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Antisemitism and the Extreme Right in Spain

(19621997) by Jose L. Rodriguez Jimenez /15spain.html
SICSA The Vidal Sassoon Int ernat ional Cent er f or t he St udy of Ant isemit ism
The Hebrew Universit y of Jerusalem
Analysis of Current Trends in Ant isemit ism, 1999
Abst ract
This article surveys the origins of political antisemitism in Spain. Hostility toward Jews was
particularly virulent during the Middle Ages, and reached its high point with the expulsion of the
Jews in 1492. Afterwards, it affected Jews who had converted to Christianity, and took on a racist
content with the purity of blood statutes. Yet it was even then a prejudice with no relation to an
actual Jewish community in Spain. In the twentieth century, the Spanish version of the
conspiracy theory was inherited from the nationalist Catholic tradition, based on the conception
of an imaginary internal enemy plotting the downfall of the Catholic religion and the traditional
social order. The opponent is not a political organization, but rather some strange entity, which, by
means of revolutionary war and subversive agitation attempts to destroy the government and
the nation. From the end of the nineteenth century, Jews, along with freemasons, have been
perceived as the conspirators. Alongside this is the notion of a universal Jewish conspiracy to
control the world. Following the success of the Soviet revolution and the founding of the Spanish
Communist Party, such anti-Spanish forces were primarily identified with the corrosive
communist virus, often considered to be guided by the Jews.
For the most part, political antisemitism has not been a central issue for the Spanish extreme
Right, and it had only minor importance in Spanish fascism. However, the alliance between
Francos faction and Nazi Germany during the Spanish Civil War opened the way for the
emergence of racist antisemitism in the Spanish Right. It was during the 1960s that the first
Spanish neo-fascist and neo-Nazi groups appeared, the principal one being CEDADE. Later on,
the Spanish neo-Nazis attempted to use antisemitic discourse to explain the political transition to
democracy (19761982) following the death of General Franco. It drew on the same ideas that
had been expressed in 1931 when the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed that political
turning points could be explained as the result of various intrigues.
This article thus focuses on the transition to democracy, the use of the conspiracy theory;
antisemitic discourse; the cultural infiltration of neo-Nazism through various publications; the
relationship between neo-Nazis and the New Right; the affair Friedman; and the Friends of
Lon Degrelle Society.

The Origins of Polit ical Ant isemit ism in Spain
The Spanish ext reme Right , like ot her examples of polit ical ext remism, makes use of a
f riend vs. f oe t erminology, and legit imizes aggression against it s opponent s. It , t oo,
ref ers t o a supposed world-wide conspiracy t o explain why t hings go badly, and just if ies
t heir proposals f or est ablishing a dict at orship. Just as nat ionalism draws on suit able hist oric
heroes, t he ext reme Right invent s it s own enemies.
Ant isemit ism was part icularly virulent in Spain during t he
Middle Ages, reaching it s high point wit h t he Edict of Expulsion of t he Jews in 1492
(f reedom of worship was int roduced only in t he new const it ut ion of 1969). Persecut ion of
Jews who had convert ed t o Christ ianit y f ollowed t he Expulsion, wit h a racist element
evident in t he purit y of blood st at ut es. In f act , t his era represent ed a kind of ant isemit ism
wit hout Jews; indeed t here was lit t le ant isemit ism t o be f ound in Spain f rom t he beginning
of t he sixt eent h cent ury. Ant isemit ism in Spain has always included cult ural and religious
cont ent , claiming t hat Jews were prof it eers, incarnat ions of t he devil, responsible f or t he
deat h of Christ , and indeed, f or every disast rous or cont roversial sit uat ion.
Polit ical ant isemit ism arose in t he t went iet h cent ury, and has f ocused on accusing t he Jews
of perversion and of plot t ing t o cont rol t he world. The Spanish version of t he conspiracy
t heory is a descendant of a nat ional Cat holic t radit ion, t hat suggest s t hat Jews are an
enemy wit hin conspiring against t he Cat holic religion and t he t radit ional order. The
opponent is perceived not as a polit ical organizat ion, but as a kind of virus, which by means
of revolut ionary war and subversive agit at ion at t empt s t o depose t he government and
dest roy t he nat ion. From t he end of t he ninet eent h cent ury, and inf luenced by conservat ive
French Cat holicism, t he Jews appear alongside t he Masons as t he proponent s of t hat
conspiracy. In t he work of J. Vzquez de Mella, one of t he main represent at ives of Spanish
Cat holic t radit ionalism, masonry is direct ed by Judaism as t he great engine of t he
revolut ions of t he ninet eent h and t went iet h cent uries. Following t he success of t he Soviet
revolut ion and t he f ounding of t he Spanish Communist Part y, t he ant i-Spanish f orces are
ident if ied principally as t he corrosive communism virus (t hought t o be myst eriously guided
by t he Jews). Indeed, bot h communism and masonry are considered a t ool or mask of
Judaism, which aims t o cont rol t he world.
For t he most part , polit ical ant isemit ism has not been a cent ral issue f or t he Spanish
ext reme Right . At cert ain t imes it has been used f or t he purpose of polit ical agit at ion, as
well as t o explain polit ical t urning point s as result ing f rom an int rigue such as t he
est ablishment of t he Second Republic in 1931, or t he t ransit ion t o democracy in 1976.
Among t hose who express ant isemit ic opinions, one only rarely f inds t he mixt ure of
nat ionalism and racist -biological pseudo-science t hat was charact erist ic of Nazi
ant isemit ism. Among t he except ions is F. Garca Blzquez, who st at es t hat German
racism can serve as an example t o Spain, adding t hat t here is even just if icat ion f or
measures designed t o purif y t he race.
Ant isemit ic views are espoused by several members of t he Junt as de Of ensiva Nacional
Sindicalist a-JONS (Junt as of t he Nat ional Trade Union Of f ensive). This group merged in
1934 wit h t he Falange Espaola t he most import ant represent at ive of Spanish f ascism
in order t o set up t he Falange Espaola de las JONS (FE-JONS). One of it s leaders,
Onsimo Redondo, t he manager of t he weekly Libertad, wrot e some art icles t hat made
ref erence t o Jewish money, and t he Jewish-Freemason-Marxist alliance, as well as
t ranslat ing t he Protocols of the Elders of Zion bet ween February and July 1932.
The alliance bet ween Spain and Nazi Germany during t he Spanish Civil War of 19361939
cont ribut ed t o t he emergence of racist ant isemit ism t hat went beyond t he t radit ional
cult ural or religious ant isemit ism. Today, ant isemit ism has an ideological f unct ion, and is
closely connect ed wit h ult ra-conservat ive Cat holicism and ant i-liberal f act ions.
The First Spanish Neo-f ascist s and Neo-Nazis
The ext reme Right had an import ant role in t he coalit ion of monarchist s, ext reme Right ,
aut horit arian Right , and f ascist s t hat brought General Francisco Franco t o power at t he
t ime of t he Civil War.
But t he vict ory of t he Allies in World War II proved a t urning point in t he evolut ion of Spanish
polit ics. The Franco regime was f orced t o put aside it s t ot alit arian impulses in t he early
1940s in order t o present a bet t er image t o Europe and t he Unit ed St at es. From t his t ime,
t he one-part y Spanish Tradit ionalist Falange of t he Junt as of t he Nat ionalist Trade Union
Of f ensive lost inf luence, leading t he aut horit arian Cat holic Right and monarchist s linked
wit h Franco t o t ake advant age of t he sit uat ion.
The Falangist s (or Fascist s) were unable t o put a halt t o t he gradual eliminat ion of t he
regimes f ascist charact erist ics. They were able t o preserve a limit ed sphere of inf luence
unt il t he 1960s, primarily t hrough t heir presence in government al minist ries, t he civil service,
t he t rade unions, and t he part ys own yout h wing (Frent e de Juvent udes), rat her t han t heir
presence in t he upper echelons of t he Part y it self . A number of f act ors cont ribut ed t o t he
f oundat ion of new organizat ions and t endencies in t he ext reme Right , including t he
inef f ect iveness of t he Fascist Part y, t he evolut ion of t he regimes polit ical philosophy
t hen inclined t o opt f or a neo-conservat ive t echnocracy over t he Falangist approach and
t he rest ruct uring of t he opposit ion wit hin t he count ry and abroad.
In t he 1960s, however, t hey began t o develop new t hemes and st rat egies f or increasing
part y membership. Some cadres of FET-JONS welcomed t he invit at ion f or a Spanish
delegat ion t o Jeune Europe, an int ernat ional neo-f ascist organizat ion f ounded in Brussels in
1962 by Jean Thiriart and G. A. Amaudrut z. The Spanish delegat ion became act ive in
Oct ober 1962, but f ailed t o gain many convert s.
Nevert heless, in t he f ollowing years, a number of small groups were f ormed which declared
t hemselves t o be neo-Nazis or at least in sympat hy wit h European neo-Nazi or neo-f ascist
organizat ions. Virt ually all t hese groups originat ed in Barcelona, t he home of a group of
radical Falangist s, some of whom had been members of Francos Divisin Azul (Blue
Division) t hat had f ought alongside t he Nazis in t he Soviet Union during t he Second World
War. A number of publishing houses were set up t o promot e it s ideology. Among t hem was
Edit orial Caralt , owned by t he Barcelona t own councillor Luis de Caralt , and Ediciones
Acervo, belonging t o t he Falangist Jos A. Llorens Borrs. Llorens began publishing
Juanprez. World Information Journal in February 1964, edit ed by Narciso Perales. The
magazine t ook a similar t radit ional st ance t o Ediciones Acervo: ant i-communism, vindicat ion
of Nazi and f ascist ideology, ant isemit ism, and denial of t he Holocaust . It gave
considerable at t ent ion t o t he f unerals of Hit ler and Mussolini organized by neo-f ascist
circles in Barcelona and Madrid.
