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The Cisco Connected Grid Field Area Network (FAN)
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(DA), and protection and control applications over a
single, intelligent, and highly secure network platform
based on open standards.
To learn more about our Award winning solutions visit us at
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The Cisco Connected Grid Field A
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Metering Infrastructure (AMI), Dis
(DA), and protection and control a
single, intelligent, and highly secu
based on open standards.
CisSys_PG_1401 1 12/30/13 4:07 PM
YOUR POWER DELIVERY MEDIA SOURCE
T H E O F F I C I A L P U B L I C A T I O N O F
Projects
of the Year
14 Home Energy
Management Standards
18 Wind Turbines and
Communications
27 The Big Data-Predictive
Maintenance Relationship
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1404PG_C1 1 4/7/14 11:06 AM
EÌectric Power
Transporlalion
lnduslrial Aulomalion
Information
backbone for
aÌÌ industries
Rugged communications
for the electric power grid
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
1404PG_C2 2 4/7/14 11:06 AM
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1404PG_1 1 4/7/14 11:01 AM
EDITOR IN CHIEF
Teresa Hansen
918.831.9504 teresah@pennwell.com
SENIOR EDITOR
Kristen Wright
918.831.9177 kristenw@pennwell.com
ONLINE/ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Jeff Postelwait
918.831.9114 jeffp@pennwell.com
GRAPHIC DESIGNER
Deanna Taylor
918.832.9378 deannat@pennwell.com
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
TransmissionHub Chief Analyst Rosy Lum
Senior Analyst Corina Rivera-Linares
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATOR
Angie O’Dea
918.831.9431 angieo@pennwell.com
VICE PRESIDENT-AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT
& MARKETING
June Griffin
AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT MANAGER
Linda Thomas
918.832.9254 lindat@pennwell.com
SUBSCRIBER SERVICE
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phone 847.763.9540
pgrid@halldata.com
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, NORTH AMERICAN
POWER GENERATION GROUP
Richard Baker
918.831.9187 richardb@pennwell.com
PENNWELL CORP. IN EUROPE
PennWell International Limited
The Water Tower, Gunpowder Mill
Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN, United Kingdom
phone +44.1992.656600
fax +44.1992.656700
pennwelluk@pennwell.com
CHAIRMAN
Frank Lauinger
PRESIDENT/CEO
Robert F. Biolchini
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, FINANCE
& ADMINISTRATION (CFO)
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PO Box 1260, Tulsa OK 74101
Phone 918.835.3161 Fax 918.831.9834
pgi@pennwell.com
http://pennwell.com
POWERGRID International is the
official publication of
2 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
EDITOR IN CHIEF
TERESA HANSEN
FROM THE EDITOR
Wellinghoff’s Words on
Substation Attack Shock Some;
no Secret to Utility Industry
A Wall Street Journal article has catapulted utilities’ physical security into
the limelight and created a stir on Capitol Hill.
In the article by Rebecca Smith, Former Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission (FERC) Chairman Jon Wellinghoff called the sniper attack on
Pacific Gas and Electric Co.’s Metcalf substation “the most significant inci-
dent of domestic terrorism involving the grid the country has ever seen.”
Seventeen transformers and six circuit breakers were damaged by bullets
similar to those fired by an AK-47, causing $15.4 million in damage.
According to the article called “U.S. Risks National Blackout From Small-
scale Attack,” FERC research indicates that destroying only nine key trans-
formers of the nations’ more than 55,000 could take down the entire grid
for weeks or even months.
Wellinghoff’s contribution to the article didn’t go unnoticed by some
on Capitol Hill. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Chairwoman Mary
Landrieu (D-La.) and Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska) sent a letter asking
the Department of Energy’s Office of Inspector General to investigate who
leaked “highly sensitive, narrowly distributed FERC documents” about grid
security to the Wall Street Journal. In addition, Murkowski on March 27
called Wellinghoff’s statements “sensational” from the Senate floor.
Wellinghoff, in an interview published the next day with Politico
Morning Energy, said information shared with the Wall Street Journal was
not classified but came from a FERC grid security study that he and FERC
Infrastructure Security Chief Joe McClelland shared with hundreds of utility,
administration and Capitol Hill folks last year. He said much of the infor-
mation had been in literature for years, and the study simply confirmed it.
In addition, Morning Energy reported Wellinghoff said he is unsure
whether nine is an accurate number; it could be eight or 15. The point is
not the exact number, he said, but that the number is small. He stressed the
point in the Wall Street Journal, as well.
“There are probably less than 100 critical high-voltage substations on our
grid in this country that need to be protected from a physical attack,” the
Wall Street Journal quoted Wellinghoff.
Maybe this new attention from politicians will create more challenges,
or maybe it will convince regulators that grid owners and operators need
adequate funding for grid protection.
While Capitol Hill folks argue about who said what and what is “highly
sensitive,” utilities will keep working to meet security challenges, as well as
other challenges that can interrupt the flow of electrons.
1404PG_2 2 4/7/14 2:09 PM
There are some jobs you don’t want to do alone. Upgrading your Utility’s
communication network is one of them. Fortunately, Tait Communications is
here to help.
At Tait Communications, we pride ourselves on partnering with utility
organizations to unify their critical communications and deliver game changing
business outcomes.
We’ve been building industry leading
wireless communications for 45 years.
Our services team will work alongside
you to design, deploy and manage
innovative voice and data solutions
that help you lower CAIDI and SAIDI,
save energy, and improve your
worker safety.
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1404PG_3 3 4/7/14 11:01 AM
PowerGrid International™: ISSN 1547-6723,
is published 12 times per year (January,
February, March, April, May, June, July, August,
September, October, November and December)
by PennWell Corp., 1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa
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2014 by PennWell Corp. (Registered in U.S.
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Authorization to photocopy items for internal
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4 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
APRIL 2014 VOLUME 19.04
24
POWERGRID
International
Projects of the Year
Senior Editor Kristen Wright shares details
of the four winning projects announced live
from DistribuTECH in San Antonio.
14 Consumers and Home
Energy Management
John McDonald, of IEEE and GE Digital
Energy, writes that as standards emerge, it’s
no longer “if” but “when” and “how.”
