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The course presents the philosophical and theoretical based of the helping process.
Emphasis placed on understanding the major counseling theories, basic helping skills,
and applications to diverse populations. Techniques and methods from each counseling
perspective will be demonstrated and practiced under faculty supervision. A major focus
is on the application of the theories and methods of individual, group, and family
counseling in schools and mental health settings. Also includes professional, ethical, and
legal issues related specifically to the counseling and guidance process.


Following is a listing of each course competency along with specific guidelines to assist
students in meeting each competency. Completion of the course requires a minimum
mastery of all of the competencies. Students are expected to use a number of
methodologies in meeting the competencies. For example, reading the texts, researching
additional sources, interviewing persons working in relevant areas, conducting field
research, participating in simulated and/or real skills building exercises are all appropriate
ways of insuring that one is ready to complete the course. Some students will find that
reading the text, listening in class, and participating in class work will be sufficient to
meet the competencies. Other students may find that a personalized study program is
beneficial. For either strategy the Extended Guideline can guide the student in
considering the overall organization of the course.


1. Understanding the influence of biographical backgrounds of major counseling

Examine the early life history and significant early life experiences of the following
Sigmund Freud
Alfred Adler
Carl Jung
Victor Frankl
Rollo May
Carl Rogers
Frederick Fritz Perls
B.F. Skinner
Albert Bandura
Aaron Beck
Arnold Lazarus
William Glasser
Eric Berne

2. Synthesizing the contributions of each major counseling theory.

For each major counseling theory be prepared to:
Discuss the overall contributions of each theory to the field of counseling.
Describe the theoretical constructs of each theory.
Discuss the contributions of the techniques and methods associated with
each theory.
Identify the significant contributions to multicultural counseling.

The major counseling theories include:
Psychoanalytic theory
Behavior theory
Adlerian theory
Analytic theory
Existential theory
Person-centered theory
Family systems theory
Rational-emotive behavior theory
Cognitive theory
Reality/control/choice theory
Multicultural theory
Gestalt theory
Transactional analysis theory

3. Comprehending the goals of therapy as postulated by each major theorists.

For each of the major counseling theories be prepared to discuss:
The counseling process
Therapeutic goals
The therapists function and role
The clients experience in therapy

4. Evaluating the nature of behavior and behavior change from each model

For each of the major counseling theories be prepared to describe the:
Major assumptions of how personality develops
Influence of heredity and environmental factors on behavior
Impact of biological, emotional, and social factors on behavior
Effects of past and present experiences on behavior
Process of modifying behavior from each model

5. Interpreting and evaluating the roles of client and therapist in each counseling

For each model of therapy be prepared to:
Describe the nature of the counseling process
Discuss whether or not the therapy process is a cooperative venture
Explain whether the therapy is directive or non-directive
Describe the clients experience in therapy
Discuss the therapists function and role

6. Contrasting the concepts of mental health and mental illness as described by each

For each major counseling theory be prepared to discuss:
The concepts of neurosis and psychosis from each theory
How people develop mental illnesses
How each theorist view and treat mentally ill clients
What factors (biological, social, etc.) contribute to mental illness

7. Understanding the views of human nature from each counseling perspective.

For each major counseling theory be prepared to discuss:
Free Will/Determinism: Do we consciously direct our own actions, or are
they governed by other forces?
Nature/Nurture: Are we influenced more by heredity (nature) or by our
Environment (nurture)?
Past/Present: Is our personality fixed by early events in our lives, or can
it be affected by experiences in adulthood?
Uniqueness/Universality: Is the personality of each human unique, or are
there broad personality patterns that fit large numbers of persons?
Equilibrium/Growth: Are we motivated simply to maintain a
physiological balance or state of equilibrium, or does the urge to grow and
develop and shape our behavior?
Optimism/Pessimism: Are we basically good or evil?

8. Assessing the relationship between therapist and client in each counseling theory.

For each major counseling theory be prepared to discuss:
The counseling process
The role and expectations of the client
The role and expectations of the therapist
The responsibilities of client and therapist
Whether the client-therapist relationship is collaborative or didactic

9. Demonstrating techniques and methods from each counseling perspective.

For each major counseling theory be prepared to discuss and demonstrate:
Strategies and techniques for helping clients
Basic listening skills
The role of assessment
The areas pf application (individual, groups, families, etc.)
Assessment tools and techniques

10. Examining the multicultural aspects of each counseling method

For each major counseling theory be prepared to discuss:
Applications with diverse populations
Contributions to multicultural counseling
Limitations for multicultural counseling

Define the following terms associated with multicultural counseling.
Cultural racism
Individual racism
Institutional racism
Melting pot
Cultural pluralism

11. Comparing and contrasting various therapeutic approaches to a given case

For each counseling theory be prepared to describe the following:
Therapeutic implications for each counseling theory
The primary goals of each model of therapy
The major therapeutic techniques and procedures associated with each
The specific strategies for helping clients in each counseling theory
The relationship between therapist and client in each model of therapy

12. Analyzing how each theory presented might be used to direct or redirect
personal growth.

For each major counseling theory be prepared to discuss:
How you view your own personality development from each counseling
What aspect of each counseling theory has influenced your personal
How the fundamental tenets of each counseling theory relate to your own
personal development?
Do you consciously direct your own actions, or are they governed by other
forces beyond your control?
Is your personal growth influenced more by heredity or by the
Are you motivated to maintain a physiological balance, or does the urge
grow and develop shape your behavior and growth process?

