% "ollow all instructions given by the rescue personnel. 2! =9. I" the helicopter recovery is unassisted% do the "ollowing be"ore pickupF
        

Secure all the loose e1uipment in the ra"t% accessory bag% or in pockets. &eploy the sea anchor% stability bags% and accessory bag. 0artially de"late the ra"t and "ill it with water. Unsnap the survival kit container "rom the parachute harness. )rasp the ra"t handhold and roll out o" the ra"t. Allow the recovery device or the cable to ground out on the water7s sur"ace. >aintain the handhold until the recovery device is in your other hand. >ount the recovery device% avoiding entanglement with the ra"t. Signal the hoist operator "or pickup by placing one arm straight out to the side with your thumb up while you hold on with the other. Vigorously splash the water and then raise your arm in the @thumbs up@ signal. ?nce recovered% 2O NOT reach "or the helicopter or crewman to try to assist him. Allow the aircrew personnel to pull you into the aircra"t by themselves.


2! =<. Search planes or ships do not always spot a dri"ting ra"t or swimmer. 'ou may have to land along the coast be"ore being rescued. Surviving along the seashore is di""erent "rom open sea survival. .ood and water are more abundant and shelter is obviously easier to locate and construct. 2! =. I" you are in "riendly territory and decide to travel% it is better to move along the coast than to go inland. &o not leave the coast e#cept to avoid obstacles :swamps and cli""s; or unless you "ind a trail that you know leads to human habitation. 2! . In time o" war% remember that the enemy patrols most coastlines. These patrols may cause problems "or you i" you land on a hostile shore. 'ou will have e#tremely limited travel options in this situation. Avoid all contact with other humans and make every e""ort to cover all tracks you leave on the shore. SP!CIAL &!ALT& &AHAR2S 2! $. Surviving on the seashore certainly can provide a greater abundance o" your basic needs% but ha4ards also e#ist. -oral% poisonous and aggressive "ish% crocodiles% sea urchins% sea biscuits% sponges% anemones% tides% and undertow can pose special health ha4ards that you should be aware o" and know how to handle. Cora 2! (. -oral% dead or alive% can in"lict pain"ul cuts. There are hundreds o" water ha4ards that can cause deep puncture wounds% severe bleeding% and the danger o" in"ection. -lean all coral cuts thoroughly. &o not use iodine to disin"ect any coral cuts. Some coral polyps "eed on iodine and may grow inside your "lesh i" you use iodine. Poisonous ,ish 2! ,. >any ree" "ish have to#ic "lesh. .or some species% the "lesh is always poisonous% "or other species% only at certain times o" the year. The poisons are present in all parts o" the "ish% but especially in the liver% intestines% and eggs. This is due to their ingesting o" a poisonous bacterial that grows only on coral ree"s. This bacteria is to#ic to humans. 2! /. .ish to#ins are water solubleE no amount o" cooking will neutrali4e them. They are tasteless% there"ore% the standard edibility tests are useless. 8irds are least susceptible to the poisons. There"ore% do not think that because a bird can eat a "ish% it is a sa"e species "or you to eat. 2! 2. The to#ins will produce a numbness o" the lips% tongue% toes% and tips o" the "ingers% severe itching% and a clear reversal o" temperature sensations. -old items appear hot and hot

items cold. There will probably also be nausea% vomiting% loss o" speech% di44iness% and a paralysis that eventually brings death. 2! 6. In addition to "ish with poisonous "lesh% there are those that are dangerous to touch. >any stingrays have a poisonous barb in their tail. There are also species that can deliver an electric shock. Some ree" "ish% such as stone"ish and toad"ish% have venomous spines that can cause very pain"ul although seldom "atal in+uries. The venom "rom these spines causes a burning sensation or even an agoni4ing pain that is out o" proportion to the apparent severity o" the wound. A +elly"ish% while not usually "atal% can in"lict a very pain"ul sting i" it touches you with its tentacles. See -hapter and Appendi# . "or details on particularly dangerous "ish o" the sea and seashore. Aggressi-e ,ish 2! 9. 'ou should also avoid some "erocious "ish. The bold and in1uisitive barracuda has attacked men wearing shiny ob+ects. It may charge lights or shiny ob+ects at night. The sea bass% which can grow to .6 meters :2 "eet;% is another "ish to avoid. The moray eel% which has many sharp teeth and grows to ./ meters :/ "eet;% can also be aggressive i" disturbed. Sea Sna(es 2! <. Sea snakes are venomous and sometimes "ound in mid ocean. They are unlikely to bite unless provoked. A-oid them. Crocodi es 2! $=. -rocodiles inhabit tropical saltwater bays and mangrove!bordered estuaries and range up to 2/ kilometers :(< miles; into the open sea. .ew remain near inhabited areas. 'ou commonly "ind crocodiles in the remote areas o" the *ast Indies and Southeast Asia. -onsider specimens over meter :( "eet; long dangerous% especially "emales guarding their nests. -rocodile meat is an e#cellent source o" "ood when available. Sea Urchins% Sea .iscuits% Sponges% and Ane#ones 2! $ . These animals can cause e#treme% though seldom "atal% pain. Usually "ound in tropical shallow water near coral "ormations% sea urchins resemble small% round porcupines. I" stepped on% they slip "ine needles o" lime or silica into the skin% where they break o"" and "ester. I" possible% remove the spines and treat the in+ury "or in"ection. The other animals mentioned in"lict in+ury similarly. Tides and Underto+

2! $$. I" caught in a large wave7s undertow% push o"" the bottom or swim to the sur"ace and proceed shoreward in a trough between waves. &o not "ight against the pull o" the undertow. Swim with it or perpendicular to it until it loses strength% then swim "or shore. ,OO2 2! $(. ?btaining "ood along a seashore should not present a problem. There are many types o" seaweed and other plants you can easily "ind and eat. See -hapter < and Appendi# 8 "or a discussion o" these plants. There is also a great variety o" animal li"e that can supply your need "or "ood in this type o" survival situation. 'o us(s 2! $,. >ussels% limpets% clams% sea snails% octopuses% s1uids% and sea slugs are all edible. Shell"ish will usually supply most o" the protein eaten by coastal survivors. Avoid the blue! ringed octopus and cone shells :described in -hapter and Appendi# .;. Also% beware o" @red tides@ that make mollusks poisonous. Apply the edibility test on each species be"ore eating. )or#s 2! $/. -oastal worms are generally edible% but it is better to use them "or "ish bait. Avoid bristle worms that look like "u44y caterpillars. Also% avoid tubeworms that have sharp!edged tubes. Arrow worms% alias amphio#us% are not true worms. 'ou "ind them in the sand. They are e#cellent either "resh or dried. Cra*s% Lo*sters% and .arnac es 2! $2. These animals are seldom dangerous to man and are an e#cellent "ood source. The pincers o" larger crabs or lobsters can crush a man7s "inger. >any species have spines on their shells% making it pre"erable to wear gloves when catching them. 8arnacles can cause scrapes or cuts and are di""icult to detach "rom their anchor% but the larger species are an e#cellent "ood source. Sea Urchins 2! $6. These are common and can cause pain"ul in+uries when stepped on or touched. They are also a good source o" "ood. Dandle them with gloves and remove all spines. Sea Cucu#*ers

2! $9. This animal is an important "ood source in the Indo!0aci"ic regions. Use them whole a"ter evisceration or remove the "ive muscular strips that run the length o" its body. *at them smoked% pickled% or cooked.

Chapter 1@

!Bpedient )ater Crossings
In a survival situation% you may have to cross a water obstacle. It may be in the "orm o" a river% a stream% a lake% a bog% 1uicksand% 1uagmire% or muskeg. *ven in the desert% "lash "loods occur% making streams an obstacle. Ahatever the obstacle% you need to know how to cross it sa"ely.

6! . 'ou can apply almost every description to rivers and streams. They may be shallow or deep% slow or "ast moving% narrow or wide. 8e"ore you try to cross a river or stream% develop a good plan. 6!$. 'our "irst step is to look "or a high place "rom which you can get a good view o" the river or stream. .rom this place% you can look "or a place to cross. I" there is no high place% climb a tree. )ood crossing locations include5 A level stretch where it breaks into several channels. Two or three narrow channels are usually easier to cross than a wide river.  A shallow bank or sandbar. I" possible% select a point upstream "rom the bank or sandbar so that the current will carry you to it i" you lose your "ooting.
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A course across the river that leads downstream so that you will cross the current at about a ,/!degree angle.

6!(. The "ollowing areas possess potential ha4ardsE avoid them% i" possibleF ?bstacles on the opposite side o" the river that might hinder your travel. Try to select the spot "rom which travel will be the sa"est and easiest.  A ledge o" rocks that crosses the river. This o"ten indicates dangerous rapids or canyons.

A deep or rapid water"all or a deep channel. 3ever try to "ord a stream directly above or even close to such ha4ards. Rocky places that could cause you to sustain serious in+uries "rom slipping or "alling. Usually% submerged rocks are very slick% making balance e#tremely di""icult. An occasional rock that breaks the current% however% may help you. An estuary o" a river because it is normally wide% has strong currents% and is sub+ect to tides. These tides can in"luence some rivers many kilometers "rom their mouths. )o back upstream to an easier crossing site. *ddies% which can produce a power"ul backward pull downstream o" the obstruction causing the eddy and pull you under the sur"ace.

6!,. The depth o" a "ordable river or stream is no deterrent i" you can keep your "ooting. In "act% deep water sometimes runs more slowly and is there"ore sa"er than "ast!moving shallow water. 'ou can always dry your clothes later% or i" necessary% you can make a ra"t to carry your clothing and e1uipment across the river. 6!/. 'ou must not try to swim or wade across a stream or river when the water is at very low temperatures. This swim could be "atal. Try to make a ra"t o" some type. Aade across i" you can get only your "eet wet. &ry them vigorously as soon as you reach the other bank.

6!2. I" necessary% you can sa"ely cross a deep% swi"t river or rapids. To swim across a deep% swi"t river% swim with the current% never "ight it. Try to keep your body hori4ontal to the water. This will reduce the danger o" being pulled under. 6!6. In "ast% shallow rapids% lie on your back% "eet pointing downstream% "inning your hands alongside your hips. This action will increase buoyancy and help you steer away "rom obstacles. Ceep your "eet up to avoid getting them bruised or caught by rocks. 6!9. In deep rapids% lie on your stomach% head downstream% angling toward the shore whenever you can. Aatch "or obstacles and be care"ul o" backwater eddies and converging currents% as they o"ten contain dangerous swirls. -onverging currents occur where new watercourses enter the river or where water has been diverted around large obstacles such as small islands. 6!<. To "ord a swi"t% treacherous stream% apply the "ollowing stepsF

Remove your pants and shirt to lessen the water7s pull on you. Ceep your "ootgear on to protect your "eet and ankles "rom rocks. It will also provide you with "irmer "ooting.  Tie your pants and other articles to the top o" your rucksack or in a bundle% i" you have no pack. This way% i" you have to release your e1uipment% all your articles will be together. It is easier to "ind one large pack than to "ind several small items.
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-arry your pack well up on your shoulders and be sure you can easily remove it% i" necessary. 3ot being able to get a pack o"" 1uickly enough can drag even the strongest swimmers under. .ind a strong pole about 6./ centimeters :( inches; in diameter and $. to $., meters :6 to 9 "eet; long to help you "ord the stream. )rasp the pole and plant it "irmly on your upstream side to break the current. 0lant your "eet "irmly with each step% and move the pole "orward a little downstream "rom its previous position% but still upstream "rom you. Aith your ne#t step% place your "oot below the pole. Ceep the pole well slanted so that the "orce o" the current keeps the pole against your shoulder :.igure 6! ;. -ross the stream so that you will cross the downstream current at a ,/!degree angle.

,igure 1@819 One 'an Crossing S+i/t Strea# 6! =. Using this method% you can sa"ely cross currents usually too strong "or one person to stand against. &o not concern yoursel" about your pack7s weight% as the weight will help rather than hinder you in "ording the stream. 6! . I" there are other people with you% cross the stream together. *nsure that everyone has prepared their pack and clothing as outlined above. 0osition the heaviest person on the downstream end o" the pole and the lightest on the upstream end. In using this method% the upstream person breaks the current% and those below can move with relative ease in the eddy "ormed by the upstream person. I" the upstream person gets temporarily swept o"" his "eet% the others can hold steady while he regains his "ooting :.igure 6!$;.

,igure 1@809 Se-era 'en Crossing S+i/t Strea# 6! $. I" you have three or more people and a rope available% you can use the techni1ue shown in .igure 6!( to cross the stream. The length o" the rope must be three times the width o" the stream.

,igure 1@8<9 Indi-idua s Tied Together to Cross Strea#

6! (. I" you have two ponchos% you can construct a brush ra"t or an Australian poncho ra"t. Aith either o" these ra"ts% you can sa"ely "loat your e1uipment across a slow!moving stream or river. .RUS& RA,T 6! ,. The brush ra"t% i" properly constructed% will support about / kilograms :$/( pounds;. To construct it% use ponchos% "resh green brush% two small saplings% and rope or vine as "ollows :.igure 6!,;F 0ush the hood o" each poncho to the inner side and tightly tie o"" the necks using the drawstrings.  Attach the ropes or vines at the corner and side grommets o" each poncho. >ake sure they are long enough to cross to and tie with the others attached at the opposite corner or side.
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Spread one poncho on the ground with the inner side up. 0ile "resh% green brush :no thick branches; on the poncho until the brush stack is about ,/ centimeters : 9 inches; high. 0ull the drawstring up through the center o" the brush stack. >ake an L!"rame "rom two small saplings and place it on top o" the brush stack. Tie the L!"rame securely in place with the poncho drawstring. 0ile another ,/ centimeters : 9 inches; o" brush on top o" the L!"rame% then compress the brush slightly. 0ull the poncho sides up around the brush and% using the ropes or vines attached to the corner or side grommets% tie them diagonally "rom corner to corner and "rom side to side. Spread the second poncho% inner side up% ne#t to the brush bundle. Roll the brush bundle onto the second poncho so that the tied side is down. Tie the second poncho around the brush bundle in the same manner as you tied the "irst poncho around the brush. 0lace it in the water with the tied side o" the second poncho "acing up.

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,igure 1@879 .rush Ra/t AUSTRALIAN PONC&O RA,T 6! /. I" you do not have time to gather brush "or a brush ra"t% you can make an Australian poncho ra"t. This ra"t% although more waterproo" than the poncho brush ra"t% will only "loat about (/ kilograms :66 pounds; o" e1uipment. To construct this ra"t% use two ponchos% two rucksacks% two .$!meter :,!"oot; poles or branches% and ropes% vines% bootlaces% or comparable material as "ollows :.igure 6!/;F 0ush the hood o" each poncho to the inner side and tightly tie o"" the necks using the drawstrings.  Spread one poncho on the ground with the inner side up. 0lace and center the two .$!meter :,!"oot; poles on the poncho about ,/ centimeters : 9 inches; apart.
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0lace your rucksacks% packs% or other e1uipment between the poles. Also% place other items that you want to keep dry between the poles. Snap the poncho sides together. Use your buddy7s help to complete the ra"t. Dold the snapped portion o" the poncho in the air and roll it tightly down to the e1uipment. >ake sure you roll the "ull width o" the poncho. Twist the ends o" the roll to "orm pigtails in opposite directions. .old the pigtails over the bundle and tie them securely in place using ropes% bootlaces% or vines. Spread the second poncho on the ground% inner side up. I" you need more buoyancy% place some "resh green brush on this poncho. 0lace the e1uipment bundle% tied side down% on the center o" the second poncho. Arap the second poncho around the e1uipment bundle "ollowing the same procedure you used "or wrapping the e1uipment in the "irst poncho.

Tie ropes% bootlaces% vines% or other binding material around the ra"t about (= centimeters : $ inches; "rom the end o" each pigtail. 0lace and secure weapons on top o" the ra"t. Tie one end o" a rope to an empty canteen and the other end to the ra"t. This will help you to tow the ra"t.

,igure 1@8=9 Austra ian Poncho Ra/t PONC&O 2ONUT RA,T 6! 2. Another type o" ra"t is the poncho donut ra"t. It takes more time to construct than the brush ra"t or Australian poncho ra"t% but it is e""ective. To construct it% use one poncho% small saplings% willow or vines% and rope% bootlaces% or other binding material :.igure 6!2; as "ollowsF >ake a "ramework circle by placing several stakes in the ground that roughly outline an inner and outer circle.  Using young saplings% willow% or vines% construct a donut ring within the circles o" stakes.
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Arap several pieces o" cordage around the donut ring about (= to 2= centimeters : $ to $, inches; apart and tie them securely. 0ush the poncho7s hood to the inner side and tightly tie o"" the neck using the drawstring. 0lace the poncho on the ground% inner side up. 0lace the donut ring on the center o" the poncho. Arap the poncho up and over the donut ring and tie o"" each grommet on the poncho to the ring. Tie one end o" a rope to an empty canteen and the other end to the ra"t. This rope will help you to tow the ra"t.

,igure 1@8>9 Poncho 2onut Ra/t 6! 6. Ahen launching any o" the above ra"ts% take care not to puncture or tear it by dragging it on the ground. 8e"ore you start to cross the river or stream% let the ra"t lay on the water a "ew minutes to ensure that it "loats. 6! 9. I" the river is too deep to "ord% push the ra"t in "ront o" you while you are swimming. The design o" the above ra"ts does not allow them to carry a person7s "ull body weight. Use them as a "loat to get you and your e1uipment sa"ely across the river or stream. 6! <. 8e sure to check the water temperature be"ore trying to cross a river or water obstacle. I" the water is e#tremely cold and you are unable to "ind a shallow "ording place in the river% do not try to "ord it. &evise other means "or crossing. .or instance% you might improvise a bridge by "elling a tree over the river. ?r you might build a ra"t large enough to carry you and your e1uipment. .or this% however% you will need an a#e% a kni"e% a rope or vines% and time. LO5 RA,T 6!$=. 'ou can make a ra"t using any dry% dead% standing trees "or logs. Dowever% spruce trees "ound in polar and subpolar regions make the best ra"ts. A simple method "or making a ra"t is to use pressure bars lashed securely at each end o" the ra"t to hold the logs together :.igure 6!6;.

,igure 1@8@9 Use o/ Pressure .ars


6!$ . I" the water is warm enough "or swimming and you do not have the time or materials to construct one o" the poncho!type ra"ts% you can use various "lotation devices to negotiate the water obstacle. Some items you can use "or "lotation devices are5

$ro&sers. Cnot each trouser leg at the bottom and close the "ly. Aith both hands% grasp the waistband at the sides and swing the trousers in the air to trap air in each leg. Ouickly press the sides o" the waistband together and hold it underwater so that the air will not escape. 'ou now have water wings to keep you a"loat as you cross the body o" water.

NOT!; Aet the trousers be"ore in"lating to trap the air better 'ou may have to rein"late the trousers several times when crossing a large body o" water. 3mpty containers. Lash together empty gas cans% water +ugs% ammo cans% bo#es% or other items that will trap or hold air. Use them as water wings. Use this type o" "lotation device only in a slow!moving river or stream.  "lastic %ags and ponchos. .ill two or more plastic bags with air and secure them together at the opening. Use your poncho and roll green vegetation tightly inside it so that you have a roll at least $= centimeters :9 inches; in diameter. Tie the ends o" the roll securely. 'ou can wear it around your waist or across one shoulder and under the opposite arm.
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0ogs. Use a stranded dri"t log i" one is available% or "ind a log near the water to use as a "loat. 8e sure to test the log be"ore starting to cross. Some tree logs5palm% "or e#ample5will sink even when the wood is dead. Another method is to tie two logs about 2= centimeters :$, inches; apart. Sit between the logs with your back against one and your legs over the other :.igure 6!9;. Cattails. )ather stalks o" cattails and tie them in a bundle $/ centimeters : = inches; or more in diameter. The many air cells in each stalk cause a stalk to "loat until it rots. Test the cattail bundle to be sure it will support your weight be"ore trying to cross a body o" water.

,igure 1@8C9 Log , otation

6!$$. There are many other "lotation devices that you can devise by using some imagination. Must make sure to test the device be"ore trying to use it.

6!$(. ?ther water obstacles that you may "ace are bogs% 1uagmire% muskeg% or 1uicksand. &o not try to walk across these. Trying to li"t your "eet while standing upright will make you sink deeper. Try to bypass these obstacles. I" you are unable to bypass them% you may be able to bridge them using logs% branches% or "oliage. 6!$,. A way to cross a bog is to lie "ace down% with your arms and legs spread. Use a "lotation device or "orm pockets o" air in your clothing. Swim or pull your way across moving slowly and trying to keep your body hori4ontal. 6!$/. In swamps% the areas that have vegetation are usually "irm enough to support your weight. Dowever% vegetation will usually not be present in open mud or water areas. I" you are an average swimmer% you should have no problem swimming% crawling% or pulling your way through miles o" bog or swamp. 6!$2. Ouicksand is a mi#ture o" sand and water that "orms a shi"ting mass. It yields easily to pressure and sucks down and engul"s ob+ects resting on its sur"ace. It varies in depth and is usually locali4ed. Ouicksand commonly occurs on "lat shores% in silt!choked rivers with shi"ting watercourses% and near the mouths o" large rivers. I" you are uncertain whether a sandy area is 1uicksand% toss a small stone on it. The stone will sink in 1uicksand. Although 1uicksand has more suction than mud or muck% you can cross it +ust as you would cross a bog. Lie "ace down% spread your arms and legs% and move slowly across.

6!$6. Some water areas you must cross may have underwater and "loating plants that will make swimming di""icult. Dowever% you can swim through relatively dense vegetation i" you remain calm and do not thrash about. Stay as near the sur"ace as possible and use the breaststroke with shallow leg and arm motion. Remove the plants around you as you would clothing. Ahen you get tired% "loat or swim on your back until you have rested enough to continue with the breaststroke. 6!$9. The mangrove swamp is another type o" obstacle that occurs along tropical coastlines. >angrove trees or shrubs throw out many prop roots that "orm dense masses. To get through a mangrove swamp% wait "or low tide. I" you are on the inland side% look "or a narrow grove o" trees and work your way seaward through these. 'ou can also try to "ind the bed o" a waterway or creek through the trees and "ollow it to the sea. I" you are on the seaward side% work inland along streams or channels. 8e on the lookout "or crocodiles along channels and

in shallow water. I" there are any near you% leave the water and scramble over the mangrove roots. Ahile crossing a mangrove swamp% it is possible to gather "ood "rom tidal pools or tree roots. 6!$<. A large swamp area re1uires more time and e""ort. There"ore% i" you #ust cross a large swamp area% construct some type o" ra"t.

Chapter 1C

,ie d8!Bpedient 2irection ,inding
In a survival situation% you will be e#tremely "ortunate i" you happen to have a map and compass. I" you do have these two pieces o" e1uipment% you will most likely be able to move toward help. I" you are not pro"icient in using a map and compass% you must take the steps to gain this skill. There are several methods by which you can determine direction by using the sun and the stars. These methods% however% will give you only a general direction. 'ou can come up with a more nearly true direction i" you know the terrain o" the territory or country. 'ou must learn all you can about the terrain o" the country or territory to which you or your unit may be sent% especially any prominent "eatures or landmarks. This knowledge o" the terrain together with using the methods e#plained below will let you come up with "airly true directions to help you navigate.

9! . The earth7s relationship to the sun can help you to determine direction on earth. The sun always rises in the east and sets in the west% but not e#actly due east or due west. There is also some seasonal variation. Shadows will move in the opposite direction o" the sun. In the 3orthern Demisphere% they will move "rom west to east% and will point north at noon. In the Southern Demisphere% shadows will indicate south at noon. Aith practice% you can use shadows to determine both direction and time o" day. The shadow methods used "or direction "inding are the shadow!tip and watch methods. S&A2O)8TIP '!T&O2S

9!$. In the "irst shadow!tip method% "ind a straight stick meter :( "eet; long% and a level spot "ree o" brush on which the stick will cast a de"inite shadow. This method is simple and accurate and consists o" "our stepsF Step 1. 0lace the stick or branch into the ground at a level spot where it will cast a distinctive shadow. >ark the shadow7s tip with a stone% twig% or other means. This "irst shadow mark is always west5e-ery+here on earth.  Step 2. Aait = to / minutes until the shadow tip moves a "ew centimeters. >ark the shadow tip7s new position in the same way as the "irst. This mark will represent *ast.
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Step 3. &raw a straight line through the two marks to obtain an appro#imate east!west line. Step 4. Stand with the "irst mark :west; to your le"t and the second mark to your right5you are now "acing north. This "act is true e-ery+here on earth.

9!(. An alternate method is more accurate but re1uires more time. Set up your shadow stick and mark the "irst shadow in the morning. Use a piece o" string to draw a clean arc through this mark and around the stick. At midday% the shadow will shrink and disappear. In the a"ternoon% it will lengthen again and at the point where it touches the arc% make a second mark. &raw a line through the two marks to get an accurate east!west line :.igure 9! ;.

,igure 1C819 Shado+8Tip 'ethod T&! )ATC& '!T&O2 9!,. 'ou can also determine direction using a common or analog watch5one that has hands. The direction will be accurate i" you are using true local time% without any changes "or daylight savings time. Remember% the "urther you are "rom the e1uator% the more accurate this method will be. I" you only have a digital watch% draw a clock "ace on a circle o" paper with the correct time on it and use it to determine your direction at that time. 'ou may also choose to draw a clock "ace on the ground or lay your watch on the ground "or a more accurate reading. 9!/. In the 3orthern Demisphere% hold the watch hori4ontal and point the hour hand at the sun. 8isect the angle between the hour hand and the $!o7clock mark to get the north!south line :.igure 9!$;. I" there is any doubt as to which end o" the line is north% remember that the sun rises in the east% sets in the west% and is due south at noon. The sun is in the east be"ore noon and in the west a"ter noon.

,igure 1C809 )atch 'ethod NOT!; I" your watch is set on daylight savings time% use the midway point between the hour hand and o7clock to determine the north!south line. 9!2. In the Southern Demisphere% point the watch7s $!o7clock mark toward the sunE a midpoint hal"way between $ and the hour hand will give you the north!south line :.igure 9!$;. 9!6. Another method is called the $,!hour clock method. Take the local military time and divide it by two. Imagine this result to now represent the hour hand. In the 3orthern Demisphere% point this resulting hour hand at the sun% and the $ will point north. .or e#ample% it is ,== hours. &ivide ,== by two and the answer is 6==% which will represent the hour. Dolding the watch hori4ontal% point the 6 at the sun and $ will point north. In the Southern Demisphere% point the $ at the sun% and the resulting @hour@ "rom the division will point south.

9!9. 8ecause the moon has no light o" its own% we can only see it when it re"lects the sun7s light. As it orbits the earth on its $9!day circuit% the shape o" the re"lected light varies according to its position. Ae say there is a new moon or no moon when it is on the opposite side o" the earth "rom the sun. Then% as it moves away "rom the earth7s shadow% it begins to re"lect light "rom its right side and wa#es to become a "ull moon be"ore waning% or losing shape% to appear as a sliver on the le"t side. 'ou can use this in"ormation to identi"y direction. 9!<. I" the moon rises be"ore the sun has set% the illuminated side will be the west. I" the moon rises a"ter midnight% the illuminated side will be the east. This obvious discovery provides us with a rough east!west re"erence during the night.

9! =. 'our location in the 3orthern or Southern Demisphere determines which constellation you use to determine your north or south direction. *ach sky is e#plained below. T&! NORT&!RN S1$ 9! . The main constellations to learn are the Ursa >a+or% also known as the 8ig &ipper or the 0low% and -assiopeia% also known as the La4y A :.igure 9!(;. Use them to locate 0olaris% also known as the polestar or the 3orth Star. 0olaris is considered to remain stationary% as it rotates only .=9 degrees around the northern celestial pole. The 3orth Star is the last star o" the Little &ipper7s handle and can be con"used with the 8ig &ipper. Dowever% the Little &ipper is made up o" seven rather dim stars and is not easily seen unless you are "ar away "rom any town or city lights. 0revent con"usion by attempting to use both the 8ig &ipper and -assiopeia together. The 8ig &ipper and -assiopeia are generally opposite each other and rotate counterclockwise around 0olaris% with 0olaris in the center. The 8ig &ipper is a seven! star constellation in the shape o" a dipper. The two stars "orming the outer lip o" this dipper are the @pointer stars@ because they point to the 3orth Star. >entally draw a line "rom the outer bottom star to the outer top star o" the 8ig &ipper7s bucket. *#tend this line about "ive times the distance between the pointer stars. 'ou will "ind the 3orth Star along this line. 'ou may also note that the 3orth Star can always be "ound at the same appro#imate vertical angle above the hori4on as the northern line o" latitude you are located on. .or e#ample% i" you are at (/ degrees north latitude% 0olaris will be easier to "ind i" you scan the sky at (/ degrees o"" the hori4on. This will help to lessen the area o" the sky in which to locate the 8ig &ipper% -assiopeia% and the 3orth Star.

,igure 1C8<9 The .ig 2ipper and Cassiopeia 9! $. -assiopeia or the La4y A has "ive stars that "orm a shape like a @A.@ ?ne side o" the @A@ appears "lattened or @la4y.@ The 3orth Star can be "ound by bisecting the angle "ormed on the la4y side. *#tend this line about "ive times the distance between the bottom o" the @A@ and the top. The 3orth Star is located between -assiopeia and the Ursa >a+or :8ig &ipper;. 9! (. A"ter locating the 3orth Star% locate the 3orth 0ole or true north by drawing an imaginary line directly to the earth. T&! SOUT&!RN S1$ 9! ,. 8ecause there is no single star bright enough to be easily recogni4ed near the south celestial pole% you can use a constellation known as the Southern -ross. 'ou can use it as a signpost to the South :.igure 9!,;. The Southern -ross or -ru# has "ive stars. Its "our brightest stars "orm a cross. The two stars that make up the -ross7s long a#is are used as a guideline. To determine south% imagine a distance "our!and!one!hal" to "ive times the distance between these stars and the hori4on. The pointer stars to the le"t o" the Southern -ross serve two purposes. .irst% they provide an additional cue toward south by imagining a line "rom the stars toward the ground. Second% the pointer stars help accurately identi"y the true Southern -ross "rom the .alse -ross. The intersection o" the Southern -ross and the two pointer stars is very dark and devoid o" stars. This area is called the coal sac. Look down to the hori4on "rom this imaginary point and select a landmark to steer by. In a static survival situation% you can "i# this location in daylight i" you drive stakes in the ground at night to point the way.