One must t ake int o account t he inf luence on Spanish groups by European neo-Nazi
organizat ions. In addit ion, a number of Nazi part y members or collaborat ors t ook ref uge in
Spain at t he end of t he Second World War. Among t he bet t er-known were t he Croat ian Ant e
Pavelic, t he Romanian Horia Sima, t he Aust rian Ot t o Skorzeny, and t he Belgian Lon
Degrelle. Some of t hese ref ugees maint ained a const ant level of polit ical act ivit y, helping
t o keep t he int ernat ional neo-Nazi net work alive, and encouraging Spanish ext reme Right
agit at ion and propaganda.
Degrelle was a leader of Christ us Rex, a Belgian f ascist
organizat ion, and f ounder of t he Valona Legion t hat f ought alongside German t roops on
t he East ern Front . In 1944 he joined t he Waf f en-SS. Sent enced t o deat h in 1944, he
managed t o escape t o Spain, where he was nat uralized in 1954, t aking t he name Len Jos
de Ramrez Reina.
Unt il his deat h in 1994, he was very act ive in encouraging a resurrect ion
of Nazism.
The mid-1960s saw t he emergence of what became t he most inf luent ial and act ive of t he
European neo-Nazi organizat ions. A small group of f ascist admirers of Hit ler and t he Third
Reich, and unrelat ed t o t he old guard of FET-JONS, organized t hemselves in Barcelona in
1966, and began t o operat e as an associat ion t he f ollowing year, calling it self t he Crculo
Espaol de Amigos de Europa (Spanish Circle of Friends of Europe CEDADE).
Tradit ionally, t he It alian model of f ascism had been more inf luent ial in Spain, but during t he
1960s, when t he f ascist part ies were in decline, t hey began model t hemselves af t er t he
new German neo-Nazi part ies.
CEDADE was headed init ially by ngel Ricot e, replaced some mont hs lat er by Pedro
Aparicio. In it s f irst phase (19661970), it linked it self t o f ascist ideology, but gradually t ook
neo-Nazi and racist posit ions against Jews, Blacks, and Gypsies, as well as t he physically
handicapped. It placed a value on ant isemit ism not f ound in ot her Spanish ext reme Right
organizat ions; event ually, t hese ot her groups t ook on an increasingly ant isemit ic
charact erist ic.
The group soon adopt ed a very met hodological and serious at t empt t o gain members and
inf luence, in cont rast t o t he vet eran Falangist circles wit h poor ideological t raining.
CEDADEs publicat ions, in common wit h ot her ext reme Right groups, exalt ed t he ideas of
sacrif ice and rigorous moralit y. At t he same t ime, t heir magazines and pamphlet s alluded
t o t he art ist ic sense, paid t ribut e t o nat ure, and demanded an iron discipline: no smoking, no
drinking of alcohol, and no disco-dancing. Rank-and-f ile members organized mount ain-
climbing and camping act ivit ies, as well as milit ary and physical t raining. They also at t ended
masses celebrat ed in Barcelona and Madrid f or t he repose of Hit ler and Mussolini, and
regularly dist ribut ed propaganda in f avor of German reunif icat ion, and t ook part in
campaigns f or t he liberat ion of Rudolph Hess, t he last of t he Nazi leaders imprisoned in
Spandau. In Barcelona in 1969, CEDADE host ed t he t ent h congress of Nouvel Ordre
Europen (New European order), an alliance of int ernat ional neo-f ascist groups creat ed in
1951. Approximat ely sixt y delegat es at t ended f rom seven count ries. Subsequent ly,
CEDADE part icipat ed in meet ings called by neo-Nazi organizat ions t hroughout Europe.
Beginning in 1970, it also had a f ew represent at ives out side of Barcelona or abroad.
However, it s Europeanism and marked pro-Nazi st ance raised suspicions wit hin t he
Franco regime, which somet imes act ively hindered t he groups propaganda act ivit ies.
This did not prevent CEDADE f rom receiving help in Spain. Of f icials f rom t he Servicio
Cent ral de Document acin (CESED) one of t he Spanish government s secret services in
Barcelona of f ered educat ional workshops t o CEDADE members. The act ive and orderly
work of t he members, and t heir desire t o creat e an lit e group (t he so-called SD group),
prompt ed some well-known ext reme right -wing milit ary f igures and a small number of old-
t ime Falangist s t o of f er a cert ain degree of support . It was believed t hat CEDADE might be
t urned int o an embryonic movement , which, given t he right circumst ances General
Franco having a bout of ill-healt h perhaps could set up a milit ary government .
At t he
t ime, all t hat was achieved was cont act wit h a f ew dist inguished and aged members of t he
milit ary, and a great many German, Romanian, and Croat ian exiles, along wit h some
f inancial support f rom various st at e-cont rolled organizat ions of t he Falangist part y.
Jorge Mot a was elect ed president of CEDADE in February 1970, t hus st rengt hening t he
organizat ions Nazi orient at ion. CEDADE was quick t o seek out it s ideological count erpart s
abroad, and relat ed less t o Jos Ant onio Primo de Rivera (Spains most prominent f ascist
leader of t he 1930s) t han t o Adolf Hit ler, Lon Degrelle, and Corneliu Codreanu. There were
st rong reminders of t he ideology of Jean Thiriart , t he philosopher Julius Evola, Gobineaus
biological racism, Nazi t heorist s such as Alf red Rosenberg, as well as t he works of Richard
Wagner and t he poet Diet rich Eckart .
The period 19701974 was one of consolidat ion f or CEDADE. In 1970, circles of milit ant s
could be f ound in Barcelona, Badalona, Madrid, Alicant e, Mlaga, Murcia, Zaragoza, Sevilla,
and Valladolid. Membership increased t o 500600, and t hanks t o some f inancial help and
t he personal ef f ort s of members, CEDADE was able t o st af f of f ices in various t owns and
improved t he publicat ion of it s bullet ins. Some f inancial assist ance used t o support t heir
publicat ions came f rom Arab polit ical groups. The f irst of t hese grant s was received
bet ween 1967 and 1968 when Haj Amin al-Husseini donat ed over t wo million peset as t hat
was used f or t his purpose.
As a gest ure of t hanks, CEDADE organized a gat hering in al-
Husseinis honor in Madrid on 22 December 1974.
The new press cont inued t o print
CEDADEs news bullet in as well as several ant i-Zionist and ant i-Jewish books in Arabic in
1975. The organizat ion also received some f inancial assist ance f rom t he embassy of
Formosa (Taiwan).
The act ivit ies of CEDADE members served as an inspirat ion f or st art ing ot her neo-Nazi
groups, part icularly in Barcelona in Cat alonia. The Part ido Espaol Nacional Socialist a
(Spanish Nat ional Socialist Movement PENS) was act ive f rom 19691973. It published
t wo bullet ins, Nuevo Orden (New order) and Joven Europa (Young Europe), and organized t he
Asociacin Juvenil Jaime I f or yout h. However, it had only t hirt y members and lacked a
st able st ruct ure. The PENS had regular cont act s wit h similar groups in Madrid t he
Moviment o Nacional Revolucionario (Nat ional Revolut ionary Movement MNR); and in
Valencia t he Moviment o Social Espaol (Spanish Socialist Movemen MSE). There
werrank-and-f ile cont act s wit h CEDADE, and t hese led t o t he f ormat ion of t he Crculo
Espaa/Occident e (Spain/West Circle). Of not e is connect ion of PENS wit h t he It alian neo-
f ascist t errorist St ef ano della Chiae, who t ook ref uge in Spain and gave short courses t o
members of t he group. The t hree groups, PENS, MNR, and MSE, were not merely t olerat ed
by some element s wit hin t he Spanish inf ormat ion services, but received f inancial and
logist ical assist ance. The groups made t heir presence f elt in t he universit ies and in Spains
major cit ies. Right -wing milit ant s became increasingly involved in paramilit ary act ivit ies
aimed at paralyzing any init iat ives f rom lawyers, journalist s, and t rade unions in t he Spanish
opposit ion. There were at t acks against publishing houses and bookshops of f ering works
writ t en in Cat alan or Basque, t hose by Marxist aut hors, or anyone known t o oppose t he
Franco regime.
The Polit ical Transit ion t o Democracy and t he Conspiracy Theory
The growing st rengt h of organizat ions on t he Lef t and ot her f orces opposed t o Franco,
along wit h t he evolut ion of some polit icians t oward ref orm brought a react ion f rom t he
ext reme Right . This mobilizat ion was direct ed by neo-Francoist organizat ions f ounded
during t he 1960s (Fuerza Nueva and t he various brot herhoods of Francoist ex-combat ant s)
wit h a small cont ingent of neo-f ascist groups t hat had split f rom t he single Part y.
Fuerza Nueva (New Force), f ounded in 1966, int ended t o conf ront t he polit ical
demobilizat ion f avored by t he Franco regime, and t o block t he evolut ion of ref ormist
polit icians. It accused ref ormers of t reason against t he Franco ideology.
