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Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • 1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES

5

  • 1.1 Structural Aluminium Alloys

...........................................................................................................

5

  • 1.1.1 CW Frame Elements : Alloy 6063 T6 (extrusion) – ADM 2005

...............................................

5

  • 1.1.2 Bracket Elements : Alloy 6061 T6 (extrusion) – ADM 2005

5

  • 1.2 Structural Steel S275

.....................................................................................................................

5

  • 1.3 Fasteners

.......................................................................................................................................

5

  • 1.3.1 Stainless Steel Bolts (ASTM F 738M Grade A2-70, M6-M20)

5

  • 2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION

.........................................................................................................

6

  • 3 LOADS........................................................................................................................................9

  • 3.1 .....................................................................................................................................

Dead Load

9

  • 3.2 ...............................................................................................................................

Barrier Loads

13

  • 3.3 Wind Loads

..................................................................................................................................

13

  • 3.4 Cable Forces due to Wind & Pretension Loads, P CF ...................................................................

13

  • 4 GLASS

14

  • 4.1 General Description and Dimensions

..........................................................................................

14

  • 4.2 Allowable Stresses for Glass Analyses

.......................................................................................

14

  • 4.3 Glass Verification for Wind Load

.................................................................................................

15

  • 4.3.1 Analysis Results – WL suction (3-sec)

15

  • 4.3.2 Analysis Results – WL pressure (3-sec) .....................................................................................

18

  • 4.3.3 Analysis Results – Dead Load (beyond 1 year)

19

  • 4.4 Glass Verification for Barrier Loads

.............................................................................................

21

  • 4.4.1 Analysis Results

21

  • 5 STRUCTURAL SEALANT

25

  • 5.1 General Description .....................................................................................................................

25

  • 5.1.1 Structural Check

25

  • 6 MULLIONS

26

  • 6.1 Male and Female Mullions (inclined / vertical facades)

...............................................................

26

  • 6.1.1 Section Properties

26

  • 6.1.2 Analysis Results ....................................................................................................................

27

  • 6.1.3 Structural Check

30

  • 7 TRANSOMS

36

  • 7.1 Top and Bottom Transoms

36

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 7.1.1 Section Properties

36

  • 7.1.2 Structural Check

38

  • 8 BRACKET DESIGN

40

  • 8.1 General Description .....................................................................................................................

40

  • 8.2 Bracket Forces

40

  • 8.3 Main Hook Bracket

41

  • 8.3.1 Finite Element Model

41

  • 8.3.2 Analysis Results

42

  • 8.4 Secondary Hook Bracket

.............................................................................................................

44

  • 8.4.1 Finite Element Model

44

  • 8.4.2 Analysis Results

45

  • 8.5 Slide Bracket

46

  • 8.5.1 Finite Element Model

46

  • 8.5.2 Analysis Results

47

  • 8.5.3 Slide Bracket Bolt Connection to

48

  • 9 ANCHORAGE DESIGN

50

  • 9.1 Channel Forces

50

REFERENCES

58

APPENDIX A - ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR 6063-T6

59

APPENDIX B – ALLOWABLE STRESS & FACTOR OF SAFETY 61 ............................................................

FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOY 6061-T6

61

APPENDIX C – FACTOR OF SAFETY FOR METAL FASTNERS

65

APPENDIX D – ENGINEERING VALUES for PVB

66

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES

    • 1.1 Structural Aluminium Alloys

      • 1.1.1 CW Frame Elements : Alloy 6063 T6 (extrusion) – ADM 2005

Minimum Mechanical Properties: Table 3.3-1M

F tu = F ty = F cy = F su =

205

170

170

130

MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

F ty,ALLO = min (F ty /1.65,F tu /1.95) = 103.03 MPa

F cy,ALLO = F cy /1.65

= 103.03 MPa

tensile ultimate strength tensile yield strength compressive yield strength shear ultimate strength allowable tensile strength allowable compressive strength