18 Wind Turbines Have
Evolved; Make Sure Your
Communications do Too
Jim Toepper of Moxa writes that factors
beyond wind turbines can help save
tremendous amounts of money when
installing or retrofitting wind farms.
27 Big Data Creates Predictive
Maintenance Opportunities
InStep Software’s Jim Chappell details the benefits of
comprehensive maintenance plans with more proactive
and efficient strategies.
30 Benefits of Combining Utility IT and OT
Author Rick Geiger of Cisco Systems Inc. gives tips to break down
those silos and build common ground.
35 Utility Cellular Communications Come
of Age in the Distribution Network
Erik T. Christian of Tollgrade Communications explains that by
using today’s ubiquitous cellular networks as the communications
layer for grid modernization, automating the distribution network
can be an affordable reality for the first time.
39 Products
40 Calendar/Ad Index
From the Editor 2
Notes 6
1404PG_4 4 4/7/14 11:01 AM
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
1404PG_5 5 4/7/14 11:01 AM
NOTES
6 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
PG&E COMPLETES MULTIYEAR ELECTRIC RELIABILITY EFFORT,
DELIVERS LONG-TERM CUSTOMER BENEFITS
interconnectivity. Technicians
replaced and upgraded substation
equipment to improve operational
flexibility and added circuit capacity
to maintain or restore service when
electricity needs to be rerouted in the
event of an outage. These upgrades
also had the benefit of handling an
increase in demand during heavy
loading conditions, such as hot sum-
mer days.
PG&E continues to make prog-
ress in safely delivering reliable ser-
vice throughout northern and central
California. In 2013, not only did custom-
ers experience the fewest service interrup-
tions in company history, but the average
length of an outage for a PG&E customer
fell to an all-time low. Customers have seen
a 40 percent improvement in the average
duration of a service disruption and a 27
percent improvement in the number of
customer interruptions since 2006. The
Cornerstone Program was a key compo-
nent in this performance.
The company is focused on continuous
improvement to ensure customers receive
the safest, most reliable and affordable ser-
vice possible. In its 2014 rate case, PG&E
applied to carry on these successful reli-
ability improvement programs on behalf of
all its customers.
Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG&E)
recently announced the completion of
its Cornerstone Project, an initiative that
helped the utility achieve record electric
reliability delivered to its customers in
2013.
The multiyear effort was created to
improve electric service for customers
by focusing on reducing the frequen-
cy and duration of customer outages.
“The technology and the upgrades
we have invested in allow us to
deliver the safe, reliable and afford-
able service our customers expect and
deserve,” said Patrick Hogan, vice presi-
dent of asset management, electric epera-
tions for PG&E. “While we are proud
of the reliability improvements that the
Cornerstone Program achieved, we won’t
stop working to improve service for all our
customers.”
In 2010, PG&E was authorized by the
California Public Utilities Commission to
invest $357 million to improve electric
distribution system reliability through
a three-year program that leveraged
existing infrastructure to minimize costs
and fully realize reliability benefits for
customers. The program contributed to
improved electrical service by focusing
on three areas:
t Installing intelligent switches on
more than 500 electrical circuits.
Through December 2013, more than
230,000 customer interruptions have
been avoided by using this smart grid
technology. In the event of an outage,
instead of waiting for a crew to arrive
on scene to restore circuits manually,
the new devices do it automatically,
often within minutes. Utility work-
ers installed automated intelligent
switches on nearly 400 circuits in
2013. In total, more than 500 circuits
have been enabled with this advanced
self-healing technology.
t Upgrading rural circuits. PG&E
installed more than 5,000 sets of fuses
and 500 line reclosers on more than
440 of the worst-performing rural
circuits to isolate service interruptions
and minimize their impact on cus-
tomers. The installation of this equip-
ment has resulted in a 33 percent
reduction in the number of custom-
ers’ experiencing sustained outages
from 2010 performance levels.
t Enhancing substations and circuit
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GE LANDS MULTIPLE SERIES COMPENSATION JOBS
support). Beta Engineering will provide the
construction and overall site management
for the job. The primary application of the
series compensation system is to provide
compensation between SDG&E’s new
ECO substation and its existing Miguel
substation. The job is expected to be
commissioned in 12 months (August
2013-August 2014).
The Flexible AC Transmission System
(FACTS) product line from GE’s Digital
Energy business has won several key
customer orders in the second half of
2013.
During the next 12 to 18 months, GE
will be working with the following utilities
from around the world to install and
commission series compensation systems,
providing each with more reliable and
efficient power.
Beta Engineering California LP for
San Diego Gas & Electric’s (SDG&E’s)
East County (ECO) Substation Project.
GE’s scope of work for the project includes
a 500-kV, 449-MVAr gapless series bank
on an engineered equipment package
(EEP) basis (including commissioning
1404PG_6 6 4/7/14 11:01 AM
FIELD
SERVICES
TRAINING
SYSTEM
PROTECTION
DATABASE
PROTECTIVE
RELAY TESTING
SOFTWARE
Keeping you connected and compliant
with mission-critical software and services
Visit www.enoserv.com/PG
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
©

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substation during the next four years.
Key milestones for each bank upgrade
are drawing approvals, factory customer
witness testing, delivery of equipment,
installation of equipment, training and
final drawings and instruction books.
Florida Keys Cooperative. GE’s scope
will include a 138-kV, 56-MVAr gapless
series bank on an EEP basis (also including
commissioning support). The bank will be
installed in the Islamorada substation near
the coast. The challenges of wind speeds
and environmental conditions were key
customer requirements, which GE’s design
was able to meet. In addition, GE was
able to meet the aggressive schedule of
commissioning the bank in less than 12
months. UC Synergetic, a wholly owned
subsidiary of Pike Corp., is the prime
contractor for the project.
Energía Argentina Sociedad Anónima
(ENARSA). GE will be working with Isolux-
Cartellone its engineering, procurement
and construction (EPC) partner in Buenos
Aires, Argentina, at the Puerto Madryn
substation. It will provide engineering,
project management and series capacitor
equipment for a 500-kV, 378-MVAr series
compensation system. Plans are to deliver
equipment for the project before the end
of 2014.
NorthWestern Energy, Montana.