,igure 1C879 Southern Cross

9! /. 'ou can construct improvised compasses using a piece o" "errous metal that can be needleshaped or a "lat double!edged ra4or blade and a piece o" thread or long hair "rom which to suspend it. 'ou can magneti4e or polari4e the metal by slowly stroking it in one direction on a piece o" silk or care"ully through your hair using deliberate strokes. 'ou can also polari4e metal by stroking it repeatedly at one end with a magnet. Always stroke in one direction only. I" you have a battery and some electric wire% you can polari4e the metal electrically. The wire should be insulated. I" it is not insulated% wrap the metal ob+ect in a single% thin strip o" paper or a lea" to prevent contact. The battery must be a minimum o" $ volts. .orm a coil with the electric wire and touch its ends to the battery7s terminals. Repeatedly insert one end o" the metal ob+ect in and out o" the coil. The needle will become an electromagnet. Ahen suspended "rom a piece o" nonmetallic string% or "loated on a small piece o" wood% cork or a lea" in water% it will align itsel" with a north!south line. 9! 2. 'ou can construct a more elaborate improvised compass using a sewing needle or thin metallic ob+ect% a nonmetallic container :"or e#ample% the cut!o"" bottom o" a plastic container or so"t drink bottle;% and the silver tip "rom a pen. To construct this compass% take an ordinary sewing needle and break in hal". ?ne hal" will "orm your direction pointer and the other will act as the pivot point. 0ush the portion used as the pivot point through the bottom center o" your containerE this portion should be "lush on the bottom and not inter"ere with the lid. Attach the center o" the other portion :the pointer; o" the needle on the pen7s silver tip using glue% tree sap% or melted plastic. >agneti4e one end o" the pointer and rest it on the pivot point.

9! 6. The old saying about using moss on a tree to indicate north is not considered accurate because moss grows completely around some trees. Actually% growth is more lush on the side o" the tree "acing the south in the 3orthern Demisphere and vice versa in the southern hemisphere. I" there are several "elled trees around "or comparison% look at the stumps. )rowth is more vigorous on the side toward the e1uator and the tree growth rings will be more widely spaced. ?n the other hand% the tree growth rings will be closer together on the side toward the poles. 9! 9. Aind direction may be help"ul in some instances where there are prevailing directions and you know what they are. 9! <. Recogni4ing the di""erences between vegetation and moisture patterns on north! and south!"acing slopes can aid in determining direction. In the 3orthern Demisphere% north! "acing slopes receive less sun than south!"acing slopes and are there"ore cooler and damper. In the summer% north!"acing slopes retain patches o" snow. In the winter% trees and open

areas on south!"acing slopes and the southern side o" boulders and large rocks are the "irst to lose their snow. The ground snowpack is also shallower due to the warming e""ects o" the sun. In the Southern Demisphere% all o" these e""ects will be the opposite.

Chapter 1D

Signa ing Techni"ues
?ne o" your "irst concerns when you "ind yoursel" in a survival situation is to communicate with your "riends or allies. )enerally% communication is the giving and receiving o" in"ormation. In a survival situation% you must "irst get your rescuer7s attention% then second% send a message your rescuer understands. Some attention!getters are man!made geometric patterns such as straight lines% circles% triangles% or Ls displayed in uninhabited areasE a large "ire or "lash o" lightE a large% bright ob+ect moving slowlyE or contrast% whether "rom color or shadows. The type o" signal used will depend on your environment and the enemy situation.

<! . I" in a noncombat situation% you need to "ind the largest available clear and "lat area on the highest possi%le terrain. Use as obvious a signal as you can create. ?n the other hand% you will have to be more discreet in combat situations. 'ou do not want to signal and attract the enemy. 0ick an area that is visible "rom the air% but ensure there are hiding places nearby. Try to have a hill or other ob+ect between the signal site and the enemy to mask your signal "rom the enemy. 0er"orm a thorough reconnaissance o" the area to ensure there are no enemy "orces nearby. <!$. Ahatever signaling techni1ue or device you plan to use% know how to use it and be ready to put it into operation on short notice. I" possible% avoid using signals or signaling techni1ues that can physically endanger you. Ceep in mind that signals to your 2riends may alert the enemy o" your presence and location. 8e"ore signaling% care"ully weigh your rescue chances by 2riends against the danger o" capture by the enemy.

<!(. A radio is probably the surest and 1uickest way to let others know where you are and to let you receive their messages. 8ecome "amiliar with the radios in your unit. Learn how to operate them and how to send and receive messages. <!,. 'ou will "ind descriptions o" other signaling techni1ues% devices% and articles you can use. Learn how to use them. Think o" ways in which you can adapt or change them "or di""erent environments. 0ractice using these signaling techni1ues% devices% and articles be"ore you need them. 0lanned% prearranged signaling techni1ues may improve your chance o" rescue.

<!/. There are two main ways to get attention or to communicate5visual and audio. The means you use will depend on your situation and the material you have available. Ahatever the means% always have visual and audio signals ready "or use. Throughout this chapter you will see re"erences to @groups o" threes.@ This is because nature does not normally replicate anything in groups o" three. @Things in threes@ tend more o"ten to be manmade sounds or visual signals. VISUAL SI5NALS <!2. These signals are materials or e1uipment you use to make your presence known to rescuers. Visual signals can include "ire% smoke% "lares% and many other means o" signaling. ,ire <!6. &uring darkness% "ire is an e""ective visual means "or signaling. 8uild three "ires in a triangle :the international distress signal; or in a straight line with about $/ meters :9( "eet; between the "ires. 8uild them as soon as time and the situation permit and protect them "rom the elements until you need them. I" you are alone% maintaining three "ires may be di""icult. I" so% maintain one signal "ire. The hot coal bed le"t by a "ire also may be seen by aerial plat"orms that are e1uipped to detect in"rared or thermal signatures. <!9. Ahen constructing signal "ires% consider your geographic location. I" in a +ungle% "ind a natural clearing or the edge o" a stream where you can build "ires that the +ungle "oliage will not hide. 'ou may even have to clear an area. I" in a snow!covered area% you may have to clear the ground o" snow or make a plat"orm on which to build the "ire so that melting snow will not e#tinguish it. <!<. A burning tree :tree torch; is another way to attract attention :.igure <! ;. 'ou can set pitch!bearing trees a"ire% even when green. 'ou can get other types o" trees to burn by placing dry wood in the lower branches and igniting it so that the "lames "lare up and ignite the

"oliage. 8e"ore the primary tree is consumed% cut and add more small green trees to the "ire to produce more smoke. Always select an isolated tree so that you do not start a "orest "ire and endanger yoursel".

,igure 1D819 Tree Torch S#o(e <! =. &uring daylight% build a smoke generator and use smoke to gain attention :.igure <! $;. The international distress signal is three columns o" smoke. Try to create a color o" smoke that contrasts with the backgroundE dark smoke against a light background and vice versa. I" you practically smother a large "ire with green leaves% moss% or a little water% the "ire will produce white smoke. I" you add rubber or oil!soaked rags to a "ire% you will get black smoke.

,igure 1D809 S#o(e 5enerator—5round <! . In a desert environment% smoke hangs close to the ground% but a pilot can spot it in open desert terrain. <! $. Smoke signals are e""ective only on comparatively calm% clear days. Digh winds% rain% or snow disperse smoke% lessening its chances o" being seen. S#o(e 5renades <! (. I" you have smoke grenades with you% use them in the same pattern as described "or "ires. Ceep them dry so that they will work when you need them. Take care not to ignite the vegetation in the area when you use them. Red is an internationally recogni4ed color o" distress% but any color smoke% i" properly used% will attract attention. Pen , ares <! ,. The > 9/ signal device is part o" an aviator7s survival vest. The device consists o" a pen!shaped gun with a "lare attached by a nylon cord. Ahen "ired% the pen "lare sounds like a pistol shot and "ires the "lare about /= meters :,</ "eet; high. It is about ( centimeters : inch; in diameter.

<! /. To have the pen "lare ready "or immediate use% take it out o" its wrapper% partially screw on the "lare% leave the gun uncocked% and drape the cord around your neck. 8e ready to "ire it well in "ront o" search aircra"t in a nonthreatening direction and be ready with a secondary signal. Also% be ready to take cover in case the pilot mistakes the "lare "or enemy "ire. It is important to note that pen "lares may de"lect o"" tree limbs and tree canopies. This may cause the "lare to de"lect or shoot back to the ground% causing a "orest "ire ha4ard. *nsure you have proper overhead clearance and an obstacle!"ree path to shoot through. 5yro8:ets <! 2. These devices are the newer version o" the pen "lare. They di""er in that they are +et! powered rather than ballistic like the pen "lares. They will reach a height o" up to (== meters :<<= "eet;. To prepare them "or "iring% the "lares are pushed until "irmly seated into a crimped collar rather than a threaded screw!on type assembly. They are designed to better penetrate tree canopies% but do not rely on this to always happen. Always ensure you have a clear path in which to aim and "ire all overhead pyrotechnics. Again% groups o" threes are internationally recogni4ed symbols o" distress. Tracer A##unition <! 6. 'ou may use ri"le or pistol tracer ammunition to signal search aircra"t. 2o not "ire the ammunition in "ront o" the aircra"t. As with pen "lares% be ready to take cover i" the pilot mistakes your tracers "or enemy "ire. Again% groups o" threes are internationally recogni4ed symbols o" distress. Star C usters <! 9. Red is the international distress colorE there"ore% use a red star cluster whenever possible. Dowever% any color will let your rescuers know where you are. Star clusters reach a height o" $== to $ / meters :22= to 6 = "eet;% burn an average o" 2 to = seconds% and descend at a rate o" , meters :,2 "eet; per second. Star Parachute , ares <! <. These "lares reach a height o" $== to $ / meters :22= to 6 = "eet; and descend at a rate o" $. meters :6 "eet; per second. The > $2 :red; burns about /= seconds and the > $6 :white; about $/ seconds. At night you can see these "lares at ,9 to /2 kilometers :(= to (, miles;. '181< and '18107

<!$=. These signals are normally "ound on aircra"t and li"t ra"ts. They produce an orange smoke on one end "or day signaling and a "lare on the other end "or nighttime use. The smoke lasts "or appro#imately / seconds and the "lare lasts $= to $/ seconds. Though the signal is designed "or use on a li"e ra"t% they do not "loat. They are designed to be handheld% but hold the device by the "ar end that is not being used to prevent burns. 3ote that a"ter e#pending either signal the other end is still available "or use% so do not discard it until both ends have been used. There are numerous redundant markings on each side o" the "lare to ensure that you activate the correct signal% day or night. The end caps are colored% raised protrusions or nipples are present% and a washer is on the pull ring to di""erentiate night and day. 'irrors or Shiny O*3ects <!$ . ?n a sunny day% a mirror is your best signaling device. I" you don7t have a mirror% polish your canteen cup% your belt buckle% or a similar ob+ect that will re"lect the sun7s rays. &irect the "lashes in one area so that they are secure "rom enemy observation. 0ractice using a mirror or shiny ob+ect "or signaling no+E do not wait until you need it. I" you have an >C!( signal mirror% "ollow the instructions on its back :.igure <!(;. An alternate% easier method o" aiming the signal mirror is to catch the re"lection on the palm o" your hand or in between two "ingers held up in a @V@ or @peace sign.@ 3ow slowly move your hand so that it is +ust below your aim point or until the aircra"t is between the @V@ in your "ingers% keeping the glare on your palm. Then move the mirror slowly and rhythmically up and down o"" your hand and onto the aim point as in .igures <!, and <!/.

,igure 1D8<9 '18< Signa 'irror

,igure 1D879 Ai#ing an I#pro-ised Signa 'irror

,igure 1D8=9 Ai#ing an I#pro-ised Signa 'irror Using a Stationary O*3ect <!$$. Aear the signal mirror on a cord or chain around your neck so that it is ready "or immediate use. Dowever% be sure the glass side is against your body so that it will not "lashE the enemy can see the "lash. <!$(. Da4e% ground "og% and mirages may make it hard "or a pilot to spot signals "rom a "lashing ob+ect. So% i" possible% get to the highest point in your area when signaling. I" you can7t determine the aircra"t7s location% "lash your signal in the direction o" the aircra"t noise. NOT!; 0ilots have reported seeing mirror "lashes up to 2= kilometers :<2 miles; away under ideal conditions. , ash ight or Stro*e Light <!$,. At night you can use a "lashlight or a strobe light to send an S?S to an aircra"t. Ahen using a strobe light% take care to prevent the pilot "rom mistaking it "or incoming ground "ire. The strobe light "lashes 2= times per minute. Some strobe lights have in"rared covers and lenses. 8lue "lash collimators are also available "or strobe lights that aid in distinguishing the "lashing o" the strobe light "rom a mu44le "lash% and also make the strobe light directional. Laser 2e-ices

<!$/. Laser aiming devices on weapons systems are highly visible. So are targeting pointers and many commercial types o" laser presentation pointers. ,ire/ y Lights <!$2. These small lights% about ( centimeters : K, inches; s1uare and centimeter : K9 inch; thick% snap onto <!volt batteries. They are available in a variety o" visible and in"rared% blinking and steady light versions. The visible range and battery duration will depend on the intensity o" the bulb and the mode each light uses. ?ther models incorporate a ,!second programmable memory that allows users to input any particular code they wish. VS81@ Pane <!$6. &uring daylight you can use a VS! 6 panel to signal. 0lace the orange side up as it is easier to see "rom the air than the violet side. .lashing the panel will make it easier "or the aircrew to spot. 'ou can use any bright orange or violet cloth as a substitute "or the VS! 6. C othing <!$9. Spreading clothing on the ground or in the top o" a tree is another way to signal. Select articles whose color will contrast with the natural surroundings. Arrange them in a large geometric pattern to make them more likely to attract attention. Natura 'ateria <!$<. I" you lack other means% you can use natural materials to "orm a symbol or message that can be seen "rom the air. 8uild mounds that cast shadowsE you can use brush% "oliage o" any type% rocks% or snow blocks. <!(=. In snow!covered areas% tramp the snow to "orm letters or symbols and "ill the depression with contrasting material :twigs or branches;. In sand% use boulders% vegetation% or seaweed to "orm a symbol or message. In brush!covered areas% cut out patterns in the vegetation or sear the ground. In tundra% dig trenches or turn the sod upside down. <!( . In any terrain% use contrasting materials that will make the symbols visible to the aircrews. ?rient the signal in a north!south "ashion to attain the ma#imum bene"it o" the sun7s shadow "or contrast and recognition. Sea 2ye 'ar(ers <!($. All aircra"t involved in operations near or over water will normally carry a water survival kit that contains sea dye markers. I" you are in a water survival situation% use sea dye

markers during daylight to indicate your location. These spots o" dye stay conspicuous "or about ( hours% e#cept in very rough seas. Use them only i" you are in a "riendly area. Ceep the markers wrapped until you are ready to use them. The sea dye is visible at a distance o" more than kilometers :6 miles; "rom an aircra"t at $%=== "eet% so you should use them only when you hear or sight an aircra"t. To "urther conserve them do not use them all at once. &ip the marker bag in the water until a slick about (= meters : == "eet; appears. Sea dye markers are also very e""ective on snow!covered groundE use them to write distress code letters. NOT!; Rumors have persisted about how sea dye attracts sharks. The U.S. 3avy has conducted research% and no scienti"ic data has been "ound to support this rumor. Sharks are naturally curious and are drawn to strange ob+ects in their area. There"ore% a shark may investigate a person% with or without sea dye% as a possible "ood source. &o not be a"raid to use sea dye markersE it may be your last or only chance to signal a rescue aircra"t. AU2IO SI5NALS <!((. 'our other means o" signaling a rescuer can be audio signals. Radios% whistles% and gunshots are some o" the methods you can use to signal your location. Radio !"uip#ent <!(,. The A3K0R-!<= survival radio is a part o" the Army aviator7s survival vest. The A3K0R-! $ will eventually replace the A3K0R-!<=. 8oth radios can transmit either tone or voice. Any other type o" Army radio can do the same. The ranges o" the di""erent radios vary depending on the altitude o" the receiving aircra"t% terrain% vegetation density% weather% battery strength% type o" radio% and inter"erence. To obtain ma#imum per"ormance "rom radios% use the "ollowing proceduresF Try to transmit only in clear% unobstructed terrain. Since radios are line!o"! sight communications devices% any terrain between the radio and the receiver will block the signal.  Ceep the antenna at right angles to the rescuing aircra"t. There is little or no signal strength emanating "rom the tip o" the antenna.
 

I" the radio has tone capability% place it upright on a "lat% elevated sur"ace so that you can per"orm other survival tasks. 3ever let any part o" the antenna or its mounting lug touch your clothing% body% "oliage% or the ground. Such contact greatly reduces the range o" the signal. -onserve battery power. Turn the radio o"" when you are not using it. &o not transmit or receive constantly. In hostile territory% keep transmissions short to avoid enemy radio direction "inding.

In cold weather% keep the battery inside your clothing when not using the radio. -old 1uickly drains the battery7s power. &o not e#pose the battery to e#treme heat such as desert sun. Digh heat may cause the battery to e#plode. The radio is designed to be waterproo"% but always try to keep the radio and battery as dry as possible% as water may destroy the circuitry. A worldwide satellite monitoring system has been developed by international search and rescue agencies to assist in locating survivors. To activate this search and rescue satellite!aided tracking :SARSAT; system in peacetime% key the transmitter "or a minimum o" (= seconds.

)hist es <!(/. Ahistles provide an e#cellent way "or close!up signaling. In some documented cases% they have been heard up to .2 kilometers :(K, mile; away. >anu"actured whistles have more range than a human whistle. 5unshots <!(2. In some situations you can use "irearms "or signaling. Three shots "ired at distinct intervals usually indicate a distress signal. &o not use this techni1ue in enemy territory. The enemy will surely come to investigate shots.

<!(6. 3ow that you know how to let people know where you are% you need to know how to give them more in"ormation. It is easier to "orm one symbol than to spell out an entire message. There"ore% learn the codes and symbols that all aircra"t pilots understand. SOS <!(9. 'ou can use lights or "lags to send an S?S5three dots% three dashes% three dots. The S?S is the internationally recogni4ed distress signal in radio >orse code. A dot is a short% sharp pulseE a dash is a longer pulse. Ceep repeating the signal. Ahen using "lags% hold "lags on the le"t side "or dashes and on the right side "or dots. 5ROUN28TO8AIR !'!R5!NC$ CO2! <!(<. This code :.igure <!2; is actually "ive de"inite% meaning"ul symbols. >ake these symbols a minimum o" , meters : ( "eet; wide and 2 meters :$= "eet; long. I" you make them larger% keep the same $F( ratio. The signal arms or legs should be meter :( "eet; wide and meter :( "eet; high to ensure ma#imum visibility "rom high altitudes. *nsure the signal

contrasts greatly with the ground it is on. The signal may be constructed "rom any available materialsE "or e#ample% aircra"t parts% logs% or leaves. Remember si4e% ratio% angularity% straight lines% and s1uare corners are not "ound in nature. 'ou must consider how the signal will contrast with the natural background. The signal may be made by breaking and bending over crops or tall grass in a "ield or trampled down into snow or sandy soil. 0lace it in an open area easily spotted "rom the air. I" evading% the signal could also be dug into the ground to reduce its signature "rom ground "orces.

,igure 1D8>9 5round8to8Air !#ergency Code EPattern Signa sF .O2$ SI5NALS <!,=. Ahen an aircra"t is close enough "or the pilot to see you clearly% use body movements or positions :.igure <!6; to convey a message.

,igure 1D8@9 .ody Signa s PAN!L SI5NALS <!, . I" you have a li"e ra"t cover or sail% or a suitable substitute such as a space blanket or combat casualty blanket% use the symbols shown in .igure <!9 to convey a message.

,igure 1D8C9 Pane Signa s AIRCRA,T AC1NO)L!25'!NTS <!,$. ?nce the pilot o" a "i#ed!wing aircra"t has sighted you% he will normally indicate he has seen you by "lying low% moving the plane% and "lashing lights as shown in .igure <!<. 8e ready to relay other messages to the pilot once he acknowledges that he received and understood your "irst message. Use a radio% i" possible% to relay "urther messages. I" no radio is available% use the codes covered in the previous paragraphs.

,igure 1D8D9 Aircra/t Ac(no+ edg#ents

<!,(. To establish initial contact% use beacon "or / seconds% use voice "or / seconds :>ayday% >ayday% >ayday5this is call sign;% then listen "or / seconds. Ahen you contact a "riendly aircra"t with a radio% guide the pilot to your location. Use the "ollowing general "ormat to guide the pilotF
     

-all sign :i" any;. 3ame. Location :clock direction and distance "rom aircra"t to your location;. *nemy disposition and location. 3umber o" people needing to be rescued. Available landing sites.

Any remarks such as medical aid or other speci"ic types o" help needed immediately. )ive any guidance or steering corrections to the pilot "rom their perspective to remove any chance o" error. .or e#ample% i" the aircra"t needs to turn le"t to pass over your position% tell the pilot to steer le"t. As he begins to come close to the correct heading% tell him to @roll out.@ -ontinue to make corrections as necessary to align the aircra"t with you. )ive the pilot estimates o" distance "rom you as well% and be prepared to give a countdown to your position. *#ampleF @'ou are one mile out... one!hal" mile out... you7ll be over my position in ten seconds% nine% eight% seven% si#% "ive% "our% three% two% one% mark.@ This will aid the pilot in estimating your range over the plane7s nose. Remember that pilots may not be able to see straight down% only out in "ront o" them at an angle depending on the aircra"t design.

<!,,. Simply because you have made contact with rescuers does not mean you are sa"e. .ollow instructions and continue to use sound survival and evasion techni1ues until you are actually rescued.

Chapter 0?

Sur-i-a 'o-e#ent In &osti e Areas
The @rescue at any cost@ philosophy o" previous con"licts is not likely to be possible in "uture con"licts. ?ur potential adversaries have made great progress in air de"ense measures and radio direction "inder :R&.; techni1ues. Ae must assume that U.S. military "orces trapped behind enemy lines in "uture con"licts may not e#perience 1uick recovery by "riendly elements. Soldiers may have to move "or e#tended times and distances to places less threatening to the recovery "orces. The soldier will not likely know the type o" recovery to e#pect. *ach situation and the available resources determine the type o" recovery possible. Since no one can be absolutely sure until the recovery e""ort begins% soldiers "acing a potential cuto"" "rom "riendly "orces should be "amiliar with all the possible types o" recovery% their related problems% and their responsibilities to the recovery e""ort. 0reparation and training can improve the chances o" success.


$=! . 0reparation is a re1uirement "or all missions. Ahen planning% you must consider how to avoid capture and return to your unit. *vasion plans must be prepared in con+unction with unit standing operating procedures :S?0s; and current +oint doctrine. 'ou must also consider any courses o" action :-?As; that you or your unit will take. !VASION PLAN O, ACTION $=!$. Success"ul evasion is dependent on e""ective prior planning. The responsibility ultimately rests on the individual concerned. Sound evasion planning should incorporate intelligence brie"ings5selected areas "or evasionE area intelligence descriptionsE *HR area studiesE survival% evasion% resistance% and escape :S*R*; guides and bulletinsE isolated personnel reportsE and an evasion plan o" action :*0A;. $=!(. The study and research needed to develop the *0A will make you aware o" the current situation in your mission area. 'our *0A will let recovery "orces know your probable actions should you have to move to avoid capture. $=!,. 'ou should start preparing even be"ore premission planning. 0ortions o" the *0A are the unit S?0. Include the *0A in your training. 0lanning starts in your daily training. $=!/. The *0A is your entire plan "or your return to "riendly control. It consists o" "ive paragraphs written in the operation order "ormat. 'ou can take most o" 0aragraph I5 Situation% with you on the mission.Appendi# I contains the *0A "ormat and indicates what portion o" the *0A you can take on the mission. $=!2. A comprehensive *0A is a valuable asset to the soldier trapped behind enemy lines attempting to avoid capture. To complete 0aragraph I% know your unit7s assigned area or concentrate on potential mission areas o" the world. >any open or closed sources contain the in"ormation you need to complete an *0A. ?pen sources may include newspapers% maga4ines% country or area handbooks% area studies% television% radio% internet% persons "amiliar with the area% and libraries. Use caution with open source in"ormationE it may be unreliable. -losed sources may include area studies% area assessments% S*R* contingency guides% S*-R*T Internet 0rotocol Router 3etwork% various classi"ied "ield manuals% and intelligence reports. $=!6. 0repare your *0A in three phases. &uring your normal training% prepare 0aragraph I5 Situation. 0repare 0aragraphs II% III% IV% and V during your premission planning. A"ter deployment into an area% continually update your *0A based on situation or mission changes and intelligence updates.

$=!9. The *0A is a guide. 'ou may add or delete certain portions based on the mission. The *0A may be a recovery "orce7s only means o" determining your location and intentions a"ter you start to evade. It is an essential tool "or your survival and return to "riendly control. STAN2IN5 OP!RATIN5 PROC!2UR!S $=!<. 'our unit S?0s are valuable tools that will help you plan your *0A. Ahen "aced with a dangerous situation re1uiring immediate action% it is not the time to discuss optionsE it is the time to act. >any o" the techni1ues used during small unit movement can be carried over to "it re1uirements "or moving and returning to "riendly control. Items "rom the S?0 should include% but are not limited to5
         

>ovement team si4e :three to "our persons per team;. Team communications :technical and nontechnical;. *ssential e1uipment. Actions at danger areas. Signaling techni1ues. Immediate action drills. Linkup procedures. Delicopter recovery devices and procedures. Security procedures during movement and at hide sites. Rally points.

$=! =. Rehearsals work e""ectively "or rein"orcing these S?0 skills and also provide opportunities "or evaluation and improvement. NOTI,ICATION TO 'OV! AN2 AVOI2 CAPTUR! $=! . An isolated unit has several general -?As it can take to avoid the capture o" the group or individuals. These -?As are not courses the commander can choose instead o" his original mission. De cannot arbitrarily abandon the assigned mission. Rather% he may adopt these -?As a"ter completing his mission when his unit cannot complete its assigned mission :because o" combat power losses; or when he receives orders to e#tract his unit "rom its current position. I" such actions are not possible% the commander may decide to have the unit try to move to avoid capture and return to "riendly control. In either case% as long as there is communication with higher head1uarters% that head1uarters will make the decision.

$=! $. I" the unit commander loses contact with higher head1uarters% he must make the decision to move or wait. De bases his decision on many "actors% including the mission% rations and ammunition on hand% casualties% the chance o" relie" by "riendly "orces% and the tactical situation. The commander o" an isolated unit "aces other 1uestions. Ahat -?A will in"lict ma#imum damage on the enemyB Ahat -?A will assist in completing the higher head1uarters7 overall missionB $=! (. >ovement teams conduct the e#ecution portion o" the plan when noti"ied by higher head1uarters or% i" there is no contact with higher head1uarters% when the highest ranking person decides that the situation re1uires the unit to try to escape capture or destruction. >ovement team leaders receive their noti"ication through prebrie"ed signals. ?nce the signal to try to avoid capture is given% it must be passed rapidly to all personnel. 3oti"y higher head1uarters% i" possible. I" unable to communicate with higher head1uarters% leaders must recogni4e that organi4ed resistance has ended% and that organi4ational control has ceased. -ommand and control is now at the movement team or individual level and is returned to higher organi4ational control only a"ter reaching "riendly lines.

$=! ,. Upon noti"ication to avoid capture% all movement team members will try to link up at the initial evasion point :I*0;. This point is where team members rally and actually begin their evasion. Tentatively select the I*0 during your planning phase through a map reconnaissance. ?nce on the ground% the team veri"ies this location or selects a better one. All team members must know its location. The I*0 should be easy to locate and occupy "or a minimum amount o" time. $=! /. ?nce the team has rallied at the I*0% it must5
    

)ive "irst aid. Inventory its e1uipment :decide what to abandon% destroy% or take along;. Apply camou"lage. >ake sure everyone knows the tentative hide locations. *nsure everyone knows the primary and alternate routes and rally points en route to the hide locations. Always maintain security. Split the team into smaller elements. The ideal element should have two to three membersE however% it could include more depending on team e1uipment and e#perience.

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$=! 2. The movement portion o" returning to "riendly control is the most dangerous as you are now most vulnerable. It is usually better to move at night because o" the concealment darkness o""ers. *#ceptions to such movement would be when moving through ha4ardous terrain or dense vegetation :"or e#ample% +ungle or mountainous terrain;. Ahen moving% avoid the "ollowing even i" it takes more time and energy to bypassF
      

?bstacles and barriers. Roads and trails. Inhabited areas. Aaterways and bridges. 3atural lines o" dri"t. >an!made structures. All civilian and military personnel.

$=! 6. >ovement in enemy!held territory is a very slow and deliberate process. The slower you move and the more care"ul you are% the better. 'our best security will be using your senses. Use your eyes and ears to detect people be"ore they detect you. >ake "re1uent listening halts. In daylight% observe a section o" your route be"ore you move along it. The distance you travel be"ore you hide will depend on the enemy situation% your health% the terrain% the availability o" cover and concealment "or hiding% and the amount o" darkness le"t. See -hapter $$ "or more movement and countertracking techni1ues. $=! 9. ?nce you have moved into the area in which you want to hide :hide area;% select a hide site. Ceep the word 8LISS in mind when selecting a hide siteF
    

8!8lends in with the surroundings. L!Low in silhouette. I!Irregular in shape. S!Small in si4e. S!Secluded.