  • 1.1.2 Bracket Elements : Alloy 6061 T6 (extrusion) – ADM 2005 Minimum Mechanical Properties: Table 3.3-1M F tu = F ty = F cy = F su =

260

240

240

165

MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

F ty,ALLO = min (F ty /1.65,F tu /1.95) = 133.3 MPa

F cy,ALLO = F cy /1.65

= 145.45 MPa

tensile ultimate strength tensile yield strength shear ultimate strength compressive yield strength allowable tensile strength allowable compressive strength

1.2

Structural Steel S275

E

F

tu

F

ty

= 200000 MPa = 380 MPa = 275 MPa

modulus of elasticity tensile ultimate strength tensile yield strength

1.3

Fasteners

1.3.1

Stainless Steel Bolts (ASTM F 738M Grade A2-70, M6-M20)

R

tu

R

ty

= 700

= 450

MPa

MPa

tensile strength

yield strength

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The report must be read in conjunction with Gartner’s relevant drawings.

Façade under study is a top-hanging unitised male-female curtain wall system. Aluminium extrusions act as panel frame elements and are supported by high-strength aluminum alloy brackets. These brackets, which allow vertical and horizontal tolerance adjustments, are fixed back to the supporting structure (concrete, steel elements). Typical module widths are 1500 mm and 1433 mm for inclined and vertical facades, respectively.

As per Permasteelisa Gartner Middle East L.L.C.’s scope of work, this report covers facade spanning from G.L. 2.7 to 18.7 (for inclined), and S.5 to V (for vertical). Kindly refer to revision 01 of drawing number GAR-C-D-J-A-GN-2080.

Three facade sections have been considered in the report. For calculation purposes, three sections are named as ZONE 01 (G.L. 2.7 to 4.3), ZONE 02 (G.L. 17.7 to 18.7), and ZONE 03 (G.L. 14 to 17.7). Kindly refer to figures below.

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The report must be read in conjunction

Figure 1:

Inclined Facade – ZONE 01 (G.L. 2.7 to 4.3)

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 2: Inclined Facade – ZONE 02 (G.L. 17.7 to

Figure 2:

Inclined Facade – ZONE 02 (G.L. 17.7 to 18.7)

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 3: Inclined Facade – ZONE 03 (G.L. 14 to

Figure 3:

Inclined Facade – ZONE 03 (G.L. 14 to 17.7)

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

3

LOADS

  • 3.1 Dead Load

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 3 LOADS 3.1 Dead Load GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 3.2 Barrier Loads

The infill has been verified under barrier loads as per ASCE 7-05: Section 4.4. The following load cases have been considered:

F IL1 = 0.22 kN

point load anywhere up to 1.1 m above FFL applied to the infill on

F IL2 = 0.73 kN/m

a surface area not to exceed 305 mm square; distributed line load at 1.1 m above FFL

It should be noted that the above loads have been considered not to act simultaneously with the maximum wind load.

  • 3.3 Wind Loads

The following design wind loads has been derived from RWDI Cladding Wind Load Study for Doha Convention Centre. As per Permasteelisa Gartner Middle East L.L.C.’s scope of work, the maximum recommended wind loads for cladding design are:

Profiles/CW Bracket design wind load Glass/Sealant design wind load

p w = +1.0/-1.0 kPa p w = +1.0/-1.0 kPa

  • 3.4 Cable Forces due to Wind & Pretension Loads, P CF

The following forces have been considered in the analyses. These forces are acting on the cantilevered brackets (cable brackets) where cable supports are running through them. Cable brackets are fastened to the support frames (mullions), which consequently bear high stresses due to load transfer from these brackets. (Refer to cable analysis)

Load 1: Dead Load + Pretension F 1 = 10 kN, F 2 = 9 kN
Load 1:
Dead Load + Pretension
F 1 = 10 kN,
F 2 = 9 kN
Load 2:
Wind Load (pressure)
F 1 = 22 kN,
F 2 = 4 kN
Load 3:
Wind Load (suction)
F 1 = 3 kN,
F 2 = 17 kN

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

4

GLASS

ASTM E 1300 – latest edition: Standard Practice for Determining Load Resistance of Glass in Buildings has been used to verify the structural adequacy of glass.