The scope of GE’s work on the project
includes EPC of a 230-kV, 117-MVAr
gapless series bank. In addition, GE will
provide factory testing and installation of
the series bank. The system will be used to
increase the power flow on the Mill Creek-
Peterson transmission line when the series
capacitors are inserted, thereby increasing
the overall transfer capability of the line.
The project is expected to be in service by
October.
Western Area Power Administration
(WAPA). GE will upgrade four, dual-
segmented banks for WAPA during
the next four years starting with the
Maxwell substation in 2014 followed by
the Olinda North and South substations
and finishing with the Tracy substation
in 2017. An upgrade to bank platforms
and ground controls is planned for each
1404PG_7 7 4/7/14 11:01 AM
NOTES
8 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
SCE TO THROW CAPITAL WEIGHT BEHIND DISTRIBUTION INVESTMENTS
BY ROSY LUM, TRANSMISSIONHUB
growth for the foreseeable future.”
SCE has forecast a rate base of $27 bil-
lion to $29 billion by 2017 and a growth
rate of 7 to 9 percent annually through this
period.
In its 2015 gen-
eral rate case, SCE
requested authority to
spend $15.58 billion
on California Public
Utilities Commission
(CPUC)-jurisdictional
projects during 2013-
2017.
“A major focus in 2014 is
to ensure we invest capital dol-
lars authorized by the California
PUC for infrastructure replace-
ment and reliability projects,” Scilacci said.
SCE in the general rate case also request-
ed to set base a revenue requirement of
$6.46 billion effective Jan. 1, 2015. The
request represents a 3.3 percent increase
over authorized 2014 levels, the company
said in the filing. The company also fore-
cast revenue requirement adjustments of
$318 million for 2016 and $317 million
for 2017.
The general rate case proceeding is in
the early procedural stages, but the com-
pany expects evidentiary hearings to be
scheduled for this summer, Craver said.
The CPUC has yet to establish a schedule.
For 2013, SCE capital spending was
$300 million below the projected esti-
mate of $3.5 billion, primarily because of
transmission delays and lower costs on
two completed renewable transmission
projects, as well as delayed infrastructure
replacement spending, Scilacci said.
Rosy Lum is chief analyst of TransmissionHub. Reach
her at rosyl@pennwell.com or 347-799-2802.
Southern California Edison (SCE)
has a capital expenditure (Capex) fore-
cast of $15.1 billion to $17.2 billion for
2014-2017.
Most of that capital spend will be
on distribution system projects as the
company’s transmission projects wind
down, said Jim Scilacci, chief financial
officer of Edison International, during
the company’s 4Q13 earnings confer-
ence call Feb. 25. Edison International
is the parent company of SCE.
Edison International CEO Ted Craver
also was on the call.
“SCE continues to target high levels of
infrastructure replacement and reliability
investments while meeting public policy
requirements,” Craver said.
SCE is estimated to spend $4.1 billion,
$4.5 billion, $4.4 billion and $4.2 billion
in 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, respective-
ly, on distribution, transmission and gener-
ation investments. Generation investments
by far constitute the smallest portion of the
Capex program, with transmission invest-
ments’ constituting a modest portion and
distribution investments’ constituting most
of the capital spend.
Transmission investments included in
the 2014-2017 period include ongoing
project costs, including updated trans-
mission cost estimates for the Tehachapi
project, Scilacci said.
“We still have more work to do in terms
of Tehachapi cost approvals,” Scilacci
said.
The company plans to submit revised
costs by the end of the year to reflect
Chino Hills and Federal Aviation
Administration cost increases the project
has experienced, he said. Cost recovery
lies with the Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission (FERC), he said.
For the Devers to Colorado River
transmission project, SCE in November
2012 submitted an advice letter to
the Colorado Public Utilities
Commission to raise the
cost cap for the proj-
ect from $545.3 million
in 2006 dollars to $840
million in 2012 dollars.
“We now feel that proj-
ect will come within that
cost cap, and that positions
that well for ultimate cost recov-
ery at FERC,” Scilacci said.
The 2014-2017 Capex forecast
neither includes spending for stor-
age projects to address reliability issues
raised by the outage of the San Onofre
Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS)
nor transmission projects included in
the California Independent System
Operator’s (California ISO’s) resource
plan, Scilacci said.
“Potential expenditures for projects like
these are currently under consideration,”
Scilacci said.
The California ISO in its 2013-2014
transmission plan recommends two proj-
ects for SCE, representing $712 million of
investment.
SCE in its 2015 general rate case filed
in November 2013 requested approval
of a “significant increase” in infrastructure
replacement spend for the 2015-2017 rate
cycle, Craver said.
“This investment is primarily aimed at
our distribution system,” he said. “The
rate case application also forecast a need
for sustained investment at these levels out
through 2020 and beyond. Therefore, we
continue to anticipate significant rate base
©

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1404PG_8 8 4/7/14 11:01 AM
April 2014 | 9
www.power-grid.com
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
Cost Effective Easy to Install
For more information, call 1-877-848-9682
1800 Shames Drive, Westbury, NY 11590 electroind.com
Automation begins
with Power Meters
The Heart of Any Automation Solution
SHARK 2OO
eagles, along with other protected
birds, for nearly three decades. In
2013 as part of FPL’s installation of
new, more storm-resilient power lines
in Manatee County, the company pre-
served nests and provided addition-
al nesting options for the threatened
Southeastern American Kestrel. The
company also provides nesting plat-
forms for osprey to avoid their nests’
being built on power line structures,
which could affect customers’ electric
service.
The company’s avian protection plan
provides employees with an overview
for protecting birds that is consistent
with industry and federal guidelines.
FPL WELCOMES HATCHLING AT FIRST BALD EAGLE NESTING SITE
Florida Power & Light Co. (FPL)
announced that a bald eagle has hatched
atop the first nesting platform the com-
pany constructed for the iconic bird.
FPL built an independent pole and
platform southwest of Daytona Beach
in Volusia County after a bald eagle nest
was identified on one of the company’s
transmission structures.
FPL, with permits from the Florida
Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission (FWC) and the U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service, relocated the bald
eagle nest to the new 70-foot high plat-
form during fall 2013. Within 45 days
of the nest’s transfer to the platform, a
pair of eagles made their new home in
the nest. The original location of the
nest posed a safety hazard to the eagles
and needed to be removed, but viable
nesting trees were not present in the
immediate area.
