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UNIVERSITY OF MALTA
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
B.ENG. (HONS.) COURSE
YEAR 1 SEMESTER II
MAY/JUNE 2008 SESSION OF EXAMINATIONS

MEC1205 Thermodynamics I 24
th
May, 2008

0915 1115 hours

This paper contains FOUR questions. You are to attempt THREE.

Stationery: Steam Tables
Use of calculators is allowed

1. Derive the expression for work for a polytrophic, non-flow process i.e.

1
1 1 2 2

=
n
v p v p
W
(10 marks)

The gases in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine have a specific internal
energy of 800kJ/kg and a specific volume of 0.06 m
3
/kg at the beginning of
expansion. The expansion of the gases may be assumed to take place according to a
reversible law, pv
1.5
= constant, from 55 bar absolute to 1.4 bar absolute. The specific
internal energy after expansion is 230 kJ/kg.

Calculate:

i. the heat rejected to the cylinder cooling water per kilogram of gases during the
expansion stroke.

ii. the work output per kilogram of gases during the expansion stroke

(20 marks)

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2. Write down the flow energy equation :

A hair dryer is basically a duct in which a few layers of electric resistors are placed.
A small fan pulls the air in and forces it through the resistors where it is heated. Air
enters a 1200 W hair dryer at 100 kPa absolute and 22
o
C and leaves at 47
o
C. The
cross sectional area of the hair dryer at the inlet and exit is 60 cm
2
. Neglecting the
power consumed by the fan and the heat losses through the walls of the hair dryer,
and neglecting changes in kinetic energy and potential energy,

Determine:

i. the mass flow rate of air ;
ii. the volume flow rate of air at the inlet;
iii. the velocity of the air at the exit.
(30marks)

3. (a) Derive the expression C =

## pv that describes the adiabatic process and

shows the importance of the ratio of specific heats .
(10 marks)

(b) When a certain perfect gas is heated at constant pressure from 15
o
C to 95
o
C, the
heat required is 1136 kJ/kg. When the same gas is heated at constant volume
between the same temperatures the heat required is 808 kJ/kg.

Calculate c
p
, c
v
, , R and the molar mass of the gas.
For 0.2kg of the gas, what is the change in internal energy between 15
o
C and
95
o
C ?

(20 marks)

4. (a) Draw a detailed sketch of a separating and throttling calorimeter.
Briefly describe how this operates. Is this process reversible or irreversible and
why?

(b) A rigid vessel of volume 1 m
3
contains steam at 20 bar absolute and 400
o
C. In a
first process, the vessel is cooled until the steam is just dry saturated. Calculate
the mass of steam in the vessel, the final pressure of the steam, and the heat
rejected during this process. If a further 1000kJ of heat are rejected by the
mass of steam in a second process while at the same pressure and temperature,
what is the resulting dryness fraction.

(30 marks)