4.1

General Description and Dimensions

The standard configuration of glazing system is reported below:

 

External pane

Air cavity

Internal pane

10 mm heat strengthened

16 mm

4+4 mm heat strengthened, laminated

The maximum glass dimensions are 1500 x 4946 mm.

4.2

Allowable Stresses for Glass Analyses

The allowable surface and edge stresses for each load case have been obtained in accordance to ASTM E 1300 – 09a multiplied by a load duration factor (LDF) in Table X6.1.

HS,SURFACE = 46.6 MPa

HS,EDGE

= 36.5 MPa

Section X8.2 HS Table X9.1 HS

LDF 3s LDF 60s LDF >1yr
LDF
3s
LDF
60s
LDF >1yr

Figure 4:

Load Duration Factors

HS,3s = LDF 3s * HS,SURFACE = 46.6 MPa

HS,60s = LDF 60s * HS,SURFACE HS,>1yr = LDF >1yr * HS,SURFACE

= 38.7 MPa = 14.5 MPa

Allow. surface stress for HS 3-sec load Allow. surface stress for HS 60-sec load Allow. surface stress beyond 1 year

HSe,3s = LDF 3s * HS,EDGE HSe,60s = LDF 60s * HS,EDGE HSe,>1yr = LDF >1yr * HS,EDGE

= 36.5 MPa = 30.3 MPa = 11.3 MPa

Allow. edge stress for HS 3-sec load Allow. edge stress for HS 60-sec load Allow. edge stress beyond 1 year

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 4.3 Glass Verification for Wind Load

For structural verification against wind load, glass plates have been modelled using finite element software (SJ Mepla), and a non-linear approach was employed.

  • 4.3.1 Analysis Results – WL suction (3-sec)

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3 Glass Verification for Wind Load For structural verification against
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3 Glass Verification for Wind Load For structural verification against

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

s HS,max
s HS,max

Figure 5:

Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Case (DL+WL suction )

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C s HS,max Figure 5: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C s HS,max Figure 5: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C s HS,max Figure 5: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C s HS,max Figure 5: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections

Check stresses s HS,max < s HS,3s = 46.6 MPa

Adequate

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 4.3.2 Analysis Results – WL pressure (3-sec)

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3.2 Analysis Results – WL (3-sec) s HS,max Figure 6:
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3.2 Analysis Results – WL (3-sec) s HS,max Figure 6:
s HS,max
s HS,max

Figure 6:

Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Case (DL+WL pressure )

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3.2 Analysis Results – WL (3-sec) s HS,max Figure 6:
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3.2 Analysis Results – WL (3-sec) s HS,max Figure 6:
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3.2 Analysis Results – WL (3-sec) s HS,max Figure 6:
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3.2 Analysis Results – WL (3-sec) s HS,max Figure 6:

Check stresses s HS,max < s HS,3s = 46.6 MPa

Adequate

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 4.3.3 Analysis Results – Dead Load (beyond 1 year)

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3.3 Analysis Results – Dead Load (beyond 1 year) GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3.3 Analysis Results – Dead Load (beyond 1 year) GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.3.3 Analysis Results – Dead Load (beyond 1 year) GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

s HS,max
s HS,max

Figure 7:

Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Case (DL+WL pressure )

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C s HS,max Figure 7: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C s HS,max Figure 7: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C s HS,max Figure 7: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C s HS,max Figure 7: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections

Check stresses

s HS,max < s HSe,>1yr = 46.6 MPa

Adequate

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 4.4 Glass Verification for Barrier Loads

For structural verification against barrier loads, glass plates have been modelled using finite element software (SJ Mepla), and a non-linear approach was employed.