13. Recognizing how each theory described could be used to explain the students
current life experiences.

For each major counseling theory be prepared to discuss:
Some everyday situations that involve the assessment of your personality
How each counseling theory explains your current life style
Whether your current life style was fixed by early life events, or can it be
affected by current life experiences
The influence of biological, psychological, and social factors on your
current style of life

14. Examining the ethical and moral implications of each theory.

For each major counseling theory be prepared to discuss:
The counseling relationship
Respecting the welfare of the client
Respecting diversity
Clients rights to be informed about the nature of the counseling process
Counselors stance on dual and multiple relationships
Respect for the clients right to confidentiality
Termination and referral process

15. Synthesizing research findings about the effectiveness of therapy approaches
from each counseling theory.

For each major counseling theory be prepared to discuss:
Research methods for determining effective therapeutic outcomes
Testing and assessment methods for examining the effectiveness of each
counseling approach
Formal and informal assessment instruments associated with each theory
Objective personality assessments used in each counseling method
Subjective methods of evaluating therapeutic outcomes
Quantitative and qualitative research associated with each counseling

16. Understanding the impact of environmental influences on learners
development and achievement and facilitating learners development
of strategies that help them cope with situations that may hinder learning.

The school counselor is aware of the following factors that have significant effects
on learners personal growth and success in school:
A wide range of social factors
A wide range of cultural factors
A wide range of language factors
A wide range of economic factors in the home, the community, and the

Define the following terms as they relate to the school environment:
Aptitude test
At risk students
Behavior disorder
Behavior objective
Bilingual education
Classroom management
Cooperative learning
Criterion referenced test
Diagnostic test
Learning disability
Standardized test

Identify, in broad terms, contributions to the school setting, and to school counseling
in particular, from the following developmental theorists:
Jean Piaget
Eric Erikson
Robert Havinghurst
Abraham Maslow
Lawrence Kohlberg

17. Applying the theories and methods of individual, group, and family counseling
in school and mental health settings.

Review and comprehend the theories and techniques associated with the following:
Psychoanalytic theory
Adlerian theory
Analytic theory
Existential theory
Person-centered theory
Transactional analysis theory
Rational-emotive theory
Cognitive theory
Gestalt theory
Reality/control/choice theory

Review and comprehend the following theoretical framework for group counseling:
Psychodynamic group work
Robert Carkhuffs systematic helping model
Carl Rogers and client centered group counseling
Irvin Yalom and eclectic application of psychoanalysis
Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis
Frederick Fritz Perls and gestalt work
Rational emotive group work
Behavioral group counseling
Systems theory and group work
Existential group therapy

Review and comprehend theories and techniques associated with family systems
Psychoanalysis and family dynamics (Ackerman)
Objects relations theory (Framo)
Open-systems, group analytic approach (Skynner)
Contextual therapy (Boszormenyi-Nagy)
Experiential/humanistic approaches to theory and practice (Satir, Whitaker)
Bowens approach to theory and practice (Bowen)
The Structural approach to theory and practice (Minuchin)
The Communication/strategic approaches (Haley, M. Erickson, Madanes)
The Milan school (Palazzoli)
Cognitive-behavioral models (Patterson)

18. Describing and analyzing the ethical, professional, and legal issues in counseling
and guidance in school and mental health settings.

Review and comprehend the Code of Ethics associated with professional counseling:
The American Counseling Association (ACA)
The Texas Counseling Association (TCA)
The American School Counseling Association (ASCA)
The Texas School Counseling Association (TSCA)
Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational
Programs (CACREP)
The National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC)
The American Psychological Association (APA)
The National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
The American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT)
LPC Code of Ethics (State of Texas)

Professional Issues
Regulating professional practice
Peer review and managed care
Legal liability

Maintaining Ethical Standards
Professional code of ethics
Values, ethical dilemmas, and individual, group, and family practice
Informed consent
Privileged communication
Therapeutic power and responsibility
Training and supervision
Ethical problem areas for counselors
Reporting ethical violations
Malpractice issues

19. Illustrating the influence of each theory on the field of counseling.

For each major counseling theory be prepared to discuss:
The history and development of each model of therapy
The fundamental tenets of each counseling theory
How personality develops according to each counseling approach
The nature of maladjustment in each model of therapy
Major concepts and terminology associated with each counseling theory
The counseling process in each counseling model
Strategies for helping clients in each theory
Contributions of each theory to the field of counseling
Shortcomings of each counseling method
Each counseling method from a multicultural perspective

Review and comprehend the key terms associated with each theory
Psychoanalytic theory
Defense mechanisms
Free association
Reaction formation
Life instinct
Oedipus complex
Electra complex
Anal stage
Oral stage
Phallic stage
Genital stage
Latency period

