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Peter Philip M. Perez
MA in Education -Supervision and Administration
Divine Word College of San Jose

School Heads plays vital role in the success of every affairs of the Department of
Education; this is said to be true whether taken in a unit analysis or the school analysis or macro
analysis or the entire system. Thus, selection of the appropriate persons to be promoted in such
positions entails proper analysis of credentials and backgrounds of the prospective applicants.
The said analysis must be done to ensure smooth functioning of the entire system.
There are things which a duly positioned heads must possess. Generally speaking, they
must be able to follow well defined memorandums sent from the higher hierarchies of the
Department (DECS Manual 2000, p. 99) wherein it states that A memorandum is sent to an
official or employee in the organization to announce directive/ assignment or to request
information, authority, funding, etc. And inability to follow such will pervert the so called good
intentions of higher executives for the entire department. Thus, in lieu of the above
statements; qualifications are, and must be deemed necessary in the installation of such in the
field offices or schools. These qualifications are said to have come from two polar origins which
are: the theoretical, which is an ideal description of what the school head must be, and, the
operational, which is the actual which is the credentials deemed by the Department of
Education for prospective school heads as stipulated in the memorandums and directives.
Kathleen Cotton (2003) in her literature entitled Principals and Student Achievement:
What the Research Says. Enumerated some theoretical qualifications/characteristics that
school heads must possess which I quote:
1. Ability to maintain safe and orderly environments.
2. Has Vision and goals focused on high levels of student learning.
3. Has high expectations for student learning
4. Self-confidence, responsibility and perseverance.
5. Maintains visibility and accessibility.
6. Ability to poster positive and supportive climate.
7. Ability to enhance communication and interaction.
8. Has emotional and interpersonal support.
9. Fosters Parent and Community outreach and involvement.
10. Maintains rituals, ceremonies and other symbolic actions.
11. Maintains and foster shared leadership, decision making, and staff development.
12. Fosters collaboration
13. Has instructional leadership.
14. Ongoing pursuit of high levels of student learning
15. Maintain norms of continuous improvement
16. Fosters discussion of instructional issues
17. Does classroom observation and feedbacks to teachers
18. Support teachers autonomy
19. Support of risk taking
20. Provides professional development opportunities and resources.
21. Always protecting instructional time
22. Monitoring student progress and sharing findings
23. Use student progress for program improvement
24. Recognition of student and staff achievement.
25. Role modeling.
These characteristics are indeed needed by one who wants to become a leader of school for
reasons of its idealism. However, there are more to reality than the theoretical; thus, sprouts
administrative decisions on selection of school heads.
The Department of Education provides through well stipulated memorandums, the
necessary or ideals needed for elevating a school teacher to the position of heads; thus, sprouts
the operational side of selection. DepEd Order No. 48, s. 2004 for instance mentioned the
necessary qualifications for Head Teacher I or the lowest rank which can be entrusted to take
care of a school which are:
Bachelors Degree in Secondary/Elementary Education or equivalent thereof with 18
professional education units and with appropriate field of specialization.
1 year Teacher-In-Charge or 3 years teaching experience
8 hours of relevant training.
With eligibility as stipulated in RA 1080.

Jiving from the above statements, we can see conspicuously that there are problems as
regards to the selection of school heads in the country. The qualifications mentioned in DepEd
Order No. 48, s. 2004 might not be enough to ensure that the ideals mentioned in the literature
of Kathleen Cotton (2003). Thus, it may be enough to say that it is indeed contributory to the
flop of Philippine Educational system mentioned in many literatures ( ).
o To ensure installation of qualified school heads in Philippine schools
o To alleviate the problems concerning the past iniquitous selection of school


1. In-Service training for duly installed School Heads who lacks qualifications as against
the international standards.

In-Service Trainings are of benefits to both teachers and School Heads alike (Bohumra
Lazarov and Alice Prokopov (2004). However, although deemed important research
studies on the demographic characteristics and professional development of educators
have focused more on teachers than on school administrators. And Little information
is available about the profiles and preparation of school leaders to meet the new
challenges in the twenty-first century schools (Zhixin Su (2003). Thus, it must be
emphasized for reasons of deemed success of schools. Deutsche Gesellschaft fr
Internationale, a training institution provides that trainings such as these are important
so that they can perform their roles efficiently and provide effective management of
education and training deliver. Furthermore, The School administration is different
from that of enterprises due to its goal. And, like any other organization, the school
needs means to run efficiently. These means are mainly of human, material, financial,
legal and technological nature (GAPARAYI Andr, 2008). Thus, makes emphasis to what
Bamburg and Andrews' (1990) studys that school districts and professional associations
must develop in-service programs that will provide on-going leadership training and
support for practicing administrators.

2. Oblige school heads to enroll to leadership focused subjects offered in various Post
Graduate schools in the country.

The provides that, principals must major in Administration
and Supervision to make sure that they will be able to facilitate the task of overseeing
the school affairs with ease in highfalutin degree; for, the knowledge and skills needed
to be effective instructional leaders are not innate; they must be learned said
Richardson et al. (1989) and further states that "a systematically designed and
implemented training program has a positive effect on practicing principals" (p. 9).

3. Careful selection of prospective school heads in tune with international standards.

Common sense has it that we must install qualified persons for the key positions
in schools and, the iniquity to do such will inevitably result to failure of the affairs of the
entire system. The said is also in connection to the common idiom garbage in, garbage
out (;

All the alternative courses of action mentioned above must be followed in order to
attain school leadership which is in orderly fashion, and in tune with the standards of global
educational leadership.


1. Marzano (2005) School Leadership that Works. Association for supervision and
curriculum development.
2. DepEd Order No. 48, s. 2004
3. Kathleen Cotton (2003) Principals and Student Achievement: What the Research Says.
Alexandria, VA: Association for supervision and Curriculum Development.
4. GAPARAYI Andr (2008) SCHOOL MANAGEMENT:Training manual for secondary school
Head teachers. Mineduc School Management.
5. Richardson, M., Prickett, R., Martray, C., Cline, H., Ecton, G., & Flanigan, J. (1989).
Supervised practice: A staff development model for practising principals. Paper
presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council of Statistics on Inservice
Education, San Antonio, TX. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 314861)
6. Bamburg, J. D., & Andrews, R. L. (1990). Instructional leadership, school goals, and
student achievement: Exploring the relationship between means and ends. Boston, MA.:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research
Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 319783)
7. Idiom garbage in, garbage out.,+garbage+out
8. Idiom garbage in, garbage out.