It is not surprising t hat Blas Piar, t he president of Fuerza Nueva made many ref erences t o
a subversive war. Two conf erences at t he beginning of t he 1970s led t o t he publicat ion of
t he book What is Communism? by t heir press, Fuerza Nueva Edit orial. In t his and ot her
writ ings, Blas argued t hat communism is an iceberg and a conspiracy which provokes
class war in order t o dest roy nat ions. Inspired by Cat holic f anat ics, he claims t hat it has a
sat anic origin and has been aided by Lucif er in ext ending it s dominion, adding t hat
communism was designed by t he Khazar-Jewish race.
Franco died in 1975, and his chosen successor, Juan Carlos de Borbn, was crowned king. A
dif f icult but peacef ul evolut ion f rom aut horit arian rule t o democracy t ook place. The
ext reme Right perceived t he t hreat t o t heir power and social inf luence and in t his crit ical
period ascribed t heir def eat t o a conspiracy f rom abroad. When vot ers f ailed t o choose
t heir candidat es, it was said t o be t he result of t he drugging or anest het izing of Spanish
societ y t hrough Jewish-Masonic-Communist propaganda. Whereas members of CEDADE
demonst rat ed lit t le int erest in t he Spanish polit ical sit uat ion, t he neo-Francoist
organizat ions st at ed t hat t he legalizat ion of t he Communist Part y in 1977 would lead t o t he
det eriorat ion of t radit ional values and t he social order. They argued t hat f rom t he t ime t hat
Communism was legalized, Judaism reinf orced by t he legalizat ion of Freemasonry as
well could now operat e wit hout rest raint t o dest roy t he work of Franco. Of course, t he
Francoist s and neo-Falangist s wished t o t hwart t his supposed possibilit y. In t he ext reme
Right part ies and publicat ions, a campaign was init iat ed t hat drew on t he ant isemit ic
discourse of nat ionalist Cat holicism. Incredible as it may seem, t he neo-Francoist s were
convinced t hat t he Spanish t ransit ion t o democracy had been f oreseen in t he Protocols of
the Elders of Zion. Examples of t his t hinking can be f ound in t he Manual de urgencia sobre el
sionismo en Espaa (Urgent manual on Zionism in Spain, 1979) by Csar Casanova:
What happened in Spain, for a number of years, is part of the pact between the
ambitious people and the Zionists or their executive arm: a dictatorship of the
liberal-masonic-capitalists or a marxist dictatorship. Everything that happens in
Spain is being programmed by international Zionism. How prophetic of the current
situation in Spain are the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
Antisemitic Discourse
How can it be t hat ref erences t o t he dark hand of Communism or Judaism (not t o ment ion
t he not ion t hat Paris, Amst erdam, New York, or Moscow are cent ers f or t he int ernat ional
conspiracy) persist in t he discourse of t he ext reme Right when explaining cert ain event s?
In a count ry in which t he number of act ual Jews is very small, t his is clearly irrat ional.
We must remember t hat blaming a Jewish-Masonic-Communist alliance f or t he ills of Spain
and t he world relieves some of t he sense of culpabilit y f rom t hose who sympat hized wit h
f ascism, and among ult ra-conservat ive Cat holics. This is part icularly t rue in a count ry t hat
was under a dict at orship f or f ort y years, and was allied wit h t he Axis powers. Ant isemit ic
discourse and ideology among ult ra-conservat ive Cat holics have not alt ered at all;
organizat ions such as Fuerza Nueva and t he Spanish Cat holic movement cont inue t o resort
t o cult ural and religious ant isemit ism. In addit ion, t he neo-Nazi part ies discredit t he Jews
wit h an assault on t rut h and memory, by at t empt ing t o persuade t he public t hat t he
Holocaust is a hoax f abricat ed by Jews.
As we have seen above, t he principle concerns of CEDADE are racism, ant isemit ism, and
promot ing neo-Nazi economics and polit ical act ivit y; specif ically Spanish issues are only of
indirect int erest . Pedro Varela, CEDADEs president elect ed in 1978, said t hat t he
organizat ion specialized in t he publicat ion of an int ernal journal dist ribut ed t hroughout t he
world, promot ing journals in dif f erent languages, support ing publishing houses linked t o our
ideology, dist ribut ing our books, and promot ing f ilms. He added, We are not worried about
t his count ry. If t he whit e race is disappearing as a world problem, we cannot only say t hat
it s necessary t o put t hings right in Spain.
Varela and a signif icant segment of CEDADE were more int erest ed in Hit lers lif e and
t he army of t he Third Reich and t he Waf f en-SS t han in aspect s of Spanish hist ory, except
t hose closely connect ed wit h Nazi Germany, like t he Blue Division.
In t he mid-1970s, CEDADE was represent ed in t he f ollowing Spanish cit ies and t owns:
Albacet e, Alicant e, Barcelona, Cdiz, Cart agena (Murcia), Ciudad Real, La Cuest a
(Tenerif e), Granada, Jaen, Lugo, Madrid, Mallorca, Mahn (Menorca), Murcia, Oviedo,
Pamplona, Salamanca, Sant ander, Sevilla, Toledo, Valencia, Valladolid, and Zaragoza. In
addit ion, t here were represent at ives in Aix-en-Provence (France), Buenos Aires and
Posadas (Argent ina), La Paz (Bolivia), and Quit o (Ecuador). CEDADE regist ered as t he
polit ical part y Part ido Europeo Nacional Revolucionario (European Nat ional Revolut ionary
Part y) in 1979. Varela apparent ly wished t o est ablish an openly racist neo-Nazi part y and
move t he cent ral of f ice t o t he Spanish capit al, Madrid. This measure was approved wit hin
t he part y at t he beginning of t he 1980s, but not hing came of it .
CEDADE publicat ions, which are aggressively ant i-Israel, f ocus on t he Jewish conspiracy t o
cont rol t he world and undermine European societ y t hrough pornography, drugs, democracy,
and communism. In order t o solve t he Jewish problem, Jews must be shut of f f rom whit e
people, wit h t hose responsible f or endangering societ y t o be punished wit hout mercy. The
neo-Nazi propagandist s say t hat t he act ivit ies of t he Jews make complet ely
underst andable, if not just if iable, t he f urious react ion against t hem. Israel, in t heir view,
must complet ely disappear.
They also proposed eliminat ing any element s t hat make an
indecent assault on racial healt h and t he st erilizat ion of all physically or spirit ually
handicapped people in order t o prot ect t he Aryan race. There was no ef f ort t o hide t he
irrat ional Nazi sources of such t hinking; f or example, t heir publicat ions made ref erence t o
t he need f or living space (lebensraum t he German excuse f or expanding east wards
bef ore t he out break of t he Second World War) which has no connect ion t o Spanish
polit ical issues. The most urgent problem t hey saw as t he invasion of Europe by Af ricans,
wit h t he helof Zionism.
Spanish neo-Nazhave added not hing original t o similar neo-Nazi propaganda f rom
Germany, Brit ain, or Aust ria. What is signif icant is t hat CEDADE prof it ed considerably f rom
t he f act t hat in Spain t here were f ew impediment s t o t he publicat ion of neo-Nazi mat erial. A
net work of publishing houses (Ediciones CEDADE, Ediciones BAUSP, Ediciones Wot an, and
Ediciones Nuevo Art e Thor) enabled f oreign aut hors t o put out pamphlet s, post ers, and
leaf let s in wide variet y, when t hey were unable t o do so in t heir own count ries. However,
even as CEDADE became an import ant publisher f or ot her European neo-Nazi groups, it s
inf luence in t he Spanish ext reme Right decreased.
The German Verfassungsschutz Annual Report not ed t hat CEDADE was t he f oremost
support er of German and Aust rian neo-Nazi groups. Two Aust rian neo-Nazi leaders, Gert
Honsik and Walt er Ochsenberger, sent enced t o jail t erms f or Holocaust denial, t ook shelt er
in Spain, where t hey were able t o publish wit h t he support of local neo-Nazis t wo
Germanlanguage journals, Halt and Sieg (Vict ory). In 1993, Shimon Samuels, t he direct or of
t he European of f ice of t he Simon Wiesent hal Cent er, inf ormed t he Spanish aut horit ies of
t he exist ence of a cent er f or Nazi propaganda in t he province of Las Palmas de Gran
Canaria. This Casa de Cult ura Alemana (House of German cult ure) is direct ed by D.
Felderer (a Swedish cit izen), wit h t he help of Spanish neo-Nazis.
CEDADE of course cont inued publishing it s own rat her luxurious bullet in, wit h more pages,
print ed in f ull color on good-qualit y paper. Through 1979, it published 8001000 copies of
CEDADE int ended f or subscribers and comrades in f oreign organizat ions. But f rom t hat
year, in hopes of increasing membership, print runs were somet imes as many as 10,000
copies, and were sold at newst ands. The project was not successf ul, however, and soon
t he print run was reduced subst ant ially. From 1989, t he bullet in was no longer published
mont hly, alt hough a German-language edit ion was produced. In 1990, only t wo numbers
came out , and in 19911992, only a single annual edit ion was print ed. By t his t ime, t he
organizat ion was suf f ering f inancially.
Other Neo-Nazi Groups
During t he 1970s, a number of very small neo-Nazi groups arose: Juvent ud Nacional
Revolucionaria (Nat ional revolut ionary yout h), Comandos de Accin Adolf o Hit ler (Adolf
Hit ler act ion commandos), Nueva Guardia de Espaa (New Guard of Spain), Ejrcit o de
Liberacin Nacional (Nat ional liberat ion army), and Juvent udes Vikingas (Viking yout h). This
lat t er t iny group was f ounded in Madrid in t he early 1980s by Capt ain Walt er Mat t heai, a
f ormer non-commissioned of f icer of t he Wehrmacht who set t led in Spain in t he 1950s. The
young Vikings sold emblems, pamphlet s, and Nazi books, and f aced of f against members
of t he ext reme Lef t in t he cent er of Madrid in a series of small incident s.