  • 4.4.1 Analysis Results

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.4 Glass Verification for Barrier Loads For structural verification against
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.4 Glass Verification for Barrier Loads For structural verification against
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.4 Glass Verification for Barrier Loads For structural verification against
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.4 Glass Verification for Barrier Loads For structural verification against
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 4.4 Glass Verification for Barrier Loads For structural verification against

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 8: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Load

Figure 8:

Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Load Case Combination (DL+F IL1 )

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 8: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Load

Figure 9:

Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Load Case Combination (DL+F IL2 )

Check stresses s HS,max < s HS,60s = 38.68 MPa

Adequate

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 5 STRUCTURAL SEALANT

    • 5.1 General Description

Sealant Type: GE Ultra Glaze SSG 4400 or equivalent Sealant Properties:

Allowed design stress in tension allowed for short term loads

  • 0.14 MPa

Modulus of elasticity in tension or compression E

  • 1.50 MPa

Figure 10: Typical Sections
Figure 10:
Typical Sections
  • 5.1.1 Structural Check

Primary sealant, B :

(as per ASTM C 1401)

B = p w * a * 0.5 / h mc

= 0.083 MPa < 0.14 MPa

Adequate

Secondary sealant, C :

C = p w * 1 * a * 0.5 / h’ mc = 0.050 MPa < 0.138 MPa

Adequate

where:

a

1.500 m

= h mc =

9 mm

10

mm

h’ mc = =

p w

1.0 kPa

1

= t 1 3 / (t 1 3 + t 2 3 )

t

1

t 2

= 10 mm

= 4+4 = 8 mm

= smaller panel side = silicone bite (primary) = silicone bite (secondary) = design wind load = 0.661

(Section 3.3)

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

6

MULLIONS

  • 6.1 Male and Female Mullions (inclined / vertical facades)

Inclined and vertical facades share similar system design. However, the inclined facade is considered to be critical since the maximum panel dimensions are larger than that of the vertical facade. Also, forces or loads on the inclined facade are much higher and cause more critical effects on the panel’s structural elements such as frames, brackets, etc. Conservatively, the following analyses will only consider inclined facade to check the overall structural adequacy of both vertical and inclined facades.

  • 6.1.1 Section Properties

Material: Aluminium Alloy 6063 T6

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 6 MULLIONS 6.1 Male and Female Mullions (inclined / vertical

I TOT = 4.903e6 mm 4

Figure 11:

Male [right] / Female [left] Mullions

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 12: Mullion Stiffener (MS Plate S275) Note: Mullion stiffeners
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 12: Mullion Stiffener (MS Plate S275) Note: Mullion stiffeners

Figure 12:

Mullion Stiffener (MS Plate S275)

Note:

Mullion stiffeners are only used in mullion profiles that support cable brackets.

  • 6.1.2 Analysis Results

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 12: Mullion Stiffener (MS Plate S275) Note: Mullion stiffeners
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 12: Mullion Stiffener (MS Plate S275) Note: Mullion stiffeners
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 12: Mullion Stiffener (MS Plate S275) Note: Mullion stiffeners
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 12: Mullion Stiffener (MS Plate S275) Note: Mullion stiffeners

Figure 14:

Figure 13:

Load Cases: P CF , DL, WL suction , WL pressure

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C ZONE 02 ZONE 01 ZONE 03
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C
ZONE 02
ZONE 01
ZONE 03
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C ZONE 02 ZONE 01 ZONE 03 Figure 15: Max. Bending
Figure 15: Max. Bending Moments for Unreinforced Mullions: Worst Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )
Figure 15:
Max. Bending Moments for Unreinforced Mullions: Worst Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )
ZONE 02
ZONE 01
ZONE 03
Figure 16:
Max. Bending Moments for Reinforced Mullions: Worst Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C ZONE 02 ZONE 01 ZONE 03
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C
ZONE 02
ZONE 01
ZONE 03
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C ZONE 02 ZONE 01 ZONE 03 Figure 17: Max. Deflections
Figure 17: Max. Deflections for Unreinforced Mullions: Worst Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure ) ZONE
Figure 17:
Max. Deflections for Unreinforced Mullions: Worst Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )
ZONE 02
ZONE 01
ZONE 03