“At FPL, we take seriously our com-
mitment to environmental steward-
ship,” said Randall LaBauve, vice presi-
dent for environmental services at FPL.
“We strive to provide our customers
with the most reliable electric service
at the lowest cost, while balancing the
need to maintain Florida’s special eco-
system and protected wildlife that live
throughout our service area.”
STATE BALD EAGLE POPULATION
ON THE RISE
Fewer than 100 nesting sites existed
in Florida when the bald eagle popula-
tion was first surveyed in 1973, accord-
ing to the FWC. More than 1,450 nests
were documented during the 2012 FWC
annual statewide survey of known eagle
territories. Florida has one of the densest
concentrations of nesting eagles in the
lower 48 states and has more nests than
any state other than Alaska and Minnesota,
according to the FWC.
Currently, more than 900 nests exist
in the counties served by FPL.
“We appreciate FPL’s efforts to dis-
courage eagles and other large birds
from nesting on high-volt-
age utility structures, and
provide safe, alternative
nesting platforms where
it is appropriate,” said
Michelle van Deventer,
FWC bald eagle plan coor-
dinator.
COMPANY IS
STEADFAST IN
COMMITMENT TO
ENVIRONMENTAL
STEWARDSHIP
FPL has been a leader
in the protection of bald
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NOTES
10 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
ONCOR’S ADVANCED GRID PROJECT BOOSTS
OVERHEAD POWER LINE CAPACITY
conclusions and break-
throughs:
t Increased line capacity. DLR provided
up to 14 percent additional capac-
ity above the ambient temperature-
adjusted ratings. The incremental
capacity was available from 83.5 to
90.5 percent of the time.
t Reduced congestion. The project
found that 5 percent additional capac-
ity could relieve congestion by up
to 60 percent on the target lines
with DLR installed, and 10 percent
additional capacity practically would
eliminate all congestion on the target
lines. Congestion on the Oncor trans-
mission lines in 2011 and 2012 cost
more than $148 million and $197
million respectively.
t Market integration. The integrated
DLR (iDLR) system at Oncor feeds
real-time conductor ratings to the
Electric Reliability Council of Texas
(ERCOT), the market operator, which
then incorporates the additional
capacity into its Security Constrained
Economic Dispatch process. With
zero operator intervention, DLR
capacity is used to increase market
efficiency.
t Transmission planning. By providing
additional capacity on transmission
lines where a full upgrade cannot yet
be justified, DLR can be used in the
planning process to enable a least-
regrets capital strategy.
t Best practices. The project authors
have developed a guide to assist other
transmission owners who are consid-
ering DLR technology for their own
systems.
The report is available for download
at www.smartgrid.gov/sites/default/files/
FTR_Final_Oncor_DE-OE0000320.pdf.
The final report has just been published
on the Department of Energy (DOE)-
funded project in central Texas that
focused on the use of dynamic line rating
(DLR) to provide real-time information on
conductor temperature. System operators
then use that information to make fully
informed decisions on how hard they can
drive their overhead power lines.
Oncor, a transmission and distri-
bution utility, successfully completed a
DOE Smart Grid Demonstration Program
(SGDP) that shows the real-time informa-
tion provided by Nexans’ DLR technology
can increase the power-carrying capacity
of existing overhead line assets and reduce
congestion.
For the core component of the SGDP,
Oncor installed the DLR technology on
eight 138-kV to 345-kV transmission cir-
cuits in central Texas, where it enabled
power capacity to be increased by up to 14
percent. Oncor continually looks for new
technology that will bring added value to
the Texas market, which is what DLR does.
This will help Oncor continue to deliver
reliable service to all of its customers and
continue to drive the economic growth in
the Oncor service territory.
“Technologies like DLR give trans-
mission owners like Oncor significantly
increased visibility and flexibility to oper-
ate more reliably and efficiently,” said Tip
Goodwin, DLR project manager at Oncor.
“That’s important not only for our resi-
dential customers, but also for the more
than 400 communities we serve who are
looking to grow existing businesses and
attract new businesses. While electricity
infrastructure may not receive the head-
lines that tax incentives do, economic and
reliable electricity is at the top of the list of
priorities for businesses.”
The Nexans DLR technology employs
an algorithm that transforms real-
time sensor data into a conductor
temperature and calculates the maximum
current capacity—the DLR—which main-
tains the overhead line sag within safe
clearance limits. The DLR is updated
every five to 10 minutes and provides
operators with much clearer visibility than
traditional static line ratings, which use
predetermined weather assumptions, and
ambient-adjusted ratings, which take into
account the ambient air temperature.
“The SGDP Project has been a com-
plete success, having demonstrated that
Dynamic Line Ratings are a practical and
efficient tool to increase the capacity of a
transmission line, which will enable trans-
mission providers and system operators
to mitigate congestion, increase system
reliability and redeploy capital to its most
efficient uses through a least regrets strat-
egy,” according to the final report.
DLR was being evaluated as a potential
key component of Oncor’s five-year capital
investment program that will average $1
billion per year. The program’s strategy is
to invest in technologies and equipment
to improve reliability and efficiency of the
company’s infrastructure, said Jim Greer,
Oncor chief operating officer.
“Our investment program is not about
just adding more infrastructure,” Greer
said. “We want to be able to use our
existing assets more efficiently and effec-
tively because that’s a more economical
use of our investment dollars. DLR clearly
demonstrated that we could improve the
efficiency of our existing assets in an eco-
nomical manner. Already we are looking at
other areas of our grid where we can install
this capability for future investments. This
is good for Oncor, the state grid and ulti-
mately, all of the customers we serve.”
The report highlights the following
© CAN STOCK PHOTO INC. / TRIBALIUM
1404PG_10 10 4/7/14 11:01 AM
April 2014 | 11
www.power-grid.com
Ontario Premier Kathleen Wynne recently announced the
creation of the Advanced Energy Centre, a partnership between
the public and private sectors and MaRS Discovery District that
will drive economic growth and sustainable job creation.