Anot her group, Nuevo Acrpolis (New Acropolis), was f ounded in 1974 and cont inues t o
f unct ion. It organizes neo-Nazi act ivit y under t he guise of conf erences on pseudo-
philosophical and esot eric subject s.
Two Cat alan t errorist groups were also creat ed in t his period, t he Part it Nacionalsocialist a
Cat al (Cat alan Nat ional Socialist Part y, 19781980, revived in 1984), and t he violent Milicia
Cat alana (Cat alan Milit ia) a direct -act ion group specializing in assault ing saunas,
brot hels, and cent ers of Cat alan nat ionalism. In spit e of t heir somewhat misleading names,
t hese organizat ions oppose any kind of aut onomy f or Cat alonia.
Last ly, we must ment ion t he NSDAP/Ausland Organizat ion, whose cent ral of f ice is in
Lincoln, Nebraska. It publishes an irregular Spanish-language Boletn de Noticias NS
dist ribut ed t hrough a post of f ice box in Palma de Mallorca. Their leaf let s t ake jabs at non-
Aryans: Ni asit ico ni af ricano es t u hermano! (Neit her Asians nor Af ricans are your
brot hers!), and Es muy jodo vivir bajo el judo (It s a bit ch t o live under t he Jews).
The Neo-fascist Parties
While ant isemit ic discourse is cent ral f or t he neo-Nazis, f or t he neo-Falangist s it is
peripheral, only appearing when t hey ref er t o t he World War II period, or t he milit ary and
polit ical conf lict bet ween Israel and t he Arab count ries. Somet imes a ref erence t o t he
Second World War comes up wit h regard t o European Jews, but usually only because t hey
are t rying t o deny legit imacy t o t he St at e of Israel. We must t ake int o account t he f act t hat
t he neo-Falangist s never voice support f or ant i-Jewish racism, even t hough t heir semant ic
dif f erent iat es bet ween Zionism and t he int erest s of t he Jewish people. Their primary
int erest is int ernal Spanish polit ics; t hey are more concerned t o speak out on t he t errorist
out rages of t he Basque separat ist organizat ion ETA, t he high level of unemployment , t he
illegal f inancing of polit ical part ies, and illegal immigrat ion.
Even so, one can f ind a t rail of ant isemit ic remarks. For example, spokesmen of t he
Movimient o Falangist a de Espaa have declared t hat t he hist ory of t he Second World War
has been f alsif ied, and t he winners are worse of f t han t he losers,
t here was no
genocide of t he Jews,
and t hey blame int ernat ional Judaism f or t he German loss of
t errit ory af t er t he war, which t hey claim was int ended t o provoke a new war and dest roy
Europe. Comparing leaders such as Rudolf Hess and Winst on Churchill, t hey conclude t hat
t he Brit ish leader is t he only t rue war criminal.
Their st rat egy is signif icant in t hat t he
neo-Falangist s do not always deny Nazi war crimes alt oget her, but claim t he t rue number
of vict ims is lower t han report ed. They usurp t he symbols of t he Holocaust f or t heir own
purposes, and use t he t erm Holocaust t o ref er t o event s unconnect ed t o Jews.
Publicat ions of t he Falange Espaola de las JONS (t he most import ant of t he neo-
Falangist part ies re-est ablished in 1976 during t he t ransit ion t o democracy), compares
Israel t o t he Third Reich, and t he Israeli army t o t he Waf f en-SS. Israels exist ence as a
st at e result ed f rom Holocaust blackmail.
Thus, t his part y does not publicly deny t he
Holocaust (t hough individual members may do so), but it s ant isemit ism appears as ant i-
Israel at t it udes; t he Palest inian-Israeli conf lict provides t he excuse f or ant isemit ic
discourse. The mont hly journal Nosotros (We), f or example, calls Israel t he f if t y-second
st at e of t he Unit ed St at es, and ref ers t o t he sit uat ion of t he Palest inians as slavery.
The Falange Espaola Independient e, a very small part y, does not deny t he Holocaust , but
voices ant isemit ism openly, saying t hat t he Holocaust is a const ant t opic f or big business
and Jewish capit alism, equat es Israel wit h Nazi Germany, and cont ends t hat Israel only
cont inues t o exist because of it s st rengt h and inf luence over t he world.
Ant isemit ism is f ound in t he publicat ions of t he Junt as Espaolas as well. This part y want ed
t o pat t ern Spain on t he French Nat ional Front of 19851990. Their publicat ions f ocus
exclusively on ant i-Zionism, using t he Palest inian-Israeli conf lict as an opport unit y t o decry
Zionist at rocit ies and genocidal expansionism against t he Palest inians.
On t he subject
of World War II, t he group t akes a st ance t hat denies t he Holocaust , and equat es polit ical
and milit ary act ions by bot h Allies and Nazi Germany: t here never was an order f or
ext erminat ion [of t he Jews] or anyt hing like it ; all sides commit t ed brut al act s.
Anarcho-Nazi: The Autonomous Bases
Bases Aut nomas (Aut onomous Bases) was f ormed in 1983, and exist s only in Madrid. It s
direct ors were t he young lawyers Carlos Rodrigo Ruiz de Cast ro and Fernando Fernndez
Perdices, and Ignacio Alonso Garca, a universit y st udent . The group sought t o cont ribut e
t o t he ext reme Right by promot ing t he involvement of yout h in polit ical act ivit y, a new
aest het ics, and new programs. However, t he renewal of t he Right t hat t hey proclaimed was
limit ed t o publicat ion of magazines promot ing violence like La Peste Negra (The black
plague) and A Por Ellos! (Get t hem!). They used neo-f ascist symbols f amiliar in Europe, like
t he Celt ic cross and black rat as t he logo f or t heir pamphlet s. Bases Aut nomas can be
described as anarcho-Nazi combining a message of chaos annat ional socialism. The
rank-and-f ile membersconsist s largely of f oot ball hooligans (Ult ra Sur, At hlet ic Front ) and
skinheads. As t he most violent ext reme Right organizat ion of recent years, it has operat ed
as t iny cells, in order t o make it dif f icult f or t he police t o deal wit h it . The group planned
aggression against universit y st udent s linked t o lef t -wing associat ions, and against
polit icians. One of t he groups main act ivit ies was producing propaganda against
polit icians, and t he use of racist and ant isemit ic slogans of t en spread as graf f it i. Launching
a verbal at t ack upon Jews in one of it s ideological t ext s, t he pamphlet st at es, as one of 18
point s: Since t he Jews operat e as a f oreign communit y, we ask t hat t hey get t he
appropriat e t reat ment . We say no t o recognizing t he St at e of Israel.
Police pressure event ually rest rict ed t he groups act ivit ies, and it appears t o have
dissolved, alt hough some neo-Nazi milit ant s cont inue t o use it s charact erist ic symbols. In
1995, a report f rom t he Nat ional Cit izen Securit y Council st at ed t hat t here are
approximat ely 2,300 neo-Nazi skinheads in Spain, 50 percent of whom are in Cat alonia, and
30 percent in Madrid. Urban skinhead violence increased bet ween 1991 and 1996, consist ing
of at t acks on immigrant s, homosexuals, beggars, and drug addict s. In 19971998,
indiscriminat e aggression by young people has increased.
Alternativa Europea
Alt ernat iva Europea (European Alt ernat ive, AE), headed by Juan Ant onio Llopart and
cent ered in Barcelona, was legalized as a polit ical associat ion in February 1994. It s ideology
mixes neo-f ascism (based on t he ideas of Jean Thiriart and Dominique Venner), t he
conservat ive revolut ion (based on Carl Schmit t , Ernst Jnger, and Drieu La Rochelle), and
t he radical Spanish f ascism of Ramiro Ledesma), using a nat ional Bolshevik rhet oric. That
is, t heir rhet oric conceals it s neo-f ascist origins by making use of symbols and t erminology
of t he Lef t . AE is part of t he European Liberat ion Front , a pan-European coordinat ing
commit t ee made up of various nat ional revolut ionary groups.
AE has a wide publicat ions net work. It s most import ant ideological and cult ural journal is
Tribuna de Europa (European plat f orm). Edit ed by Llopart in a modern and pleasing f ormat , it
appears t wice a mont h and analyzes current event s and t he ups and downs of various
nat ional revolut ionary associat ions and journals.
