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How can ICT be used in

Classification scheme (Lockard)
• Computers as tools
– Common applications e.g. Word, Excel, Internet
• The computer as tutor
– CAI, interactive multimedia
– E-learning (online learning)
• The computer as learner
– Programming
– Authoring
– Web development
Classification of the use of
computers in Education (Forcier)

• Computer as a management tool

• Computers in instruction and learning

• Computers in educational research

Educational Management
• School Budgets
• Student and teacher records
• Inventory (Stock)
• Communication (parent, teachers, learners) word
processing, email
• Library – management of books, search tools
• Manage using database tools or educational
management software (SASPAC, EDUPAC,
• Security issues, access to be limited
• Regular backups, good backup procedures
Instruction and Learning
• Teacher-centred instruction
– Computer Literacy
• Awareness
• Skills (functional use)
• Drill & Practice
• Tutorial (linear vs branching)
• Games
• Multimedia, simulations, VR, etc
Computer-managed Instruction
• Record-keeping
• Diagnostic and prescriptive tests
• Test scoring and analysis
• Also: Integrated Learning systems
• Online or off-line approach
• Question Mark
Design of teaching materials
• Text
• Graphics
• Interactive multimedia design
• Authoring educational software
Student-centred learning
• The computer as an information tool
– Text
– Graphics
– Information retrieval
– Multimedia learning
• Learners use computers to construct and represent
their own knowledge using authoring tools
• Use computers for problem-solving
Educational research
• Action research
– Researching your own practice
– Keeping record of reflection, sharing
• Storing data for future retrieval
• Statistical analysis
Unit 5
How can ICT be integrated into
educational settings?
A technology plan
• Step 1: A merged vision
• Step 2: Assess the current status
• Step 3: Set goals
• Step 4: Develop activities
• Step 5: Implement the plan
• Step 6: Evaluate and revise

See additional aspects

Hardware and infrastructure
• May be supplied (e.g. by GautengOnline)
• Attempt to purchase good quality hardware with
a guarantee, never below “entry-level”
• Apart from computers, have to purchase
peripherals like printers, network equipment,
scanners, etc.
• Network cabling
• Electrical outlets
• Suitable desks and chairs
• Airconditioning
Where to place computers?
• Need to decide in one venue (computer room) or in all or
some classrooms
• Each has benefits and limitations
• Consider layout carefully (see p 78/79)
– Teacher-centred
– Learner-centred
• What about mobile computers (laptops) and mobile
projection devices?
• Implications of putting computers in classrooms:
– Teacher competence
– Internet connection
– Data projection
Educator development
• Basic skills
• Integration skills
• International Society for Technology in
Edcation (ISTE)
• ISTE standards (see p 81) and
performance standards
Learner standards
• ISTE standards for learners: (p82)
– Basic operations and concepts
– Social, ethical and human issues
– Technology productivity tools
– Technology communication tools
– Technology research tools
– Problem-solving and decision-making tools
• NRCELA (p83)
– Basic
– Critical
– Construction
Curriculum integration
• Technology must become part of daily learning
activities: integrated!
• Integration not the same as infusion!
• Integration means subject area objectives are targeted
where appropriate
• Emphasis on curriculum, not computer
• Computer is partner, not competitor
• Computers are treated in a natural way
• Integration fosters ‘invisibility’
Maintaining computer systems
• Viruses and worms
• Care and maintenance
– Neatness
– Proper software procedures (like shut down)
• Safe cabling
• No eating and drinking
• Consider ergonomics

Communication and computer

networks in education
Communication networks
• Also called telecommunications
• Allows computers to communicate with each
• Facilitates sharing of resources (e.g. printers)
• Other applications are
– Internet
• World Wide Web (WWW or Web)
• E-mail
• Conferencing systems
Basic structure of a
communications network
• Computers to send and receive data
• Communication devices to send and route
• Communications channel over which data
is sent
• Communication software to manage
transmission of data
A communications system
Transmission media
• Twisted pair cables
Transmission media
• Modems
• Modulates and demodulates between
analogue and digital signals
LAN’s and WAN’s
• A number of computer devices connected to a
server using NIC’s and cables
LAN’s and WAN’s in schools
• SA not networked to the extent that the
US or Australia is
• Schools there have LAN’s, but are also
connected to district offices
• Data and resources are easily shared
– Databases are online
– Resources (learning materials) are online
• Facilitates the use of the INTERNET
What is the INTERNET?
• Worlds largest
• Thousands of
computer devices
are connected via
telephone lines,
dedicated digital
lines or satellite
What can you do on the internet?
• Publish any information that you like
• Search for information on any topic that you can
• Access online databases
• Access educational materials
• Shop
• Bank
• Book tickets
• Share resources or information
How is data transmitted?
• Information is broken down into
• A packet contains info about
content and destination
• Routers on the network read
each packets’ destination and
send it on
• All packets may not follow same
route – packet switching – but are
re-assembled at the destination
• A comunications protocol called
TCP/IP governs transmission of
the packets
Connecting to the Internet
• Dial-up access: Using your phone line or
a ISDN line
• “Always on” lines like DSL lines
• From home connect to an ISP (modem
• ISP connects to national ISP
• National ISP will route to a national ISP
in other country via underwater cables or
• Re-routed to local ISP
• Re-routed to destination web server
• This is called the Internet back bone