$=! <. Avoid the use o" e#isting buildings or shelters. Usually% your best option will be to crawl into the thickest vegetation you can "ind. -onstruct any type o" shelter within the hide area only in cold weather and desert environments. I" you build a shelter% "ollow the 8LISS "ormula. &I2! SIT! ACTIVITI!S

$=!$=. A"ter you have located your hide site% do not move straight into it. Use a buttonhook or other deceptive techni1ue to move to a position outside o" the hide site. -onduct a listening halt be"ore moving individually into the hide site. 8e care"ul not to disturb or cut any vegetation. ?nce you have occupied the hide site% limit your activities to maintaining security% resting% camou"laging% and planning your ne#t moves. $=!$ . >aintain your security through visual scanning and listening. Upon detection o" the enemy% the security personnel alert all personnel% even i" the team7s plan is to stay hidden and not move upon sighting the enemy. Take this action so that everyone is aware o" the danger and ready to react. $=!$$. I" any team member leaves the team% give him a "ive!point contingency plan. It should include5Aho is goingB Ahere are they goingB Dow long will they be goneB Ahat to do i" they are hit or don7t return on timeB Ahere to go i" anyone is hitB $=!$(. It is e#tremely important to stay healthy and alert when trying to avoid capture. Take every opportunity to rest% but do not sacri"ice security. Rotate security so that all members o" your movement team can rest. Treat all in+uries% no matter how minor. Loss o" your health will mean loss o" your ability to continue to avoid capture. $=!$,. -amou"lage is an important aspect o" both moving and securing a hide site. Always use a buddy system to ensure that camou"lage is complete. *nsure that team members blend with the hide site. Use natural or man!made materials. I" you add any additional camou"lage material to the hide site% do not cut vegetation in the immediate area. $=!$/. 0lan your ne#t actions while at the hide site. Start your planning process immediately upon occupying the hide site. In"orm all team members o" their current location and designate an alternate hide site location. ?nce this is done% start planning "or the team7s ne#t movement. $=!$2. 0lanning the team7s movement begins with a map reconnaissance. -hoose the ne#t hide area "irst. Then choose a primary and an alternate route to the hide area. In choosing the routes% do not use straight lines. Use one or two radical changes in direction. 0ick the routes that o""er the best cover and concealment% the "ewest obstacles% and the least likelihood o" contact with humans. There should be locations along the route where the team can get water. To aid team navigation% use a4imuths% distances% checkpoints or steering marks% and corridors. 0lan rally points and rende4vous points at intervals along the route. $=!$6. ?ther planning considerations may "all under what the team already has in the team S?0. *#amples are immediate action drills% actions on sighting the enemy% and hand!and! arm signals.

$=!$9. ?nce planning is complete% ensure everyone knows and memori4es the entire plan. The team members should know the distances and a4imuths "or the entire route to the ne#t hide area. They should study the map and know the various terrain they will be moving across so that they can move without using the map. $=!$<. &o not occupy a hide site "or more than $, hours. In most situations% hide during the day and move at night. Limit your actions in the hide site to those discussed above. ?nce in the hide site% restrict all movement to less than ,/ centimeters : 9 inches; above the ground. &o not build "ires or prepare "ood. Smoke and "ood odors will reveal your location. 8e"ore leaving the hide site% sterili4e it to prevent tracking. &OL!8UP AR!AS $=!(=. A"ter moving and hiding "or several days% usually three or "our% you or the movement team will have to move into a hole!up area. This is an area where you can rest% recuperate% and get and prepare "ood. -hoose an area near a water source. 'ou then have a place to get water% to place "ishing devices% and to trap game. Since waterways are a line o" communication% locate your hide site well away "rom the water. $=!( . The hole!up area should o""er plenty o" cover and concealment "or movement in and around the area. Always maintain security while in the hole!up area. Always man the hole!up area. Actions in the hole!up area are the same as in the hide site% e#cept that you can move away "rom the hole!up area to get and prepare "ood. Ahile in the hole!up area% you can5 Select and occupy the ne#t hide site :remember you are still in a dangerous situationE this is not a "riendly area;.  Reconnoiter the area "or resources and potential concealed movement routes to the alternate hide site.
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)ather "ood :nuts% berries% vegetables;. Ahen moving around the area "or "ood% maintain security and avoid leaving tracks or other signs. Ahen setting traps and snares% keep them well!camou"laged and in areas where people are not likely to discover them. Remember% the local population sometimes heavily travels trails near water sources. )et water "rom sources within the hide area. 8e care"ul not to leave tracks o" signs along the banks o" water sources when getting water. >oving on hard rocks or logs along the banks to get water will reduce the signs you leave. Set clandestine "ishing devices% such as stakeouts% below the sur"ace o" the water to avoid detection.

Locate a "ire site well away "rom the hide site. Use this site to prepare "ood or boil water. -amou"lage and sterili4e the "ire site a"ter each use. 8e care"ul that smoke and light "rom the "ire does not compromise the hole!up area.

$=!($. Ahile in the hole!up area% security is still your primary concern. &esignate team members to per"orm speci"ic tasks. To limit movement around the area% you may have a two! man team per"orm more than one task. .or e#ample% the team getting water could also set the "ishing devices. &o not occupy the hole!up area longer than 6$ hours.

$=!((. *stablishing contact with "riendly lines or patrols is the most crucial part o" movement and return to "riendly control. All your patience% planning% and hardships will be in vain i" you do not e#ercise caution when contacting "riendly "rontline "orces. .riendly patrols have killed personnel operating behind enemy lines because they did not make contact properly. >ost o" the casualties could have been avoided i" caution had been e#ercised and a "ew simple procedures "ollowed. The normal tendency is to throw caution to the wind when in sight o" "riendly "orces. 'ou must overcome this tendency and understand that linkup is a very sensitive situation. .OR2!R CROSSIN5S $=!(,. I" you have made your way to a "riendly or neutral country% use the "ollowing procedures to cross the border and link up with "riendly "orces on the other sideF ?ccupy a hide site on the near side o" the border and send a team out to reconnoiter the potential crossing site.  Surveil the crossing site "or at least $, hours% depending on the enemy situation.
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>ake a sketch o" the site% taking note o" terrain% obstacles% guard routines and rotations% and any sensor devices or trip wires. ?nce the reconnaissance is complete% the team moves to the hide site% brie"s the rest o" the team% and plans to cross the border at night. A"ter crossing the border% set up a hide site on the "ar side o" the border and try to locate "riendly positions. &o not reveal your presence. &epending on the si4e o" your movement team% have two men surveil the potential linkup site with "riendly "orces until satis"ied that the personnel are indeed "riendly.

>ake contact with the "riendly "orces during daylight. 0ersonnel chosen to make contact should be unarmed% have no e1uipment% and have positive identi"ication readily available. The person who actually makes the linkup should be someone who looks least like the enemy. &uring the actual contact% have only one person make the contact. The other person provides the security and observes the link!up area "rom a sa"e distance. The observer should be "ar enough away so that he can warn the rest o" the movement team i" something goes wrong. Aait until the party he is contacting looks in his direction so that he does not surprise the contact. De stands up "rom behind cover% with hands overhead and states that he is an American. A"ter this% he "ollows any instructions given him. De avoids answering any tactical 1uestions and does not give any indication that there are other team members. Reveal that there are other personnel with him only a"ter veri"ying his identity and satis"ying himsel" he has made contact with "riendly "orces.

$=!(/. Language problems or di""iculties con"irming identities may arise. The movement team should maintain security% be patient% and have a contingency plan. NOT!; I" you are moving to a neutral country% you are surrendering to that power and become a detained person. LIN1UP AT T&! ,OR)AR2 !25! O, T&! .ATTL! AR!A OR ,OR)AR2 LIN! O, O)N TROOPS $=!(2. I" caught between "riendly and enemy "orces and there is heavy "ighting in the area% you may choose to hide and let the "riendly lines pass over you. I" overrun by "riendly "orces% you may try to link up "rom their rear during daylight hours. I" overrun by enemy "orces% you may move "urther to the enemy rear% try to move to the "orward edge o" the battle area or "orward line o" own troops during a lull in the "ighting% or move to another area along the "ront. $=!(6. The actual linkup will be done as "or linkup during a border crossing. The only di""erence is that you must be more care"ul on the initial contact. .rontline personnel are more likely to shoot "irst and ask 1uestions later% especially in areas o" heavy "ighting. 'ou should be near or behind cover be"ore trying to make contact. LIN1UP )IT& ,RI!N2L$ PATROLS

$=!(9. I" "riendly lines are a circular perimeter or an isolated camp% "or e#ample% any direction you approach "rom will be considered enemy territory. 'ou do not have the option o" moving behind the lines and trying to link up. This move makes the linkup e#tremely dangerous. ?ne option you have is to place the perimeter under observation and wait "or a "riendly patrol to move out in your direction% providing a chance "or a linkup. 'ou may also occupy a position outside o" the perimeter and call out to get the attention o" the "riendly "orces. Ideally% display anything that is white while making contact. I" nothing else is available% use any article o" clothing. The idea is to draw attention while staying behind cover. ?nce you have drawn attention to your signal and called out% "ollow instructions given to you. $=!(<. 8e constantly on the alert "or "riendly patrols because these provide a means "or return to "riendly control. .ind a concealed position that allows you ma#imum visual coverage o" the area. Try to memori4e every terrain "eature so that% i" necessary% you can in"iltrate to "riendly positions under the cover o" darkness. Remember% trying to in"iltrate in darkness is e#tremely dangerous. $=!,=. 8ecause o" the missions o" combat and reconnaissance patrols and where they are operating% making contact can be dangerous. I" you decide not to make contact% you can observe their route and approach "riendly lines at about the same location. Such observation will enable you to avoid mines and booby traps. $=!, . ?nce you have spotted a patrol% remain in position and% i" possible% allow the patrol to move toward you. Ahen the patrol is $/ to /= meters :9( to 2/ "eet; "rom your position% signal them and call out a greeting that is clearly and unmistakably o" American origin. $=!,$. I" you have nothing white% an article o" clothing will su""ice to draw attention. I" the distance is greater than /= meters : 2/ "eet;% a reconnaissance patrol may avoid contact and bypass your position. I" the distance is less than $/ meters :9( "eet;% a patrol member may react instantly by "iring a "atal shot. $=!,(. It is crucial% at the time o" contact% that there is enough light "or the patrol to identi"y you as an American. $=!,,. Ahatever linkup techni1ue you decide to use% use e#treme caution. .rom the perspective o" the "riendly patrol or "riendly personnel occupying a perimeter% you are hostile until they make positive identi"ication.

Chapter 01

Ca#ou/ age
In a survival situation% especially in a hostile environment% you may "ind it necessary to camou"lage yoursel"% your e1uipment% and your movement. *""ective camou"lage may mean the di""erence between survival and capture by the enemy. -amou"lage and movement techni1ues% such as stalking% will also help you get animals or game "or "ood using primitive weapons and skills.

$ ! . Ahen camou"laging yoursel"% consider that certain shapes are particular to humans. The enemy will look "or these shapes. The shape o" a hat% helmet% or black boots can give you away. *ven animals know and run "rom the shape o" a human silhouette. 8reak up your outline by placing small amounts o" vegetation "rom the surrounding area in your uni"orm% e1uipment% and headgear. Try to reduce any shine "rom skin or e1uipment. 8lend in with the surrounding colors and simulate the te#ture o" your surroundings. S&AP! AN2 OUTLIN! $ !$. -hange the outline o" weapons and e1uipment by tying vegetation or strips o" cloth onto them. >ake sure the added camou"lage does not hinder the e1uipment7s operation. Ahen hiding% cover yoursel" and your e1uipment with leaves% grass% or other local debris. -onceal any signaling devices you have prepared% but keep them ready "or use. COLOR AN2 T!4TUR! $ !(. *ach area o" the world and each climatic condition :arcticKwinter% temperateK+ungle% or swampKdesert; has color patterns and te#tures that are natural "or that area. Ahile color is sel"!e#planatory% te#ture de"ines the sur"ace characteristics o" something when looking at it. .or e#ample% sur"ace te#tures may be smooth% rough% rocky% lea"y% or many other possible combinations. Use color and te#ture together to camou"lage yoursel" e""ectively. It makes little sense to cover yoursel" with dead% brown vegetation in the middle o" a large grassy "ield. Similarly% it would be useless to camou"lage yoursel" with green grass in the middle o" a desert or rocky area. $ !,. To hide and camou"lage movement in any speci"ic area o" the world% you must take on the color and te#ture o" the immediate surroundings. Use natural or man!made materials to camou"lage yoursel". A "ew e#amples include camou"lage paint% charcoal "rom burned paper or wood% mud% grass% leaves% strips o" cloth or burlap% pine boughs% and camou"laged uni"orms.

$ !/. -over all areas o" e#posed skin% including "ace% hands% neck% and ears. Use camou"lage paint% charcoal% or mud to camou"lage yoursel". -over areas that stick out more and catch more light :"orehead% nose% cheekbones% chin% and ears; with a darker color. -over other areas% particularly recessed or shaded areas :around the eyes and under the chin;% with lighter colors. 8e sure to use an irregular pattern. Attach vegetation "rom the area or strips o" cloth o" the proper color to clothing and e1uipment. I" you use vegetation% replace it as it wilts. As you move through an area% be alert to the color changes and modi"y your camou"lage colors as necessary. $ !2. .igure $ ! gives a general idea o" how to apply camou"lage "or various areas and climates. Use appropriate colors "or your surroundings. The blotches or slashes will help to simulate te#ture.

,igure 01819 Ca#ou/ age 'ethods /or Speci/ic Areas S&IN! $ !6. As skin gets oily% it becomes shiny. *1uipment with worn!o"" paint is also shiny. *ven painted ob+ects% i" smooth% may shine. )lass ob+ects such as mirrors% glasses% binoculars% and telescopes shine. 'ou must cover these glass ob+ects when not in use. Anything that shines will automatically attract attention and will give away your location. $ !9. Ahenever possible% wash oily skin and reapply camou"lage. Skin oil will wash o"" camou"lage% so reapply it "re1uently. I" you must wear glasses% camou"lage them by applying a thin layer o" dust to the outside o" the lenses. This layer o" dust will reduce the re"lection o" light. -over shiny spots on e1uipment by painting% covering with mud% or wrapping with cloth or tape. 0ay particular attention to covering boot eyelets% buckles on e1uipment% watches and +ewelry% 4ippers% and uni"orm insignia. -arry a signal mirror in its designed pouch or in a pocket with the mirror portion "acing your body. S&A2O)

$ !<. Ahen hiding or traveling% stay in the deepest part o" the shadows. The outer edges o" the shadows are lighter and the deeper parts are darker. Remember% i" you are in an area where there is plenty o" vegetation% keep as much vegetation between you and a potential enemy as possible. This action will make it very hard "or the enemy to see you as the vegetation will partially mask you "rom his view. .orcing an enemy to look through many layers o" masking vegetation will "atigue his eyes very 1uickly. $ ! =. Ahen traveling% especially in built!up areas at night% be aware o" where you cast your shadow. It may e#tend out around the corner o" a building and give away your position. Also% i" you are in a dark shadow and there is a light source to one side% an enemy on the other side can see your silhouette against the light. 'OV!'!NT $ ! . >ovement% especially "ast movement% attracts attention. I" possible% avoid movement in the presence o" an enemy. I" capture appears imminent in your present location and you must move% move away slowly% making as little noise as possible. 8y moving slowly in a survival situation% you decrease the chance o" detection and conserve energy that you may need "or long!term survival or long!distance evasion. $ ! $. Ahen moving past obstacles% avoid going over them. I" you must climb over an obstacle% keep your body level with its top to avoid silhouetting yoursel". &o not silhouette yoursel" against the skyline when crossing hills or ridges. Ahen you are moving% you will have di""iculty detecting the movement o" others. Stop "re1uently% listen% and look around slowly to detect signs o" hostile movement. NOIS! $ ! (. 3oise attracts attention% especially i" there is a se1uence o" loud noises such as several snapping twigs. I" possible% avoid making any noise. Slow your pace as much as necessary to avoid making noise when moving around or away "rom possible threats. $ ! ,. Use background noises to cover the noise o" your movement. Sounds o" aircra"t% trucks% generators% strong winds% and people talking will cover some or all the sounds produced by your movement. Rain will mask a lot o" movement noise% but it also reduces your ability to detect potential enemy noise. SC!NT $ ! /. Ahether hunting animals or avoiding the enemy% it is always wise to camou"lage the scent associated with humans. Start by washing yoursel" and your clothes without using soap.

This washing method removes soap and body odors. Avoiding strong smelling "oods% such as garlic% helps reduce body odors. &o not use tobacco products% candy% gum% or cosmetics. $ ! 2. 'ou can use aromatic herbs or plants to wash yoursel" and your clothing% to rub on your body and clothing% or to chew on to camou"lage your breath. 0ine needles% mint% or any similar aromatic plant will help camou"lage your scent "rom both animals and humans. Standing in smoke "rom a "ire can help mask your scent "rom animals. Ahile animals are a"raid o" "resh smoke "rom a "ire% older smoke scents are normal smells a"ter "orest "ires and do not scare them. $ ! 6. Ahile traveling% use your sense o" smell to help you "ind or avoid humans. 0ay attention to smells associated with humans% such as "ire% cigarettes% gasoline% oil% soap% and "ood. Such smells may alert you to their presence long be"ore you can see or hear them% depending on wind speed and direction. 3ote the wind7s direction and% when possible% approach "rom or skirt around on the downwind side when nearing humans or animals.

$ ! 9. Sometimes you need to move% undetected% to or "rom a location. 'ou need more than +ust camou"lage to make these moves success"ully. The ability to stalk or move without making any sudden 1uick movement or loud noise is essential to avoiding detection. Always pick your route care"ully to keep you concealedE use trenches% slight rises in terrain% thick vegetation "or concealment. Avoid lateral movement to the observer unless you have good concealment% otherwise stalk straight in toward the observer. $ ! <. 'ou must practice stalking i" it is to be e""ective. Use the "ollowing techni1ues when practicing. UPRI5&T STAL1IN5 $ !$=. Take steps about hal" your normal stride when stalking in the upright position. Such strides help you to maintain your balance. 'ou should be able to stop at any point in that movement and hold that position as long as necessary. -url the toes up out o" the way when stepping down so the outside edge o" the ball o" the "oot touches the ground. .eel "or sticks and twigs that may snap when you place your weight on them. I" you start to step on one% li"t your "oot and move it. A"ter making contact with the outside edge o" the ball o" your "oot% roll to the inside ball o" your "oot% place your heel down% "ollowed by your toes. Then gradually shi"t your weight "orward to the "ront "oot. Li"t the back "oot to about knee height and start the process over again. $ !$ . Ceep your hands and arms close to your body and avoid waving them about or hitting vegetation. Ahen moving in a crouch% you gain e#tra support by placing your hands on your

knees. ?ne step usually takes minute to complete% but the time it takes will depend on the situation. CRA)LIN5 $ !$$. -rawl on your hands and knees when the vegetation is too low to allow you to walk upright without being seen. >ove one limb at a time and be sure to set it down so"tly% "eeling "or anything that may snap and make noise. 8e care"ul that your toes and heels do not catch on vegetation. PRON! STA1IN5 $ !$(. To stalk in the prone position% you do a low% modi"ied push!up on your hands and toes% moving yoursel" "orward slightly% and then lowering yoursel" again slowly. Avoid dragging and scraping along the ground as this makes e#cessive noise and leaves large trails "or trackers to "ollow. ANI'AL STAL1IN5 $ !$,. 8e"ore stalking an animal% select the best route. I" the animal is moving% you will need an intercepting route. 0ick a route that puts ob+ects between you and the animal to conceal your movement "rom it. 8y positioning yoursel" in this way% you will be able to move "aster% until you pass that ob+ect. Some ob+ects such as large rocks and trees may totally conceal you% and others such as small bushes and grass may only partially conceal you. 0ick the route that o""ers the best concealment and re1uires the least amount o" e""ort. $ !$/. Ceep your eyes on the animal and stop when it looks your way or turns its ears your way% especially i" it suspects your presence. As you get close% s1uint your eyes slightly to conceal both the light!dark contrast o" the whites o" the eyes and any shine "rom your eyes. Ceep your mouth closed so that the animal does not see the whiteness or shine o" your teeth. ANTITRAC1IN5 $ !$2. Along with camou"lage o" your body% you need to camou"lage your movement "rom visual trackers. Antitracking techni1ues should be usedE countertracking techni1ues are o" little use to the evader% as they would pinpoint his location or route. &uring movement this can be accomplished by using the "ollowing methodsF

Restore vegetation5Use a stick to li"t the vegetation you crushed down during movement through it. This can slow you down and it is hard to tell i" you are being e""ective.

8rush out tracks5Use a tree branch to brush or pat out tracks in open ground. This is e""ective in concealing the number in the party% but leaves obvious signs in itsel". Use hard or stony ground5Using this type o" terrain minimi4es the signs you leave slowing the visual tracker. >ake abrupt direction changes5Using this techni1ue combined with the use o" hard or stony ground can be very e""ective in slowing the visual tracker as it will be much harder to detect the direction change. Use well!used paths5Although the use o" paths is not advisable% there may be times you can use them to your advantage. .or e#ample% i" you have been in an area long enough to surveil the path to determine the tra""ic patterns% you could use the path prior to a "armer moving a heard o" cows down the path% eliminating your sign. Use "oot coverings5They can assist in aging or virtually eliminating your signs. *#amples include sandbags% rags% old socks% or commercial "oot coverings made "rom imitation sheepskin :these seem to work the best;. -hange "ootgear5Use this method in an area such as hard or stony ground. Vary the tread pattern. Use custom "ootgear5>ilitaries generally have a standard issue "ootgear% although with the world economy% this is changing. I" you know that the area you are working in has a standard issue "ootgear% you may want to ac1uire a pair or have that tread pattern put on your boots. Aalk backwards5This can be use"ul at times but there are pit"alls to avoid. Avoid turning your "oot out. Ahen you look over your le"t shoulder your le"t "oot tends to turn outward and visa versa. Avoid dragging dirt backwards. Try to place your "oot"alls so that the toe indention is deeper than your heel indention to give the appearance o" moving "orward. -on"use the start point5Ahatever the point on the ground you start your evasion% try to con"use it by walking numerous cloverlea" patterns out o" and back into it be"ore you leave on your initial route :this can assist in delaying dog trackers also;. Use streams% lakes% waterways5This is a +udgement call on your part. Ask yoursel"F Is the stream moving in the direction you need to goB Is it "ast or slow moving waterB Aill it put you that much "arther ahead o" the trackersB :3oteF 'ou will leave more signs upon e#iting the water.;

-rossing roads or paths with the tra""ic pattern5Ahen crossing roads or paths try to cross with the direction o" travel% not perpendicular% this will assist in your tracks blending into normal tra""ic patterns and making them harder to "ollow. -are"ul placement o" "oot"alls leaving little heel or toe dig5Try to leave as little sign as possible. Last but not least% always vary your techni1ues so as not to educate the tracker as to what to look "or i" he loses the trackG

ANTI2O5 TRAC1IN5 $ !$6. Ahen trying to elude dog trackers always remember you are trying to beat the handler not the dogG Ahatever you do% it should be done to either tire the handler or decrease the handler7s con"idence in his dog. Some techni1ues to use against dog tracker teams are as "ollowsF ?pen ground5Although this is a danger area% i" the wind is high it will blow the scent to vegetated areasE thus the team will not be directly on your tracks and it will slow the team7s progression.  Thick terrain5Using a 4ig4ag pattern o" movement will slow and tire the handler and possibly decrease the handler7s con"idence.
 

Dard or stony ground5In high winds or high temperatures these areas will dissipate your scent 1uicker% increasing the chance o" the dog losing the track. -rowded places5I" the dog is not scent!speci"ic trained% and you move through an area where many other people have recently been he may lose the track. .reshly plowed or "ertili4ed "ields5The dog may lose the track in these areas due to the overpowering scent o" "resh dirt and human or animal manure used as "ertili4er :do not rely too much on this theory;. Speed5Try to maintain a constant speed. Try not to run. Running increases the scent% due to more soil and vegetation disturbance and more body odor "rom sweat or adrenaline. Transportation5Using a vehicle will greatly increase your time and distance but you could still be trackedE however% it would be at a much slower pace.

Chapter 00

Contact )ith Peop e
Some o" the best and most "re1uently given advice% when dealing with the local population% is "or you to accept% respect% and adapt to their ways. Thus% @Ahen in Rome% do as the Romans do.@ This is e#cellent advice% but there are several considerations involved in putting this advice into practice.

$$! . 'ou must give serious consideration to dealing with the local people. &o they have a primitive cultureB Are they "armers% "ishermen% "riendly people% or enemyB In a survival situation% @cross!cultural communication@ can vary radically "rom area to area and "rom people to people. It may mean interaction with people o" an e#tremely primitive culture or contact with people who have a relatively modern culture. A culture is identi"ied by standards o" behavior that its members consider proper and acceptable but may or may not con"orm to your idea o" what is proper. 3o matter who these people are% you can e#pect they will have laws% social and economic values% and political and religious belie"s that may be radically di""erent "rom yours. 8e"ore deploying into your area o" operations% study these di""erent cultural aspects. 0rior study and preparation will help you make or avoid contact i" you have to deal with the local population. $$!$. 0eople will be "riendly% un"riendly% or they will choose to ignore you. Their attitude may be unknown. I" the people are known to be "riendly% try to keep them "riendly through your courtesy and respect "or their religion% politics% social customs% habits% and all other aspects o" their culture. I" the people are known to be enemies or are unknowns% make every e""ort to avoid any contact and leave no sign o" your presence. A basic knowledge o" the daily habits o" the local people will be essential in this attempt. I"% a"ter care"ul observation% you determine that an unknown people are "riendly% you may contact them i" you absolutely need their help. $$!(. Usually% you have little to "ear and much to gain "rom cautious and respect"ul contact with local people o" "riendly or neutral countries. I" you become "amiliar with the local customs% display common decency% and most important% show respect "or their customs% you should be able to avoid trouble and possibly gain needed help. To make contact% wait until only one person is near and% i" possible% let that person make the initial approach. >ost people will be willing to help i" you appear to be in need. Dowever% local political attitudes% instruction% or propaganda e""orts may change the attitudes o" otherwise "riendly people. -onversely% in un"riendly countries% many

people% especially in remote areas% may "eel animosity toward their politicians and may be "riendlier toward you. $$!,. The key to success"ul contact with local people is to be "riendly% courteous% and patient. &isplaying "ear% showing weapons% and making sudden or threatening movements can cause a local person to "ear you. Such actions can prompt a hostile response. Ahen attempting a contact% smile as o"ten as you can. >any local people are shy and seem unapproachable% or they may ignore you. Approach them slowly and do not rush your contact.

$$!/. Use salt% tobacco% silver money% and similar items discreetly when trading with local people. 0aper money is well!known worldwide. &o not overpayE it may lead to embarrassment and even danger. Always treat people with respect. &o not bully them or laugh at them. $$!2. Using sign language or acting out needs or 1uestions can be very e""ective. >any people are used to such language and communicate using nonverbal sign language. Try to learn a "ew words and phrases o" the local language in and around your potential area o" operations. Trying to speak someone7s language is one o" the best ways to show respect "or his culture. Since *nglish is widely used% some o" the local people may understand a "ew words o" *nglish. $$!6. Some areas may be taboo. They range "rom religious or sacred places to diseased or danger areas. In some areas% certain animals must not be killed. Learn the rules and "ollow them. Aatch and learn as much as possible. Such actions will help to strengthen relations and provide new knowledge and skills that may be very important later. Seek advice on local ha4ards and "ind out "rom "riendly people where the hostile people are. Always remember that people "re1uently insist that other people are hostile% simply because they do not understand di""erent cultures and distant people. The people they can usually trust are their immediate neighbors5 much the same as in our own neighborhood. $$!9. .re1uently% local people% like ourselves% will su""er "rom contagious diseases. 8uild a separate shelter% i" possible% and avoid physical contact without giving the impression o" doing so. 0ersonally prepare your "ood and drink% i" you can do so without giving o""ense. .re1uently% the local people will accept the use o" @personal or religious custom@ as an e#planation "or isolationist behavior. $$!<. 8arter% or trading% is common in more primitive societies. Dard coin is usually good% whether "or its e#change value or as +ewelry or trinkets. In isolated areas%

matches% tobacco% salt% ra4or blades% empty containers% or cloth may be worth more than any "orm o" money. $$! =. 8e very cautious when touching people. >any people consider @touching@ taboo and such actions may be dangerous. Avoid se#ual contact. $$! . Dospitality among some people is such a strong cultural trait that they may seriously reduce their own supplies to "eed a stranger. Accept what they o""er and share it e1ually with all present. *at in the same way they eat and% most important% try to eat all they o""er. $$! $. I" you make any promises% keep them. Respect personal property and local customs and manners% even i" they seem odd. >ake some kind o" payment "or "ood and supplies. Respect privacy. &o not enter a house unless invited.

$$! (. In today7s world o" "ast!paced international politics% political attitudes and commitments within nations are sub+ect to rapid change. The population o" many countries% especially politically hostile countries% must not be considered "riendly +ust because they do not demonstrate open hostility. Unless brie"ed to the contrary% avoid all contact with such people.

Chapter 0<

Sur-i-a In 'an8'ade &azards
3uclear% chemical% and biological :38-; weapons have become potential realities on any modern battlespace. Recent e#perience in A"ghanistan% -ambodia% and other areas o" con"lict has proved the use o" chemical and biological weapons :such as mycoto#ins;. The war"ighting doctrine o" the 3orth Atlantic Treaty ?rgani4ation and "ormer Aarsaw 0act nations addresses the use o" both nuclear and chemical weapons. The potential use o" these weapons intensi"ies the problems o" survival because o" the serious dangers posed by either radioactive "allout or contamination produced by persistent biological or chemical agents.

'ou must use special precautions i" you e#pect to survive in these man!made ha4ards. I" you are sub+ected to any o" the e""ects o" nuclear% chemical% or biological war"are% the survival procedures recommended in this chapter may save your li"e. This chapter presents some background in"ormation on each type o" ha4ard so you may better understand the true nature o" the ha4ard. Awareness o" the ha4ards% knowledge o" this chapter% and application o" common sense can keep you alive.