In Oct ober 1997, AE announced t he f ormat ion of a polit ical part y Alt ernat iva Europea
Liga Social Republicana (European Alt ernat ive Republican Social League), as a cover f or
Spanish nat ional revolut ionary groups. The part y was born f rom a self -crit ical analysis by
various right -wing groups, and while operat ing in opposit ion t o t he polit ical syst em
generally, it also breaks wit h t he t radit ional Spanish Right . It s new program of July 1997
argues f or a European Federal Republic, and a st op t o t he current t rend t oward a European
Union; t he part y t akes an ult ranat ionalist posit ion. Wit h ref erence t o domest ic policy, it
proposes a republican model f or t he st at e rat her t han a monarchy. It is in f avor of regional
decent ralizat ion, but not in f avor of conceding aut onomy t o regions as in t he current
Spanish policy. AE emphasizes t he t errit orial unit y of Spain. Tribuna de Europa is consist ent
in it s opposit ion t o American cult ure and U.S. policies. The Unit ed St at es is def ined as t he
enemy of t he common cause of humanit y and t he principal bast ion of unpat riot ic
In comparison wit h ot her nat ional revolut ionary groups, ant isemit ic discourse is peripheral in
t he pages of Tribuna de Europa. Nevert heless, it s pages heralded t he book by Roger
Garaudy, Les Mythes fondateurs de la politique isralienne (Founding myt hs of Israeli polit ics),
t hat quest ions t he right f or a Jewish st at e t o dominat e Palest inians, and of f ers harsh
crit icism of French ant iracist bodies like LICRA, MRAP, and CRIF which it considers t o be
Israeli agent s provocat eurs on European t errit ory. Alt hough it does not deny t he Nazi
crimes of t he Holocaust , it st at es t hat t hese crimes serve as a perpet ual alibi and
prot ect ive shield t hat serves as a cover-up f or Israels racist apart heid regime and t he
half -slavery imposed on Palest inians, in t he words of Erik Norling.
The bullet in f requent ly
includes polit ical cart oons praising Palest inian combat ant s, and t he slogan Todos somos
Palest inos!! (We are all Palest inians!).
Cultural Inf iltration
Wit h t he collapse of t he CEDADE organizat ion, it s most act ive members cont inued t heir
cult ural agit at ion in new associat ions, journals, and more recent ly, t hrough penet rat ion of
less radical ext reme Right organizat ions.
The Right in Spain has t ended t o f orm splint er groups, and since 1982, t here has been no
all-encompassing ext reme Right part y af t er t he dissolut ion of Fuerza Nueva. This part y
lacked suf f icient vot ers t o maint ain it s sole member in parliament . Thus, it has been
increasingly import ant f or t he ext reme Right t o print and dist ribut e as many publicat ions as
possible, and t his has given neo-Nazis a great er visibilit y t han if t here were a single neo-
Francoist or neo-Falangist part y.
CEDADE and Holocaust Denial
During t he 1980s, CEDADE specialized in circulat ing neo-Nazi denial of t he Holocaust . It s
bullet in of March 1989, f or example, included an int erview wit h Robert Faurisson, t he
principal world aut horit y on t he cont roversial quest ion of Nazi concent rat ion camps, and it
has published an abridged edit ion of The Hoax of the Twentieth Century by t he American
Art hur R. But z.
As wit h American and European neo-Nazi organizat ions, t he purpose of
Holocaust denial is t o absolve Nazism f rom responsibilit y f or planning and bringing about
t he Second World War and t he genocide of t he Jews. By dist ort ing our knowledge of t hese
event s and f abricat ing a revised version whose sole purpose is t o absolve t he Third Reich
of it s responsibilit y, t hese propagandist s believe t hat public opinion will t hen f ind t heir
leaders proposals such as int roducing legislat ion t o limit immigrat ion and f reedom of t he
press more digest ible.
The Spanish neo-Nazis have cont ribut ed not hing original t o t he t heory already elaborat ed
by t heir European comrades. In general, most of t he aut hors (who have f ollowed t he model
of publicat ions put out by t he Hist orical Review Press) have had some previous links t o
CEDADE. Members of t he organizat ion f ounded t wo associat ions specializing in Holocaust
denial t he Cent ro de Est udios Hist ricos Revisionist as (Cent er of Revisionist Hist orical
St udies, CEHRE) and t he Cent ro de Est udios Revisionist a Orient aciones (Cent er f or
Revionist -Orient ed St udies, CERO). CEHRE has an of f ice in Alicant e, which produced t he
journal Revisin during 19851990. It s edit or, Carlos Caballero, included art icles f avorable t o
f ascist movement s, and about t he real origin of t he Second World War. Also appearing
were art icles denying t he Holocaust by such f igures as Roland Fournier, Jorge Lobo, David
Irving, Carlo Mat t ogno, Erik Norling, Alf red Seidl, Jos L. Ont iveros, Thies Christ ophersen,
Enrique Aynat , Robert Faurisson, and Carlos Cabellero himself . Caballero has aut hored
several books about f ascist organizat ions, and on polit ical and milit ary issues. His writ ings
vindicat e t he good int ent ions of t he Axis powers; t wo have been published in England by
revisionist groups t he Foreign Volunt eers of t he Wehrmacht and Resist ance Warf are.
The second Spanish group, CERO, is direct ed by J. Negreira and J. Lobo in Palma de
Bet ween 1987 and 1989 CEHRE and CERO joint ly edit ed Revi-Info, a bullet in about act ivit ies
and publicat ions of Holocaust denial circles. The t wo groups promot ed t he wide circulat ion
of a pamphlet ent it led 66 Quest ions and Answers about t he Holocaust (originally
published by t he Inst it ut e f or Hist orical Review in t he Unit ed St at es and previously
t ranslat ed int o Spanish by CEDADE). The pamphlet charges t hat Judaism declared war on
Germany in 1933 and calls t he genocide of Jews a lie t hat only benef it s Israel. The t wo
groups drew on t he direct ory of groups, publicat ions, and publishing houses in CEROs
journal, Orientaciones, and Mundo NS (NS World) published in Barcelona since 1984 by
Ramon Bau, t he f ormer secret ary general of CEDADE. All t hese organizat ions t rivialize t he
Holocaust and argue t hat only t he host ile Jewish communit y was imprisoned in
concent rat ion camps; t here was no large-scale ext erminat ion, only st arvat ion, epidemics,
and some excesses against t he Jews t hat were commit t ed by a f ew of f icers as
ret aliat ion f or t he Allied raids over Germany. The shameless edit ors of t hese publicat ions
assert t hat some of t hese of f icers were t ried by Nazi court s and execut ed.
Issue no. 6
of Revi-Info (1988) cont ains an art icle t hat admit s t hat t here were deport at ions, int ernment ,
and f ort uit ous massacres, which it condemns. Ot her collaborat ors in t he publicat ion of t his
lit erat ure include Librera Europa, a Barcelona bookshop opened by CEDADE, and t he
publishing house f ounded by Garca Hispn, a f ormer represent at ive of CEDADE in
Granada. Garca Hispn has published several books praising t he milit ary and human
qualit ies of Nazi and f ascist armies, including Erik Norlings Race of Vikings. The Division SS
Norland (19431945), and Carlos Caballeros The National Romanian Army. Romanian
Volunteers of the Waffen-SS.
Yet even among t hese propagandist s, some realized t hat t hey were unable t o deceive t he
public. A review in Orientaciones st at ed t hat t he books by Joaqun Bochaca The Six Million
Myth. The Fraud about Jews Assassinated by Hitler and The History of the Conquered are
lit t le more t han a collect ion of inconsist encies and ant isemit ic diat ribe, excessively
ideological and unscient if ic. The reviewer suggest s t hat what is needed is a Spanish
revisionist school, involving t he specialist Enrique Aynat .
A f ew mont hs af t erward, Aynat
admit t ed t hat he had done lit t le direct research in t his area.
Aynat has published some
t it les such as The Newspaper ABC and the Holocaust,The Crematoriums at Birkenau. A Critical
Study, and A Debate about the Holocaust. A Reply to Csar Vidal (1995). The lat t er was a
response t o The Revision of the Holocaust by t he Spanish hist orian Csar Vidal.
In January 1994, wit h t he help of CEDADE, t he publisher Bright Rainbow put out Gerd
Honsiks book, Absolution for Hitler? wit h t he int ent ion of promot ing in Spain t he int ernat ional
neo-Nazi campaign. Despit e t he limit ed result s of t his ef f ort , CEDADE has cont inued t o
circulat e it s mat erials t hrough set t ing up book t ables on t he st reet s of various t owns, and
by having st ands at t he Book Fairs in Madrid and Barcelona. They produced an int roduct ory
pamphlet f or t hese occasions: Dare t o get t o know us! Throughout t he 1980s and 1990s,
CEDADE maint ained it s widespread int ernat ional cont act s, not only of f ering it s publishing
and dist ribut ion f acilit ies t o ot her neo-Nazi groups, but also sponsoring meet ings t hat
would have been illegal in ot her count ries. The most import ant of t hese was t he celebrat ion
of t he cent enary of Hit lers birt h in April 1989.
CEDADE part icipat ed in ot her neo-Nazi campaigns, such as t he ef f ort t hat began in
December 1977 t o have t he Nazi leader Rudolf Hess released f rom prison. The Nuremberg
t rials had sent enced Hess t o lif e imprisonment f or conspiracy and crimes against peace
and against humanit y. The campaign f or his release f rom prison began in Germany, t hen in
Aust ria and Spain, where CEDADE produced many post ers, and t he leaf let 37 years in
prison. Libert y f or Rudolf Hss, 19411978. A similar pamphlet vindicat ing t he mart yrs of
Nuremberg 30 years since t he crime of Nuremberg had been put out in t he previous
year by Odal, anot her publisher linked t o CEDADE.
CEDADEs ef f ort s t o commemorat e t he cent enary of Adolf Hit ler in t he serious and wort hy
manner it deserves represent s t he f inal at t empt t o revive t he organizat ion. The event ,
held at t he Cinema Benlliure in Madrid, brought many European neo-Nazi leaders t o Spain. In
f act , t he only aut horized commemorat ion f or t he event was held in Spain ot her count ries
had suppressed such celebrat ions in light of what had happened previously on t he
ninet iet h anniversary of Hit lers birt h.