Figure 18:

Max. Deflections for Reinforced Mullions: Worst Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

The maximum bending moment for the worst load combination for unreinforced mullions is:

  • M = 5.93 kN-m

The moment is divided between the mullions by stiffness. Bending moment carried by the female mullion:

Bending moment carried by the male mullion:

Calculated deflections:

  • L = 4029 mm = 11.79 – (0+2.54)/2 = 13.1 mm = min.(L/200,20) = 20 mm

max

lim

max < lim

(Refer to Figure 15)

(I xx,f / I xx,tot ) x M

= 2.36 kN-m

(I xx,m / I xx,tot ) x M = 3.57 kN-m

Adequate

  • 6.1.3 Structural Check

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C The maximum bending moment for the worst load combination for

Figure 19:

Mullion Profiles: Female (left), Male (right)

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Female Mullion

Section check - tension in beams

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Female Mullion Section check - tension in beams Section check

Section check - compression in components of beams

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Female Mullion Section check - tension in beams Section check
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Female Mullion Section check - tension in beams Section check

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Male Mullion

Section check - tension in beams

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Male Mullion Section check - tension in beams Section check

Section check - compression in components of beams

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Male Mullion Section check - tension in beams Section check
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Male Mullion Section check - tension in beams Section check

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C The maximum bending moment for the worst load combination for
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C The maximum bending moment for the worst load combination for

The maximum bending moment for the worst load combination for reinforced mullions is:

  • M = 14.01 kN-m

(Refer to Figure 16)

The moment is divided between the mullions by stiffness. I = 1.955e6 mm 4

xx,f

I xx,m

= 2.948e6 mm 4

I

xx,steel

= 3.600e6 x [E steel /E alum ] = 10.345e6 mm 4

I xx,TOTAL = 15.248e6 mm 4

(aluminum equivalent)

Bending moment carried by the female mullion:

Bending moment carried by the male mullion:

Bending moment carried by the steel stiffener:

M F = (I xx,f / I xx,TOTAL ) x M

M M = (I xx,m / I xx,TOTAL ) x M

M steel = (I xx,steel / I xx,TOTAL ) x M

= 1.796 kN-m = 2.709 kN-m = 9.505 kN-m

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Shared bending moments carried by the male and female mullions are lower compared to that at Section 6.1.2; therefore, no further structural check is necessary.

Check bending stress capacity of stiffener (MS plate, S275)

M R,steel = [F ty /n u ]*S xx,steel = 14.82 kN-m

where:

F ty = 275 MPa n = 1.67 S xx,steel = 25*120 2 /4 = 90000 mm 3

u

M R,steel > M steel

Adequate

bending stress capacity tensile yield strength safety factor plastic modulus

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

7

TRANSOMS

  • 7.1 Top and Bottom Transoms

    • 7.1.1 Section Properties

Material: Aluminium Alloy 6063 T6

Figure 20: Bottom Transom
Figure 20:
Bottom Transom
Figure 21: Top Transom
Figure 21:
Top Transom
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C ZONE 02 ZONE 01 ZONE 03
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C
ZONE 02
ZONE 01
ZONE 03
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C ZONE 02 ZONE 01 ZONE 03 Figure 22: Top Transom

Figure 22: Top Transom Bending Moments & Deflections (Strong Axis): Worst Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )

ZONE 03 ZONE 02 ZONE 01
ZONE 03
ZONE 02
ZONE 01

Figure 23: Bott. Transom Bending Moments & Deflections (Strong Axis): Critical Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 7.1.2 Structural Check

Bottom Transom For Strong axis bending

Section check - tension in beams

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 7.1.2 Structural Check Bottom Transom For Strong axis bending Section

For Weak axis bending

P = 2500*0.018*1.476*4.414*9.81*(cos 20.6 o )/2*1000 1.35 kN
P = 2500*0.018*1.476*4.414*9.81*(cos 20.6 o )/2*1000
1.35 kN

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Section check - tension in beams Maximum Deflection parallel to

Section check - tension in beams

Maximum Deflection parallel to wall:

max = 1.8 mm 75% = 75% (B) = 7.5 mm

net

= B - max

= 8.2 mm > 75%

where: B = 10 mm Adequate

Maximum Bending Moment (weak axis):

M = 0.22 kN-mm

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Section check - tension in beams Maximum Deflection parallel to

Check For Combined Bending f by /F by + f bx /F bx < 1.0

Adequate

Top Transom For Strong axis bending

Section check - tension in beams

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Section check - tension in beams Maximum Deflection parallel to

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 8 BRACKET DESIGN

    • 8.1 General Description

The curtain wall bracket configuration, as shown below, is composed of high strength extruded aluminium profiles
The curtain wall bracket configuration, as shown below, is
composed of high strength extruded aluminium profiles
which allow horizontal and vertical tolerance adjustments.
The whole bracket assembly utilizes three types of
aluminium profiles, and anchor channels which are fixed
to reinforced concrete structures such as beams, columns
and slabs. At areas where there are no concrete
structures to install these anchor channels, panel brackets
are fixed to fabricated steel elements and horizontal steel
members.
8.2 Bracket Forces ZONE 02 ZONE 01 ZONE 03
8.2
Bracket Forces
ZONE 02
ZONE 01
ZONE 03
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 8 BRACKET DESIGN 8.1 General Description The curtain wall bracket

Figure 24:

Support Reactions: Load Case - (DL+P CF +WL suction )

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C ZONE 02 ZONE 01 ZONE 03
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C
ZONE 02
ZONE 01
ZONE 03
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C ZONE 02 ZONE 01 ZONE 03 Figure 25: Support Reactions:

Figure 25:

Support Reactions: Load Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )

  • 8.3 Main Hook Bracket

Material: Aluminium Alloy 6061 T6 Bracket length = 250 mm

The bracket has been analysed using a F.E. model to determine the extent of any stress concentrations. Due to symmetry, only half of the bracket has been modelled by means of Hexa8 brick elements. Beam2 compression only beam elements have been used (with radial disposition) to simulate the contact between bolt and bracket, and also between bracket and supporting concrete structure. A non linear analysis has been carried-out.

  • 8.3.1 Finite Element Model

Critical support reactions: (Refer to Figures 24 & 25)

Load Case - (DL + P CF + WL suction )

R

Vn

=

0.89/2 =

0.45 kN

R Hn = 25.67/2

= 12.84 kN

Load Case - (DL + P CF + WL pressure )

R

Vp

=

3.25/2 =

1.63 kN

R Hp = 24.26/2

= 12.13 kN

vertical reactions horizontal reactions

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

 
F Vn or F Vp F Hn F Hp
F Vn or F Vp F Hn F Hp
F Vn or F Vp F Hn F Hp

F Vn or F Vp

 
F Hn
F Hn
F Hp
F Hp
 

Figure 26:

F.E. Model, Boundary Conditions, and Loads

  • 8.3.2 Analysis Results

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C F Vn or F Vp F Hn F Hp Figure

Figure 27:

Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+P CF +WL suction )

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C Figure 28: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+P

Figure 28:

Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )

Check for Stress The maximum Von Mises stress for the combination of dead load and wind load is:

VM = 116.83 MPa < all = 133.3 MPa

Check for Deflection Deflection is negligible.