$(! . 0repare yoursel" to survive in a nuclear environment. >ake sure you know what to e#pect and how to react to a nuclear ha4ard. !,,!CTS O, NUCL!AR )!APONS $(!$. The e""ects o" nuclear weapons are classi"ied as either initial or residual. Initial e""ects occur in the immediate area o" the e#plosion and are ha4ardous in the "irst minute a"ter the e#plosion. Residual e""ects can last "or days or years and cause death. The principal initial e""ects are blast and radiation. . ast $(!(. 8last is the brie" and rapid movement o" air away "rom the e#plosion7s center and the pressure accompanying this movement. Strong winds accompany the blast. 8last hurls debris and personnel% collapses lungs% ruptures eardrums% collapses structures and positions% and causes immediate death or in+ury with its crushing e""ect. Ther#a Radiation $(!,. This e""ect is the heat and light radiation a nuclear e#plosion7s "ireball emits. Light radiation consists o" both visible light and ultraviolet and in"rared light. Thermal radiation produces e#tensive "ires% skin burns% and "lash blindness. Nuc ear Radiation $(!/. 3uclear radiation breaks down into two categories. The e""ects can be initial radiation and residual radiation. $(!2. Initial nuclear radiation consists o" intense gamma rays and neutrons produced during the "irst minute a"ter the e#plosion. This radiation causes e#tensive damage to

cells throughout the body. Radiation damage may cause headaches% nausea% vomiting% diarrhea% and even death% depending on the radiation dose received. The ma+or problem in protecting yoursel" against the initial radiation7s e""ects is that you may have received a lethal or incapacitating dose be"ore taking any protective action. 0ersonnel e#posed to lethal amounts o" initial radiation may well have been killed or "atally in+ured by blast or thermal radiation. $(!6. Residual radiation consists o" all radiation produced a"ter minute "rom the e#plosion. It has more e""ect on you than initial radiation. A discussion o" residual radiation takes place in a subse1uent paragraph. T$P!S O, NUCL!AR .URSTS $(!9. There are three types o" nuclear burstsF subsur"ace burst% airburst% and sur"ace burst. The type o" burst directly a""ects your chances o" survival. A subsur"ace burst occurs completely underground or underwater. Its e""ects remain beneath the sur"ace or in the immediate area where the sur"ace collapses into a crater over the burst7s location. Subsur"ace bursts cause you little or no radioactive ha4ard unless you enter the immediate area o" the crater. $(!<. An airburst occurs in the air above its intended target. The airburst provides the ma#imum radiation e""ect on the target and is% there"ore% most dangerous to you in terms o" i##ediate nuclear e""ects. $(! =. A sur"ace burst occurs on the ground or water sur"ace. Large amounts o" "allout result% with serious long!term e""ects "or you. This type o" burst is your greatest nuclear ha4ard. NUCL!AR IN:URI!S $(! . >ost in+uries in the nuclear environment result "rom the initial nuclear e""ects o" the detonation. These in+uries are classed as blast% thermal% or radiation in+uries. .urther radiation in+uries may occur i" you do not take proper precautions against "allout. Individuals in the area near a nuclear e#plosion will probably su""er a combination o" all three types o" in+uries. . ast In3uries $(! $. 8last in+uries produced by nuclear weapons are similar to those caused by conventional high!e#plosive weapons. 8last overpressure can collapse lungs and rupture internal organs. 0ro+ectile wounds occur as the e#plosion7s "orce hurls debris at you. Large pieces o" debris striking you will cause "ractured limbs or massive

internal in+uries. 8last overpressure may throw you long distances% and you will su""er severe in+ury upon impact with the ground or other ob+ects. Substantial cover and distance "rom the e#plosion are the best protection against blast in+ury. -over blast in+ury wounds as soon as possible to prevent the entry o" radioactive dust particles. Ther#a In3uries $(! (. The heat and light the nuclear "ireball emits cause thermal in+uries. .irst!% second!% or third!degree burns may result. .lash blindness also occurs. This blindness may be permanent or temporary depending on the degree o" e#posure o" the eyes. Substantial cover and distance "rom the e#plosion can prevent thermal in+uries. -lothing will provide signi"icant protection against thermal in+uries. -over as much e#posed skin as possible be"ore a nuclear e#plosion. .irst aid "or thermal in+uries is the same as "irst aid "or burns. -over open burns :second! or third!degree; to prevent the entry o" radioactive particles. Aash all burns be"ore covering. Radiation In3uries $(! ,. 3eutrons% gamma radiation% alpha radiation% and beta radiation cause radiation in+uries. 3eutrons are high!speed% e#tremely penetrating particles that actually smash cells within your body. )amma radiation is similar to L rays and is also highly penetrating radiation. &uring the initial "ireball stage o" a nuclear detonation% initial gamma radiation and neutrons are the most serious threat. 8eta and alpha radiation are radioactive particles normally associated with radioactive dust "rom "allout. They are short!range particles. 'ou can easily protect yoursel" against them i" you take precautions. See @8odily Reactions to Radiation%@ below% "or the symptoms o" radiation in+uries. R!SI2UAL RA2IATION $(! /. Residual radiation is all radiation emitted a"ter minute "rom the instant o" the nuclear e#plosion. Residual radiation consists o" induced radiation and "allout. Induced Radiation $(! 2. This term describes a relatively small% intensely radioactive area directly underneath the nuclear weapon7s "ireball. The irradiated earth in this area will remain highly radioactive "or an e#tremely long time. 'ou should not travel into an area o" induced radiation. ,a out

$(! 6. .allout consists o" radioactive soil and water particles% as well as weapon "ragments. &uring a sur"ace detonation% or i" an airburst7s nuclear "ireball touches the ground% large amounts o" soil and water are vapori4ed along with the bomb7s "ragments% and "orced upward to altitudes o" $/%=== meters :9$%=== "eet; or more. Ahen these vapori4ed contents cool% they can "orm more than $== di""erent radioactive products. The vapori4ed bomb contents condense into tiny radioactive particles that the wind carries until they "all back to earth as radioactive dust. .allout particles emit alpha% beta% and gamma radiation. Alpha and beta radiation are relatively easy to counteract% and residual gamma radiation is much less intense than the gamma radiation emitted during the "irst minute a"ter the e#plosion. .allout is your most signi"icant radiation ha4ard% provided you have not received a lethal radiation dose "rom the initial radiation. .O2IL$ R!ACTIONS TO RA2IATION $(! 9. The e""ects o" radiation on the human body can be broadly classed as either chronic or acute. -hronic e""ects are those that occur some years a"ter e#posure to radiation. *#amples are cancer and genetic de"ects. -hronic e""ects are o" minor concern inso"ar as they a""ect your immediate survival in a radioactive environment. ?n the other hand% acute e""ects are o" primary importance to your survival. Some acute e""ects occur within hours a"ter e#posure to radiation. These e""ects result "rom the radiation7s direct physical damage to tissue. Radiation sickness and beta burns are e#amples o" acute e""ects. Radiation sickness symptoms include nausea% diarrhea% vomiting% "atigue% weakness% and loss o" hair. 0enetrating beta rays cause radiation burnsE the wounds are similar to "ire burns. Reco-ery Capa*i ity $(! <. The e#tent o" body damage depends mainly on the part o" the body e#posed to radiation and how long it was e#posed% as well as its ability to recover. The brain and kidneys have little recovery capability. ?ther parts :skin and bone marrow; have a great ability to recover "rom damage. Usually% a dose o" 2== centigrays :c)y; to the entire body will result in almost certain death. I" only your hands received this same dose% your overall health would not su""er much% although your hands would su""er severe damage. !Bterna and Interna &azards $(!$=. An e#ternal or internal ha4ard can cause body damage. Dighly penetrating gamma radiation or the less penetrating beta radiation that causes burns can cause e#ternal damage. The entry o" alpha or beta radiation!emitting particles into the body can cause internal damage. The e#ternal ha4ard produces overall irradiation and beta

burns. The internal ha4ard results in irradiation o" critical organs such as the gastrointestinal tract% thyroid gland% and bone. A very small amount o" radioactive material can cause e#treme damage to these and other internal organs. The internal ha4ard can enter the body either through consumption o" contaminated water or "ood or by absorption through cuts or abrasions. >aterial that enters the body through breathing presents only a minor ha4ard. 'ou can greatly reduce the internal radiation ha4ard by using good personal hygiene and care"ully decontaminating your "ood and water. Sy#pto#s $(!$ . The symptoms o" radiation in+uries include nausea% diarrhea% and vomiting. The severity o" these symptoms is due to the e#treme sensitivity o" the gastrointestinal tract to radiation. The severity o" the symptoms and the speed o" onset a"ter e#posure are good indicators o" the degree o" radiation damage. The gastrointestinal damage can come "rom either the e#ternal or the internal radiation ha4ard. COUNT!R'!ASUR!S A5AINST P!N!TRATIN5 !4T!RNAL RA2IATION $(!$$. Cnowledge o" the radiation ha4ards discussed earlier is e#tremely important in surviving in a "allout area. It is also critical to know how to protect yoursel" "rom the most dangerous "orm o" residual radiation5penetrating e#ternal radiation. $(!$(. The means you can use to protect yoursel" "rom penetrating e#ternal radiation are time% distance% and shielding. 'ou can reduce the level o" radiation and help increase your chance o" survival by controlling the duration o" e#posure. 'ou can also get as "ar away "rom the radiation source as possible. .inally% you can place some radiation!absorbing or shielding material between you and the radiation. Ti#e $(!$,. Time is important% in two ways% when you are in a survival situation. .irst% radiation dosages are cumulative. The longer you are e#posed to a radioactive source% the greater the dose you will receive. ?bviously% spend as little time in a radioactive area as possible. Second% radioactivity decreases or decays over time. This concept is known as radioactive hal2:li2e. Thus% a radioactive element decays or loses hal" o" its radioactivity within a certain time. The rule o" thumb "or radioactivity decay is that it decreases in intensity by a "actor o" ten "or every seven"old increase in time "ollowing the peak radiation level. .or e#ample% i" a nuclear "allout area had a ma#imum radiation rate o" $== c)y per hour when "allout is complete% this rate would "all to $=

c)y per hour a"ter 6 hoursE it would "all still "urther to $ c)y per hour a"ter ,< hours. *ven an untrained observer can see that the greatest ha4ard "rom "allout occurs immediately a"ter detonation% and that the ha4ard decreases 1uickly over a relatively short time. 'ou should try to avoid "allout areas until the radioactivity decays to sa"e levels. I" you can avoid "allout areas long enough "or most o" the radioactivity to decay% you enhance your chance o" survival. 2istance $(!$/. &istance provides very e""ective protection against penetrating gamma radiation because radiation intensity decreases by the s1uare o" the distance "rom the source. .or e#ample% i" e#posed to %=== c)y o" radiation standing (= centimeters : $ inches; "rom the source% at 2= centimeters :$, inches;% you would only receive $/= c)y. Thus% when you double the distance% radiation decreases to :=./; $ or =.$/ the amount. Ahile this "ormula is valid "or concentrated sources o" radiation in small areas% it becomes more complicated "or large areas o" radiation such as "allout areas. Shie ding $(!$2. Shielding is the most important method o" protection "rom penetrating radiation. ?" the three countermeasures against penetrating radiation% shielding provides the greatest protection and is the easiest to use under survival conditions. There"ore% it is the most desirable method. I" shielding is not possible% use the other two methods to the ma#imum e#tent practical. $(!$6. Shielding actually works by absorbing or weakening the penetrating radiation% thereby reducing the amount o" radiation reaching your body. The denser the material% the better the shielding e""ect. Lead% iron% concrete% and water are good e#amples o" shielding materials. Specia 'edica Aspects $(!$9. The presence o" "allout material in your area re1uires slight changes in "irst aid procedures. 'ou must cover all wounds to prevent contamination and the entry o" radioactive particles. 'ou must "irst wash burns o" beta radiation% then treat them as ordinary burns. Take e#tra measures to prevent in"ection. 'our body will be e#tremely sensitive to in"ections due to changes in your blood chemistry. 0ay close attention to the prevention o" colds or respiratory in"ections. Rigorously practice personal hygiene to prevent in"ections. -over your eyes with improvised goggles to prevent the entry o" particles. S&!LT!R

$(!$<. As stated earlier% the shielding material7s e""ectiveness depends on its thickness and density. An ample thickness o" shielding material will reduce the level o" radiation to negligible amounts. $(!(=. The primary reason "or "inding and building a shelter is to get protection against the high!intensity radiation levels o" early gamma "allout as "ast as possible. .ive minutes to locate the shelter is a good guide. Speed in "inding shelter is absolutely essential. Aithout shelter% the dosage received in the "irst "ew hours will e#ceed that received during the rest o" a week in a contaminated area. The dosage received in this "irst week will e#ceed the dosage accumulated during the rest o" a li"etime spent in the same contaminated area. Shie ding 'ateria s $(!( . The thickness re1uired to weaken gamma radiation "rom "allout is "ar less than that needed to shield against initial gamma radiation. .allout radiation has less energy than a nuclear detonation7s initial radiation. .or "allout radiation% a relatively small amount o" shielding material can provide ade1uate protection. .igure $(! shows the thickness o" various materials needed to reduce residual gamma radiation transmission by /= percent.

,igure 0<819 'ateria s to Reduce 5a##a Radiation $(!($. The principle o" ha /8-a ue ayer thic(ness is use"ul in understanding the absorption o" gamma radiation by various materials. According to this principle% i" / centimeters :$ inches; o" brick reduce the gamma radiation level by one!hal"% adding another / centimeters :$ inches; o" brick :another hal"!value layer; will reduce the intensity by another hal"% namely% to one!"ourth the original amount. .i"teen centimeters :2 inches; will reduce gamma radiation "allout levels to one!eighth its original amount% $= centimeters :9 inches; to one!si#teenth% and so on. Thus% a

shelter protected by meter :( "eet; o" dirt would reduce a radiation intensity o" %=== c)y per hour on the outside to about =./ c)y per hour inside the shelter. Natura She ters $(!((. Terrain that provides natural shielding and easy shelter construction is the ideal location "or an emergency shelter. )ood e#amples are ditches% ravines% rocky outcropping% hills% and riverbanks. In level areas without natural protection% dig a "ighting position or slit trench. Trenches $(!(,. Ahen digging a trench% work "rom inside the trench as soon as it is large enough to cover part o" your body thereby not e#posing all your body to radiation. In open country% try to dig the trench "rom a prone position% stacking the dirt care"ully and evenly around the trench. ?n level ground% pile the dirt around your body "or additional shielding. &epending upon soil conditions% shelter construction time will vary "rom a "ew minutes to a "ew hours. I" you dig as 1uickly as possible% you will reduce the dosage you receive. Other She ters $(!(/. Ahile an underground shelter covered by meter :( "eet; or more o" earth provides the best protection against "allout radiation% the "ollowing unoccupied structures :in order listed; o""er the ne#t best protectionF
• • • • •

-aves and tunnels covered by more than meter :( "eet; o" earth. Storm or storage cellars. -ulverts. 8asements or cellars o" abandoned buildings. Abandoned buildings made o" stone or mud.

Roo/s $(!(2. It is not mandatory that you build a roo" on your shelter. 8uild one only i" the materials are readily available with only a brie" e#posure to outside contamination. I" building a roo" would re1uire e#tended e#posure to penetrating radiation% it would be wiser to leave the shelter roo"less. A roo"7s sole "unction is to reduce radiation "rom the "allout source to your body. Unless you use a thick roo"% a roo" provides very little shielding.

$(!(6. 'ou can construct a simple roo" "rom a poncho anchored down with dirt% rocks% or other re"use "rom your shelter. 'ou can remove large particles o" dirt and debris "rom the top o" the poncho by beating it o"" "rom the inside at "re1uent intervals. This cover will not o""er shielding "rom the radioactive particles deposited on the sur"ace% but it will increase the distance "rom the "allout source and keep the shelter area "rom "urther contamination. She ter Site Se ection and Preparation $(!(9. To reduce your e#posure time and thereby reduce the dosage received% remember the "ollowing "actors when selecting and setting up a shelterF
• •

Ahere possible% seek a crude% e#isting shelter that you can improve. I" none is available% dig a trench. &ig the shelter deep enough to get good protection% then enlarge it as re1uired "or com"ort.

-over the top o" the "ighting position or trench with any readily available material and a thick layer o" earth% i" you can do so without leaving the shelter. Ahile a roo" and camou"lage are both desirable% it is probably sa"er to do without them than to e#pose yoursel" to radiation outside your "ighting position.

Ahile building your shelter% keep all parts o" your body covered with clothing to protect it against beta burns.

-lean the shelter site o" any sur"ace deposit using a branch or other ob+ect that you can discard. &o this cleaning to remove contaminated materials "rom the area you will occupy. The cleaned area should e#tend at least ./ meters :/ "eet; beyond your shelter7s area.

&econtaminate any materials you bring into the shelter. These materials include grass or "oliage that you use as insulation or bedding% and your outer clothing :especially "ootgear;. I" the weather permits and you have heavily contaminated outer clothing% you may want to remove it and bury it under a "oot o" earth at the end o" your shelter. 'ou may retrieve it later :a"ter the radioactivity decays; when leaving the shelter. I" the clothing is dry% you may decontaminate it by beating or shaking it outside the shelter7s entrance to remove the radioactive dust. 'ou may use any body o" water% even though contaminated% to rid materials o" e#cess "allout particles. Simply dip the material into the water and shake it to get rid o" the e#cess water. &o not wring it out% this action will trap the particles.

I" possible and without leaving the shelter% wash your body thoroughly with soap and water% even i" the water on hand may be contaminated. This washing will remove most o" the harm"ul radioactive particles that are likely to cause beta burns or other damage. I" water is not available% wipe your "ace and any other e#posed skin sur"ace to remove contaminated dust and dirt. 'ou may wipe your "ace with a clean piece o" cloth or a hand"ul o" uncontaminated dirt. 'ou get this uncontaminated dirt by scraping o"" the top "ew inches o" soil and using the @clean@ dirt.

Upon completing the shelter% lie down% keep warm% and sleep and rest as much as possible while in the shelter.

Ahen not resting% keep busy by planning "uture actions% studying your maps% or making the shelter more com"ortable and e""ective.

&on7t panic i" you e#perience nausea and symptoms o" radiation sickness. 'our main danger "rom radiation sickness is in"ection. There is no "irst aid "or this sickness. Resting% drinking "luids% taking any medicine that prevents vomiting% maintaining your "ood intake% and preventing additional e#posure will help avoid in"ection and aid recovery. *ven small doses o" radiation can cause these symptoms% which may disappear in a short time.

!Bposure Ti#eta* e $(!(<. The "ollowing timetable provides you with the in"ormation needed to avoid receiving a serious dosage and still let you cope with survival problemsF
• •

-omplete isolation "rom , to 2 days "ollowing delivery o" the last weapon. A very brie" e#posure to get water on the third day is permissible% but e#posure should not e#ceed (= minutes.

• • • •

?ne e#posure o" not more than (= minutes on the seventh day. ?ne e#posure o" not more than hour on the eighth day. *#posure o" $ to , hours "rom the ninth day through the twel"th day. 3ormal operation% "ollowed by rest in a protected shelter% "rom the thirteenth day on.

In all instances% make your e#posures as brie" as possible. -onsider only mandatory re1uirements as valid reasons "or e#posure. &econtaminate at every stop.

$(!,=. The times given above are conservative. I" "orced to move a"ter the "irst or second day% you may do so. >ake sure that the e#posure is no longer than absolutely necessary. )AT!R PROCUR!'!NT $(!, . In a "allout!contaminated area% available water sources may be contaminated. I" you wait at least ,9 hours be"ore drinking any water to allow radioactive decay to take place and select the sa"est possible water source% you will greatly reduce the danger o" ingesting harm"ul amounts o" radioactivity. $(!,$. Although many "actors :wind direction% rain"all% sediment; will in"luence your choice in selecting water sources% consider the "ollowing guidelines. Sa/est )ater Sources $(!,(. Aater "rom springs% wells% or other underground sources that undergo natural "iltration will be your sa"est sources. Any water "ound in the pipes or containers o" abandoned houses or stores will also be "ree "rom radioactive particles. This water will be sa"e to drink% although you will have to take precautions against bacteria in the water. $(!,,. Snow taken "rom / centimeters :2 inches; or more below the sur"ace during the "allout is also a sa"e source o" water. Strea#s and Ri-ers $(!,/. Aater "rom streams and rivers will be relatively "ree "rom "allout within several days a"ter the last nuclear e#plosion because o" dilution. I" possible% "ilter such water be"ore drinking to get rid o" radioactive particles. The best "iltration method is to dig sediment holes or seepage basins along the side o" a water source. The water will seep laterally into the hole through the intervening soil that acts as a "iltering agent and removes the contaminated "allout particles that settled on the original body o" water. This method can remove up to << percent o" the radioactivity in water. 'ou must cover the hole in some way to prevent "urther contamination. See .igure 2! < "or an e#ample o" a water "ilter. Standing )ater $(!,2. Aater "rom lakes% pools% ponds% and other standing sources is likely to be heavily contaminatedE though most o" the heavier% long!lived radioactive isotopes will settle to the bottom. Use the settling techni1ue to puri"y this water. .irst% "ill a bucket

or other deep container three!"ourths "ull with contaminated water. Then take dirt "rom a depth o" = centimeters :, inches; or more below the ground sur"ace and stir it into the water. Use about $./ centimeters : inch; o" dirt "or every = centimeters :, inches; o" water. Stir the water until you see most dirt particles suspended in the water. Let the mi#ture settle "or at least 2 hours. The settling dirt particles will carry most o" the suspended "allout particles to the bottom and cover them. 'ou can then dip out the clear water. 0uri"y this water using a "iltration device. Additiona Precautions $(!,6. As an additional precaution against disease% treat all water with water puri"ication tablets "rom your survival kit or boil it. ,OO2 PROCUR!'!NT $(!,9. ?btaining edible "ood in a radiation!contaminated area is a serious but not insurmountable problem. 'ou need to "ollow a "ew special procedures in selecting and preparing rations and local "oods "or use. Since secure packaging protects your combat rations% they will be per"ectly sa"e "or use. Supplement your rations with any "ood you can "ind on trips outside your shelter. Abandoned buildings may have stores o" processed "oods. They are sa"e "or use a"ter decontaminating them. -anned and packaged "oods should have containers or wrappers removed or washed "ree o" "allout particles. These processed "oods also include "ood stored in any closed container and "ood stored in protected areas :such as cellars;. All such "oods must be washed be"ore eating or handling them. $(!,<. I" little or no processed "ood is available in your area% you may have to supplement your diet with local "ood sources. Animals and plants are local "ood sources. Ani#a s—A ,ood Source $(!/=. Assume that all animals% regardless o" their habitat or living conditions% were e#posed to radiation. The e""ects o" radiation on animals are similar to those on humans. Thus% most o" the wild animals living in a "allout area are likely to become sick or die "rom radiation during the "irst month a"ter the nuclear e#plosion. Although animals may not be "ree "rom harm"ul radioactive materials% you can and must use them in survival conditions as a "ood source i" other "oods are not available. Aith care"ul preparation and by "ollowing several important principles% animals can be sa"e "ood sources.

$(!/ . .irst% do not eat an animal that appears to be sick. It may have developed a bacterial in"ection because o" radiation poisoning. -ontaminated meat% even i" thoroughly cooked% could cause severe illness or death i" eaten. $(!/$. -are"ully skin all animals to prevent any radioactive particles on the skin or "ur "rom entering the body. &o not eat meat close to the bones and +oints as an animal7s skeleton contains over <= percent o" the radioactivity. Dowever% the remaining animal muscle tissue will be sa"e to eat. 8e"ore cooking it% cut the meat away "rom the bone% leaving at least a (!millimeter : K9!inch; thickness o" meat on the bone. &iscard all internal organs :heart% liver% and kidneys; since they tend to concentrate beta and gamma radioactivity. $(!/(. -ook all meat until it is very well done. To be sure the meat is well done% cut it into less than (!millimeter!thick :, K$!inch!thick; pieces be"ore cooking. Such cuts will also reduce cooking time and save "uel. $(!/,. The e#tent o" contamination in "ish and a1uatic animals will be much greater than that o" land animals. This is also true "or water plants% especially in coastal areas. Use a1uatic "ood sources only in conditions o" e#treme emergency. $(!//. All eggs% even i" laid during the period o" "allout% will be sa"e to eat. -ompletely avoid milk "rom any animals in a "allout area because animals absorb large amounts o" radioactivity "rom the plants they eat. P ants—A ,ood Source $(!/2. 0lant contamination occurs by the accumulation o" "allout on their outer sur"aces or by absorption o" radioactive elements through their roots. 'our "irst choice o" plant "ood should be vegetables such as potatoes% turnips% carrots% and other plants whose edible portion grows underground. These are the sa"est to eat once you scrub them and remove their skins. $(!/6. Second% in order o" pre"erence% are those plants with edible parts that you can decontaminate by washing and peeling their outer sur"aces. *#amples are bananas% apples% tomatoes% prickly pears% and other such "ruits and vegetables. $(!/9. Any smooth!skinned vegetable% "ruit% or plant that you cannot easily peel or e""ectively decontaminate by washing will be your third choice o" emergency "ood. $(!/<. The e""ectiveness o" decontamination by scrubbing is inversely proportional to the roughness o" the "ruit7s sur"ace. Smooth!sur"aced "ruits will lose <= percent o"

their contamination a"ter washing% but rough!sur"aced plants will lose only about /= percent. $(!2=. *at rough!sur"aced plants :such as lettuce; only as a last resort because you cannot e""ectively decontaminate them by peeling or washing. ?ther di""icult "oods to decontaminate by washing with water include dried "ruits :"igs% prunes% peaches% apricots% pears; and soybeans. $(!2 . In general% you can use any plant "ood that is ready "or harvest i" you can e""ectively decontaminate it. Dowever% growing plants can absorb some radioactive materials through their leaves as well as "rom the soil% especially i" rains have occurred during or a"ter the "allout period. Avoid using these plants "or "ood e#cept in an emergency.

$(!2$. The use o" biological agents is real. 0repare yoursel" "or survival by being pro"icient in the tasks identi"ied in your soldier7s manuals o" common tasks :S>-Ts;. Cnow what to do to protect yoursel" against these agents. .IOLO5ICAL A5!NTS AN2 !,,!CTS $(!2(. 8iological agents are microorganisms that can cause disease among personnel% animals% or plants. They can also cause the deterioration o" material. These agents "all into two broad categories5pathogens :usually called germs; and to#ins. 0athogens are living microorganisms that cause lethal or incapacitating diseases. 8acteria% rickettsiae% "ungi% and viruses are included in the pathogens. To#ins are poisons that plants% animals% or microorganisms produce naturally. 0ossible biological war"are to#ins include a variety o" neuroto#ic :a""ecting the central nervous system; and cytoto#ic :causing cell death; compounds. 5er#s $(!2,. )erms are living organisms. Some nations have used them in the past as weapons. ?nly a "ew germs can start an in"ection% especially i" inhaled into the lungs. 8ecause germs are so small and weigh so little% the wind can spread them over great distancesE they can also enter un"iltered or nonairtight places. 8uildings and bunkers can trap them% causing a higher concentration. )erms do not a""ect the body immediately. They must multiply inside the body and overcome the body7s de"enses5 a process called the incubation period. Incubation periods vary "rom several hours to several months% depending on the germ. >ost germs must live within another living

organism :host;% such as your body% to survive and grow. Aeather conditions such as wind% rain% cold% and sunlight rapidly kill germs. $(!2/. Some germs can "orm protective shells% or spores% to allow survival outside the host. Spore!producing agents are a long!term ha4ard you must neutrali4e by decontaminating in"ected areas or personnel. .ortunately% most live agents are not spore producing. These agents must "ind a host within roughly a day o" their delivery or they die. )erms have three basic routes o" entry into your body5through the respiratory tract% through a break in the skin% and through the digestive tract. Symptoms o" in"ection vary according to the disease. ToBins $(!22. To#ins are substances that plants% animals% or germs produce naturally. These to#ins are what actually harm man% not bacteria. An e#ample is botulin% which produces botulism. >odern science has allowed large!scale production o" these to#ins without the use o" the germ that produces the to#in. To#ins may produce e""ects similar to those o" chemical agents. Dowever% to#ic victims may not respond to "irst aid measures used against chemical agents. To#ins enter the body in the same manner as germs. Dowever% some to#ins% unlike germs% can penetrate unbroken skin. Symptoms appear almost immediately% since there is no incubation period. >any to#ins are e#tremely lethal% even in very small doses. Symptoms may include any o" the "ollowingF
• • • • • • • • • • •

&i44iness. >ental con"usion. 8lurred or double vision. 3umbness or tingling o" skin. 0aralysis. -onvulsions. Rashes or blisters. -oughing. .ever. Aching muscles. Tiredness.

• • • • •

3ausea% vomiting% or diarrhea. 8leeding "rom body openings. 8lood in urine% stool% or saliva. Shock. &eath.

2!T!CTION O, .IOLO5ICAL A5!NTS $(!26. 8iological agents are% by nature% di""icult to detect. 'ou cannot detect them by any o" the "ive physical senses. ?"ten% the "irst sign o" a biological agent will be symptoms o" the victims e#posed to the agent. 'our best chance o" detecting biological agents be"ore they can a""ect you is to recogni4e their means o" delivery. The three main means o" delivery are5

*&rsting:type m&nitions. These may be bombs or pro+ectiles whose burst causes very little damage. The burst will produce a small cloud o" li1uid or powder in the immediate impact area. This cloud will disperse eventuallyE the rate o" dispersion depends on terrain and weather conditions. Spray tanks or generators. Aircra"t% vehicle spray tanks% or ground! level aerosol generators produce an aerosol cloud o" biological agents.

'ectors. Insects such as mos1uitoes% "leas% lice% and ticks deliver pathogens. Large in"estations o" these insects may indicate the use o" biological agents.

$(!29. Sign o" a possible biological attack are the presence o" unusual substances on the ground or vegetation% or sick!looking plants% crops% or animals. IN,LU!NC! O, )!AT&!R AN2 T!RRAIN $(!2<. 'our knowledge o" how weather and terrain a""ect the agents can help you avoid contamination by biological agents. >a+or weather "actors that a""ect biological agents are sunlight% wind% and precipitation. Aerosol sprays will tend to concentrate in low areas o" terrain% similar to early morning mist. $(!6=. Sunlight contains visible and ultraviolet solar radiation that rapidly kills most germs used as biological agents. Dowever% natural or man!made cover may protect some agents "rom sunlight. ?ther man!made mutant strains o" germs may be resistant to sunlight.