Cont ribut ions f rom abroad enabled CEDADE t o print 40,000 post ers designed by Ernst
Zndel, and 16,000 st ickers. The word anniversary appeared in Spanish, German, English
and French, and neo-Nazi act ivist s put it up in many European t owns as well as in Argent ina
and Chile during t he night of April 19.
A special issue of CEDADEs bullet in included cont ribut ions by Lon Degrelle, Wilf red von
Oven (Goebbels assist ant in t he Minist ry of Propaganda), Salvador Borrego (Mexican neo-
Nazi propagandist and writ er), Florent in Rost van Tonningen (wif e of Dut ch Nazi leader
Meinoud van Tonningen), Thies Christ ophersen (German Nazi propagandist shelt ered in
Denmark), Manf red Roeder (f ounder in 1971 of German Civil Init iat ive), Mat t Koehl (an
American, secret ary of t he World Union of Nat ional Socialist s), Richard Edmons (leader of
t he Brit ish Nat ional Part y and publisher of Holocaust News), Christ opher Scherrer (of Wiking
Jugend Swiss), Poul Riis Knudsen (sponsor of t he Nat ional Socialist Movement in Denmark),
and number of Spanish neo-Nazis, including Pedro Varela, Daniel Aguilar, Juan Massana,
Jos Luis Jerez, and Javier Nicols. In addit ion, CEDADE produced a Wagnerian Travel
Guide and a reprint of Degrelles book, Fascinating Hitler.
The gat hering f or Hit lers cent enary met wit h prot est , but t he government of Spain allowed
it since it was sponsored by a legal organizat ion. The Government Delegat ion of Madrid
at t empt ed t o prohibit t he event , not ing t hat Nazi commemorat ions were a danger t o law
and order and cit ing a 1959 law t o t his ef f ect . Nevert heless, t he police allowed 200300
people t o join t he event out side t he cinema, where t hey heard Pedro Varela and Thies
Christ ophersen paying t ribut e t o t he Nazi dict at orship and commending Hit ler f or his brilliant
ideas and social measures. Lat er t hat night , CEDADE held a meet ing in it s Madrid of f ices at
which Pedro Varela, van Tonningen, Thies Christ ophersen, and Ewald Alt haus (represent ing
German neo-Nazis) spoke. The evenings principle speaker was Lon Degrelle, who
delivered an ant i-democrat ic speech, t hrowing in a f ew ant isemit ic remarks as well.
This was t he last out st anding public appearance of CEDADE, however. Several mont hs
lat er, beset by various crises and int ernal divisions, t he organizat ion dissolved in Oct ober
1993. There was no one available t o replace Pedro Varela, who had decided t o concent rat e
on t he Librera Europa and t he publishing world. Anot her neo-Nazi source at t ribut ed t he
dissolut ion t o t he economic and moral ruin of CEDADEs leaders, including debt s,
swindles, and liaisons, a f air of jugglers, racket eers and womanizing. The Madrid of f ice
was closed, and t he publishing net work abandoned.
Some f ormer members of CEDADE
put out a series of document s under t he t it le Project IES in 1994, int ended as an init ial st ep
in reorganizing t he milit ant s. They lat er int egrat ed int o t he ext reme Right Nat ional
Democracy part y, which present s an image of moderat ion and dist ances it self f rom t he
old neo-f rancoist organizat ions.
Ramn Baus Mundo NS
Appearing in April 1984, Mundo NS (NS World) is edit ed and produced by Ramn Bau in
Barcelona at his Cent ro Unit ario publishing house, as an organ of Ediciones Wot an.
At present , t he journal appears mont hly, wit h a wide range of inf ormat ion about ext reme
Right polit ical organizat ions and publicat ions, especially when t hese are relat ed t o
Holocaust denial. It present s a crit ical analysis of t he evolut ion of t he Spanish ext reme
Right , as well as recommendat ions about propaganda t act ics and polit ical st rat egy. A
segment is devot ed t o ecological concerns, and praises rural lif e, t he music of Wagner, and
art of t he Nazi period. The journal can be nauseat ingly racist : issue number 71 (August
1995), f or example, included seven pages of jokes about Jews. In several issues, it is
suggest ed t hat t he t rue Holocaust is abort ion, or t he Palest inian Holocaust . A number of
art icles have appeared about t he Nuremberg t rials, wit h homage paid t o Nazi
propagandist s like Got t f ried Kssel and Gerhard Lauck, who are vict imof t he Zionist
sadism of t he syst em. The journals principal is keep alive t he nat ional socialist ideology
and t o provide a haven t o ext reme Right milit ant s opposed t o t he syst em.
Issue number 54 (December 1993) was devot ed t o t he Jewish problem, a t opic developed
by Bau when he served as secret ary general of CEDADE. Obsessed wit h Jewish power,
Bau begins by dehumanizing t he Jews, and going on t o suggest discriminat ory and
repressive measures against t hem. The edit orial describes Jews as t he cent er of power
t hat works t owards corrupt ion of t he cont emporary world. Jews are def ined as a pseudo
et hnic race produced by a secular mixt ure which groups an archet ype, a way of
underst anding t he world (Judaism), and a number of racial branches derived f rom various
sources. The Jewish problem, Bau st at es, result s f rom t he f act t hat Jews have a
cosmology radically cont rary t o ours [i.e., t hat of Aryan people] and t hey t ry t o impose it
everywhere. In order t o eliminat e Jewish inf luence, he proposes a reasonable and decent
solut ion: t o remove Jews f rom Europe and f rom Aryan societ ies, t o abolish Israel, and t o
creat e anot her, demilit arized, Jewish st at e in which t o enclose all t he Jews.
One must point out t hat t he propaganda of CEDADE and Mundo NS have been viewed wit h
limit ed int erest by t he majorit y of t he Spanish ext reme Right ; wit hout doubt , t heir work is
more appreciat ed by neo-Nazi and ext reme Right organizat ions out side of Spain. As
previously not ed, t he main Spanish part ies on t he ext reme Right (Fuerza Nueva, Frent e
Nacional, Junt as Espaolas) dealt wit h ot her mat t ers in t heir polit ical programs, and
f urt hermore, have scarcely made an impact among t he elect orat e. For years, t hese part ies
spread incit ement f or a coup dt at against t he democrat ic regime t hat led t o t he
unsuccessf ul at t empt of February 1981. Some of t hese organizat ions, along wit h
subsequent ly f ormed part ies, have been encouraged by t he rise of Frances Nat ional Front ,
and t he increase in xenophobia recorded in Spanish public opinion polls since t he end of t he
1980s. Yet openly racist publicat ions arouse revulsion among t he general public, as do t he
leaders of t he ext reme Right . An issue of Mundo NS was dedicat ed t o racial quest ions. In it ,
Bau assert ed t hat t here are superior and inf erior races, and recommended t hree
videot apes on t he subject of genet ics, available f rom t he Argent ine Walhalla publishing
company. He hint ed t hat f eelings of superiorit y or scorn t owards ot her races was not
act ually racism, but was rat her a f undament al urge f or preserving t he Aryan nat ions and
prevent ing t he int egrat ion of racial minorit ies in West ern societ y.
The racist discourse has had lit t le success. Junt as Espaolas has used racist discourse
most f requent ly, ident if ying poor immigrant s f rom Af rica as inf ect ion carriers, bringing drug
problems int o t he count ry, and int ernat ional deliquency. One of t he part y slogans was
St op immigrat ion. At t he same t ime, t he nat ionalist Cat holic groups have cont inued t heir
cult ural and religious racism by maint aining t he superiorit y of t his civilizat ion over east ern
cult ures. For t heir part , t he ext reme Right part ies of t he 1990s have specialized in equat ing
immigrat ion wit h illegal immigrat ion, and concent rat ing t heir xenophobia against poor and
colored immigrant s, along wit h ant i-American speeches, and opposing t he European Union.
Neo-Nazis and the New Right
Since t he mid-1970s, a number of journals have appeared in Spain linked t o t he ideology of
t he French New Right . They specialize in disseminat ing scient if ic t heories about
dif f erent cult ures t hat are used t o just if y elit ist and racist ideas, and t o oppose
cosmopolit anism and t he supposed Christ ian-Jewish origin of Liberalism and Marxism.
CEDADE propagandist s and writ ers ident if ied wit h t he conservat ive revolut ion have
played an import ant role in promot ing t hese publicat ions. Among t he writ ers is Isidro J.
Palacios, Ant onio Medrano, Fernando Snchez Drag, and Jos Javier Esparza.
Palacios, a f ormer member of t he f oreign relat ions commit t ee of CEDADE, promot ed t he
journal Punto y coma (Period and comma) f rom 1983 t o 1989. It was t he most import ant of
t he new publicat ions t hat at t empt ed t o int roduce New Right ideas in t o Spain. Palacios
was also edit or of Ms all de la ciencia (Furt her t han science), and Prximo milenio (Next
millennium). The f ormer is sold at newst ands, and specializes in esot erica, Egypt ology, and
ext rat errest rial beings, but has also included a number of art icles about Nazism and a
posit ive view of t he Third Reich. The June 1993 issue cont ained a monograph ent it led Who
Cont rols t he World? Several known neo-Nazis cont ribut ed art icles f or t his issue: Joaqun
Bochaca wrot e The Secret Societ ies; Rodrigo Daz Sit jar on The Invisible Government of
t he World t hat assert ed t hat Jewish bankershave a privat e pact wit h t he devil;
Alejandro Mil wrot e Adolf Hit ler and t he Thule Societ y; and Jos L. Jerez wrot e on t he
Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Jerez in his int roduct ion classif ied t his work as prophet ic,
def ending it s aut hent icit y and adding t hat even t hough it was a f alsif icat ion, one could not
deny t he t rut hf ulness of t he f act s t hat t he Protocols had predict ed t he t wo world wars,
t he int roduct ion of communism in Russia, and universal suf f rage.