Adequate

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 8.4 Secondary Hook Bracket

Material: Aluminium Alloy 6061 T6

The bracket has been analysed using a F.E. model to determine the extent of any stress concentrations. It has been modelled by means of Hexa8 brick elements. Compression-only beam elements have been used to simulate the contact between secondary hook and slide brackets. A non linear analysis has been carried-out.

  • 8.4.1 Finite Element Model

Critical support reactions: (Refer to Figures 24 & 25)

Load Case - (DL + P CF + WL suction )

Load Case - (DL + P CF + WL pressure )

R

Vn

=

0.89/2 =

0.45 kN

R

Vp

=

3.25/2 =

1.63 kN

vertical reactions

R Hn = 25.67/2

= 12.84 kN

R Hp = 24.26/2

= 12.13 kN

horizontal reactions

 
R = 0.89/2 = 0.45 kN R = 3.25/2 = 1.63 kN vertical reactions R =
R = 0.89/2 = 0.45 kN R = 3.25/2 = 1.63 kN vertical reactions R =
R = 0.89/2 = 0.45 kN R = 3.25/2 = 1.63 kN vertical reactions R =
   

F Vn or F Vp

 
F Hn
F Hn
F Hp
F Hp
 

Figure 29:

F.E. Model, Boundary Conditions, and Loads

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 8.4.2 Analysis Results

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 8.4.2 Analysis Results Figure 30: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load

Figure 30:

Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+P CF +WL suction )

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 8.4.2 Analysis Results Figure 30: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load

Figure 31:

Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )

Check for Stress VM = 125.13 MPa < all = 133.3 MPa

Adequate

Check for Deflection:

Deflection is negligible.

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 8.5 Slide Bracket

Material:

6061 T6 Aluminium Alloy

  • 8.5.1 Finite Element Model

The bracket has been analysed using a F.E. model to determine the extent of any stress concentrations. It has been modelled by means of Hexa8 brick elements. Compression-only beam elements have been used to simulate the contact between secondary hook and slide brackets. A non linear analysis has been carried-out.

Critical support reactions: (Refer to Figures 24 & 25)

Load Case - (DL + P CF + WL suction )

Load Case - (DL + P CF + WL pressure )

R

Vn

=

0.89/2 =

0.45 kN

R

Vp

=

3.25/2 =

1.63 kN

vertical reactions

R Hn = 25.67/2

= 12.84 kN

R Hp = 24.26/2

= 12.13 kN

horizontal reactions

 
R = 0.89/2 = 0.45 kN R = 3.25/2 = 1.63 kN vertical reactions R =
R = 0.89/2 = 0.45 kN R = 3.25/2 = 1.63 kN vertical reactions R =
R = 0.89/2 = 0.45 kN R = 3.25/2 = 1.63 kN vertical reactions R =
 

F Vn or F Vp

 
F Hn
F Hn
F Hp
F Hp
 

Figure 32:

F.E. Model, Boundary Conditions, and Loads

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 8.5.2 Analysis Results

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 8.5.2 Analysis Results Figure 33: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load

Figure 33:

Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+P CF +WL suction )

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 8.5.2 Analysis Results Figure 33: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load

Figure 34:

Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+P CF +WL pressure )

Check for Stress The maximum Von Mises stress for the combination of dead load and wind load is:

VM = 66.46 MPa < all = 133.3 MPa

Adequate

Check for Deflection:

Deflection is negligible.