$(!6 . Digh wind speeds increase the dispersion o" biological agents% dilute their concentration% and dehydrate them. The "urther downwind the agent travels% the less e""ective it becomes due to dilution and death o" the pathogens. Dowever% the downwind ha4ard area o" the biological agent is signi"icant and you cannot ignore it. $(!6$. 0recipitation in the "orm o" moderate to heavy rain tends to wash biological agents out o" the air% reducing downwind ha4ard areas. Dowever% the agents may still be very e""ective where they were deposited on the ground. PROT!CTION A5AINST .IOLO5ICAL A5!NTS $(!6(. Ahile you must maintain a healthy respect "or biological agents% there is no reason "or you to panic. 'ou can reduce your susceptibility to biological agents by maintaining current immuni4ations% avoiding contaminated areas% and controlling rodents and pests. 'ou must also use proper "irst aid measures in the treatment o" wounds% and only sa"e or properly decontaminated sources o" "ood and water. 'ou must ensure that you get enough sleep to prevent a run!down condition. 'ou must always use proper "ield sanitation procedures. $(!6,. Assuming you do not have a protective mask% always try to keep your "ace covered with some type o" cloth to protect yoursel" against biological agent aerosols. &ust may contain biological agentsE wear some type o" mask when dust is in the air. $(!6/. 'our uni"orm and gloves will protect you against bites "rom vectors :mos1uitoes and ticks; that carry diseases. -ompletely button your clothing and tuck your trousers tightly into your boots. Aear a chemical protective overgarment% i" available% as it provides better protection than normal clothing. -overing your skin will also reduce the chance o" the agent entering your body through cuts or scratches. Always practice high standards o" personal hygiene and sanitation to help prevent the spread o" vectors. $(!62. 8athe with soap and water whenever possible. Use germicidal soap% i" available. Aash your hair and body thoroughly. -lean under your "ingernails. -lean teeth% gums% tongue% and the roo" o" your mouth "re1uently. Aash your clothing in hot% soapy water i" you can. I" you cannot wash your clothing% lay it out in an area o" bright sunlight and allow the light to kill the microorganisms. A"ter a to#in attack% decontaminate yoursel" as i" "or a chemical attack using the >$/9A$ kit :i" available; or by washing with soap and water. S&!LT!R

$(!66. 'ou can build e#pedient shelters under biological contamination conditions using the same techni1ues described in -hapter /. Dowever% you must make slight changes to reduce the chance o" biological contamination. &o not build your shelter in depressions in the ground. Aerosol sprays tend to concentrate in these depressions. Avoid building your shelter in areas o" vegetation% as vegetation provides shade and some degree o" protection to biological agents. Avoid using vegetation in constructing your shelter. 0lace your shelter7s entrance at a <=!degree angle to the prevailing winds. Such placement will limit the entry o" airborne agents and prevent air stagnation in your shelter. Always keep your shelter clean. )AT!R PROCUR!'!NT $(!69. Aater procurement under biological conditions is di""icult but not impossible. Ahenever possible% try to use water that has been in a sealed container. 'ou can assume that the water inside the sealed container is not contaminated. Aash the water container thoroughly with soap and water or boil it "or at least = minutes be"ore breaking the seal. $(!6<. I" water in sealed containers is not available% your ne#t choice% on y under e#ergency conditions% is water "rom springs. Again% boil the water "or at least = minutes be"ore drinking. Ceep the water covered while boiling to prevent contamination by airborne pathogens. 'our last choice% on y in an eBtre#e e#ergency% is to use standing water. Vectors and germs can survive easily in stagnant water. 8oil this water as long as practicable to kill all organisms. .ilter this water through a cloth to remove the dead vectors. Use water puri"ication tablets in all cases. ,OO2 PROCUR!'!NT $(!9=. .ood procurement% like water procurement% is not impossible% but you must take special precautions. 'our combat rations are sealed% and you can assume they are not contaminated. 'ou can also assume that sealed containers or packages o" processed "ood are sa"e. To ensure sa"ety% decontaminate all "ood containers by washing with soap and water or by boiling the container in water "or = minutes. $(!9 . 'ou should consider supplementing your rations with local plants or animals only in eBtre#e emergencies. 3o matter what you do to prepare the "ood% there is no guarantee that cooking will kill all the biological agents. Use local "ood only in li"e! or!death situations. Remember% you can survive "or a long time without "ood% especially i" the "ood you eat may kill youG

$(!9$. I" you must use local "ood% select only healthy!looking plants and animals. &o not select known carriers o" vectors such as rats or other vermin. Select and prepare plants as you would in radioactive areas. 0repare animals as you do plants. Always use gloves and protective clothing when handling animals or plants. -ook all plant and animal "ood by boiling only. 8oil all "ood "or at least = minutes to kill all pathogens. &o not try to "ry% bake% or roast local "ood. There is no guarantee that all in"ected portions have reached the re1uired temperature to kill all pathogens. &o not eat raw "ood.

$(!9(. -hemical agent war"are is real. It can create e#treme problems in a survival situation% but you can overcome the problems with the proper e1uipment% knowledge% and training. In a survival situation% your "irst line o" de"ense against chemical agents is your pro"iciency in individual 38- training% to include donning and wearing the protective mask and overgarment% personal decontamination% recognition o" chemical agent symptoms% and individual "irst aid "or chemical agent contamination. The S>-Ts cover these sub+ects. I" you are not pro"icient in these skills% you will have little chance o" surviving a chemical environment. $(!9,. The sub+ect matter covered below is not a substitute "or any o" the individual tasks in which you must be pro"icient. The S>-Ts address the various chemical agents% their e""ects% and "irst aid "or these agents. The "ollowing in"ormation is provided under the assumption that you are pro"icient in the use o" chemical protective e1uipment and know the symptoms o" various chemical agents. 2!T!CTION O, C&!'ICAL A5!NTS $(!9/. The best method "or detecting chemical agents is the use o" a chemical agent detector. I" you have one% use it. Dowever% in a survival situation% you will most likely have to rely solely on the use o" all o" your physical senses. 'ou must be alert and able to detect any clues indicating the use o" chemical war"are. )eneral indicators o" the presence o" chemical agents are tears% di""icult breathing% choking% itching% coughing% and di44iness. Aith agents that are very hard to detect% you must watch "or symptoms in other personnel. 'our surroundings will provide valuable clues to the presence o" chemical agentsE "or e#ample% dead animals% sick people% or people and animals displaying abnormal behavior. $(!92. 'our sense o" smell may alert you to some chemical agents% but most will be odorless. The odor o" newly cut grass or hay may indicate the presence o" choking agents. A smell o" almonds may indicate blood agents.

$(!96. Sight will help you detect chemical agents. >ost chemical agents in the solid or li1uid state have some color. In the vapor state% you can see some chemical agents as a mist or thin "og immediately a"ter the bomb or shell bursts. 8y observing "or symptoms in others and by observing delivery means% you may be able to have some warning o" chemical agents. >ustard gas in the li1uid state will appear as oily patches on leaves or on buildings. $(!99. The sound o" enemy munitions will give some clue to the presence o" chemical weapons. >u""led shell or bomb detonations are a good indicator. $(!9<. Irritation in the nose or eyes or on the skin is an urgent warning to protect your body "rom chemical agents. Additionally% a strange taste in "ood% water% or cigarettes may serve as a warning that they have been contaminated. PROT!CTION A5AINST C&!'ICAL A5!NTS $(!<=. In a survival situation% always per"orm the "ollowing steps% in the order listed% to protect yoursel" "rom a chemical attackF
• • • •

Use protective e1uipment. )ive 1uick and correct sel"!aid when contaminated. Avoid areas where chemical agents e#ist. &econtaminate your e1uipment and body as soon as possible.

$(!< . 'our protective mask and overgarment are the key to your survival. Aithout these% you stand very little chance o" survival. 'ou must take care o" these items and protect them "rom damage. 'ou must practice and know correct sel"!aid procedures be"ore e#posure to chemical agents. The detection o" chemical agents and the avoidance o" contaminated areas are e#tremely important to your survival. Use whatever detection kits may be available to help in detection. Since you are in a survival situation% avoid contaminated areas at all costs. 'ou can e#pect no help should you become contaminated. I" you do become contaminated% decontaminate yoursel" as soon as possible using proper procedures. S&!LT!R $(!<$. I" you "ind yoursel" in a contaminated area% try to move out o" the area as "ast as possible. Travel crosswind or upwind to reduce the time spent in the downwind ha4ard area. I" you cannot leave the area immediately and have to build a shelter% use normal shelter construction techni1ues% with a "ew changes. 8uild the shelter in a clearing% away "rom all vegetation. Remove all topsoil in the area o" the shelter to

decontaminate the area. Ceep the shelter7s entrance closed and oriented at a <=! degree angle to the prevailing wind. &o not build a "ire using contaminated woodE the smoke will be to#ic. Use e#treme caution when entering your shelter so that you will not bring contamination inside. )AT!R PROCUR!'!NT $(!<(. As with biological and nuclear environments% getting water in a chemical environment is di""icult. ?bviously% water in sealed containers is your best and sa"est source. 'ou must protect this water as much as possible. 8e sure to decontaminate the containers be"ore opening. $(!<,. I" you cannot get water in sealed containers% try to get it "rom a closed source such as underground water pipes. 'ou may use rainwater or snow i" there is no evidence o" contamination. Use water "rom slow!moving streams% i" necessary% but always check "irst "or signs o" contamination% and always "ilter the water as described under nuclear conditions. Signs o" water source contamination are "oreign odors such as garlic% mustard% geranium% or bitter almondsE oily spots on the sur"ace o" the water or nearbyE and the presence o" dead "ish or animals. I" these signs are present% do not use the water. Always boil or puri"y the water to prevent bacteriological in"ection. ,OO2 PROCUR!'!NT $(!</. It is e#tremely di""icult to eat while in a contaminated area. 'ou will have to break the seal on your protective mask to eat. I" you eat% "ind an area in which you can sa"ely unmask. The sa"est source o" "ood is your sealed combat rations. .ood in sealed cans or bottles will also be sa"e. &econtaminate all sealed "ood containers be"ore opening% otherwise you will contaminate the "ood. $(!<2. I" you must supplement your combat rations with local plants or animals% do not use plants "rom contaminated areas or animals that appear to be sick. Ahen handling plants or animals% always use protective gloves and clothing.

• •

AppendiB A

Sur-i-a 1its
The Army has several basic survival kits% primarily "or issue to aviators. There are kits "or cold climates% hot climates% and overwater.

There is also an individual survival kit with a general packet and medical packet. The cold% hot% and overwater kits are in canvas carrying bags. These kits are normally stowed in the helicopter7s cargo and passenger area. An aviator7s survival vest :SRU!$ 0;% worn by helicopter crews% also contains survival items. U.S. Army aviators "lying "i#ed!wing aircra"t e1uipped with e+ection seats use the SR.U!( K0 survival vest. The individual survival kits are stowed in the seat pan. Like all other kits% the rigid seat survival kit :RSSC; you use depends on the environment. Items contained in the kits may be ordered separately through supply channels. All survival kits and vests are -ommon Table o" Allowances /=!<== items and can be ordered by authori4ed units. .igures A! through A!2 describe the various survival kits and their contents.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

>ood packets. !nare wire. !moke illumination signals. 8aterproof matchbox. !awCknife blade. 8ood matches. >irst aid kit. M"?. magnetic compass. $ocket knife. !awCknifeCshovel handle. >rying pan. )lluminating candles. "ompressed trioxane fuel. !ignaling mirror.

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

!urvival fishing kit. $lastic spoon. !urvival manual 5A>M 4(?36. $oncho. )nsect headnet. %=ector snap. Attaching strap. ;it outer case. ;it inner case. !hovel. 8ater bag. ;it packing list. !leeping bag.
,igure A819 Co d C i#ate 1it

• • • • • • • • • •

"anned drinking water. 8aterproof matchbox. $lastic whistle. !moke illumination signals. $ocket knife. !ignaling mirror. $lastic water bag. >irst aid kit. !unburn?prevention cream. $lastic spoon.

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>ood packets. "ompression trioxane fuel. >ishing tackle kit. M"?. magnetic compass. !nare wire. >rying pan. 8ood matches. )nsect headnet. 1eversible sun hat. Tool kit. ;it packing list. Tarpaulin. !urvival manual 5A>M 4(?36. ;it inner case. ;it outer case. Attaching strap. %=ector snap.
,igure A809 &ot C i#ate 1it

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;it packing list. 1aft boat paddle. !urvival manual 5A>M 4(?36. )nsect headnet. 1eversible sun hat. 8ater storage bag.

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M"?. magnetic compass. -oat bailer. !ponge. !unburn?prevention cream. 8ood matches. >irst aid kit. $lastic spoon. $ocket knife. >ood packets. >luorescent sea marker. >rying pan. !eawater desalter kit. "ompressed trioxane fuel. !moke illumination signals. !ignaling mirror. >ishing tackle kit. 8aterproof matchbox. 1aft repair kit.
,igure A8<9 O-er+ater 1it

,igure A879 Indi-idua Sur-i-a 1it )ith 5enera and 'edica Pac(ets

,igure A879 Indi-idua Sur-i-a 1it )ith 5enera and 'edica Pac(ets EContinuedF

,igure A879 Indi-idua Sur-i-a 1it )ith 5enera and 'edica Pac(ets EContinuedF

,igure A8=9 SRU801P A-iatorGs Sur-i-a 1it

,igure A8>9 OV81 Rigid Seat Sur-i-a 1its

AppendiB .

!di* e and 'edicina P ants
In a sur-i-a situation% p ants can pro-ide /ood and #edicine9 Their sa/e use re"uires a*so ute y positi-e identi/ication% (no+ing ho+ to prepare the# /or eating% and (no+ing any dangerous properties they #ight ha-e9 ,a#i iarity +ith *otanica structures o/ p ants and in/or#ation on +here they gro+ +i #a(e the# easier to ocate and identi/y9 This appendiB pro-ides pictures% descriptions% ha*itats and distri*ution% and edi* e parts o/ the #ost co##on p ants that you #ight encounter9

Abal Calligonum comosum Des"ription) The abal is one of the few shrubby plants that exist in the shady deserts. This plant grows to about ..' meters 5( feet6 and its branches look like wisps from a broom. The stiff green branches produce an abundance of flowers in March and April. *abitat and Distrib tion) This plant is found in desert scrub and waste in any climatic *one. )t inhabits much of the North African desert. )t may also be found on the desert sands of the Middle %ast and as far eastward as the 1a=putana desert of western )ndia. &dible +arts) This plant@s general appearance would not indicate its usefulness to you but while this plant is flowering in the spring its fresh flowers can be eaten. )t is common in the areas where it is found. An analysis of the abal@s food value has shown it to be high in sugar and nitrogenous components.

A"a"ia Acacia farnesiana Des"ription) Acacia is a spreading usually short tree with spines and alternate compound leaves. )ts individual leaflets are small. )ts flowers are ball?shaped bright yellow and very fragrant. )ts bark is a whitish?gray color. )ts fruits are dark brown and podlike. *abitat and Distrib tion) Acacia grows in open sunny areas. )t is found throughout all tropical regions. NOT&) There are about 377 species of acacia. These plants are especially prevalent in Africa southern Asia and Australia but many species are found in the warmer and drier parts of America. &dible +arts) )ts young leaves flowers and pods are edible raw or cooked.

A$ave Agave species Des"ription) These plants have large clusters of thick fleshy leaves borne close to the ground and surrounding a central stalk. The plants flower only once then die. They produce a massive flower stalk. *abitat and Distrib tion) Agaves prefer dry open areas. They are found throughout "entral America the "aribbean and parts of the western deserts of the United !tates and Mexico. &dible +arts) )ts flowers and flower buds are edible. -oil them before eating. CAUTION The =uice of some species causes dermatitis in some individuals. Other Uses) "ut the huge flower stalk and collect the =uice for drinking. !ome species have very fibrous leaves. $ound the leaves and remove the fibers for weaving and making ropes. Most species have thick sharp needles at the tips of the leaves. Use them for sewing or making hacks. The sap of some species contains a chemical that makes the sap suitable for use as a soap.

Almond "runus amyg$alus Des"ription) The almond tree which sometimes grows to .'.' meters 5(7 feet6 looks like a peach tree. The fresh almond fruit resembles a gnarled unripe peach and grows in clusters. The stone 5the almond itself6 is covered with a thick dry woolly skin. *abitat and Distrib tion) Almonds are found in the scrub and thorn forests of the tropics the evergreen scrub forests of temperate areas and in desert scrub and waste in all climatic *ones. The almond tree is also found in the semidesert areas of the 9ld 8orld in southern %urope the eastern Mediterranean )ran the Middle %ast "hina Madeira the A*ores and the "anary )slands. &dible +arts) The mature almond fruit splits open lengthwise down the side exposing the ripe almond nut. Bou can easily get the dry kernel by simply cracking open the stone. Almond meats are rich in food value like all nuts. :ather them in large quantities and shell them for further use as survival food. Bou could live solely on almonds for rather long periods. 8hen you boil them the kernel@s outer covering comes off and only the white meat remains.

Amaranth Amaranthus species Des"ription) These plants which grow #7 to .37 centimeters 503 to 47 inches6 tall are abundant weeds in many parts of the world. All amaranth have alternate simple leaves. They may have some red color present on the stems. They bear minute greenish flowers in dense clusters at the top of the plants. Their seeds may be brown or black in weedy species and light?colored in domestic species. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for amaranth along roadsides in disturbed waste areas or as weeds in crops throughout the world. !ome amaranth species have been grown as a grain crop and a garden vegetable in various parts of the world especially in !outh America. &dible +arts) All parts are edible but some may have sharp spines you should remove before eating. The young plants or the growing tips of older plants are an excellent vegetable. !imply boil the young plants or eat them raw. Their seeds are very nutritious. !hake the tops of older plants to get the seeds. %at the seeds raw boiled ground into flour or popped like popcorn.

Ar"ti" !illo! Salix arctica Des"ription) The arctic willow is a shrub that never exceeds more than 47 centimeters 5'( inches6 in height and grows in clumps that form dense mats on the tundra. *abitat and Distrib tion) The arctic willow is common on tundras in North America %urope and Asia. Bou can also find it in some mountainous areas in temperate regions. &dible +arts) Bou can collect the succulent tender young shoots of the arctic willow in early spring. !trip off the outer bark of the new shoots and eat the inner portion raw. Bou can also peel and eat raw the young underground shoots of any of the various kinds of arctic willow. Boung willow leaves are one of the richest sources of vitamin " containing , to .7 times more than an orange.

Arro!root (aranta an$ Sagittaria species Des"ription) The arrowroot is an aquatic plant with arrow?shaped leaves and potatolike tubers in the mud. *abitat and Distrib tion) Arrowroot is found worldwide in temperate *ones and the tropics. )t is found in moist to wet habitats. &dible +arts) The rootstock is a rich source of high quality starch. -oil the rootstock and eat it as a vegetable.

Aspara$ s Asparagus officinalis Des"ription) The spring growth of this plant resembles a cluster of green fingers. The mature plant has fernlike wispy foliage and red berries. )ts flowers are small and greenish in color. !everal species have sharp thornlike structures. *abitat and Distrib tion) Asparagus is found worldwide in temperate areas. <ook for it in fields old homesites and fencerows. &dible +arts) %at the young stems before leaves form. !team or boil them for .7 to .3 minutes before eating. 1aw asparagus may cause nausea or diarrhea. The fleshy roots are a good source of starch. WARNING &o not eat the fruits of any since some are toxic.

,ael fr it Aegle marmelos Des"ription) This is a tree that grows from '.( to (.4 meters 52 to .3 feet6 tall with a dense spiny growth. The fruit is 3 to .7 centimeters 5' to ( inches6 in diameter gray or yellowish and full of seeds. *abitat and Distrib tion) -ael fruit is found in rain forests and semievergreen seasonal forests of the tropics. )t grows wild in )ndia and -urma. &dible +arts) The fruit which ripens in &ecember is at its best when =ust turning ripe. The =uice of the ripe fruit diluted with water and mixed with a small amount of tamarind and sugar or honey is sour but refreshing. <ike other citrus fruits it is rich in vitamin ".

,amboo Darious species including 'ambusa& !en$rocalamus& "hyllostachys Des"ription) -amboos are woody grasses that grow up to .3 meters 537 feet6 tall. The leaves are grasslike and the stems are the familiar bamboos used in furniture and fishing poles. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for bamboo in warm moist regions in open or =ungle country in lowland or on mountains. -amboos are native to the >ar %ast 5temperate and tropical *ones6 but have been widely planted around the world. &dible +arts) The young shoots of almost all species are edible raw or cooked. 1aw shoots have a slightly bitter taste that is removed by boiling. To prepare remove the tough protective sheath that is coated with tawny or red hairs. The seed grain of the flowering bamboo is also edible. -oil the seeds like rice or pulveri*e them mix with water and make into cakes. Other Uses) Use the mature bamboo to build structures or to make containers ladles spoons and various other cooking utensils. Also use bamboo to make tools and weapons. Bou can make a strong bow by splitting the bamboo and putting several pieces together. CAUTION :reen bamboo may explode in a fire. :reen bamboo has an internal membrane you must remove before using it as a food or water container.

,anana and plantain (usa species Des"ription) These are treelike plants with several large leaves at the top. Their flowers are borne in dense hanging clusters. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for bananas and plantains in open fields or margins of forests where they are grown as a crop. They grow in the humid tropics. &dible +arts) Their fruits are edible raw or cooked. They may be boiled or baked. Bou can boil their flowers and eat them like a vegetable. Bou can cook and eat the rootstocks and leaf sheaths of many species. The center or EheartE of the plant is edible year?round cooked or raw. Other Uses) Bou can use the layers of the lower third of the plants to cover coals to roast food. Bou can also use their stumps to get water 5see "hapter 46. Bou can use their leaves to wrap other foods for cooking or storage.

,aobab A$ansonia $igitata Des"ription) The baobab tree may grow as high as .2 meters 547 feet6 and may have a trunk # meters 507 feet6 in diameter. The tree has short stubby branches and a gray thick bark. )ts leaves are compound and their segments are arranged like the palm of a hand. )ts flowers which are white and several centimeters across hang from the higher branches. )ts fruit is shaped like a football measures up to (3 centimeters 5.2 inches6 long and is covered with short dense hair. *abitat and Distrib tion) These trees grow in savannas. They are found in Africa in parts of Australia and on the island of Madagascar. &dible +arts) Bou can use the young leaves as a soup vegetable. The tender root of the young baobab tree is edible. The pulp and seeds of the fruit are also edible. Use one handful of pulp to about one cup of water for a refreshing drink. To obtain flour roast the seeds and then grind them. Other Uses) &rinking a mixture of pulp and water will help cure diarrhea. 9ften the hollow trunks are good sources of fresh water. The bark can be cut into strips and pounded to obtain a strong fiber for making rope.

,ato#o pl m Flacourtia inermis Des"ription) This shrub or small tree has dark green alternate simple leaves. )ts fruits are bright red and contain six or more seeds. *abitat and Distrib tion) This plant is a native of the $hilippines but is widely cultivated for its fruit in other areas. )t can be found in clearings and at the edges of the tropical rain forests of Africa and Asia. &dible +arts) %at the fruit raw or cooked.

,earberry or #inni#inni"# Arctostaphylos uvaursi Des"ription) This plant is a common evergreen shrub with reddish scaly bark and thick leathery leaves ( centimeters 5. .C' inches6 long and . centimeter 5.C' inch6 wide. )t has white flowers and bright red fruits. *abitat and Distrib tion) This plant is found in arctic subarctic and temperate regions most often in sandy or rocky soil. &dible +arts) )ts berries are edible raw or cooked. Bou can make a refreshing tea from its young leaves.

,ee"h Fagus species Des"ription) -eech trees are large 5# to '( meters F07 to 27 feetG6 symmetrical forest trees that have smooth light?gray bark and dark green foliage. The character of its bark plus its clusters of prickly seedpods clearly distinguish the beech tree in the field. *abitat and Distrib tion) This tree is found in the temperate *one. )t grows wild in the eastern United !tates %urope Asia and North Africa. )t is found in moist areas mainly in the forests. This tree is common throughout southeastern %urope and across temperate Asia. -eech relatives are also found in "hile New :uinea and New Healand. &dible +arts) The mature beechnuts readily fall out of the husklike seedpods. Bou can eat these dark?brown triangular nuts by breaking the thin shell with your fingernail and removing the white sweet kernel inside. -eechnuts are one of the most delicious of all wild nuts. They are a most useful survival food because of the kernel@s high oil content. Bou can also use the beechnuts as a coffee substitute. 1oast them so that the kernel becomes golden brown and quite hard. Then pulveri*e the kernel and after boiling or steeping in hot water you have a passable coffee substitute.

,i$nay Anti$esma bunius Des"ription) -ignay is a shrub or small tree 0 to .' meters 5.7 to (7 feet6 tall with shiny pointed leaves about .3 centimeters 54 inches6 long. )ts flowers are small clustered and green. )t has fleshy dark red or black fruit and a single seed. The fruit is about . centimeter 5.C' inch6 in diameter. *abitat and Distrib tion) This plant is found in rain forests and semievergreen seasonal forests in the tropics. )t is found in open places and in secondary forests. )t grows wild from the Aimalayas to !ri <anka and eastward through )ndonesia to northern Australia. Aowever it may be found anywhere in the tropics in cultivated forms. &dible +arts) The fruit is edible raw. &o not eat any other parts of the tree. )n Africa the roots are toxic. 9ther parts of the plant may be poisonous. CAUTION %aten in large quantities the fruit may have a laxative effect.

,la"#berry, raspberry, and de!berry Rubus species Des"ription) These plants have prickly stems 5canes6 that grow upward arching back toward the ground. They have alternate usually compound leaves. Their fruits may be red black yellow or orange. This plant is often confused with poison ivy during some seasons but these stems have thorns. *abitat and Distrib tion) These plants grow in open sunny areas at the margin of woods lakes streams and roads throughout temperate regions. There is also an arctic raspberry. &dible +arts) The fruits and peeled young shoots are edible. >lavor varies greatly. Other Uses) Use the leaves to make tea. To treat diarrhea drink a tea made by brewing the dried root bark of the blackberry bush.

,l eberry and h "#leberry Vaccinium and /aylussacia species Des"ription) These shrubs vary in si*e from 07 centimeters 5.' inches6 to 0., meters 5.' feet6 tall. All have alternate simple leaves. Their fruits may be dark blue black or red and have many small seeds. *abitat and Distrib tion) These plants prefer open sunny areas. They are found throughout much of the north temperate regions and at higher elevations in "entral America. &dible +arts) Their fruits are edible raw.

,readfr it Artocarpus incisa Des"ription) This tree may grow up to # meters 507 feet6 tall. )t has dark green deeply divided leaves that are ,3 centimeters 5'# inches6 long and 07 centimeters 5.' inches6 wide. )ts fruits are large green ball?like structures up to 07 centimeters 5.' inches6 across when mature. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for this tree at the margins of forests and homesites in the humid tropics. )t is native to the !outh $acific region but has been widely planted in the 8est )ndies and parts of $olynesia. &dible +arts) The fruit pulp is edible raw. The fruit can be sliced dried and ground into flour for later use. The seeds are edible cooked. Other Uses) The thick sap can serve as glue and caulking material. Bou can also use it as birdlime 5to entrap small birds by smearing the sap on twigs where they usually perch6.

, rdo"# Arctium lappa Des"ription) This plant has wavy?edged arrow?shaped leaves and flower heads in burrlike clusters. )t grows up to ' meters 5, feet6 tall with purple or pink flowers and a large fleshy root. *abitat and Distrib tion) -urdock is found worldwide in the north temperate *one. <ook for it in open waste areas during the spring and summer. &dible +arts) $eel the tender leaf stalks and eat them raw or cook them like greens. The roots are also edible boiled or baked. CAUTION &o not confuse burdock with rhubarb that has poisonous leaves. Other Uses) A liquid made from the roots will help to produce sweating and increase urination. &ry the root simmer it in water strain the liquid and then drink the strained liquid. Use the fiber from the dried stalk to weave cordage.

, rl +alm Corypha elata Des"ription) This tree may reach .2 meters 547 feet6 in height. )t has large fan?shaped leaves up to 0 meters 5.7 feet6 long and split into about .77 narrow segments. )t bears flowers in huge dusters at the top of the tree. The tree dies after flowering. *abitat and Distrib tion) This tree grows in coastal areas of the %ast )ndies. &dible +arts) The trunk contains starch that is edible raw. The very tip of the trunk is also edible raw or cooked. Bou can get large quantities of liquid by bruising the flowering stalk. The kernels of the nuts are edible. CAUTION The seed covering may cause dermatitis in some individuals. Other Uses) Bou can use the leaves as weaving material.

Canna lily Canna in$ica Des"ription) The canna lily is a coarse perennial herb #7 centimeters 504 inches6 to 0 meters 5.7 feet6 tall. The plant grows from a large thick underground rootstock that is edible. )ts large leaves resemble those of the banana plant but are not so large. The flowers of wild canna lily are usually small relatively inconspicuous and brightly colored reds oranges or yellows. *abitat and Distrib tion) As a wild plant the canna lily is found in all tropical areas especially in moist places along streams springs ditches and the margins of woods. )t may also be found in wet temperate mountainous regions. )t is easy to recogni*e because it is commonly cultivated in flower gardens in the United !tates. &dible +arts) The large and much?branched rootstocks are full of edible starch. The younger parts may be finely chopped and then boiled or pulveri*ed into a meal. Mix in the young shoots of palm cabbage for flavoring.

Carob tree Ceratonia sili0ua Des"ription) This large tree has a spreading crown. )ts leaves are compound and alternate. )ts seedpods also known as !aint Iohn@s bread are up to (3 centimeters 5.2 inches6 long and are filled with round hard seeds and a thick pulp. *abitat and Distrib tion) This tree is found throughout the Mediterranean the Middle %ast and parts of North Africa. &dible +arts) The young tender pods are edible raw or boiled. Bou can pulveri*e the seeds in mature pods and cook as porridge.