Ant onio Medrano wrot e t he pamphlet Islam and Europe, and in December 1974 dedicat ed a
conf erence t o proclaiming allegiance t o Haj Amin al-Husseini, t he Muf t i of Jerusalem. Islamic
cult ure was praised as genuinely Aryan and inspired by t he neo-Nazi aut hors Ren Guenon
and Johann von Leers, he explained t hat Islamic cult ure showed how t o recover t he int erior
light af t er cent uries of Hebraic oppression.
Anot her est ablished writ er, an ant i-Jewish apologist f or t he Islamic world, is Snchez Drag.
In one of his best -known books, he says Jews belong t o a masochist ic, accusing, and
neurot ically self -sacrif icing race, insinuat ing t hat t he Jews f avored t he out break of t he
Second World War and even t he Holocaust it self in order t o seek an excuse f or recovering
Anot her journalist and writ er, Jos Javier Esparza, as not ed above, is edit or of t he journal
Punta y coma, as well as t he conservat ive newspaper ABC. He also f ounded t he journal
Hesprides in May 1993. It s f irst issue included t he Manif est o del Proyect o Cult ural Aurora
(Manif est o of t he Aurora Cult ural Project ) which assert ed t hat it s necessary t o f ind a new
and non-democrat ic f orm of government . Art icles have appeared in Hesprides by Alain de
Benoist , Guillaume Faye, G. Fernndez de la Mora (a f ormer minist er of t he Franco regime),
Juan Ant onio Aguilar (a present day leader of FE-JONS), Carlos Caballero, and Ant onio
Medrano. It s more t han a lit t le curious t hat an art icle by Mario Soria, The crimes of t he
t went iet h cent ury: what all people should know but pref er t o f orget says not hing about t he
genocide of t he Jews. It is also signif icant t hat Snchez Drag, int erviewed in t he wint er
1997 issue def ined Jesus Christ as a pagan heroin t he jail of Judaism, and St . Paul as a
Jew who t ransf ormed Jesus Christ in t he most monst rous f raud of universal hist ory. At t he
same t ime, Jos L. Mart nez Sanz, prof essor of hist ory at Complut ense Universit y of
Madrid, in an art icle about t he expulsion f rom Spain of t he Jews (1492) and t he Moors
(1609), holds t he opinion t hat t he expulsion of t he Jews generat ed homogeneit y and was
t he element leading Spain t o become t he f irst world power.
The Af f air Friedman and t he Friends of Lon Degrelle Societ y
CEDADE devot ed much at t ent ion t o def ence of Nazis and t heir collaborat ors being
prosecut ed by law, such as Klaus Barbie, and in part icular, Lon Degrelle. Degrelle, f ounder
of Belgian f ascism, and f ormer commander of t he Valona Legion t hat f ought wit h Hit lers
t roops on t he East ern Front , was one of t he principle promot ers of CEDADE. The
organizat ions Ediciones Not hung in Barcelona published a number of Degrelles books,
such as Our Europe and Hitler for 1000 Years. Ot her publishers connect ed wit h t he Spanish
ext reme Right , like Edit orial Fuerza Nueva and Ediciones D, t ranslat ed Passionate Spirits,
Memories of a Fascist, Open Letter to tPope about Auschwitz, and Lon Degrelles Signature and
Flourish, wit h a pref ace by Jos Ut rera Molina, a Falangist and minist er in t he Franco
CEDADE gave part icular support t o Degrelle when he was sued by Violet a Friedman. Born in
Transylvania (Romania), Friedman was a survivor of Auschwit z who lat er immigrat ed t o
Spain. She f iled a suit under a Spanish law t o prot ect her honor af t er Degrelle, in t he July
1985 issue of Tiempo and on Spanish t elevision, said If t here are so many Jews at present ,
it is dif f icult t o believe t hey are alive and kicking af t er t he gas chambers. The court s f ound
against Friedman in t he f irst t rial and subsequent appeal. Degrelles lawyer was his son-in-
law, Juan Servando Balaguer, a leader of t he Junt as Espaolas part y.
Af t er t his, however, privat e prosecut ion was reject ed in consecut ive judicial pet it ions,
arguing t hat t he claimant lacked t he necessary legit imacy. In November 1991, t he
Const it ut ional Court revoked t he previous sent ences and recognized t he corresponding
legit imacy of Friedmans case, t hat is t o say, her right t o honor against Degrelles
st at ement s. The high court argued t hat even t hough t he Holocaust is recognized as
hist orical f act , publicat ion of dist ort ions of t his hist ory was prot ect ed under guarant ees of
f reedom of speech. Nevert heless, t he court s judgment was t hat such declarat ions have a
racist and ant isemit ic connot at ion and t heref ore f orm an indecent assault against t he
human dignit y of t he Jewish people, including of course, t he claimant Violet a Friedman, and
all who were int erned in t he Nazi concent rat ion camps. The court decision recognized t hat
t he principle of f reedom of speech cannot prot ect declarat ions or expressions whose
object ive is t o scorn or generat e f eelings of host ilit y against f ixed et hnic, f oreign, or
immigrant groups.
In t he f ollowing f our years, t here were import ant judicial ref orms designed t o combat
racism. In April 1995, t he House of Commons passed a bill making it a crime t o just if y t he
Holocaust or deny t hat it happened. The Spanish legislat ure approved a ref orm of t he
penal code in November 1995 t hat went int o ef f ect in May 1996. The previous code had
prohibit ed only incit ement t o discriminat ion. Adding t o t he list of aggravat ing
circumst ances, t he revised code prohibit s of f ences mot ivat ed by racism, ant isemit ism, or
t he vict imss nat ional or et hnic origin, or religion. Included are act s of any kind t hat just if y or
advocat e genocide. Dif f usion by any means of ideas or doct rines t hat at t empt t o re-
est ablish regimes or inst it ut ions t hat condone pract ices leading t o such crimes, will be
punished wit h a prison sent ence of one t o t wo years.
In December 1996, t he Cat alonian aut onomous police closed t he Europa bookst ore
managed by Pedro Varela. Numerous Nazi books and publicat ions denying t he Holocaust
were conf iscat ed, along wit h videot apes, pamphlet s, and ot her mat erials in Spanish,
English, and German. Page proof s of new publicat ions yet t o go t o press were also
conf iscat ed, demonst rat ing t he Europa was one of t he largest producers of ant isemit ic
mat erial in Europe. Indeed, Librera Europas 1996 cat alogue list ed several publicat ions
about t he composer Richard Wagner, Nordic and Scandinavian myt hology, Nazi art , t he
Luf t waf f e and Waf f en SS, works by Julius Evola, and various Holocaust denial publicat ions
by Erik Norling, Carlos Caballero, and Salvador Borrego. Varela was arrest ed, and place on
provisional libert y await ing t he t rial. Thus, wit h t he new law, it is possible t o curb t he
act ivit ies of racist groups. However, Librera Europa was open again af t er a f ew mont hs.
On 16 November 1998, Varela was sent enced t o f ive years in jail; at t he t ime of writ ing, he is
on provisional libert y await ing sent encing, which will f ollow his lawyers appeal. Ot her neo-
Nazis, such as Erik Norling, in Hoja Informativa del Instituto Europeo para el Fomento de la
Investigacin Histrica (Spring 1998) support t he work of Librera Europa. And Baus Mundo
NS (December 1998) has appealed f or f unds f or Varelas upcoming court appearance. At
t he same t ime, as a result of t he sent ence against Varela, Bau has inf ormed subscribers
t hat Mundo NS will cease publicat ion f or t hree years in order t o f ind ways of adapt ing it s
message t o t he new legal circumst ances. Meanwhile, he has begun publishing t he
newslet t er Bajo la tirana, def ined as a nat ional-socialist voice under t he democrat ic
dict at orship.
Af t er t he t ight ening of t he law, some neo-Nazis have complained against members who
dropped out , or who at t empt t o hide t heir membership in such groups. Mundo NS argued
t hat ref ormat ion of t he Spanish penal code does not prevent t he cont inuing f ight against
democracy since t he laws are only direct ed t owards a couple of basic t hemes of t he
Nazis, and t hus it is necessary t o explain [our point of view] more clearly. The writ er
added t hat t hose who hide t heir past polit ical af f iliat ion wit h a Nazi organizat ion are
cowards who generat e a loss of credibilit y.
Lon Degrelle, who died in March 1994, was one of t he most admired f igures among t he
neo-Nazis. A cult ural associat ion, Friends of Lon Degrelle was legalized in March 1996.
President of t he associat ion is t he lawyer and f ormer CEDADE member Jos L. Jerez
Riesco, Pedro Varela as vice-president and Erik Norling as secret ary. Degrelles widow,
Jeanne M. Brevet , is named as honorary president . REX: Journal of the Friends of Lon
Degrelle Cultural Association is t he groups annual publicat ion. The f irst issue appeared in
March 1997 wit h t wo art icles by Degrelle, Les Mouvement s Fascist es (The f ascist
movement s) and A lest , avec les Wallons (To t he east wit h t he Walloons), bot h of which
were previously published in t he Nazi journal Signal in January 1943.
