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228. The numeral denotes an abstract number or the order of thing in succession.
In accordance with this distinction the numerals fall into two groups cardinal numerals (cardinals) and
ordinal numerals (ordinals).
Cardinals Ordinals
0 nought, zero
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
" seven
# eight
$ nine
10 ten
11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
1 si!teen
1" seventeen
1# eighteen
1$ nineteen
20 twent%
21 twent%&one, etc.
30 thirt%
40 fort%
50 fift%
0 si!t%
"0 sevent%
#0 eight%
$0 ninet%
100 one 'a( hundred
101 one 'a( hundred and one, etc.
1,000 one 'a( thousand
1,001 one 'a( thousand and one, etc.
100,000 one hundred thousand
1.0.0 one million
1.000.001 one million and one, etc.
1st first
2nd second
3rd third
4th fourth
5th fifth
th si!th
"th seventh
#th eighth
$th ninth
10th tenth
11th eleventh
12th twelfth
13th thirteenth
14th fourteenth
15th fifteenth
1th si!teenth
1"th seventeenth
1#th eighteenth
1$th nineteenth
20th twentieth
21st twent%&first, etc.
30th thirtieth
40th fortieth
50th fiftieth
0th si!tieth
"0th seventieth
#0th eightieth
$0th ninetieth
100th 'one( hundredth
101st 'one( hundred and first, etc.
1,000th 'one( thousandth
1,001st one thousand and first, etc.
100,000th 'one( hundred thousandth
1,000,000th 'one( millionth
1,000,001st 'one( million and first, etc.
Morholo!ical comosi"ion
The Cardinals
22#. )mong "he cardinals there are simle$ deri%ed$ and comound words.
*he cardinals from one to twelve, hundred, thousand, million are simple words+ those from thirteen to
nineteen are derived from the corresponding simple ones b% means of the suffi! -teen; the cardinals
denoting fens are derived from the corresponding simple ones b% means of the suffi! -ty.
,ind the difference in the spelling of the stem in three and thirteen (thirty), four and forty, five and
fifteen (fifty).
*he cardinals from twenty-one to twenty-nine, from thirty-one to thirty-nine, etc. and those over
hundred are compounds.
In cardinals consisting of tens and units the two words are h%phenated-
21 & twenty-one, 35 & thirty-five, "2 & seventy-two, etc.
In cardinals including hundreds and thousands the words denoting units and tens are .oined to those
denoting hundreds, thousands, b% means of the con.unction and:
103 & one hundred and three,
225 & two hundred and twenty-five,
303# & three thousand and thirty-eight,
$51 & nine thousand six hundred and fifty-one.
If not part of a composite numeral the words hundred, thousand and million in the singular are alwa%s
used with "he inde'ini"e ar"icle( a hundred pages, a thousand ways; in composite numerals both a and one
are possible, but one is less common+ a (one) hundred and fifty pages.
*he words for common fractions are also composite. *he% are formed from cardinals denoting the
numerator and substantivized ordinals denoting the denominator. If the numerator is a numeral higher than
one, the ordinal in the denominator ta/es the plural form. *he numerator and denominator ma% be .oined
b% means of a h%phen or without it-
103 & one-third (one third),
20" & two-sevenths (two sevenths), etc.
In mi!ed numbers the numerals denoting fractions are .oined to the numerals denoting integers 'whole
numbers( b% means of the con.unction and:
3 105 & three and one-fifth,
20 30# & twenty and three-eighths.
In decimal fractions the numerals denoting fractions are .oined to those denoting whole numbers b%
means of the words point or decimal:
0.5 & zero point (decimal) five,
2.3 & two point (decimal) three,
0,5 & zero decimal five,
0,005 & zero decimal zero zero five.
The ordinals
2)*. )mong "he ordinals there are also simple, derivative and compound words.
*he simple ordinals are first, second and third.
*he derivative ordinals are derived from the simple and derivative cardinals b% means of the suffi! +"h&
four-fourth, ten-tenth, sixteen-sixteenth, twenty-twentieth, etc.
1efore the suffi! +"h the final , is replaced b% ie&
thirty - thirtieth, etc.
,ind the difference in the spelling of the stems in the following cardinals and ordinals-
five-fifth, nine-ninth.
*he compound ordinals are formed from composite cardinals. In this case onl% the last component of the
compound numeral has the form of the ordinal-
twenty-first, forty-second, sixty-seventh, one hundred and first, etc.
Morholo!ical charac"eris"ics
2)-. 2umerals do not undergo an% morphological changes, that is, the% do not have morphological
categories. In this the% differ from nouns with numerical meaning. *hus the numerals ten '345678(,
hundred '579(, thousand '7:56;<( do no" ha%e lural 'orms&
two hundred and fifty, four thousand people, etc.,
whereas the corresponding homon%mous nouns ten '345679=(, hundred '597>6(, thousand '7:56;<( do-
to count in tens, hundreds of people, thousands of birds, etc.
.a""erns o' com/ina/ili"0
2)2. 2umerals combine mostl% with nouns and function as their attributes, usuall% as premodif%ing
attributes. If a noun has several premodif%ing attributes including a cardinal or an ordinal, these come first,
as in-
three tiny green leaves, seven iron men, the second pale little boy, etc.
*he onl% e!ception is pronoun determiners, which alwa%s begin a series of attributes-
his second beautiful wife;
these four rooms;
her three little children;
every second day, etc.