Cashe! n t Anacar$ium occi$entale Des"ription) The cashew is a spreading evergreen tree growing to a height of .' meters 5(7 feet6 with leaves up to '7 centimeters 52 inches6 long and .7 centimeters 5( inches6 wide. )ts flowers are yellowish?pink. )ts fruit is very easy to recogni*e because of its peculiar structure. The fruit is thick and pear?shaped pulpy and red or yellow when ripe. This fruit bears a hard green kidney?shaped nut at its tip. This nut is smooth shiny and green or brown according to its maturity. *abitat and Distrib tion) The cashew is native to the 8est )ndies and northern !outh America but transplantation has spread it to all tropical climates. )n the 9ld 8orld it has escaped from cultivation and appears to be wild at least in parts of Africa and )ndia. &dible +arts) The nut encloses one seed. The seed is edible when roasted. The pear?shaped fruit is =uicy sweet acid and astringent. )t is quite safe and considered delicious by most people who eat it. CAUTION The green hull surrounding the nut contains a resinous irritant poison that will blister the lips and tongue like poison ivy. Aeat destroys this poison when the nuts are roasted.

Cattail Typha latifolia Des"ription) "attails are grasslike plants with strap?shaped leaves . to 3 centimeters 5.C( to ' inches6 wide and growing up to ..2 meters 54 feet6 tall. The male flowers are borne in a dense mass above the female flowers. The male flowers last only a short time leaving the female flowers which develop into the brown cattail. $ollen from the male flowers is often abundant and bright yellow. *abitat and Distrib tion) "attails are found throughout most of the world. <ook for them in full sun areas at the margins of lakes streams canals rivers and brackish water. &dible +arts) The young tender shoots are edible raw or cooked. The rhi*ome is often very tough but is a rich source of starch. $ound the rhi*ome to remove the starch and use as a flour. The pollen is also an exceptional source of starch. 8hen the cattail is immature and still green you can boil the female portion and eat it like corn on the cob. Other Uses) The dried leaves are an excellent source of weaving material you can use to make floats and rafts. The cottony seeds make good pillow stuffing and insulation. The fluff makes excellent tinder. &ried cattails are effective insect repellents when burned.

Cere s "a"t s Cereus species Des"ription) These cacti are tall and narrow with angled stems and numerous spines. *abitat and Distrib tion) They may be found in true deserts and other dry open sunny areas throughout the "aribbean region "entral America and the western United !tates. &dible +arts) The fruits are edible but some may have a laxative effect. Other Uses) The pulp of the cactus is a good source of water. -reak open the stem and scoop out the pulp.

Chestn t Castanea sativa Des"ription) The %uropean chestnut is usually a large tree up to .2 meters 547 feet6 in height. *abitat and Distrib tion) )n temperate regions the chestnut is found in both hardwood and coniferous forests. )n the tropics it is found in semievergreen seasonal forests. They are found over all of middle and south %urope and across middle Asia to "hina and Iapan. They are relatively abundant along the edge of meadows and as a forest tree. The %uropean chestnut is one of the most common varieties. 8ild chestnuts in Asia belong to the related chestnut species. &dible +arts) "hestnuts are highly useful as survival food. 1ipe nuts are usually picked in autumn although unripe nuts picked while green may also be used for food. $erhaps the easiest way to prepare them is to roast the ripe nuts in embers. "ooked this way they are quite tasty and you can eat large quantities. Another way is to boil the kernels after removing the outer shell. After boiling the nuts until fairly soft you can mash them like potatoes.

Chi"ory Cichorium intybus Des"ription) This plant grows up to ..2 meters 54 feet6 tall. )t has leaves clustered at the base of the stem and some leaves on the stem. The base leaves resemble those of the dandelion. The flowers are sky blue and stay open only on sunny days. "hicory has a milky =uice. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for chicory in old fields waste areas weedy lots and along roads. )t is a native of %urope and Asia but is also found in Africa and most of North America where it grows as a weed. &dible +arts) All parts are edible. %at the young leaves as a salad or boil to eat as a vegetable. "ook the roots as a vegetable. >or use as a coffee substitute roast the roots until they are dark brown and then pulveri*e them.

Ch fa Cyperus esculentus Des"ription) This very common plant has a triangular stem and grasslike leaves. )t grows to a height of '7 to 47 centimeters 52 to '( inches6. The mature plant has a soft furlike bloom that extends from a whorl of leaves. Tubers . to '.3 centimeters 5.C' to . inch6 in diameter grow at the ends of the roots. *abitat and Distrib tion) "hufa grows in moist sandy areas throughout the world. )t is often an abundant weed in cultivated fields. &dible +arts) The tubers are edible raw boiled or baked. Bou can also grind them and use them as a coffee substitute.

Co"on t Cocos nucifera Des"ription) This tree has a single narrow tall trunk with a cluster of very large leaves at the top. %ach leaf may be over 4 meters 5'7 feet6 long with over .77 pairs of leaflets. *abitat and Distrib tion) "oconut palms are found throughout the tropics. They are most abundant near coastal regions. &dible +arts) The nut is a valuable source of food. The milk of the young coconut is rich in sugar and vitamins and is an excellent source of liquid. The nut meat is also nutritious but is rich in oil. To preserve the meat spread it in the sun until it is completely dry. Other Uses) Use coconut oil to cook and to protect metal ob=ects from corrosion. Also use the oil to treat saltwater sores sunburn and dry skin. Use the oil in improvised torches. Use the tree trunk as building material and the leaves as thatch. Aollow out the large stump for use as a food container. The coconut husks are good flotation devices and the husk@s fibers are used to weave ropes and other items. Use the gau*elike fibers at the leaf bases as strainers or use them to weave a bug net or to make a pad to use on wounds. The husk makes a good abrasive. &ried husk fiber is an excellent tinder. A smoldering husk helps to repel mosquitoes. !moke caused by dripping coconut oil in a fire also repels mosquitoes. To render coconut oil put the coconut meat in the sun heat it over a slow fire or boil it in a pot of water. "oconuts washed out to sea are a good source of fresh liquid for the sea survivor.

Common - - be 1i2iphus ,u,uba Des"ription) The common =u=ube is either a deciduous tree growing to a height of .' meters 5(7 feet6 or a large shrub depending upon where it grows and how much water is available for growth. )ts branches are usually spiny. )ts reddish?brown to yellowish?green fruit is oblong to ovoid 0 centimeters 5. inch6 or less in diameter smooth and sweet in flavor but with a rather dry pulp around a comparatively large stone. )ts flowers are green. *abitat and Distrib tion) The =u=ube is found in forested areas of temperate regions and in desert scrub and waste areas worldwide. )t is common in many of the tropical and subtropical areas of the 9ld 8orld. )n Africa it is found mainly bordering the Mediterranean. )n Asia it is especially common in the drier parts of )ndia and "hina. The =u=ube is also found throughout the %ast )ndies. )t can be found bordering some desert areas. &dible +arts) The pulp crushed in water makes a refreshing beverage. )f time permits you can dry the ripe fruit in the sun like dates. )ts fruit is high in vitamins A and ".

Cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon Des"ription) This plant has tiny leaves arranged alternately. )ts stem creeps along the ground. )ts fruits are red berries. *abitat and Distrib tion) )t only grows in open sunny wet areas in the colder regions of the Northern Aemisphere. &dible +arts) The berries are very tart when eaten raw. "ook in a small amount of water and add sugar if available to make a =elly. Other Uses) "ranberries may act as a diuretic. They are useful for treating urinary tract infections.

Cro!berry -mpetrum nigrum Des"ription) This is a dwarf evergreen shrub with short needlelike leaves. )t has small shiny black berries that remain on the bush throughout the winter. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for this plant in tundra throughout arctic regions of North America and %urasia. &dible +arts) The fruits are edible fresh or can be dried for later use.

C ipo tree Cavanillesia platanifolia Des"ription) This is a very dominant and easily detected tree because it extends above the other trees. )ts height ranges from (3 to 47 meters 5.(# to .#2 feet6. )t has leaves only at the top and is bare .. months out of the year. )t has rings on its bark that extend to the top to make it easily recogni*able. )ts bark is reddish or gray in color. )ts roots are light reddish? brown or yellowish?brown. *abitat and Distrib tion) The cuipo tree is located primarily in "entral American tropical rain forests in mountainous areas. &dible +arts) To get water from this tree cut a piece of the root and clean the dirt and bark off one end keeping the root hori*ontal. $ut the clean end to your mouth or canteen and raise the other. The water from this tree tastes like potato water. Other Uses) Use young saplings and the branches@ inner bark to make rope.

Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Des"ription) &andelion leaves have a =agged edge grow close to the ground and are seldom more than '7 centimeters 52 inches6 long. The flowers are bright yellow. There are several dandelion species. *abitat and Distrib tion) &andelions grow in open sunny locations throughout the Northern Aemisphere. &dible +arts) All parts are edible. %at the leaves raw or cooked. -oil the roots as a vegetable. 1oots roasted and ground are a good coffee substitute. &andelions are high in vitamins A and " and in calcium. Other Uses) Use the white =uice in the flower stems as glue.

Date palm "hoenix $actylifera Des"ription) The date palm is a tall unbranched tree with a crown of huge compound leaves. )ts fruit is yellow when ripe. *abitat and Distrib tion) This tree grows in arid semitropical regions. )t is native to North Africa and the Middle %ast but has been planted in the arid semitropics in other parts of the world. &dible +arts) )ts fruit is edible fresh but is very bitter if eaten before it is ripe. Bou can dry the fruits in the sun and preserve them for a long time. Other Uses) The trunks provide valuable building material in desert regions where few other treelike plants are found. The leaves are durable and you can use them for thatching and as weaving material. The base of the leaves resembles coarse cloth that you can use for scrubbing and cleaning.

Daylily Hemerocallis fulva Des"ription) This plant has unspotted tawny blossoms that open for . day only. )t has long swordlike green basal leaves. )ts root is a mass of swollen and elongated tubers. *abitat and Distrib tion) &aylilies are found worldwide in tropic and temperate *ones. They are grown as a vegetable in the 9rient and as an ornamental plant elsewhere. &dible +arts) The young green leaves are edible raw or cooked. Tubers are also edible raw or cooked. Bou can eat its flowers raw but they taste better cooked. Bou can also fry the flowers for storage. CAUTION %ating excessive amounts of raw flowers may cause diarrhea.

D "hesnea or Indian stra!berry !uchesnea in$ica Des"ription) The duchesnea is a small plant that has runners and three?parted leaves. )ts flowers are yellow and its fruit resembles a strawberry. *abitat and Distrib tion) )t is native to southern Asia but is a common weed in warmer temperate regions. <ook for it in lawns gardens and along roads. &dible +arts) )ts fruit is edible. %at it fresh.

&lderberry Sambucus cana$ensis Des"ription) %lderberry is a many?stemmed shrub with opposite compound leaves. )t grows to a height of 4 meters 5'7 feet6. )ts flowers are fragrant white and borne in large flat?topped clusters up to 07 centimeters 5.' inches6 across. )ts berrylike fruits are dark blue or black when ripe. *abitat and Distrib tion) This plant is found in open usually wet areas at the margins of marshes rivers ditches and lakes. )t grows throughout much of eastern North America. &dible +arts) The flowers and fruits are edible. Bou can make a drink by soaking the flower heads for 2 hours discarding the flowers and drinking the liquid. CAUTION All other parts of the plant are poisonous and dangerous if eaten.

.ire!eed -pilobium angustifolium Des"ription) This plant grows up to ..2 meters 54 feet6 tall. )t has large showy pink flowers and lance?shaped leaves. )ts relative the dwarf fireweed 5-pilobium latifolium6 grows 07 to 47 centimeters 5.' to '( inches6 tall. *abitat and Distrib tion) Tall fireweed is found in open woods on hillsides on stream banks and near seashores in arctic regions. )t is especially abundant in burned?over areas. &warf fireweed is found along streams sandbars and lakeshores and on alpine and arctic slopes. &dible +arts) The leaves stems and flowers are edible in the spring but become tough in summer. Bou can split open the stems of old plants and eat the pith raw.

.ishtail palm Caryota urens Des"ription) >ishtail palms are large trees at least .2 meters 547 feet6 tall. Their leaves are unlike those of any other palmJ the leaflets are irregular and toothed on the upper margins. All other palms have either fan?shaped or featherlike leaves. )ts massive flowering shoot is borne at the top of the tree and hangs downward. *abitat and Distrib tion) The fishtail palm is native to the tropics of )ndia Assam and Myanmar. !everal related species also exist in !outheast Asia and the $hilippines. These palms are found in open hill country and =ungle areas. &dible +arts) The chief food in this palm is the starch stored in large quantities in its trunk. The =uice from the fishtail palm is very nourishing and you have to drink it shortly after getting it from the palm flower shoot. -oil the =uice down to get a rich sugar syrup. Use the same method as for the sugar palm to get the =uice. The palm cabbage may be eaten raw or cooked.

.o/tail $rass Setaria species Des"ription) This weedy grass is readily recogni*ed by the narrow cylindrical head containing long hairs. )ts grains are small less than 4 millimeters 5.C( inch6 long. The dense heads of grain often droop when ripe. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for foxtail grasses in open sunny areas along roads and at the margins of fields. !ome species occur in wet marshy areas. !pecies of Setaria are found throughout the United !tates %urope western Asia and tropical Africa. )n some parts of the world foxtail grasses are grown as a food crop. &dible +arts) The grains are edible raw but are very hard and sometimes bitter. -oiling removes some of the bitterness and makes them easier to eat.

Goa bean "sophocarpus tetragonolobus Des"ription) The goa bean is a climbing plant that may cover small shrubs and trees. )ts bean pods are '' centimeters 5# inches6 long its leaves .3 centimeters 54 inches6 long and its flowers are bright blue. The mature pods are (?angled with =agged wings on the pods. *abitat and Distrib tion) This plant grows in tropical Africa Asia the %ast )ndies the $hilippines and Taiwan. This member of the bean 5legume6 family serves to illustrate a kind of edible bean common in the tropics of the 9ld 8orld. 8ild edible beans of this sort are most frequently found in clearings and around abandoned garden sites. They are more rare in forested areas. &dible +arts) Bou can eat the young pods like string beans. The mature seeds are a valuable source of protein after parching or roasting them over hot coals. Bou can germinate the seeds 5as you can many kinds of beans6 in damp moss and eat the resultant sprouts. The thickened roots are edible raw. They are slightly sweet with the firmness of an apple. Bou can also eat the young leaves as a vegetable raw or steamed.

*a"#berry Celtis species Des"ription) Aackberry trees have smooth gray bark that often has corky warts or ridges. The tree may reach 0# meters 5.'# feet6 in height. Aackberry trees have long?pointed leaves that grow in two rows. This tree bears small round berries that can be eaten when they are ripe and fall from the tree. The wood of the hackberry is yellowish. *abitat and Distrib tion) This plant is widespread in the United !tates especially in and near ponds. &dible +arts) )ts berries are edible when they are ripe and fall from the tree.

*a0eln t or !ild filbert Corylus species Des"ription) Aa*elnuts grow on bushes ..2 to 0.4 meters 54 to .' feet6 high. 9ne species in Turkey and another in "hina are large trees. The nut itself grows in a very bristly husk that conspicuously contracts above the nut into a long neck. The different species vary in this respect as to si*e and shape. *abitat and Distrib tion) Aa*elnuts are found over wide areas in the United !tates especially the eastern half of the country and along the $acific coast. These nuts are also found in %urope where they are known as filberts. The ha*elnut is common in Asia especially in eastern Asia from the Aimalayas to "hina and Iapan. The ha*elnut usually grows in the dense thickets along stream banks and open places. They are not plants of the dense forest. &dible +arts) Aa*elnuts ripen in the autumn when you can crack them open and eat the kernel. The dried nut is extremely delicious. The nut@s high oil content makes it a good survival food. 8hen they are unripe you can crack them open and eat the fresh kernel.

*orseradish tree (oringa pterygosperma Des"ription) This tree grows from (.3 to .( meters 5.3 to (4 feet6 tall. )ts leaves have a fernlike appearance. )ts flowers and long pendulous fruits grow on the ends of the branches. )ts fruit 5pod6 looks like a giant bean. )ts '3? to 47?centimeter?long pods are triangular in cross section with strong ribs. )ts roots have a pungent odor. *abitat and Distrib tion) This tree is found in the rain forests and semievergreen seasonal forests of the tropical regions. )t is widespread in )ndia !outheast Asia Africa and "entral America. <ook for it in abandoned fields and gardens and at the edges of forests. &dible +arts) The leaves are edible raw or cooked depending on their hardness. "ut the young seedpods into short lengths and cook them like string beans or fry them. Bou can get oil for frying by boiling the young fruits of palms and skimming the oil off the surface of the water. Bou can eat the flowers as part of a salad. Bou can chew fresh young seedpods to eat the pulpy and soft seeds. The roots may be ground as a substitute for seasoning similar to horseradish.

I"eland moss Cetraria islan$ica Des"ription) This moss grows only a few inches high. )ts color may be gray white or even reddish. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for it in open areas. )t is found only in the arctic. &dible +arts) All parts of the )celand moss are edible. &uring the winter or dry season it is dry and crunchy but softens when soaked. -oil the moss to remove the bitterness. After boiling eat by itself or add to milk or grains as a thickening agent. &ried plants store well.

Indian potato or &s#imo potato Claytonia species Des"ription) All "laytonia species are somewhat fleshy plants only a few centimeters tall with showy flowers about '.3 centimeters 5. inch6 across. *abitat and Distrib tion) !ome species are found in rich forests where they are conspicuous before the leaves develop. 8estern species are found throughout most of the northern United !tates and in "anada. &dible +arts) The tubers are edible but you should boil them before eating.

1 niper 3uniperus species Des"ription) Iunipers sometimes called cedars are trees or shrubs with very small scalelike leaves densely crowded around the branches. %ach leaf is less than ..' centimeters 5.C0 inch6 long. All species have a distinct aroma resembling the well?known cedar. The berrylike cones are usually blue and covered with a whitish wax. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for =unipers in open dry sunny areas throughout North America and northern %urope. !ome species are found in southeastern %urope across Asia to Iapan and in the mountains of North Africa. &dible +arts) The berries and twigs are edible. %at the berries raw or roast the seeds to use as a coffee substitute. Use dried and crushed berries as a seasoning for meat. :ather young twigs to make a tea. CAUTION Many plants may be called cedars but are not related to =unipers and may be harmful. Always look for the berrylike structures needle leaves and resinous fragrant sap to be sure the plant you have is a =uniper.

2ot s %elumbo species Des"ription) There are two species of lotusK one has yellow flowers and the other pink flowers. The flowers are large and showy. The leaves which may float on or rise above the surface of the water often reach ..3 meters 53 feet6 in radius. The fruit has a distinctive flattened shape and contains up to '7 hard seeds. *abitat and Distrib tion) The yellow?flowered lotus is native to North America. The pink?flowered species which is widespread in the 9rient is planted in many other areas of the world. <otuses are found in quiet freshwater. &dible +arts) All parts of the plant are edible raw or cooked. The underwater parts contain large quantities of starch. &ig the fleshy portions from the mud and bake or boil them. -oil the young leaves and eat them as a vegetable. The seeds have a pleasant flavor and are nutritious. %at them raw or parch and grind them into flour.

3alan$a 4anthosoma caracu Des"ription) This plant has soft arrow?shaped leaves up to 47 centimeters 5'( inches6 long. The leaves have no aboveground stems. *abitat and Distrib tion) This plant grows widely in the "aribbean region. <ook for it in open sunny fields. &dible +arts) The tubers are rich in starch. "ook them before eating to destroy a poison contained in all parts of the plant. WARNING Always cook before eating.

3an$o (angifera in$ica Des"ription) This tree may reach 07 meters 5#7 feet6 in height. )t has alternate simple shiny dark green leaves. )ts flowers are small and inconspicuous. )ts fruits have a large single seed. There are many cultivated varieties of mango. !ome have red flesh others yellow or orange often with many fibers and a kerosene taste. *abitat and Distrib tion) This tree grows in warm moist regions. )t is native to northern )ndia Myanmar and western Malaysia. )t is now grown throughout the tropics. &dible +arts) The fruits are a nutritious food source. The unripe fruit can be peeled and its flesh eaten by shredding it and eating it like a salad. The ripe fruit can be peeled and eaten raw. 1oasted seed kernels are edible. CAUTION )f you are sensitive to poison ivy avoid eating mangoes as they cause a severe reaction in sensitive individuals.

3anio" (anihot utillissima Des"ription) Manioc is a perennial shrubby plant . to 0 meters 50 to # feet6 tall with =ointed stems and deep green fingerlike leaves. )t has large fleshy rootstocks. *abitat and Distrib tion) Manioc is widespread in all tropical climates particularly in moist areas. Although cultivated extensively it may be found in abandoned gardens and growing wild in many areas. &dible +arts) The rootstocks are full of starch and high in food value. Two kinds of manioc are knownK bitter and sweet. -oth are edible. The bitter type contains poisonous hydrocyanic acid. To prepare manioc first grind the fresh manioc root into a pulp then cook it for at least . hour to remove the bitter poison from the roots. Then flatten the pulp into cakes and bake as bread. Manioc cakes or flour will keep almost indefinitely if protected against insects and dampness. 8rap manioc in banana leaves for protection. CAUTION >or safety always cook the roots of either type.

3arsh mari$old Caltha palustris Des"ription) This plant has rounded dark green leaves arising from a short stem. )t has bright yellow flowers. *abitat and Distrib tion) This plant is found in bogs lakes and slow?moving streams. )t is abundant in arctic and subarctic regions and in much of the eastern region of the northern United !tates. &dible +arts) All parts are edible if boiled.

CAUTION As with all water plants do not eat this plant raw. 1aw water plants may carry dangerous organisms that are removed only by cooking.

3 lberry (orus species Des"ription) This tree has alternate simple often lobed leaves with rough surfaces. )ts fruits are blue or black and many?seeded. *abitat and Distrib tion) Mulberry trees are found in forests along roadsides and in abandoned fields in temperate and tropical *ones of North America !outh America %urope Asia and Africa. &dible +arts) The fruit is edible raw or cooked. )t can be dried for eating later. Other Uses) Bou can shred the inner bark of the tree and use it to make twine or cord.

Nettle Urtica and )aportea species Des"ription) These plants grow several feet high. They have small inconspicuous flowers. >ine hairlike bristles cover the stems leafstalks and undersides of leaves. The bristles cause a stinging sensation when they touch the skin. *abitat and Distrib tion) Nettles prefer moist areas along streams or at the margins of forests. They are found throughout North America "entral America the "aribbean and northern %urope. &dible +arts) Boung shoots and leaves are edible. -oiling the plant for .7 to .3 minutes destroys the stinging element of the bristles. This plant is very nutritious. Other Uses) Mature stems have a fibrous layer that you can divide into individual fibers

and use to weave string or twine.

Nipa palm Nipa fruticans Des"ription) This palm has a short mainly underground trunk and very large erect leaves up to 4 meters 5'7 feet6 tall. The leaves are divided into leaflets. A flowering head forms on a short erect stern that rises among the palm leaves. The fruiting 5seed6 head is dark brown and may be 07 centimeters 5.' inches6 in diameter. *abitat and Distrib tion) This palm is common on muddy shores in coastal regions throughout eastern Asia. &dible +arts) The young flower stalk and the seeds provide a good source of water and food. "ut the flower stalk and collect the =uice. The =uice is rich in sugar. The seeds are hard but edible. Other Uses) The leaves are excellent as thatch and coarse weaving material.

Oa# uercus species Des"ription) 9ak trees have alternate leaves and acorn fruits. There are two main groups of oaksK red and white. The red oak group has leaves with bristles and smooth bark in the upper part of the tree. 1ed oak acorns take ' years to mature. The white oak group has leaves without bristles and a rough bark in the upper portion of the tree. 8hite oak acorns mature in . year. *abitat and Distrib tion) 9ak trees are found in many habitats throughout North America "entral America and parts of %urope and Asia. &dible +arts) All parts are edible but often contain large quantities of bitter substances. 8hite oak acorns usually have a better flavor than red oak acorns. :ather and shell the acorns. !oak red oak acorns in water for . to ' days to remove the bitter substance. Bou can

speed up this process by putting wood ashes in the water in which you soak the acorns. -oil the acorns or grind them into flour and use the flour for baking. Bou can use acorns that you baked until very dark as a coffee substitute. CAUTION Tannic acid gives the acorns their bitter taste. %ating an excessive amount of acorns high in tannic acid can lead to kidney failure. -efore eating acorns leach out this chemical. Oa# 'Contin ed( Other Uses) 9ak wood is excellent for building or burning. !mall oaks can be split and cut into long thin strips 50 to 4 millimeters F.C2 to .C( inchG thick and ..' centimeters F.C0 inchG wide6 used to weave mats baskets or frameworks for packs sleds furniture etc. 9ak bark soaked in water produces a tanning solution used to preserve leather.

Ora"h Atriplex species

Des"ription) This plant is vinelike in growth and has arrowhead?shaped alternate leaves up to 3 centimeters 5' inches6 long. Boung leaves maybe silver?colored. )ts flowers and fruits are small and inconspicuous. *abitat and Distrib tion) 9rach species are entirety restricted to salty soils. They are found along North America@s coasts and on the shores of alkaline lakes inland. They are also found along seashores from the Mediterranean countries to inland areas in North Africa and eastward to Turkey and central !iberia. &dible +arts) The entire plant is edible raw or boiled.

+almetto palm Sabal palmetto Des"ription) The palmetto palm is a tall unbranched tree with persistent leaf bases on most of the trunk. The leaves are large simple and palmately lobed. )ts fruits are dark blue or black with a hard seed. *abitat and Distrib tion) The palmetto palm is found throughout the coastal regions of the southeastern United !tates. &dible +arts) The fruits are edible raw. The hard seeds may be ground into flour. The heart

of the palm is a nutritious food source at any time. "ut off the top of the tree to obtain the palm heart.

+apaya or pa!pa! Carica papaya Des"ription) The papaya is a small tree ..2 to 4 meters 54 to '7 feet6 tall with a soft hollow trunk. 8hen cut the entire plant exudes a milky =uice. The trunk is rough and the leaves are crowded at the trunk@s apex. The fruit grows directly from the trunk among and below the leaves. The fruit is green before ripening. 8hen ripe it turns yellow or remains greenish with a squashlike appearance. *abitat and Distrib tion) $apaya is found in rain forests and semievergreen seasonal forests in tropical regions and in some temperate regions as well. <ook for it in moist areas near clearings and former habitations. )t is also found in open sunny places in uninhabited =ungle areas. &dible +arts) The ripe fruit is high in vitamin ". %at it raw or cook it like squash. $lace green fruit in the sun to make it ripen quickly. "ook the young papaya leaves flowers and stems carefully changing the water as for taro. Other Uses) Use the milky =uice of the unripe fruit to tenderi*e tough meat. 1ub the =uice on the meat.

CAUTION -e careful not to get the milky sap from the unripe fruit into your eyes. )t will cause intense pain and temporary/ sometimes even permanent/blindness.

+ersimmon !iospyros virginiana and other species Des"ription) These trees have alternate dark green elliptic leaves with entire margins. The flowers are inconspicuous. The fruits are orange have a sticky consistency and have several seeds. *abitat and Distrib tion) The persimmon is a common forest margin tree. )t is wide spread in Africa eastern North America and the >ar %ast. &dible +arts) The leaves are a good source of vitamin ". The fruits are edible raw or baked. To make tea dry the leaves and soak them in hot water. Bou can eat the roasted seeds. CAUTION

!ome persons are unable to digest persimmon pulp. Unripe persimmons are highly astringent and inedible.

+in" shion "a"t s (ammilaria species Des"ription) Members of this cactus group are round short barrel?shaped and without leaves. !harp spines cover the entire plant. *abitat and Distrib tion) These cacti are found throughout much of the desert regions of the western United !tates and parts of "entral America. &dible +arts) They are a good source of water in the desert.

+ine "inus species Des"ription) $ine trees are easily recogni*ed by their needlelike leaves grouped in bundles. %ach bundle may contain one to five needles the number varying among species. The tree@s odor and sticky sap provide a simple way to distinguish pines from similar looking trees with needlelike leaves. *abitat and Distrib tion) $ines prefer open sunny areas. They are found throughout North America "entral America much of the "aribbean region North Africa the Middle %ast %urope and some places in Asia. &dible +arts) The seeds of all species are edible. Bou can collect the young male cones which grow only in the spring as a survival food. -oil or bake the young cones. The bark of young twigs is edible. $eel off the bark of thin twigs. Bou can chew the =uicy inner barkJ it is rich in sugar and vitamins. %at the seeds raw or cooked. :reen pine needle tea is high in vitamin ". Other Uses) Use the resin to waterproof articles. Also use it as glue. "ollect the resin from the tree. )f there is not enough resin on the tree cut a notch in the bark so more sap will seep out. $ut the resin in a container and heat it. The hot resin is your glue. Use it as is or add a small amount of ash dust to strengthen it. Use it immediately. Bou can use hardened pine resin as an emergency dental filling.

+lantain, broad and narro! leaf "lantago species Des"ription) The broad leaf plantain has leaves over '.3 centimeters 5. inch6 across that grow close to the ground. The flowers are on a spike that rises from the middle of the cluster of leaves. The narrow leaf plantain has leaves up to .' centimeters 53 inches6 long and '.3 centimeters 5. inch6 wide covered with hairs. The leaves form a rosette. The flowers are small and inconspicuous. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for these plants in lawns and along roads in the north temperate *one. This plant is a common weed throughout much of the world. &dible +arts) The young tender leaves are edible raw. 9lder leaves should be cooked. !eeds are edible raw or roasted. Other Uses) To relieve pain from wounds and sores wash and soak the entire plant for a short time and apply it to the in=ured area. To treat diarrhea drink tea made from '2 grams 5. ounce6 of the plant leaves boiled in 7.3 liter of water. The seeds and seed husks act as laxatives.