Key terms associated with Adlerian therapy
Basic mistakes
Early recollections
Style of life
Fictional goals
Social interest
Life tasks
Inferiority complex
Superiority complex
Inferior feelings
Family constellation
Dream analysis
Birth order
Striving for superiority

Key terms associated with Existential therapy
Freedom and responsibility
Search for meaning
Death and nonbeing
Striving for identity
Existential guild
Capacity for self-awareness
Restricted existence

Key terms associated with Analytic theory
Personal unconscious
Collective unconscious

Key terms associated with Person-centered counseling
Accurate empathic understanding
Self-actualizing tendency
Unconditional positive regard
Positive regard
Positive self-regard
Self-actualizing tendency
Unconditional positive regard
Conditions of worth
Fully functioning person

Key terms associated with Gestalt therapy
Boundary disturbances
Unfinished business
Environmental contact
Top dog/underdog

Key terms associated with Transactional analysis (TA)
Ego states
Life position
Script formation
Parent, adult, and child ego states
Drama triangle

Key terms associated with Behavior therapy
Contingency contracting
Multimodal therapy
Basic ID
Negative reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Role play
Assertion training
Token economies
Aversion therapy

Key terms associated with Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
ABC theory
Rational thinking
Irrational thinking
Self-actualizing behavior

Key terms associated with Cognitive therapy
Cognitive restructuring
Mental and emotive imagery
Cognitive modeling
Stress inoculation
Neurolinguistic programming
Systematic desensitization
Relaxation training and relaxation therapy
Thought stopping

Key terms associated with Reality Therapy
Control theory
Choice theory
Need fulfillment
Success identity
Failure identity
Total behavior

20. Planning, developing, designing, implementing, and evaluating a counseling and
guidance program.

Roles, Functions and competencies of school counselors
Program Management
Plan, implement, and evaluate a developmental program of guidance,
including counseling services.
Supervise activities of clerical, paraprofessional, and volunteer personnel.
Teach the school developmental guidance curriculum.
Assist teachers in the teaching of guidance related curriculum
Guide individuals and groups of students through the development of
educational, career, and personal plans.
Counsel individual students with their concerns
Counsel small groups of students with their concerns
Use accepted theories and techniques appropriate to school counseling.
Consult with parents, teachers, administrators, and other relevant individuals
to enhance their work with students
Coordinate with school and community personnel to bring together resources
for students.
Use an effective referral process for assisting students and others to use
special programs and services
Participate in the planning and evaluation of the district/campus group
standardized testing program.
Interpret test and other appraisal results appropriately.
Use other sources of student data appropriately for assessment purposes.
Adheres to ethical and legal standards
Adheres to professional standards
Adheres to district standards

A process for Implementing a Developmental Guidance and Counseling Program
Commit to action.
Identify leadership for the program improvement efforts
Adopt the developmental guidance and counseling program model and the
program development process to be used.
Assess the current program.
Establish the desired program design.
Publish the program framework.
Plan the transition to the desired program.
Develop and implement a master plan for changed implementation
Make program improvements.
Make appropriate use of the school counselors competencies
Evaluate the developmental guidance and counseling program

Review the following reference sources related to school counseling:
Texas Education Agency. (1977). The comprehensive guidance program for
Texas public schools: A guide for program development, pre-K-12

Grade (3
ed.). Austin, TX.

Texas Counseling Association. (1992). Texas evaluation model for
Professional school counselors (TEMPSC). Austin, TX

Practice Exam
1. The importance of a persons position in the family constellation was emphasized
By which of the following?
a. Frankl
b. Adler
c. Ellis
d. Glasser
2. One of the principles upon which Perls based his theory of Gestalt Therapy is
a. provide reinforcement for behavior change
b. explore the clients past to uncover negative childhood experiences
c. treat the client with unconditional positive regard
d. explore the clients problems in the here and now

3. Ellis has defined neurosis as:
a. the result of faulty learning
b. an excuse for irresponsible behavior
c. irrational thinking and behaving
d. self-defeating thoughts and feelings

4. Regarding Freudian therapy, which of the following techniques does not apply?
a. free association
b. analysis of dreams
c. interpretation
d. expression of polarities

5. The counselor in client-centered therapy
a. places a great emphasis on interpretation
b. gives the client homework in which the client is required to carry out
c. provides advice in an attempt to restructure the clients cognitions
d. allows the client to direct the therapy process

6. A school counselor who is alerting faculty to signs of child abuse should include
which of the following indicators?
a. inability to focus on classroom activities
b. reluctance to express ones thoughts and feelings
c. insensitivity to the reactions of adults
d. both a and b

7. A counselor is helping a first grader, Brain, deal with the death of a family
member. It is especially important for the school counselor to:
a. provide Brian with the vocabulary needed for labeling and expressing
his feelings
b. reassure Brain that he will not always feel as sad as he does now
c. describe the counselors personal experience of losing a loved one
d. accompany Brain to his classroom to explain the situation to his