Uniting founding industry partners Capgemini and Siemens,
as well as utility and government representatives, the centre
will work collaboratively to consolidate and extend Canada’s
early lead in next-generation energy technologies such as those
in the energy data and energy storage space to capture new
domestic markets and transform the local successes into inter-
national market opportunities for Ontario.
“This centre will help our entrepreneurs become global
leaders in energy technology while creating good jobs here in
Ontario,” Wynne said. “By partnering with the private sector, we
are building our knowledge economy, driving innovation and
keeping Ontario competitive.”
The centre will build upon innovative and cost-effective
conservation initiatives such as the Ontario Green Button, a pro-
gram launched by the Ministry of Energy and MaRS Discovery
District that gives consumers greater visibility and control over
their energy usage. The centre also will work with its partners to
assist Ontario’s energy entrepreneurs and developers who are
looking to deploy Ontario smart grid solutions globally through
international partnerships.
“The transformation of energy networks and infrastructure is
estimated to create a $3 trillion global market by 2020,” said
Ilse Treurnicht, CEO of MaRS Discovery District. “I’m thrilled
that MaRS will be working with entrepreneurs, government and
industry stakeholders to ensure that leading Canadian innova-
tions capture a significant share of this growing export market.”
Paul Murphy, the former president and CEO of Ontario’s
Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), has been
named the founding chair of the centre’s advisory board.
“The cooperation of the public and private sectors is key
to the success of this effort,” Murphy said. “By combining our
proven energy sector expertise with our disruptive innovations,
the centre will be a game changer when it comes to exporting
our energy solutions.”
The announcement was made at the Canadian Energy
Innovation Summit, which was convened by Wynne in her
capacity as the chairwoman of the Council of the Federation.
Held at MaRS, the event brought together business, policy and
government leaders from across Canada to provide input on
the broader Canadian Energy Strategy being developed by the
Council.
About MaRS
MaRS Discovery District is a mission-driven innovation centre
in Toronto. MaRS supports entrepreneurs who are building
Canada’s next generation of growth companies. Its ventures
have created more than 4,000 jobs and in the past three years
alone have raised more than $750 million in capital and earned
more than $375 million in revenue.
Ontario premier announces new Advanced Energy Centre to be based at MaRS
PROJECT MILES VOLTAGE NEW STATUS
Esmeralda-Yucca 15 138 Planned
Illinois Rivers Project 375 345 Planned
Barnstable-Harwich 7.8 115 Planned
Churchill Falls-Flora Lake Project 134 230 Planned
TransWest Express Project 725 600 Planned
Paris-Albers Rebuild Project 12.5 138 Planned
Reynolds to Topeka 99 600 Planned
TRANSMISSIONHUB SUMMARIZES RECENT PROJECT UPDATES
EYE ON THE WORLD
1404PG_11 11 4/7/14 11:01 AM
12 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
EYE ON THE WORLD
NOTES
The first environmentally friendly transformer in the 420-
kV capacity range from Siemens has been commissioned by
the Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, power grid operator
TransnetBW. The world’s first power transformer insulated and
cooled using vegetable oil links the 380-kV extra-high voltage
level with the 110-kV grid of the subordinate distribution
grid operator in the Bruchsal substation. This ensures that the
power transported via the extra-high voltage lines to Bruchsal
is fed into the 110-kV grids of the distribution system operator
and that this power arrives safely and reliably at households
and industry throughout the region.
The special feature of this transformer is the material that
fills it. This marks the first time that vegetable oil is used with
this voltage category instead of mineral oil for insulation and
cooling. The vegetable oil is more environmentally friendly and
much less flammable than mineral oil.
“The use of this groundwater-neutral and biodegradable
insulating oil, with its high level of environmental compat-
ibility, was the decisive factor for us choosing this trans-
former,” said Michael Schäfer, head of systems technology at
TransnetBW.
The insulating oil for this new transformer is produced
solely from renewable, plant resources and is completely bio-
degradable. This is but one of Siemens’ decisive contributions
to environmental sustainability. The new power transformer
for the Bruchsal-Kändelweg substation is the world’s first
transformer at the 420-kV extra-
high voltage level for which no
water hazard classification must
be issued. As a result, this trans-
former can be installed and oper-
ated in water conservation areas
or in zones subject to stringent
environmental protection restric-
tions.
“The properties of this
vegetable oil are not only
beneficial to the envi-
ronment but also offer
the customer cost advan-
tages over transformers
cooled with conventional
mineral oil,” said Beatrix
Natter, CEO of the trans-
formers business unit at
Siemens Energy. “The
biodegradability of the
insulating oil means
that additional collecting
vessels and separation
systems are no longer
required at the installa-
tion location, resulting
in cost savings for these
items.”
Other important
aspects are the substan-
tially higher flashpoint
and combustion point of
the vegetable oil com-
pared with that of the mineral oil used up until now. The lower
flammability of the insulating oil also provides the transformer
with a higher fire protection classification. This means that the
fire protection system can be optimized accordingly and the
transformer can be operated favorably in densely populated
residential areas. Vegetable oil-based transformers and the
associated service are part of Siemens’ environmental port-
folio. Some 43 percent of its total revenue stems from green
products and solutions.
Siemens delivers world’s first vegetable oil transformer in 420-kV capacity range
The lower
fammability of
the insulating
oil also provides
higher fre
protection.
Attending the commissioning of the vegetable oil-cooled and insulated large power transformer from
Siemens in the Bruchsal-Kändelweg substation are, from left, Rainer Joswig, managing director of TransnetBW
GmbH; Cornelia Petzold-Schick, lord mayor of the city of Bruchsal; Beatrix Natter, CEO of the transformers
business unit at Siemens Energy; and Martin Konermann, managing director of Netze BW GmbH (formerly
EnBW Regional AG).
1404PG_12 12 4/7/14 11:01 AM
April 2014 | 13
www.power-grid.com
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
May 6-7, 2014
Marriott Gaslamp •San Diego, CA
KEYNOTE ADDRESS
Lauren Azar
Attorney & Advisor
Azar Law
Former Senior Advisor to Energy Secretary Chu
PRESENTED BY:
transmissionhub.com
Please visit energyhubforums.com
for event info and registration
CONNECT with the people
who CONNECT electric power
DNV GL, the world’s leading ship classification society
and one of the world’s leading risk and sustainability service
providers with more than 500 employees in Singapore,
consolidated its operations in its new headquarters to meet the
growing demand for its services in the region.