+o#e!eed "hytolacca americana Des"ription) This plant may grow as high as 0 meters 5# feet6. )ts leaves are elliptic and up to . meter 50 feet6 in length. )t produces many large clusters of purple fruits in late spring. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for this plant in open sunny areas in forest clearings in fields and along roadsides in eastern North America "entral America and the "aribbean. &dible +arts) The young leaves and stems are edible cooked. -oil them twice discarding the water from the first boiling. The berries are considered poisonous even if cooked. CAUTION All parts of this plant are poisonous if eaten raw. Never eat the underground portions of the plant as these contain the highest concentrations of the poisons. &o not eat any plant over '3 centimeters 5.7 inches6 tall or when red is showing in the plant. Other Uses) Use the =uice of fresh berries as a dye.

+ri"#ly pear "a"t s #puntia species Des"ription) This cactus has flat padlike stems that are green. Many round furry dots that contain sharp?pointed hairs cover these stems. *abitat and Distrib tion) This cactus is found in arid and semiarid regions and in dry sandy areas of wetter regions throughout most of the United !tates and "entral and !outh America. !ome species are planted in arid and semiarid regions of other parts of the world. &dible +arts) All parts of the plant are edible. $eel the fruits and eat them fresh or crush them to prepare a refreshing drink. Avoid the tiny pointed hairs. 1oast the seeds and grind them to a flour. CAUTION Avoid any plant that resembles the prickly pear cactus and has milky sap. Other Uses) The pad is a good source of water. $eel it carefully to remove all sharp hairs before putting it in your mouth. Bou can also use the pads to promote healing. !plit them and apply the pulp to wounds.

+ rslane "ortulaca oleracea Des"ription) This plant grows close to the ground. )t is seldom more than a few centimeters tall. )ts stems and leaves are fleshy and often tinged with red. )t has paddleshaped leaves '.3 centimeters 5. inch6 or less long clustered at the tips of the stems. )ts flowers are yellow or pink. )ts seeds are tiny and black. *abitat and Distrib tion) )t grows in full sun in cultivated fields field margins and other weedy areas throughout the world. &dible +arts) All parts are edible. 8ash and boil the plants for a tasty vegetable or eat them raw. Use the seeds as a flour substitute or eat them raw.

Rattan palm Calamus species Des"ription) The rattan palm is a stout robust climber. )t has hooks on the midrib of its leaves that it uses to remain attached to the trees on which it grows. !ometimes mature stems grow to #7 meters 5077 feet6. )t has alternate compound leaves and a whitish flower. *abitat and Distrib tion) The rattan palm is found from tropical Africa through Asia to the %ast )ndies and Australia. )t grows mainly in rain forests. &dible +arts) 1attan palms hold a considerable amount of starch in their young stem tips. Bou can eat them roasted or raw. )n other kinds a gelatinous pulp either sweet or sour surrounds the seeds. Bou can suck out this pulp. The palm heart is also edible raw or cooked. Other Uses) Bou can obtain large amounts of potable water by cutting the ends of the long stems 5see "hapter 46. The stems can be used to make baskets and fish traps.

Reed "hragmites australis Des"ription) This tall coarse grass grows to 0.3 meters 5.' feet6 tall and has gray?green leaves about ( centimeters 5. .C' inch6 wide. )t has large masses of brown flower branches in early summer. These rarely produce grain and become fluffy gray masses late in the season. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for reed in any open wet area especially one that has been disturbed through dredging. 1eed is found throughout the temperate regions of both the Northern and !outhern Aemispheres. &dible +arts) All parts of the plant are edible raw or cooked in any season. Aarvest the stems as they emerge from the soil and boil them. Bou can also harvest them =ust before they produce flowers then dry and beat them into flour. Bou can also dig up and boil the underground stems but they are often tough. !eeds are edible raw or boiled but they are rarely found.

Reindeer moss Cla$onia rangiferina Des"ription) 1eindeer moss is a low?growing plant only a few centimeters tall. )t does not flower but does produce bright red reproductive structures. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for this lichen in open dry areas. )t is very common in much of North America. &dible +arts) The entire plant is edible but has a crunchy brittle texture. !oak the plant in water with some wood ashes to remove the bitternessJ then dry crush and add it to milk or to other food.

Ro"# tripe Umbilicaria species Des"ription) This plant forms large patches with curling edges. The top of the plant is usually black. The underside is lighter in color. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook on rocks and boulders for this plant. )t is common throughout North America. &dible +arts) The entire plant is edible. !crape it off the rock and wash it to remove grit. The plant may be dry and crunchyJ soak it in water until it becomes soft. 1ock tripes may contain large quantities of bitter substancesJ soaking or boiling the plant in several changes of water will remove the bitterness. CAUTION There are some reports of poisoning from rock tripe so apply the Universal %dibility Test.

Rose apple -ugenia ,ambos Des"ription) This tree grows 0 to # meters 5# to ', feet6 high. )t has opposite simple dark green shiny leaves. 8hen fresh it has fluffy yellowish?green flowers and red to purple egg?shaped fruit. *abitat and Distrib tion) This tree is widely planted in all of the tropics. )t can also be found in a semiwild state in thickets waste places and secondary forests. &dible +arts) The entire fruit is edible raw or cooked.

4a$o palm (etroxylon sagu Des"ription) These palms are low trees rarely over # meters 5', feet6 tall with a stout spiny trunk. The outer rind is about 3 centimeters 5' inches6 thick and hard as bamboo. The rind encloses a spongy inner pith containing a high proportion of starch. )t has typical palmlike leaves clustered at the tip. *abitat and Distrib tion) The sago palm is found in tropical rain forests. )t flourishes in damp lowlands in the Malay $eninsula New :uinea )ndonesia the $hilippines and ad=acent islands. )t is found mainly in swamps and along streams lakes and rivers. &dible +arts) These palms when available are of great use to the survivor. 9ne trunk cut =ust before it flowers will yield enough sago to feed a person for . year. 9btain sago starch from nonflowering palms. To extract the edible sage cut away the bark lengthwise from one half of the trunk and pound the soft whitish inner part 5pith6 as fine as possible. ;nead the pith in water and strain it through a coarse cloth into a container. The fine white sago will settle in the container. 9nce the sago settles it is ready for use. !quee*e off the excess water and let it dry. "ook it as pancakes or oatmeal. Two kilograms of sago is the nutritional equivalent of ..3 kilograms of rice. The upper part of the trunk@s core does not yield sago but you can roast it in lumps over a fire. Bou can also eat the young sago nuts and the growing shoots or palm cabbage.

4assafras Sassafras albi$um Des"ription) This shrub or small tree bears different leaves on the same plant. !ome leaves will have one lobe some two lobes and some no lobes. The flowers which appear in early spring are small and yellow. The fruits are dark blue. The plant parts have a characteristic root beer smell. *abitat and Distrib tion) !assafras grows at the margins of roads and forests usually in open sunny areas. )t is a common tree throughout eastern North America. &dible +arts) The young twigs and leaves are edible fresh or dried. Bou can add dried young twigs and leaves to soups. &ig the underground portion peel off the bark and let it dry. Then boil it in water to prepare sassafras tea. Other Uses) !hred the tender twigs for use as a toothbrush.

4a/a l Haloxylon ammon$en$ron Des"ription) The saxaul is found either as a small tree or as a large shrub with heavy coarse wood and spongy water?soaked bark. The branches of the young trees are vivid green and pendulous. The flowers are small and yellow. *abitat and Distrib tion) The saxaul is found in desert and arid areas. )t is found on the arid salt deserts of "entral Asia particularly in the Turkestan region and east of the "aspian !ea. &dible +arts) The thick bark acts as a water storage organ. Bou can get drinking water by pressing quantities of the bark. This plant is an important source of water in the arid regions in which it grows.

4"re! pine "an$anus species Des"ription) The screw pine is a strange plant on stilts or prop roots that support the plant above ground so that it appears suspended in midair. These plants are either shrubby or treelike 0 to # meters 5# to ', feet6 tall with stiff leaves having sawlike edges. The fruits are large roughened balls resembling pineapples but without the tuft of leaves at the end. *abitat and Distrib tion) The screw pine is a tropical plant that grows in rain forests and semievergreen seasonal forests. )t is found mainly along seashores although certain kinds occur inland for some distance from Madagascar to southern Asia and the islands of the southwestern $acific. There are about .27 types. &dible +arts) ;nock the ripe fruit to the ground to separate the fruit segments from the hard outer covering. "hew the inner fleshy part. "ook in an earth oven fruit that is not fully ripe. -efore cooking wrap the whole fruit in banana leaves breadfruit leaves or any other suitable thick leathery leaves. After cooking for about ' hours you can chew fruit segments like ripe fruit. :reen fruit is inedible.

4ea ora"h Atriplex halimus Des"ription) The sea orach is a sparingly branched herbaceous plant with small gray? colored leaves up to '.3 centimeters 5. inch6 long. !ea orach resembles lamb@s quarter a common weed in most gardens in the United !tates. )t produces its flowers in narrow densely compacted spikes at the tips of its branches. *abitat and Distrib tion) The sea orach is found in highly alkaline and salty areas along seashores from the Mediterranean countries to inland areas in North Africa and eastward to Turkey and central !iberia. :enerally it can be found in tropical scrub and thorn forests steppes in temperate regions and most desert scrub and waste areas. &dible +arts) )ts leaves are edible. )n the areas where it grows it has the healthy reputation of being one of the few native plants that can sustain man in times of want.

4heep sorrel Rumex acerosella Des"ription) These plants are seldom more than 07 centimeters 5.' inches6 tall. They have alternate leaves often with arrowlike bases very small flowers and frequently reddish stems. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for these plants in old fields and other disturbed areas in North America and %urope. &dible +arts) The plants are edible raw or cooked. CAUTION These plants contain oxalic acid that can be damaging if too many plants are eaten raw. "ooking seems to destroy the chemical.

4or$h m Sorghum species Des"ription) There are many different kinds of sorghum all of which bear grains in heads at the top of the plants. The grains are brown white red or black. !orghum is the main food crop in many parts of the world. *abitat and Distrib tion) !orghum is found worldwide usually in warmer climates. All species are found in open sunny areas. &dible +arts) The grains are edible at any stage of development. 8hen young the grains are milky and edible raw. -oil the older grains. !orghum is a nutritious food. Other Uses) Use the stems of tall sorghum as building materials.

4patterdo"# or yello! !ater lily %uphar species Des"ription) This plant has leaves up to 47 centimeters 5'( inches6 long with a triangular notch at the base. The shape of the leaves is somewhat variable. The plant@s yellow flowers are '.3 centimeters 5. inch6 across and develop into bottle?shaped fruits. The fruits are green when ripe. *abitat and Distrib tion) These plants grow throughout most of North America. They are found in quiet shallow 5never deeper than ..2 meters F4 feetG6 freshwater. &dible +arts) All parts of the plant are edible. The fruits contain several dark brown seeds you can parch or roast and then grind into flour. The large rootstock contains starch. &ig it out of the mud peel off the outside and boil the flesh. !ometimes the rootstock contains large quantities of a very bitter compound. -oiling the plant in several changes of water may remove the bitterness.

4ter" lia Sterculia foeti$a Des"ription) !terculias are tall trees rising in some instances to 07 meters 5#7 feet6. Their leaves are either undivided or palmately lobed. Their flowers are red or purple. The fruit of all sterculias is similar in aspect with a red segmented seedpod containing many edible black seeds. *abitat and Distrib tion) There are over .77 species of sterculias distributed through all warm or tropical climates. They are mainly forest trees. &dible +arts) The large red pods produce a number of edible seeds. The seeds of all sterculias are edible and have a pleasant taste similar to cocoa. Bou can eat them like nuts either raw or roasted. CAUTION Avoid eating large quantities. The seeds may have a laxative effect.

4tra!berry Fragaria species Des"ription) !trawberry is a small plant with a three?leaved growth pattern. )t has small white flowers usually produced during the spring. )ts fruit is red and fleshy. *abitat and Distrib tion) !trawberries are found in the north temperate *one and also in the high mountains of the southern 8estern Aemisphere. !trawberries prefer open sunny areas. They are commonly planted. &dible +arts) The fruit is edible fresh cooked or dried. !trawberries are a good source of vitamin ". Bou can also eat the plant@s leaves or dry them to make a tea. "are should be taken with strawberries and other farm foods that have similar pitted skins. )n areas where human fertili*er is used even bleach will not be able to effectively remove all bacteria. WARNING %at only white?flowering true strawberries. 9ther similar plants without white flowers can be poisonous.

4 $ar"ane Saccharum officinarum Des"ription) This plant grows up to (.3 meters 5.3 feet6 tall. )t is a grass and has grasslike leaves. )ts green or reddish stems are swollen where the leaves grow. "ultivated sugarcane seldom flowers. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for sugarcane in fields. )t grows only in the tropics 5throughout the world6. -ecause it is a crop it is often found in large numbers. &dible +arts) The stem is an excellent source of sugar and is very nutritious. $eel the outer portion off with your teeth and eat the sugarcane raw. Bou can also squee*e =uice out of the sugarcane.

4 $ar palm Arenga pinnata Des"ription) This tree grows about .3 meters 5(3 feet6 high and has huge leaves up to 4 meters 5.2 feet6 long. Needlelike structures stick out of the bases of the leaves. >lowers grow below the leaves and form large conspicuous dusters from which the fruits grow. *abitat and Distrib tion) This palm is native to the %ast )ndies but has been planted in many parts of the tropics. )t can be found at the margins of forests. &dible +arts) The chief use of this palm is for sugar. Aowever its seeds and the tip of its stems are a survival food. -ruise a young flower stalk with a stone or similar ob=ect and collect the =uice as it comes out. )t is an excellent source of sugar. -oil the seeds. Use the tip of the stems as a vegetable. Other Uses) The shaggy material at the base of the leaves makes an excellent rope as it is strong and resists decay. CAUTION The flesh covering the seeds may cause dermatitis.

4!eetsop Annona s0uamosa Des"ription) This tree is small seldom more than 4 meters 5.2 feet6 tall and multi? branched. )t has alternate simple elongate dark green leaves. )ts fruit is green when ripe round and covered with protruding bumps on its surface. The fruit@s flesh is white and creamy. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for sweetsop at margins of fields near villages and around homesites in tropical regions. &dible +arts) The fruit flesh is edible raw. Other Uses) Bou can use the finely ground seeds as an insecticide. CAUTION The ground seeds are extremely dangerous to the eyes.

Tamarind Tamarin$us in$ica Des"ription) The tamarind is a large densely branched tree. )t grows up to '3 meters 5,3 feet6 tall. )ts has pinnate leaves 5divided like a feather6 with .7 to .3 pairs of leaflets. *abitat and Distrib tion) The tamarind grows in the drier parts of Africa Asia and the $hilippines. Although it is thought to be a native of Africa it has been cultivated in )ndia for so long that it looks like a native tree. )t is also found in the American tropics the 8est )ndies "entral America and tropical !outh America. &dible +arts) The pulp surrounding the seeds is rich in vitamin " and is an important survival food. Bou can make a pleasantly acid drink by mixing the pulp with water and sugar or honey and letting the mixture mature for several days. !uck the pulp to relieve thirst. "ook the young unripe fruits or seedpods with meat. Use the young leaves in soup. Bou must cook the seeds. 1oast them above a fire or in ashes. Another way is to remove the seed coat and soak the seeds in salted water and grated coconut for '( hours then cook them. Bou can peel the tamarind bark and chew it.

Taro, "o"oyam, elephant ears, eddo, dasheen Colocasia and Alocasia species Des"ription) All plants in these groups have large leaves sometimes up to ..2 meters 54 feet6 tall that grow from a very short stem. The rootstock is thick fleshy and filled with starch. *abitat and Distrib tion) These plants grow in the humid tropics. <ook for them in fields and near homesites and villages. &dible +arts) All parts of the plant are edible when boiled or roasted. 8hen boiling change the water once to get rid of any poison. CAUTION )f eaten raw these plants will cause a serious inflammation of the mouth and throat.

Thistle Cirsium species Des"ription) This plant may grow as high as ..3 meters 53 feet6. )ts leaves are long?pointed deeply lobed and prickly. *abitat and Distrib tion) Thistles grow worldwide in dry woods and fields. &dible +arts) $eel the stalks cut them into short sections and boil them before eating. The roots are edible raw or cooked. CAUTION !ome thistle species are poisonous. Other Uses) Twist the tough fibers of the stems to make a strong twine.

Ti Cor$yline terminalis Des"ription) The ti has unbranched stems with straplike leaves often clustered at the tip of the stem. The leaves vary in color and may be green or reddish. The flowers grow at the plant@s top in large plumelike clusters. The ti may grow up to (.3 meters 5.3 feet6 tall. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for this plant at the margins of forests or near homesites in tropical areas. )t is native to the >ar %ast but is now widely planted in tropical areas worldwide. &dible +arts) The roots and very tender young leaves are good survival foods. -oil or bake the short stout roots found at the base of the plant. They are a valuable source of starch. -oil the very young leaves to eat. Bou can use the leaves to wrap other food to cook over coals or to steam. Other Uses) Use the leaves to cover shelters or to make a rain cloak. "ut the leaves into liners for shoesJ this works especially well if you have a blister. >ashion temporary sandals from the leaves. The terminal leaf if not completely unfurled can be used as a sterile bandage. "ut the leaves into strips then braid the strips into rope.

Tree fern Darious genera Des"ription) Tree ferns are tall trees with long slender trunks that often have a very rough barklike covering. <arge lacy leaves uncoil from the top of the trunk. *abitat and Distrib tion) Tree ferns are found in wet tropical forests. &dible +arts) The young leaves and the soft inner portion of the trunk are edible. -oil the young leaves and eat as greens. %at the inner portion of the trunk raw or bake it.

Tropi"al almond Terminalia catappa Des"ription) This tree grows up to # meters 5', feet6 tall. )ts leaves are evergreen leathery (3 centimeters 5.2 inches6 long .3 centimeters 54 inches6 wide and very shiny. )t has small yellowish?green flowers. )ts fruit is flat .7 centimeters 5( inches6 long and not quite as wide. The fruit is green when ripe. *abitat and Distrib tion) This tree is usually found growing near the ocean. )t is a common and often abundant tree in the "aribbean and "entral and !outh America. )t is also found in the tropical rain forests of southeastern Asia northern Australia and $olynesia. &dible +arts) The seed is a good source of food. 1emove the fleshy green covering and eat the seed raw or cooked.

Waln t 3uglans species Des"ription) 8alnuts grow on very large trees often reaching .2 meters 53( feet6 tall. The divided leaves characteri*e all walnut spades. The walnut itself has a thick outer husk that must be removed to reach the hard inner shell of the nut. *abitat and Distrib tion) The %nglish walnut in the wild state is found from southeastern %urope across Asia to "hina and is abundant in the Aimalayas. !everal other species of walnut are found in "hina and Iapan. The black walnut is common in the eastern United !tates. &dible +arts) The nut kernel ripens in the autumn. Bou get the walnut meat by cracking the shell. 8alnut meats are highly nutritious because of their protein and oil content. Other Uses) Bou can boil walnuts and use the =uice as an antifungal agent. The husks of EgreenE walnuts produce a dark brown dye for clothing or camouflage. "rush the husks of EgreenE black walnuts and sprinkle them into sluggish water or ponds for use as fish poison.

Water "hestn t Trapa natans Des"ription) The water chestnut is an aquatic plant that roots in the mud and has finely divided leaves that grow underwater. )ts floating leaves are much larger and coarsely toothed. The fruits borne underwater have four sharp spines on them. *abitat and Distrib tion) The water chestnut is a freshwater plant only. )t is a native of Asia but has spread to many parts of the world in both temperate and tropical areas. &dible +arts) The fruits are edible raw and cooked. The seeds are also a source of food.

Water lett "e Ceratopteris species Des"ription) The leaves of water lettuce are much like lettuce and are very tender and succulent. 9ne of the easiest ways of distinguishing water lettuce is by the little plantlets that grow from the margins of the leaves. These little plantlets grow in the shape of a rosette. 8ater lettuce plants often cover large areas in the regions where they are found. *abitat and Distrib tion) >ound in the tropics throughout the 9ld 8orld in both Africa and Asia. Another kind is found in the New 8orld tropics from >lorida to !outh America. 8ater lettuce grows only in very wet places and often as a floating water plant. <ook for water lettuce in still lakes ponds and the backwaters of rivers. &dible +arts) %at the fresh leaves like lettuce. -e careful not to dip the leaves in the contaminated water in which they are growing. %at only the leaves that are well out of the water. CAUTION This plant has carcinogenic properties and should only be used as a last resort.

Water lily %ymphaea o$orata Des"ription) These plants have large triangular leaves that float on the water@s surface large fragrant flowers that are usually white or red and thick fleshy rhi*omes that grow in the mud. *abitat and Distrib tion) 8ater lilies are found throughout much of the temperate and subtropical regions. &dible +arts) The flowers seeds and rhi*omes are edible raw or cooked. To prepare rhi*omes for eating peel off the corky rind. %at raw or slice thinly allow to dry and then grind into flour. &ry parch and grind the seeds into flour. Other Uses) Use the liquid resulting from boiling the thickened root in water as a medicine for diarrhea and as a gargle for sore throats.

Water plantain Alisma plantago5a0uatica Des"ription) This plant has small white flowers and heart?shaped leaves with pointed tips. The leaves are clustered at the base of the plant. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for this plant in freshwater and in wet full sun areas in temperate and tropical *ones. &dible +arts) The rootstocks are a good source of starch. -oil or soak them in water to remove the bitter taste. CAUTION To avoid parasites always cook aquatic plants.

Wild "aper Capparis aphylla Des"ription) This is a thorny shrub that loses its leaves during the dry season. )ts stems are gray?green and its flowers pink. *abitat and Distrib tion) These shrubs form large stands in scrub and thorn forests and in desert scrub and waste. They are common throughout North Africa and the Middle %ast. &dible +arts) The fruit and the buds of young shoots are edible raw.

Wild "rab apple or !ild apple (alus species Des"ription) Most wild apples look enough like domestic apples that the survivor can easily recogni*e them. 8ild apple varieties are much smaller than cultivated kindsJ the largest kinds usually do not exceed 3 to ,.3 centimeters 5' to 0 inches6 in diameter and most often are smaller. They have small alternate simple leaves and often have thorns. Their flowers are white or pink and their fruits reddish or yellowish. *abitat and Distrib tion) They are found in the savanna regions of the tropics. )n temperate areas wild apple varieties are found mainly in forested areas. Most frequently they are found on the edge of woods or in fields. They are found throughout the Northern Aemisphere. &dible +arts) $repare wild apples for eating in the same manner as cultivated kinds. %at them fresh when ripe or cooked. !hould you need to store food cut the apples into thin slices and dry them. They are a good source of vitamins. CAUTION Apple seeds contain cyanide compounds. &o not eat.

Wild desert $o rd or "olo"ynth Citrullus colocynthis Des"ription) The wild desert gourd a member of the watermelon family produces a '.(? to 0?meter?long 5, .C'? to #?foot?long6 ground?trailing vine. The perfectly round gourds are as large as an orange. They are yellow when ripe. *abitat and Distrib tion) This creeping plant can be found in any climatic *one generally in desert scrub and waste areas. )t grows abundantly in the !ahara in many Arab countries on the southeastern coast of )ndia and on some of the islands of the Aegean !ea. The wild desert gourd will grow in the hottest localities. &dible +arts) The seeds inside the ripe gourd are edible after they are completely separated from the very bitter pulp. 1oast or boil the seeds/their kernels are rich in oil. The flowers are edible. The succulent stem tips can be chewed to obtain water.

Wild do"# and !ild sorrel Rumex crispus and Rumex acetosella Des"ription) 8ild dock is a stout plant with most of its leaves at the base of its stem that is commonly .3 to 07 centimeters 54 to .' inches6 long. The plants usually develop from a strong fleshy carrotlike taproot. )ts flowers are usually very small growing in green to purplish plumelike clusters. 8ild sorrel is similar to wild dock but smaller. Many of the basal leaves are arrow?shaped. They are smaller than those of dock and contain sour =uice. *abitat and Distrib tion) These plants can be found in almost all climatic *ones of the world. They can grow in areas of high or low rainfall. Many kinds are found as weeds in fields along roadsides and in waste places. &dible +arts) -ecause of the tender nature of their foliage sorrel and dock are useful plants especially in desert areas. Bou can eat their succulent leaves fresh or slightly cooked. To take away the strong taste change the water once or twice during cooking/a useful hint in preparing many kinds of wild greens.

Wild fi$ Ficus species Des"ription) These trees have alternate simple leaves with entire margins. 9ften the leaves are dark green and shiny. All figs have a milky sticky =uice. The fruits vary in si*e depending on the species but are usually yellow?brown when ripe. *abitat and Distrib tion) >igs are plants of the tropics and semitropics. They grow in several different habitats including dense forests margins of forests and around human settlements. &dible +arts) The fruits are edible raw or cooked. !ome figs have little flavor.

Wild $o rd or l ffa spon$e )uffa cylin$rica Des"ription) The luffa sponge is widely distributed and fairly typical of a wild squash. There are several do*en kinds of wild squashes in tropical regions. <ike most squashes the luffa is a vine with leaves ,.3 to '7 centimeters 50 to 2 inches6 across having 0 lobes. !ome squashes have leaves twice this si*e. <uffa fruits are oblong or cylindrical smooth and many?seeded. <uffa flowers are bright yellow. The luffa fruit when mature is brown and resembles the cucumber. *abitat and Distrib tion) A member of the squash family which also includes the watermelon cantaloupe and cucumber the luffa sponge is widely cultivated throughout the tropical *one. )t may be found in a semiwild state in old clearings and abandoned gardens in rain forests and semievergreen seasonal forests. &dible +arts) Bou can boil the young green 5half?ripe6 fruit and eat them as a vegetable. Adding coconut milk will improve the flavor. After ripening the luffa sponge develops an inedible spongelike texture in the interior of the fruit. Bou can also eat the tender shoots flowers and young leaves after cooking them. 1oast the mature seeds a little and eat them like peanuts.

Wild $rape vine Vitis species Des"ription) The wild grapevine climbs with the aid of tendrils. Most grapevines produce deeply lobed leaves similar to the cultivated grape. 8ild grapes grow in pyramidal hanging bunches and are black?blue to amber or white when ripe. *abitat and Distrib tion) 8ild grapes are distributed worldwide. !ome kinds are found in deserts others in temperate forests and others in tropical areas. 8ild grapes are commonly found throughout the eastern United !tates as well as in the southwestern desert areas. Most kinds are rampant climbers over other vegetation. The best place to look for wild grapes is on the edges of forested areas. 8ild grapes are also found in Mexico. )n the 9ld 8orld wild grapes are found from the Mediterranean region eastward through Asia the %ast )ndies and to Australia. Africa also has several kinds of wild grapes. &dible +arts) The ripe grape is the portion eaten. :rapes are rich in natural sugars and for this reason are much sought after as a source of energy?giving wild food. None are poisonous. Other Uses) Bou can obtain water from severed grapevine stems. "ut off the vine at the bottom and place the cut end in a container. Make a slant?wise cut into the vine about ..2 meters 54 feet6 up on the hanging part. This cut will allow water to flow from the bottom end. As water diminishes in volume make additional cuts farther down the vine. CAUTION To avoid poisoning do not eat grapelike fruits with only a single seed 5moonseed6.

Wild onion and $arli" Allium species Des"ription) Allium cernuum is an example of the many species of wild onions and garlics all easily recogni*ed by their distinctive odor. *abitat and Distrib tion) 8ild onions and garlics are found in open sunny areas throughout the temperate regions. "ultivated varieties are found anywhere in the world. &dible +arts) The bulbs and young leaves are edible raw or cooked. Use in soup or to flavor meat. CAUTION There are several plants with onionlike bulbs that are extremely poisonous. -e certain that the plant you are using is a true onion or garlic. &o not eat bulbs with no onion smell. Other Uses) %ating large quantities of onions will give your body an odor that will help to repel insects. :arlic =uice works as an antibiotic on wounds.

Wild pista"hio "istacia species Des"ription) !ome kinds of pistachio trees are evergreenJ others lose their leaves during the dry season. The leaves alternate on the stem and have either three large leaves or a number of leaflets. The fruits or nuts are usually hard and dry at maturity. *abitat and Distrib tion) About seven kinds of wild pistachio nuts are found in desert or semidesert areas surrounding the Mediterranean !ea to Turkey and Afghanistan. The pistachio is generally found in evergreen scrub forests or scrub and thorn forests. &dible +arts) Bou can eat the oil nut kernels after parching them over coals.

Wild ri"e 1i2ania a0uatica Des"ription) 8ild rice is a tall grass that typically is . to ..3 meters 50 to ( feet6 in height but may reach (.3 meters 5.3 feet6. )ts grain grows in very loose heads at the top of the plant and is dark brown or blackish when ripe. *abitat and Distrib tion) 8ild rice grows only in very wet areas in tropical and temperate regions. &dible +arts) &uring the spring and summer the central portion of the lower stems and root shoots are edible. 1emove the tough covering before eating. &uring the late summer and fall collect the straw?covered husks. &ry and parch the husks break them and remove the rice. -oil or roast the rice and then beat it into flour.

Wild rose Rosa species Des"ription) This shrub grows 47 centimeters to '.3 meters 5'( inches to 2 feet6 high. )t has alternate leaves and sharp prickles. )ts flowers may be red pink or yellow. )ts fruit called rose hip stays on the shrub year?round. *abitat and Distrib tion) <ook for wild roses in dry fields and open woods throughout the Northern Aemisphere. &dible +arts) The flowers and buds are edible raw or boiled. )n an emergency you can peel and eat the young shoots. Bou can boil fresh young leaves in water to make a tea. After the flower petals fall eat the rose hipsJ the pulp is highly nutritious and an excellent source of vitamin ". "rush or grind dried rose hips to make flour. CAUTION %at only the outer portion of the fruit as the seeds of some species are quite prickly and can cause internal distress.

Wood sorrel #xalis species Des"ription) 8ood sorrel resembles shamrock or four?leaf clover with a bell?shaped pink yellow or white flower. *abitat and Distrib tion) 8ood sorrel is found in temperate *ones worldwide in lawns open areas and sunny woods. &dible +arts) "ook the entire plant. CAUTION %at only small amounts of this plant as it contains a fairly high concentration of oxalic acid that can be harmful.