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 8.5.3 Slide Bracket Bolt Connection to Mullion

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 8.5.3 Slide Bracket Bolt Connection to Mullion Material: Bolt type:

Material:

Bolt type: M10 A2/70

Critical support reactions: (Refer to Figure 24)

Load Case - (DL + P CF + WL suction )

R

Vn

=

0.89/2 =

0.45 kN

R Hn = 25.67/2

= 12.84 kN

vertical reactions horizontal reactions

Shear due to eccentricities, (x 2 + y 2 ) = 0 + 2*75 2 = 11250 mm 2 M tot = F hn *(10 tolerance ) - F vn *72 = 96.0 kN-mm

F h1 = M tot *75/ (x 2 + y 2 )

= 0.64 kN

Direct shear,

F h2 = F h /3

F

v

= F v /3

= 4.28 kN = 0.15 kN

Resultant shear, V R = [(F h1 + F h2 ) 2 + F v 2 ] 1/2 = 4.92 kN

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

  • 9 ANCHORAGE DESIGN

Anchor Channel / Bolt: HAC-50 F hef = 106 mm; HBC-C 4.6F, M12

  • 9.1 Channel Forces

Critical support reactions:

Load Case - (DL+ P CF +WL suction )

(Refer to Figure 24)

V = R Vn N = R Hn = 0.89 kN = 25.67 kN M =
V = R Vn
N = R Hn
=
0.89 kN
= 25.67 kN
M = 25.67*205 + 0.89*80 = 5333.55 kN-mm
S b = (173 2 + 23 2 ) / 173 = 176.1 mm
T 1 = M / S b = 30.29 kN
T 2 = [d 2 /d 1 ]*M = 4.03 kN
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 9 ANCHORAGE DESIGN Anchor Channel / Bolt: HAC-50 F hef
Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C 9 ANCHORAGE DESIGN Anchor Channel / Bolt: HAC-50 F hef

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

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Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

REFERENCES

LOADS

SEI/ASCE 7-05

Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

ALUMINIUM ALUMINIUM DESIGN MANUAL ASTM B209 ASTM B221 AAMA TIR-A9-1991

Specification guidelines for aluminium structures Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Extruded Bars, Shapes and Tubes Metal curtain wall fasteners

GLASS ASTM E 1300-09a

AAMA- 1984

Standard Practice For Determining The Minimum Thickness And Type Of Glass Required To Resist A Specified Load Structural Properties Of Glass

SILICONE

ASTM C 1401 - 02 ASTM C 1249 - 93

Standard Guide for Structural Sealant Glazing Standard Guide for Secondary Seal for Sealed Insulating Glass Units for Structural Sealant Glazing Applications

STEEL

ANSI/ AISC 360-05

SOFTWARE Straus 7.1/ Strand 7.1

SJ MEPLA

Specification for Structural Steel Building

Finite Element Analysis System, researched and developed by G+D Computing Pty.Ltd in Australia. Address: Suite1, Level7, 541 Kent Street, Sydney, 2000. Australia. Email: strand7@gd.com.au. Web: www.strand.aust.com. Fax: +61 2 9264 2066 .. Tel: +61 2 9264 2977. Reference manual and User Guide.

SJ Software GmbH Version 3.5 Address: Haarhofstr. 52, 52080 Aachen, Germany

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

APPENDIX A - ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR 6063-T6

Aluminium Design Manual 2005 Table 2-24 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR BUILDING TYPE STRUCTURES 6063-T6, Extrusions and Pipe

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C APPENDIX A - ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR 6063-T6 Aluminium Design Manual

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APPENDIX B – ALLOWABLE STRESS & FACTOR OF SAFETY FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOY 6061-T6

(AS PER ALUMINIUM DESIGN MANUAL 2005)

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C APPENDIX B – ALLOWABLE STRESS & FACTOR OF SAFETY FOR

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Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C

APPENDIX C – FACTOR OF SAFETY FOR METAL FASTNERS

(AS PER AAMA TIR–A9-1991)

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C APPENDIX C – FACTOR OF SAFETY FOR METAL FASTNERS (AS

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APPENDIX D – ENGINEERING VALUES for PVB

Permasteelisa – Gartner Middle East L.L.C APPENDIX D – ENGINEERING VALUES for PVB GAR-C-R-J-A-GN-0101-01

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