The new headquarters officially opened Feb. 28 in a ceremony
led by S. Iswaran, minister for the Prime Minister’s Office, second
minister for Home Affairs and second minister for Trade &
Industry Singapore, and DNV GL President and CEO Henrik O.
Madsen.
The new office will house DNV GL operations for Singapore
and the surrounding Asia Pacific region. This means that DNV
GL’s expertise and regional management team will be under
one roof. The relocation to a new, technologically advanced
building will create greater synergies across its four key business
areas: maritime, oil and gas, energy and business assurance.
“Singapore is one of the main Asia Pacific locations for the
head offices of large international companies, and many of
our customers are also located here,” Madsen said. “Besides,
Singapore’s vision is very much aligned with DNV GL’s, especially
when it comes to research and development work to address
the challenges faced in both the offshore oil and gas exploration
and clean energy industries.
“Designed to accommodate our growth over the next 20
years, the relocation of the Singapore office also comes at the
perfect time. The merger of DNV and GL last September has
created a need to integrate the operations of both companies
and the new office enables us to do that seamlessly in
Singapore.”
Collaborative Agreements
DNV GL also will sign memoranda of understanding (MOU)
with the National University of Singapore and the Nanyang
Technological University for joint R&D activities.
“We are delighted to work with such well-established
research institutions,” Madsen said. “We firmly believe that our
collaborative innovation model will contribute to Singapore’s
fast-moving industries. Also, as an independent foundation
with a strong technology base and risk management as our
core area of expertise, we will continue to fill a unique role in
creating trust and confidence among industry stakeholders.”
DNV GL’s new office brings together 500 employees from
the company’s previous four offices on the island. The office
combines intelligent building structures and efficient energy
consumption. Some of the green initiatives by DNV GL include:
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been replaced by central general and recycling waste
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printing to limit waste.
DNV GL opens new Asia Pacific headquarters in Singapore
1404PG_13 13 4/7/14 11:01 AM
14 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
BY JOHN MCDONALD, IEEE, GE DIGITAL ENERGY
ment and providing consumers with use-
ful, related tools, have thrived. Smart
thermostat makers are offering easy-
to-use, programmable interfaces; some
even respond to smartphone commands.
Relevant standards recently have been
approved and published.
With these opportunities and market
ome energy management systems
(HEMS) for consumers have the
potential to redefine the relationship
between utilities and their customers
to the advantage of both parties. HEMS
could be a powerful demand manage-
ment tool to optimize loads for utilities
and, in an automated, affordable form,
might become the tool consumers need
to manage energy use and related com-
fort, convenience and costs. Yet HEMS
also could be the means by which third
parties claim consumers’ attention and
possibly win their allegiance.
For utilities, there’s a degree of urgency
to sorting out these dynamics. If utilities
seek to shape the outcome and strengthen
their relationship with customers, they
will have to resolve certain issues. Yet
utilities should not rush to stake out the
high ground. If they stumble, consumer
confidence in utility-led solutions will
suffer. But if utilities dally, third parties
might claim the customer relationship, the
branding opportunity and related value
creation.
Recall that a few years back Google
introduced its PowerMeter-branded,
HEMS-related software, and Microsoft
Corp. offered its Hohm alternative.
These companies apparently thought
their applications could aid consumers
who’d received smart meters by provid-
ing meaningful energy use to inform new
consumer behaviors—a potential boon
to utilities and consumers. The concept
seemed sound, but both products were
withdrawn from the market after two
years, and postmortem examinations dif-
fered. Some people said utilities were
wary of disintermediation. Others said
consumers weren’t excited by the offer-
ings or even aware of them. Still others
conjectured that the potential and mod-
est savings failed to entice the market.
Whatever the case, a successful foray
into this emerging opportunity with con-
sumers must surmount these and other
hurdles. But first, utilities must engage
their customers.
Meanwhile, demand response aggrega-
tors, whose core business is providing
utilities with dispatchable load curtail-
John D. McDonald is director of technical strategy and policy development at GE Digital
Energy. He has bachelor’s and master’s degrees in electrical engineering specializing in
power engineering from Purdue University and an MBA in finance from the University of
California, Berkeley. He is past president of the IEEE Power & Energy Society (PES), an IEEE PES
distinguished lecturer, board chair of the Smart Grid Consumer Collaborative and board chair
for the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel 2.0, Inc., among many other affiliations.
© CAN STOCK PHOTO INC. / ROLFFIMAGES
1404PG_14 14 4/7/14 11:03 AM
April 2014 | 15
www.power-grid.com
stresses the grid. A fraction of customers
can shave enough peak load to prevent
brownouts near term and delay operation
or construction of expensive, polluting
peak power plants longer term.
Although the national average for cus-
tomer participation in direct load control
programs is 13 percent, according to a
2012 eSource survey—and that may be
largely achieving utilities’ current goals
for curtailment—those goals likely will
rise as demand rises.
Pepco Holdings Inc. (PHI), for instance,
oversees a demand management portfolio
at three utilities in Washington, D.C.,
Maryland, Delaware and southern New
Jersey with 2 million customer accounts.
PHI has combined direct load control,
peak-time rebates and customer engage-
ment to reduce peak load and meet regu-
latory mandates for reductions in over-
all electricity consumption. Customer
engagement includes tips on reducing
energy use and an offer of a program-
mable thermostat for home energy man-
agement, including financial incentives.
Although results vary by service ter-
ritory, direct load control of AC units
largely meets curtailment goals, said
Virginia Burginger, manager of demand-
side management at PHI.
PHI has installed smart thermostats
across its utilities, which customers
access via a Web portal for their energy
use data. And PHI is beginning to work
with third-party curtailment providers
to broaden the reach of their direct load
control programs, Burginger said. PHI is
running a pilot project using in-home
displays with messaging around peak-
reduction events and energy-saving tips.