Any research on t he European ext reme Right should t ake int o considerat ion t he
signif icance of Spanish neo-Nazism. CEDADE, f or example, has been an import ant
organizat ion not because of t he number of milit ant s or vot es it can must er but
because of it s t hirt y years of act ivit y. Such a long st ay on t he polit ical scene was unusual
among neo-Nazi organizat ions in Europe and t he Unit ed St at es since 1945. CEDADE paid
lit t le at t ent ion t o t he Spanish polit ical sit uat ion, and promot ed Nazism.
Cert ainly t here were some f act ors unique t o Spain t hat were f avorable f or t he
development of neo-Nazi groups. Foremost among t hese were Francos dict at orship, and
t he f act t hat Spain had been allied wit h Nazi Germany and Fascist It aly, wit h import ant
personal t ies bet ween t he leaders of t he f ascist part ies. Af t er World War II, a number of
Nazi leaders and collaborat ors t ook shelt er in Spain, and t hey encouraged t he f ounding of
neo-Nazi circles and indoct rinat ed t he members. In addit ion, t here was a sect or of radical
Falangist s who were dissat isf ied wit h t he evolut ion of Francos regime, and were prepared
t o assist t he development of neo-Nazi act ivit y in t he count ry. Spanish neo-Nazi publishing
houses produced vast amount s of propaganda mat erial over a long period of t ime,
including t hat which denied t he Holocaust . Publicat ion was curt ailed only af t er t he
enact ment of t ight er laws.
Since t he dissolut ion of CEDADE, t here are only a f ew remaining neo-Nazi propaganda
cent ers t he journal Mundo NS, t he Librera Europa (bot h in Barcelona), Ediciones Garca
Hispn, and a f ew minor bullet ins whose publicat ion may be impeded in t he f ut ure.
Ant isemit ism is not a cent ral issue in t he publicat ions of t he Spanish ext reme Right ,
alt hough it appears occasionally in journals such as Nueva Politica, Resistencia, Hesprides,
and Tribuna de Europa. And one must not f orget t hat milit ant s and f ormer leaders previously
linked t o Nazism somet imes f ind posit ions in t he moderat e ext reme Right part ies such as
t he Democracia Nacional, or even in t he conservat ive Right part ies such as t he Part ido de
Accin Democrt ica Espaola (Spanish Democrat ic Act ion Part y).

1. J. A. Ferrer Benimeli, El contubernio judeo-masnico-comunista (The Jewish-Masonic-
Communist conspiracy) (Madrid: Ist mo, 1982), esp. 191202.
2. F. Garca Blzquez, La Raza: Fundament os de la Comunidad (The race:
Foundat ions of communit y), JONS, August 1934.
3. A. lvarez Chillida, El mit o ant isemit a en la crisis Espaola del siglo XX (The
ant isemit ic myt h in t he Spanish crisis of t he t went iet h cent ury), Hispania 56/3, 194
(1996): 1042.
4. The Falange Espaola Tradicionalist a y de las JONS (FET-JONS) came about in 1937
as a result of t he union of t he f ascist FE-JONS and t he royalist s of t he Tradit ionalist
5. On Ot t o Skorzenys associat ion wit h CEDADE, see Qu es CEDADE? (What is
CEDADE?) (Barquilla: BAUSP, 1978), 36; Ot t o Skorzeny, Vive peligrosamente (Living
dangerously) (Barcelona: Acervo, 1965); idem, Luchamos y perdimos (We st ruggled
and lost ) (Barcelona: Acervo, 1965).
6. On t he ef f ort s of t he Falangist s t o hide Degrelle in Spain, see H. Saa, El Franquismo
sin mitos. Conversaciones con Serrano Ser (Francoism wit hout myt hs.
Conversat ions wit h Serrano Ser) (Barcelona: Grijalbo, 1982), 305308.
7. See Xavier Casals, Neonazis en Espaa. De las audiciones wagnerianas a los skinheads
(19661995) (Neo-Nazis in Spain. From t he Wagnerian audit ions t o t he skinheads)
(Barcelona: Grijalbo, 1995); J. L. Rodrguez Jimnez, Neo-Nazism in Spain, Patterns of
Prejudice 29, no. 1 (1995): 5368.
8. J. L. Rodrguez Jimnez, The Spanish Neo-Nazis. Evolut ion, Organizat ions, and
Int ernat ional Connect ions (19661994), Historia 16 240 (April 1996): 1224.
9. Al-Husseini, Grand Muf t i of Palest ine and head of t he Arab High Commission, t ook
ref uge in Nazi Germany in 1941.
10. A. Medrano, El Islam y Europa. El valor de la tradicin islmica para la revolucin europea:
punto de coincidencia (Islam and Europe. The value of Islamic t radit ion f or European
revolut ion: A point of coincidence) (Text of t he Conf erence at t he Mercant ile Union
Circle), rev. ed., Madrid 1977.
11. B. Piar, Qu es el comunismo? (What is Communism?) (Madrid: Fuerza Nueva,
1970), 10, 29, 5859. 61.
12. Csar Casanova Gonzlez-Mat eo, Manual de urgencia sobre el Sionismo en Espaa
(Madrid: Vasallo de Mumbert , 1979), 17, 21, 160.
13. The present day Spanish Jewish communit y consist s of about 12,000 persons.
Antisemitism World Report 1997 (London and New York: Inst it ut e f or Jewish Policy
Research and American Jewish Commit t ee, 1997), 250.
14. Blanco y Negro (weekly), 24 January 1979.
15. R. Bau, El problema judo (The Jewish problem) (n.p.: CEDADE, Cuadernos de
Formacin, no. 3, n.d.), 4, 6, 7.
16. R. Bau, Nuestras ideas (Our ideas) (Barcelona: Ediciones Huguin, 1983), 64.
17. Xavier Casals, CEDADE, una imprent a para el neonazismo europeo (CEDADE, a
publisher f or European Neo-Nazis), El Pas, 7 Sept ember 1993.
18. Praxis Politica 40 (1988).
19. Mient en los nazis o los judos? (Do t he Nazis or t he Jews lie?), Praxis Politica 59
20. Qu hist oria han cont ado? Rudolf Hess ha muert o asesinado? (What st ory have
t hey t old us? Rudolf Hess has died, was he assassinat ed?), Praxis Politica 30 (1987).
21. Palest ine or Israel, Nosotros 13 (Oct ober 1996).
22. La cuest in juda (The Jewish quest ion), Sevilla Rojinegra 8 (January 1986);
Palest ina (Palest ine), Sevilla Rojinegra 20 (JanuaryMarch 1988).
23. Int ernat ional. La Revelin palest ina (Int ernat ional. The Palest inian revolt ), Boletin
Informativo de Juntas Espaolas de Barcelona 6 (January 1988); Dist int as varas de
medir (Dif f erent measuring rods), Eje 20 (February 1991.
24. La Europa que surge (Emerging Europe), Eje 13 (June 1990) ): 45
25. Ideas para una Respuest a Alt ernat iva. Conf ederacon Madrilea Basist a (Ideas f or
an alt ernat ive reply. Conf ederat ion of Aut onomuos Bases of Madrid), July 1985.
26. The inf ormat ion is t aken f rom several police report s.
27. Tribuna de Europa (Oct oberNovember 1996): 5; Erik Norling, Los origenes del Est ado
de Israel (The origins of t he St at e of Israel), Tribuna de Europa (Summer 1998): 2729.
28. Art hur R. But z, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century (Torrance, Calif .: Inst it ut e f or
Hist orical Review, 1976, 1985; Spanish ed., La f bula del holocaust o, Barcelona:
CEDADE, 1987.
29. See Jos L. Rodrguez Jimnez, El revionismo en t orno a las cmaras de gas
(Revisionism about t he gas chambers) Claves de razn prctica, JanuaryFebruary
1992; idem, Int erpret aciones y ref lexiones en t orno al ext erminio de los judos por el
nazismo (Int erpret at ions and ref lect ions about t he ext erminat ion of t he Jews by t he
Nazi regime), Muga, December 1993; idem, La memoria hist rica y los campos de
concent racin nazis (Hist orical memory and t he Nazi concent rat ion camps), Sistema
130 (January 1996): 5173.
30. Ramon Bau, Nuestras ideas (Our ideas) (Barcelona: Ediciones Huguin, 1983), 5354.
31. Orientaciones 1 (MarchApril 1986).
32. Orientaciones 23 (MayAugust 1986).
33. Mundo NS 54 (December 1993), and 92 (November 1997).
34. The Jewish Problem, Mundo NS 54 (December 1993), 827.
35. Mundo NS 59 (Sept ember 1994), 324.
36. F. Snchez Drag, Gargoris y Habidis. Una historia mgica de Espaa (Barcelona:
Plat ea, 1985; 2nd. ed. 1992), 521, 546.
37. Y. Jos L. Mart nez, El mit o de la Espaa de las t res cult uras (The myt h of Spain of
t he t hree cult ures), Hesprides 12 (Wint er 1997).
38. Mundo NS 75 (February 1996); 76 (March 1996); 90 (Sept ember 1997).

Jos L. Rodrguez Jimnez was born in 1961 in Madrid. He holds a Ph.D. in
cont emporary hist ory at t he Complut ense Universit y of Madrid. He is associat e
prof essor at t he Rey Juan Carlos Universit y in Madrid. Among his books are
Reactionaries and Participants in a Coup dEtat. The Extreme Right in Spain (19671982)
(Madrid 1994); The Spanish Extreme Right during the Twentieth Century (Madrid 1997);
New Fascisms? The Extreme Right in Europe and the United States (Barcelona 1998),
along wit h numerous art icles on t he ext reme Right , Holocaust denial, and polit ical
hist ory.

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