5am !ioscorea species Des"ription) These plants are vines that creep along the ground. They have alternate heart? or arrow?shaped leaves. Their rootstock may be very large and weigh many kilograms. *abitat and Distrib tion) True yams are restricted to tropical regions where they are an important food crop. <ook for yams in fields clearings and abandoned gardens. They are found in rain forests semievergreen seasonal forests and scrub and thorn forests in the tropics. )n warm temperate areas they are found in seasonal hardwood or mixed hardwood? coniferous forests as well as some mountainous areas. &dible +arts) -oil the rootstock and eat it as a vegetable.

5am bean "achyrhi2us erosus Des"ription) The yam bean is a climbing plant of the bean family with alternate three? parted leaves and a turniplike root. The bluish or purplish flowers are pealike in shape. The plants are often so rampant that they cover the vegetation upon which they are growing. *abitat and Distrib tion) The yam bean is native to the American tropics but it was carried by man years ago to Asia and the $acific islands. Now it is commonly cultivated in these places and is also found growing wild in forested areas. This plant grows in wet areas of tropical regions. &dible +arts) The tubers are about the si*e of a turnip and they are crisp sweet and =uicy with a nutty flavor. They are nourishing and thirst quenching. %at them raw or boiled. To make flour slice the raw tubers let them dry in the sun and grind into a flour that is high in starch and may be used to thicken soup. CAUTION The raw seeds are poisonous.

• • • • • • • • •

AppendiB C

Poisonous P ants
0lants basically poison on contact% through ingestion% by absorption% or by inhalation. They cause pain"ul skin irritations upon contact% they cause internal poisoning when eaten% and they poison through skin absorption or inhalation in to the respiratory system. >any edible plants have deadly relatives and look!alikes. 0reparation "or military missions includes learning to identi"y those harm"ul plants in the target area. 0ositive identi"ication o" edible plants will eliminate the danger o" accidental poisoning. There is no room "or e#perimentation where plants are concerned% especially in un"amiliar territory.

Castor bean, "astor6oil plant, palma Christi Ricinus communis !purge 5-uphorbiaceae6 >amily Des"ription) The castor bean is a semiwoody plant with large alternate starlike leaves that grows as a tree in tropical regions and as an annual in temperate regions. )ts flowers are very small and inconspicuous. )ts fruits grow in clusters at the tops of the plants. CAUTION All parts of the plant are very poisonous to eat. The seeds are large and may be mistaken for a beanlike food. *abitat and Distrib tion) This plant is found in all tropical regions and has been introduced to temperate regions.

Chinaberry (elia a2e$arach Mahogany 5(eliaceae6 >amily Des"ription) This tree has a spreading crown and grows up to .( meters 5(' feet6 tall. )t has alternate compound leaves with toothed leaflets. )ts flowers are light purple with a dark center and grow in ball?like masses. )t has marble?si*ed fruits that are light orange when first formed but turn lighter as they become older. CAUTION All parts of the tree should be considered dangerous if eaten. )ts leaves are a natural insecticide and will repel insects from stored fruits and grains. Take care not to eat leaves mixed with the stored food. *abitat and Distrib tion) "hinaberry is native to the Aimalayas and eastern Asia but is now planted as an ornamental tree throughout the tropical and subtropical regions. )t has been introduced to the southern United !tates and has escaped to thickets old fields and disturbed areas.

Co!ha$e, "o!a$e, "o!it"h (ucuna pruritum <eguminosae 5Fabaceae6 >amily Des"ription) A vinelike plant that has oval leaflets in groups of three and hairy spikes with dull purplish flowers. The seeds are brown hairy pods. CAUTION "ontact with the pods and flowers causes irritation and blindness if in the eyes. *abitat and Distrib tion) Tropical areas and the United !tates.

Death "amas, death lily 1iga$enus species <ily 5)iliaceae6 >amily Des"ription) This plant arises from a bulb and may be mistaken for an onionlike plant. )ts leaves are grasslike. )ts flowers are six?parted and the petals have a green heart?shaped structure on them. The flowers grow on showy stalks above the leaves. CAUTION All parts of this plant are very poisonous. &eath camas does not have the onion smell. *abitat and Distrib tion) &eath camas is found in wet open sunny habitats although some species favor dry rocky slopes. They are common in parts of the western United !tates. !ome species are found in the eastern United !tates and in parts of the North American western subarctic and eastern !iberia.

2antana )antana camara Dervain 5Verbenaceae6 >amily Des"ription) <antana is a shrublike plant that may grow up to (3 centimeters 5.2 inches6 high. )t has opposite round leaves and flowers borne in flat?topped clusters. The flower color 5which varies in different areas6 may be white yellow orange pink or red. )t has a dark blue or black berrylike fruit. A distinctive feature of all parts of this plant is its strong scent. CAUTION All parts of this plant are poisonous if eaten and can be fatal. This plant causes dermatitis in some individuals. *abitat and Distrib tion) <antana is grown as an ornamental in tropical and temperate areas and has escaped cultivation as a weed along roads and old fields.

3an"hineel Hippomane mancinella !purge 5-uphorbiaceae6 >amily Des"ription) Manchineel is a tree reaching up to .3 meters 5(3 feet6 high with alternate shiny green leaves and spikes of small greenish flowers. )ts fruits are green or greenish? yellow when ripe. CAUTION This tree is extremely toxic. )t causes severe dermatitis in most individuals after only 7.3 hour. %ven water dripping from the leaves may cause dermatitis. The smoke from burning it irritates the eyes. No part of this plant should be considered a food. *abitat and Distrib tion) The tree prefers coastal regions. )t is found in south >lorida the "aribbean "entral America and northern !outh America.

Oleander %erium olean$er &ogbane 5Apocynaceae6 >amily Des"ription) This shrub or small tree grows to about # meters 5', feet6 with alternate very straight dark green leaves. )ts flowers may be white yellow red pink or intermediate colors. )ts fruit is a brown podlike structure with many small seeds. CAUTION All parts of the plant are very poisonous. &o not use the wood for cookingJ it gives off poisonous fumes that can poison food. *abitat and Distrib tion) This native of the Mediterranean area is now grown as an ornamental in tropical and temperate regions.

+an$i "angium e$ule $angi >amily Des"ription) This tree with heart?shaped leaves in spirals reaches a height of .2 meters 53( feet6. )ts flowers grow in spikes and are green in color. )ts large brownish pear?shaped fruits grow in clusters. CAUTION All parts are poisonous especially the fruit. *abitat and Distrib tion) $angi trees grow in southeast Asia.

+hysi" n t 3atropha curcas !purge 5-uphoriaceae6 >amily Des"ription) This shrub or small tree has large 0? to 3?parted alternate leaves. )t has small greenish?yellow flowers and its yellow apple?si*ed fruits contain three large seeds. CAUTION The seeds taste sweet but their oil is violently purgative. All parts of the physic nut are poisonous. *abitat and Distrib tion) Throughout the tropics and southern United !tates.

+oison hemlo"#, fool7s parsley Conium maculatum $arsley 5Apiaceae6 >amily Des"ription) This biennial herb may grow to '.3 meters 52 feet6 high. The smooth hollow stem may or may not be purple or red striped or mottled. )ts white flowers are small and grow in small groups that tend to form flat umbels. )ts long turniplike taproot is solid. CAUTION This plant is very poisonous and even a very small amount may cause death. This plant is easy to confuse with wild carrot or Lueen Anne@s lace especially in its first stage of growth. 8ild carrot or Lueen Anne@s lace has hairy leaves and stems and smells like carrot. $oison hemlock does not. *abitat and Distrib tion) $oison hemlock grows in wet or moist ground like swamps wet meadows stream banks and ditches. Native to %urasia it has been introduced to the United !tates and "anada.

+oison ivy and poison oa# To/i"odendron radi"ans and To/i"odendron diversibba "ashew 5Anacar$iacese6 >amily Des"ription) These two plants are quite similar in appearance and will often crossbreed to make a hybrid. -oth have alternate compound leaves with three leaflets. The leaves of poison ivy are smooth or serrated. $oison oak@s leaves are lobed and resemble oak leaves. $oison ivy grows as a vine along the ground or climbs by red feeder roots. $oison oak grows like a bush. The greenish?white flowers are small and inconspicuous and are followed by waxy green berries that turn waxy white or yellow then gray. CAUTION All parts at all times of the year can cause serious contact dermatitis. *abitat and Distrib tion) $oison ivy and oak can be found in almost any habitat in North America.

+oison s ma" Toxico$en$ron vernix "ashew 5Anacar$iacese6 >amily Des"ription) $oison sumac is a shrub that grows to 2.3 meters 5'2 feet6 tall. )t has alternate pinnately compound leafstalks with , to .0 leaflets. >lowers are greenish?yellow and inconspicuous and are followed by white or pale yellow berries. CAUTION All parts can cause serious contact dermatitis at all times of the year. *abitat and Distrib tion) $oison sumac grows only in wet acid swamps in North America.

Rosary pea or "rab7s eyes Abrus precatorius <eguminosae 5Fabaceae6 >amily Des"ription) This plant is a vine with alternate compound leaves light purple flowers and beautiful seeds that are red and black. CAUTION This plant is one of the most dangerous plants. 9ne seed may contain enough poison to kill an adult. *abitat and Distrib tion) This is a common weed in parts of Africa southern >lorida Aawaii :uam the "aribbean and "entral and !outh America.

4try"hnine tree %ux vomica <ogania 5)oganiaceae6 >amily Des"ription) The strychnine tree is a medium?si*ed evergreen reaching a height of about .' meters 504 feet6 with a thick frequently crooked trunk. )ts deeply veined oval leaves grow in alternate pairs. !mall loose clusters of greenish flowers appear at the ends of branches and are followed by fleshy orange?red berries about ( centimeters 5. .C' inches6 in diameter. CAUTION The berries contain the disklike seeds that yield the poisonous substance strychnine. All parts of the plant are poisonous. *abitat and Distrib tion) A native of the tropics and subtropics of southeastern Asia and Australia.

Tr mpet vine or tr mpet "reeper Campsis ra$icans Trumpet creeper 5'ignoniaceae6 >amily Des"ription) This woody vine may climb to .3 meters 5(3 feet6 high. )t has pealike fruit capsules. The leaves are pinnately compound , to .. toothed leaves per leaf stock. The trumpet?shaped flowers are orange to scarlet in color. CAUTION This plant causes contact dermatitis. *abitat and Distrib tion) This vine is found in wet woods and thickets throughout eastern and central North America.

Water hemlo"# or spotted "o!bane Cicuta maculata $arsley 5Apiaceae6 >amily Des"ription) This perennial herb may grow to ..2 meters 54 feet6 high. The stem is hollow and sectioned off like bamboo. )t may or may not be purple or red striped or mottled. )ts flowers are small white and grow in groups that tend to form flat umbels. )ts roots may have hollow air chambers and when cut may produce drops of yellow oil. CAUTION This plant is very poisonous and even a very small amount of this plant may cause death. )ts roots have been mistaken for parsnips. *abitat and Distrib tion) 8ater hemlock grows in wet or moist ground like swamps wet meadows stream banks and ditches throughout the Unites !tates and "anada.

.AC1 TO ,' <8?=9@? E,' 018@>F IN2!4 AppendiB 2

2angerous Insects and Arachnids

Insects are o"ten overlooked as a danger to the survivor. >ore people in the United States die each year "rom bee stings% and resulting anaphylactic shock% than "rom snake bites. A "ew other insects are venomous enough to kill% but o"ten the greatest danger is the transmission o" disease.

4"orpion Scorpioni$ae order Des"ription) &ull brown yellow or black. Aave ,.3? to '7?centimeter long 50? to 2?inch long6 lobsterlike pincers and =ointed tail usually held over the back. There are 277 species of scorpions. *abitat) &ecaying matter under debris logs and rocks. >eeds at night. !ometimes hides in boots. Distrib tion) 8orldwide in temperate arid and tropical regions. CAUTION !corpions sting with their tails causing local pain swelling possible incapacitation and death.

,ro!n ho se spider or bro!n re"l se spider )axosceles reclusa Des"ription) -rown to black with obvious EfiddleE on back of head and thorax. "hunky body with long slim legs '.3 to ( centimeters 5. to . .C' inches6 long. *abitat) Under debris rocks and logs. )n caves and dark places. Distrib tion) North America.

. nnel!eb spider Atrax species 5A6 robustus& A6 formi$ablis6 Des"ription) <arge brown bulky spiders. Aggressive when disturbed. *abitat) 8oods =ungles and brushy areas. 8eb has a funnel?like opening. Distrib tion) Australia. 59ther nonvenomous species worldwide.6

Tarant la Theraphosi$ae and )ycosa species Des"ription) Dery large brown black reddish hairy spiders. <arge fangs inflict painful bite. *abitat) &esert areas tropics. Distrib tion) Americas southern %urope.

Wido! spider

)atro$ectus species Des"ription) &ark spiders with light red or orange markings on female@s abdomen. *abitat) Under logs rocks and debris. )n shaded places. Distrib tion) Daried species worldwide. -lack widow in United !tates red widow in Middle %ast and brown widow in Australia. NOT&) >emales are the poisonous gender. 1ed widow in the Middle %ast is the only spider known to be deadly to man.

Centipede Des"ription) Multi?=oined body to 07 centimeters 5.' inches6 long. &ull orange to brown with black point eyes at the base of the antenna. There are ' 277 species worldwide. *abitat) Under bark and stones by day. Active at night. Distrib tion) 8orldwide.

,ee Des"ription) )nsect with brown or black hairy bodies. :enerally found in colonies. Many build wax combs. *abitat) Aollow trees caves dwellings. Near water in desert areas. Distrib tion) 8orldwide. NOT&) -ees have barbed stingers and die after stinging because their venom sac and internal organs are pulled out during the attack.

Wasps and hornets Des"ription) :enerally smooth?bodied slender stinging insects. Many nest individually in mud nests or in paper nest colonies. !mooth stinger permits multiple attacks. There are several hundred species worldwide.

*abitat) May be found anywhere in various species. Distrib tion) 8orldwide. NOT&) An exception to general appearance is the velvet ant of the southern United !tates. )t is a flightless wasp with red and black alternating velvety bands.

Ti"# Des"ription) 1ound body from si*e of pinhead to '.3 centimeters. Aas 2 legs and sucking mouth parts. There are 237 species worldwide. *abitat) Mainly in forests and grasslands. Also in urban areas and farmlands. Distrib tion) 8orldwide.

Appendi/ .

Dan$ero s .ish and 3oll s#s
>ish and mollusks may be one of your ma=or sources of food. Therefore it is wise to know which ones are dangerous what the dangers of the various fish

are what precautions to take and what to do if you are in=ured by one of these fish. >ish and mollusks will present a danger in one of three ways/by attacking and biting you by in=ecting toxic venom into you through venomous spines or tentacles and through eating fish or mollusks whose flesh is toxic. The danger of actually encountering one of these dangerous fish is relatively small but it is still significant. Any one of these fish can kill you. Avoid them if at all possible.

>?.. The shark is usually the first fish that comes to mind when considering fish that attack man. 9ther fish also fall in this category such as the barracuda the moray eel and the piranha. 4*AR84 >?'. !harks are potentially the most dangerous fish that attack people. The obvious danger of sharks is that they are capable of seriously maiming or killing you with their bite. 9f the many shark species only a relative few are dangerous. Most cases of shark attacks on humans are by the white tiger hammerhead and blue sharks. There are also records of attacks by ground gray nurse and mako sharks. >igure >?. shows various sharks and their si*es.

.i$ re .69. 4har#s >?0. Avoid sharks if at all possible. >ollow the procedures discussed in "hapter .4 to defend yourself against a shark attack. >?(. !harks vary in si*e but there is no relationship between the si*e of the shark and likelihood of attack. %ven the smaller sharks can be dangerous especially when they are traveling in schools. >?3. )f bitten by a shark the most important measure for you to take is to stop the bleeding quickly. -lood in the water will attract more sharks. :et yourself or the victim into a raft or to shore as soon as possible. )f in the water form a circle around the victim 5if not alone6 and stop the bleeding with a tourniquet.

OT*&R .&ROCIOU4 .I4* >?4. )n saltwater other ferocious fish include the barracuda sea bass and moray eel 5>igure >?'6. The sea bass is usually an open water fish. )t is dangerous due to its large si*e. )t can remove large pieces of flesh from a human. -arracudas and moray eels have been known to attack man and inflict vicious bites. -e careful of these two species when near reefs and in shallow water. Moray eels are very aggressive when disturbed.

.i$ re .6:. .ero"io s .ish >?,. )n fresh water piranha are the only significantly dangerous fish. They are inhabitants of the tropics and are restricted to northern !outh America. These fish are fairly small about '3 to 47 centimeters 5.7 to '( inches6 but they have very large teeth and travel in large schools. They can devour a full?grown hog in minutes.
;&NO3OU4 .I4* AND IN;&RT&,RAT&4

>?2. There are several species of venomous fish and invertebrates all of which live in saltwater. All of these are capable of in=ecting poisonous venom through spines located in their fins tentacles or bites. Their venoms cause intense pain and are potentially fatal. )f in=ured by one of the following fish or invertebrates treat the in=ury as for snakebite.

4tin$ray !asyati$ae species !tingrays inhabit shallow water especially in the tropics but in temperate regions as well. All have a distinctive ray shape but coloration may make them hard to spot unless they are swimming. The venomous barbed spines in their tails can cause severe or fatal in=ury.

Rabbitfish Sigani$ae species 1abbitfish are found predominantly on the reefs in the $acific and )ndian oceans. They average about 07 centimeters 5.' inches6 long and have very sharp spines in their fins. The spines are venomous and can inflict intense pain.

4"orpion fish or 0ebra fish Scorpaeni$ae species !corpion fish live mainly in the reefs in the $acific and )ndian oceans. They vary from 07 to #7 centimeters 5.' to 03 inches6 long are usually reddish in coloration and have long wavy fins and spines. They inflict an intensely painful sting.

4i$an s fish The siganus fish is small about .7 to .3 centimeters 5( to 4 inches6 long and looks much like a small tuna. )t has venemous spines in its dorsal and ventral fins. These spines can inflict painful stings.

4tonefish Synance,a species !tonefish are found in the tropical waters of the $acific and )ndian oceans. Averaging about 07 centimeters 5.' inches6 in length their subdued colors and lumpy shape provide them with exceptional camouflage. 8hen stepped on the fins in the dorsal spine inflict an extremely painful and sometimes fatal wound.

Tan$ or s r$eonfish Acanthuri$ae species Tang or surgeonfish average '7 to '3 centimeters 52 to .7 inches6 in length with a deep body small mouth and bright coloration. They have needlelike spines on the side of the tail that cause extremely painful wounds. This fish is found in all tropical waters.

Toadfish 'atrachoi$i$ae species Toadfish are found in the tropical waters off the coasts of !outh and "entral America. They are between .,.3 and '3 centimeters 5, to .7 inches6 long and have a dull color and large mouths. They bury themselves in the sand and may be easily stepped on. They have very sharp extremely poisonous spines on the dorsal fin 5back6.

Weever fish Trachini$ae species The weever fish is a tropical fish that is fairly slim and about 07 centimeters 5.' inches6 long. All its fins have venomous spines that cause a painful wound.

,l e6rin$ed o"top s Hapalochlaena species This small octopus is usually found on the :reat -arrier 1eef off eastern Australia. )t is grayish?white with iridescent blue ringlike markings. This octopus usually will not bite unless stepped on or handled. )ts bite is extremely poisonous and frequently lethal.

+ort $ ese man6of6!ar "hysalis species Although it resembles a =ellyfish the $ortuguese man?of?war is actually a colony of sea animals. Mainly found in tropical regionsJ however the :ulf stream current can carry it as far as %urope. )t is also found as far south as Australia. The floating portion of the man?of?war may be as small as .3 centimeters 54 inches6 but the tentacles can reach .' meters 5(7 feet6 in length. These tentacles inflict a painful and incapacitating sting but it is rarely fatal.

Cone shells Coni$ae species These cone?shaped shells have smooth colorful mottling and long narrow openings in the base of the shell. They live under rocks in crevices and coral reefs and along rocky shores and protected bays in tropical areas. All have tiny teeth that are similar to hypodermic needles. They can in=ect an extremely poisonous venom that acts very swiftly causing acute pain swelling paralysis blindness and possible death within hours. Avoid handling all cone shells.

Terebra shells Terebri$ae species These shells are found in both temperate and tropical waters. They are similar to cone shells but much thinner and longer. They poison in the same way as cone shells but their venom is not as poisonous.

.I4* WIT* TO<IC .2&4*

>?#. There are no simple rules to tell edible fish from those with poisonous

flesh. >igure 2?' shows the most common toxic fish. All of these fish contain various types of poisonous substances or toxins in their flesh and are dangerous to eat. They have the following common characteristicsK
• •

Most live in shallow water around reefs or lagoons. Many have boxy or round bodies with hard shell?like skins covered with bony plates or spines. They have small parrotlike mouths small gills and small or absent belly fins. Their names suggest their shape.

>?.7. )n addition to the above fish and their characteristics barracuda and red snapper fish may carry ciguatera a toxin that accumulates in the systems of fish that feed on tropical marine reefs. >?... 8ithout specific local information take the following precautionsK

-e very careful with fish taken from normally shallow lagoons with sandy or broken coral bottoms. 1eef?feeding species predominate and some may be poisonous. Avoid poisonous fish on the leeward side of an island. This area of shallow water consists of patches of living corals mixed with open spaces and may extend seaward for some distance. Many different types of fish some poisonous inhabit these shallow waters. &o not eat fish caught in any area where the water is unnaturally discolored. The discoloration may be indicative of plankton that cause various types of toxicity in plankton?feeding fish. Try fishing on the windward side or in deep passages leading from the open sea to the lagoon but be careful of currents and waves. <ive coral reefs drop off sharply into deep water and form a dividing line between the suspecte$ fish of the shallo.s and the $esirable $eep5 .ater species. &eepwater fish are usually not poisonous. Bou can catch the various toxic fish even in deep water. !iscar$ all suspecte$ reef fish& whether caught on the ocean or the reef side.

Appendi/ G

Ropes and 8nots


:?.. To be able to construct shelters traps and snares weapons and tools and other devicesJ you should have a basic knowledge of ropes and knots and some of the terminology used with them. The terms are as followsK
• •

'ight. A simple bend of rope in which the rope does not cross itself. !ressing the *not. The orientation of all knot parts so that they are properly aligned straightened or bundled. Neglecting this can result in an additional 37 percent reduction in knot strength. This term is sometimes used for setting the knot which involves tightening all parts of the knot so they bind on one another and make the knot operational. A loosely tied knot can easily deform under strain and change becoming a slipknot or worse untying. Fraps. A means of tightening the lashings by looping the rope perpendicularly around the wraps that hold the spars or sticks together. )ashings. A means of using wraps and fraps to tie two or three spars or sticks together to form solid corners or to construct tripods. <ashings begin and end with clove hitches. )ay. The lay of the rope is the same as the twist of the rope. )oop. A loop is formed by crossing the running end over or under the standing end to form a ring or circle in the rope. "ig tail. That part of the running end that is left after tying the knot. )t should be no more than ( inches long to conserve rope and prevent interference. Running en$. The free or working end of a rope. This is the part of the rope you are actually using to tie the knot. Stan$ing en$. The static part of rope or rest of the rope besides the running end.

• •

Turn. A loop around an ob=ect such as a post rail or ring with the running end continuing in the opposite direction to the standing end. A round turn continues to circle and exits in the same general direction as the standing end. 7hipping. Any method of preventing the end of a rope from untwisting or becoming unwound. )t is done by wrapping the end tightly with a small cord tape or other means. )t should be done on both sides of an anticipated cut in a rope before cutting the rope in two. This prevents the rope from immediately untwisting. 7raps 5>igure :?.6. !imple wraps of rope around two poles or sticks 5square lashing6 or three poles or sticks 5tripod lashing6. 8raps begin and end with clove hitches and get tighter with fraps. All together they form a lashing.

.i$ re G69. Wraps

:?'. The basic knots and methods of tying them that you should know for your survival are as followsK

Half5hitch6 This is the simplest of all knots and used to be the safety or finishing knot for all Army knots. -ecause it had a tendency to undo itself without load it has since been replaced by the overhand. #verhan$ 5>igure :?'66 This is the simple knot that most people tie everyday as the first half of tying their shoes. )t can also be used to temporarily whip the end of a rope. This knot should replace the half?hitch as a finishing knot for other knots. This knot alone will reduce the strength of a straight rope by 33 percent.

.i$ re G6:. Overhand 8not

S0uare 5>igure :?066 A good simple knot for general purpose use. This knot is basically two overhand knots that are reversed as in 1ight over <eft <eft over 1ight. )t is used to tie the ends of two ropes of equal diameter together 5=ust like your shoe laces6 and must be secured with an overhand on both ends. )t is easy to inspect as it forms two loops and is easy to untie after being loaded. Roun$ turn an$ t.o half5hitches 5>igure :?(66 This is the main anchor knot for one?rope bridges and other applications when a good anchor knot is required and where high loads would make other knots =am and difficult to untie. )t is most used to anchor rope to a pole or tree.

.i$ re G6=. 4> are 8not 4e" red by Overhand 8nots

.i$ re G6?. Ro nd T rn and T!o *alf6*it"hes

Clove hitch an$ en$5of5the5line clove hitch 5>igures :? 3 and :?46. )t can be used to fasten a rope to a tree or pipe and also puts little strain on the rope. )t is an easy anchor knot but tension must remain on the knot or it will slip. This can be remedied by making another loop around the ob=ect and under the center of the clove hitch.

.i$ re G6@. Clove *it"h

.i$ re G6A. &nd6of6the62ine Clove *it"h

Sheep shan* 5>igure :?,66 A method of shortening a rope it may also be used to take the load off of a weak spot in the rope. )t is a temporary knot unless the eyes are fastened to the standing part of the rope on both ends.

.i$ re G6B. 4heep 4han#

!ouble sheet ben$ 5>igure :?26. This knot is used to tie together the ends of two ropes of equal or unequal diameter. )t will also =oin wet rope and not slip or draw tight under load. )t can be used to tie the ends of several ropes to the end of one rope. 8hen a single rope is tied to multiple ropes the bight is formed with the multiple of ropes.

.i$ re G6C. Do ble 4heet ,end

"rusi* 5>igures :?# through :?..6. This knot ties a short rope around a longer rope 5for example a sling rope around a climbing rope6 in such a manner that the short rope will slide on the climbing rope if no tension is applied and will hold if tension is applied on the short rope. This knot can be tied with an end of rope or bight of rope. 8hen tied with an end of rope the knot is finished off with a bowline. The nonslip nature of the knot on another rope allows climbing of ropes with foot holds. )t can also be used to anchor ropes or the end of a traction splint on a branch or ski pole.

.i$ re G6D. +r si#, &nd of 2ine

.i$ re G69E. +r si#, &nd of 2ine and Center of 2ine

.i$ re G699. +r si#, &nd of 2ine With ,o!line for 4afety

'o.line an$ bo.line finishe$ .ith an overhan$ *not 5>igure :?.'6. Around?the?body bowline was the basic knot used for rescue for many years as it provided a loop which could be placed around the body that would not slip nor tighten up under strain. )t has been replaced by the figure 2 in most applications as the figure 2 does not weaken the rope as much.

.i$ re G69:. ,o!line and ,o!line .inished With an Overhand 8not

Figure 8 an$ retraceable figure 8 5>igure :?.06. This knot is the main rescue knot in use today. )t has the advantage of being stronger than the bowline and is easier to tie and check. )ts one disadvantage is that when wet it may be more difficult to untie than the bowline after being stressed. The figure 2 5or figure?of? eight6 can be used as an anchor knot on fixed ropes. )t can also be used to prevent the end of a rope from slipping through a fastening or loop in another rope when a knot larger than an overhand knot is needed.

.i$ re G69=. .i$ re C and Retra"eable .i$ re C

:?0. There are numerous items that require lashings for construction. >igures :?.( through :?.4 show types of lashings that you can use when constructing tripods shelters and racks. 1efer to paragraphs .'?'3 and .'?'4 if using field?expedient rope.

.i$ re G69?. 4hears 2ashin$

.i$ re G69@. 4> are 2ashin$

.i$ re G69A. Tripod 2ashin$

Appendi/ *

Clo ds) .oretellers of Weather
About '77 years ago an %nglishman classified clouds according to what they looked like to a person seeing them from the ground. Ae grouped them into three classes and gave them <atin namesK cirrus cumulus and stratus. These three names alone and combined with other <atin words are still used to identify different cloud formations. -y being familiar with the different cloud formation and what weather they portend you can take appropriate action for your protection.

Cirr s "lo ds "irrus clouds are the very high clouds that look like thin streaks or curls. They are usually 4 kilometers 5( miles6 or more above the earth and are usually a sign of fair weather. )n cold climates however cirrus clouds that begin to multiply and are accompanied by increasing winds blowing steadily from a northerly direction indicate an oncoming bli**ard.

C m l s "lo ds "umulus clouds are fluffy white heaped?up clouds. These clouds which are much lower than cirrus clouds are often fair weather clouds. They are apt to appear around midday on a sunny day looking like large cotton balls with flat bottoms. As the day advances they may become bigger and push higher into the atmosphere piling up to appear like a mountain of clouds. These can turn into storm clouds.

4trat s "lo ds !tratus clouds are very low gray clouds often making an even gray layer over the whole sky. These clouds generally mean rain.

,3NT C "Gy "m CN4 CO: COA C+R &FR &&NT &+A . .&,A .2OT *&2+ I&+ I; #$ #ph 2,& 2% 3 m$ mph beginning morning nautical twilight "elsius centigray centimeter central nervous system carbon dioxide course of action cardiopulmonary resuscitation evasion and recovery end evening nautical twilight evasion plan of action >ahrenheit forward edge of the battle area forward line of own troops heat escaping lessening posture initial evasion point intravenous kilogram kilometers per hour load?bearing equipment landing *one meter milligram miles per hour

3R& 3ROD N,C +O2 RD. R448 4AR

meal ready?to?eat manual reverse osmosis desalinator nuclear biological and chemical petroleum oils and lubricants radio direction finder rigid seat survival kit search and rescue

4AR4AT search and rescue satellite?aided tracking 4&R& 43CT 4O+ survival evasion resistance and escape soldier@s manual of common tasks standing operating procedure

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