The United Illuminating Co. (UI), a New
Haven, Conn.,-based distribution utility,
serves 325,000 customer accounts in
New Haven and Bridgeport metro areas.
forces in mind, let’s survey the current
landscape. In this article, I offer my view
of the three phases of consumer involve-
ment in home energy management,
review what research tells us about the
art and science of consumer engagement,
check on the status of related standards
and look at how policy might evolve
to support utility consumer-engagement
efforts. But first, let’s look at the utility
heritage of direct load control programs,
the precursors to current and future
efforts to engage consumers and alter
their energy use behaviors via HEMS.
A BRIEF HISTORY
OF DIRECT LOAD CONTROL
Direct load control programs at power
utilities have a long history. Typically,
a utility offers a credit on a customer’s
bill if the customer accepts a radio-
controlled switch on his or her air condi-
tioner (AC) that cycles it down or off to
reduce peak load when demand
GES
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16 | April 2014
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in only about a dozen states support
dynamic pricing today, and such policies
may be necessary in three dozen more
states to enable utilities to offer consum-
ers inexpensive, automated HEMS with a
positive cost-benefit ratio and that achieve
utility curtailment goals. Again, whether
utilities provide the tools or leave that to
a third party remains to be seen.
WHERE ARE WE?
For the most part, U.S. utility custom-
ers operate on the first level. Our 20
th
-
century efforts have extended electricity
service far and wide at such low prices
that useful electrons remain vastly under-
valued. The incentive to conserve elec-
tricity and use it sparingly has remained
artificially low.
And now, a prolifera-
tion of electronic devices
in homes that accompany
our rapidly digitized soci-
ety has coincided with our
need to refresh our aging
electric infrastructure.
Customers’ electricity use
will rise as will costs to
cover grid modernization
and expanded capacity.
Thus, the incentive to manage household
electricity use also will grow and will
increase the attractiveness of affordable
HEMS.
With respect to level two, the cou-
pling of smart meters and Web portal-
based energy use information remains
of questionable value and customer
usage remains largely nascent, although
it might grow in the absence of alterna-
tives. From a policy standpoint, regula-
tors need to approve dynamic pricing to
enable utilities to send clear price signals
that will influence customers’ energy use
behaviors. Consumer concerns on energy
Historically, UI had a direct load con-
trol program that used timer-equipped
water heaters to support load shaping
for efficient generation and time-of-day
(TOD) rates for customer opt in. Now
UI is wires-only and continues its water
heater program and TOD rates to sup-
port customers’ energy management
efforts. Customers have access to their
energy use data via a Web portal tied to
advanced meters. Customer meter data
also enables UI to alert customers to high
energy usage via phone calls, texts and
the Web when they approach their own
predetermined thresholds, which enable
customers to adjust their behavior before
bills become unmanageable.
UI has piloted in-home displays and
critical-peak pricing signals to gauge cus-
tomer interest, but it concluded that
customers realized minimal savings for
their efforts. A worthwhile program, said
Joe Thomas, UI vice president for electric
system operation, would have to be auto-
mated and effortless, inexpensive and
produce attractive savings.
Florida Power & Light Co. (FPL) serves
4.6 million accounts in Florida and has
run direct load control programs since
1987. FPL’s residential On Call program
aims to reduce summer peak load. Last
year, some 810,000 customers actively
participated—a well above average, 17
percent participation rate—and reduced
summer peak demand by about 1,000
MW, which met its goals. FPL conducted
a limited test of home energy controls
enabled by smart meters in 2011-2012
and will conduct another trial in 2014 to
assess the potential for home automation
to support direct load control based on
broadband-connected smart thermostats.
From these examples, it appears utili-
ties will maintain direct load control
programs to meet a diverse set of drivers
while testing the efficacy of information
and tools that empower customers for a
utility-to-customer double win.
THINKING ABOUT CUSTOMERS
The first level of home energy manage-
ment relies exclusively on simple behav-
iors focused on conserving energy use
without related information or tools.
This is your father’s HEMS: Install
insulation for energy efficiency, main-
tain rational thermostat settings, turn off
unneeded lights and devices. Closing up
the house on cool summer mornings and
opening it at night can work wonders.
Despite utilities’ best efforts, Americans,
for instance, remain largely on their own
behaviors to conserve energy.
The next level is enabled
by a smart meter and
utility-sponsored Web
portal that offer customer
account information and
energy use data. Research
shows that simple energy
use feedback has a mod-
est effect in encouraging
energy conservation. This
level of HEMS operates on
the notion that “you can’t
manage what you can’t measure,” and the
more granular the information, the greater
opportunity for managing use. Although
smart meter deployments are blanketing
the U.S., along with widespread offerings
of Web portal-based energy use data,
often that data is not granular enough to
inform consumer management. (The gov-
ernment’s Green Button initiative might
improve the situation.)
The third level encompasses a spec-
trum of opportunities, including the use
of price signals and a range of technolo-
gies that include appliance automation
and HEMS. Public service commissions
The incentive
to manage
household
electricity use
will grow and
increase the
attractiveness
of affordable
HEMS.
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April 2014 | 17
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related technologies. But here’s the basis
for optimism: When the benefits of smart
technology are described, most consum-
ers like what they hear, and the benefits
outweigh their concerns.
On HEMS specifically, the SGCC
recently conducted consumer surveys in
Atlanta, Chicago and Los Angeles. One
finding jumped out: All five consumer
segments said that a home improvement
store is the best source of energy-saving
advice and products. Second place: the
customer’s utility. Here’s another: Smart
thermostat penetration has reached 22
percent, although there’s high interest
among nonusers. Among the five custom-
er segments (defined by motivation), the
Concerned Greens exhibit got the highest
interest in HEMS, possibly offering vis-
ibility into the market segment that will
offer traction for utilities and third parties
that offer HEMS. Only 2 percent of all
consumers own smart appliances, and 1
percent own a home energy management
unit. The market for HEMS is ripening.
CONCLUSION
The developments described here
point to opportunity, but whose? How
utilities deal with their customers and
whether they offer HEMS might reflect
their visions of their long-term business
models. If utilities seek to own their cus-
tomers, they must move swiftly to engage
them, inform them and equip them to
manage home energy use. The develop-
ment of HEMS that deliver strong value
to utility customers might be the glue
that binds utilities and customers. Or,
a third party might usurp that relation-
ship. For utilities to succeed in this area,
they’ll need policies that support cus-
tomer engagement and empowerment.
Meanwhile, many other pieces are falling
into place.