If both a cardinal and an ordinal refer to one head&noun "he ordinal comes 'irs"&
the first three tall girls, the second two grey dogs, etc.
2ouns premodified b% ordinals are used with "he de'ini"e ar"icle&
he first men in the moon, the third month, etc.
?hen used with the indefinite article, the% lose their numerical meaning and ac@uire that of a pronoun
'another, one more(, as in-
a second man entered, then a third
'A9B4C 4D4 93E> ;4C9A4=, F979G 4D4(.
Hostmodif%ing numerals combine with a limited number of nouns. Hostmodif%ing cardinals are
combinable with some nouns denoting items of certain sets of things-
pages, paragraphs, chapters, parts of boo!s, acts and scenes of plays, lessons in textboo!s,
and rooms, buses or trams (means of transport), grammatical terms, etc.+
room two hundred and three, page ten, bus four, participle one, etc.
In such cases the cardinals have a numbering meaning and thus differ semanticall% from the ordinals
which have an enumerating meaning. Inumeration indicates the order of a thing in a certain succession of
things, while numbering indicates a number constantl% attached to a thing either in a certain succession or
in a certain set of things. *hus, the first room 'enumeration( is not necessaril% room one 'numbering(, etc.
the first room " loo!ed into was room five,
the second page that he read was page twenty-three, etc.
Hostmodif%ing ordinals occur in combinations with certain proper names, mostl% those denoting the
members of well&/nown d%nasties-
#ing $enry %""" - #ing $enry the &ighth,
'eter " - 'eter the (irst, etc.
,ind the position of the article in such phrases. It is alwa%s attached to the numeral.
?hen used as substitutes numerals combine with various verbs-
" saw five of them. hey too! twenty.
)s head&words modified b% other words numerals are combinable with-
1( prepositional phrases-
the first of )ay, one of the men, two of them, etc.
2( pronouns-
every three days, all seven, each fifth, etc.
3( ad.ectives-
the best three of them, the last two wee!s, etc.
4( particles-
*ust five days ago, only two, only three boo!s, he is nearly sixty, etc.
*he numeral first ma% combine with the particle %er0&
the very first of them.
?hen the% have the function of sub.ect or predicative the numerals are combinable with lin/ verbs,
generall% the verb "o /e&
ten were present,
the first was my father
we are seven,
she is the second.
Kccasionall% the% are combinable with some other lin/ verbs-
two seemed enough, the third appeared to be wounded.
10n"ac"ic 'unc"ion
2)). *hough cardinals and ordinals have mainl% similar s%ntactic functions the% differ in certain
*he most characteristic function of both is that o' remodi'0in! a""ri/u"e&
two rooms, the third person, etc.
In this connection it must be remembered that while the ordinals are used as ordinar% attributes,
cardinals with the function of an attribute govern the number of the noun the% modif%-
one page, but two (three, etc.( pages.
No"e -&
Luite unli/e Mussian, composite cardinals ending in one 'twent%&one, thirt%&one, two hundred and one,
three hundred and twent%&one, etc.( re@uire a lural noun&
twenty-one pages, two hundred and one pages.
No"e 2&
2n numbering the items of certain sets of things cardinals, not ordinals, are used to modif% the nouns
denoting these things. *he cardinals thus used are alwa%s postmodif%ing. The nouns modi'ied do no" "a3e
an ar"icle&
page three, lesson one, room thirty-five, etc.
'In Mussian both ordinals and cardinals are possible in this case, though ordinals are preferable.
+,-., /-0.123. and /-0.123. +,-4,
56/,-., .752-802, and .752-802, 56/,-4.)
1oth cardinals and ordinals ma% have the functions of su/4ec"$ o/4ec"$ redica"i%e and ad%er/ial
modi'ier o' "ime&
hree of us went home.
I saw two of them in the forest.
*he% were seven.
Nhe got up at five today.
Oowever, in all these cases a noun is alwa%s implied, that is, the numeral functions as a substitute for
the noun either mentioned in the previous conte!t, or self&evident from the situation. *he onl% case in
which the numerals 'cardinals( can reall% have the function of sub.ect, ob.ect or predicative is when the%
are used with their purel% abstract force-
five is more than three; two plus two is four, etc.
1u/s"an"i%i5ed numerals
2)6. 2umerals can be substantivized, that is, ta/e formal nominal features- the plural suffi! -s, an
article, and the abilit% to combine with ad.ectives and some other modifiers of nouns. ?hen numerals
undergo substantivization not onl% their morpholog% is changed, but also their meaning. *hus when the
numerals hundred, thousand and million are substantivized the% ac@uire the meaning Pa great @uantit%P, as
hundreds of boo!s, thousands of people, millions of insects, etc.
Kther numerals, both cardinals and ordinals, can also be substantivized.
Cardinals are su/s"an"i%i5ed when the% name-
1( school mar/s in Mussia
($e got a two. $e got three fives)
school mar/s in Qreat 1ritain
($e got ten. $e got three nines last wee!).
2( sets of persons and things-
hey came in twos. hey followed in fours. (orm fours9
3( pla%ing cards-
the two of hearts, the five of spades, the seven of diamonds, the ten of clubs, three of trumps.
4( boats for a certain number of rowers-
a four, an eight.
5( decades-
in the early sixties, in the late fifties, etc.
*he meaning of substantivized ordinals is less affected b% substantivization and remains the same-
Oe was the first to come.
Nhe was the fourth to leave.