use data privacy and third-party access
to that data also require the attention of
regulators. A recent paper by my colleague
at GE Digital Energy, David Malkin, in
association with Analysis Group, “Results-
Based Regulation: A Modern Approach to
Modernize the Grid,” addresses these and
many other pertinent issues ripe for regula-
tory reform.
The third level, in which smart meters
are installed, dynamic pricing is approved
and automation on some level is controlled
and monitored by an HEMS, seems distant;
however, the development of standards
that enable interoperability in this domain
have been published, and testing and cer-
tification procedures for software, devices
and systems are being drafted. Market pres-
sures soon will increase on utilities to deter-
mine their approach, to partner with third
parties or to stand back as third parties
claim customers’ attention and allegiance.
SMART ENERGY PROFILE 2.0
My colleague Robby Simpson, a sys-
tem architect at GE Energy Management,
specializes in standards and interoper-
ability across domains and led the devel-
opment of Smart Energy Profile (SEP)
2.0. SEP 2.0, which recently has been
completed, is reflected by IEEE Standard
2030.5-2013, which has been published.
SEP 2.0 ensures interoperability
among the four leading technologies in
homes—Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee and
HomePlug—and likely will provide the
interoperability for HEMS and related
consumer devices, appliances and other
technologies from electric vehicles to
rooftop solar photovoltaic arrays, heating
and cooling, lighting, home electronics,
you name it. Several critical aspects of
SEP 2.0’s likely success, in Simpson’s
view, are that it’s a well-written, well-
architected standard based on the now-
ubiquitous Internet Protocol (IP), and
its security standards are the same as for
online banking.
At this stage, Simpson told me recently,
after the false starts by the two comput-
ing giants, he’s seeing a more measured
approach to HEMS and related products.
“Looking back, there was a bubble of
hype, followed by the classic trough of
disillusionment,” Simpson said. “We’re
just coming out of the trough, I think.
There’s still more work to do in terms of
utility engagement with customers. But
there are products in the wings.”
Simpson further said that in the future,
an HEMS is just as likely to be an app
residing on a smartphone as it is to be an
in-home display or other gadget. But he
agreed that whatever works for consum-
ers is likely to find market acceptance.
And because consumers are a diverse lot,
HEMS might take many forms.
THE SLUMBERING GIANT
But first, consumers must be awak-
ened to the possibilities. The Smart
Grid Consumer Collaborative (SGCC),
helmed by Executive Director Patty
Durand, in a few years has conducted
significant research regarding customer
segmentation, engagement and percep-
tions and attitudes regarding smart grid
and HEMS. (Full disclosure: I chair the
SGCC’s board.) In the SGCC’s 2013
“State of the Consumer Report,” among
eight major themes were several critical
to consumer engagement, education and
likely to HEMS adoption. Consumers
aren’t all alike, so if you want to engage
them, segmentation matters. (The SGCC
has identified five basic segments by
motivation, rather than demographics.)
Second, awareness lags: Three-
quarters of consumers surveyed a year
ago knew little about smart grid and
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© CAN STOCK PHOTO INC. / EMERSONT
The amount of analytical equipment
in the nacelle can be staggering.
In some of the most advanced installs,
one might liken it to a mini data center
atop a pole.
Now, that might be a slight exag-
geration, but neverthe-
less, the amount of mon-
itoring data that comes
from a wind turbine has
increased dramatically
over the years, along with
the size and efficiency.
These two things are
related. With more ana-
lytics comes greater effi-
ciency and the capability
to upsize.
Logically, then, you can say that
because of the amount of data avail-
able, many companies have been able
to innovate and create better and more
ind turbines are at the core of
thought as they relate to wind
power production.
Although this is true, other factors
can help save tremendous amounts of
money when installing or retrofitting
wind farms.
The network plays a
crucial role in the perfor-
mance of a wind power
system.
Using the appropriate
infrastructure might seem
easy at first, but without
optimization, hundreds of
thousands of dollars could
be wasted, and, worse,
you could be left with a system that does
not perform optimally.
With all of the strict regulations, it is
unacceptable to not have a system that is
reporting with 99.999 percent up time.
Gone are the days of wind’s blowing
on fan blades, which turns a generator
and out comes electricity.
BY JIM TOEPPER, MOXA
Jim Toepper is business development
manager of power at Moxa. Reach him at
jim.toepper@moxa.com.
The amount
of monitoring
data that
comes from a
wind turbine
has increased
dramatically
over the years.
1404PG_19 19 4/7/14 11:03 AM
20 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
Networks are not allowed to have
loops unless a special redundancy pro-
tocol allows it.
The network shown in Figure 1 is an
example of a redundant Ethernet net-
work that uses STP and includes a loop
between switches 1 to 5.
STP uses an algorithm to find redun-
dant links in a network and allow certain
paths as backup paths to prevent loop-
ing.
When STP is running, packets sent
from switch 5 to the root switch will go
through switch 3.
When switch 3 disconnects or fails,
STP automatically rearranges the con-
nections by activating the backup paths
to forward data.
Although STP resolves looping and
advanced wind turbine solutions.
But how is this data used? How does
it get from the sensors, programmable
logic controllers (PLCs) and embedded
computers to a system that can aggregate
and monitor it from a holistic perspec-
tive?
With these questions in mind, we may
ask ourselves why the reliable transport
of that data often is not thought of as a
critical factor when coordinating a wind
farm install.
During the past five years, many wind
farm installs have used the least expen-
sive, most basic equipment to connect
each tower back to the monitoring sta-
tion.
Most of these installs have been using
unmanaged switches throughout their
entire networks in the worst cases and in
the best cases have taken an information
technology (IT) approach to networking.
Both are inexpensive approaches to
data connectivity, but both are akin to
the aforementioned fan blades and gen-
erator scenario.
It’s not reliable enough, not manage-
able and outdated.
Can you imagine more than 300
GW of wind power worldwide whose
power and efficiency could
depend on an outdated,
inefficient, unstable net-
work?
Reliability also is a fac-
tor when dealing with
Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission (FERC) regu-
lations.
Accountability for all
power generated stresses
the importance of a very
high uptime network.
In some cases, noncompliance fines
are so big that seconds of network
downtime can cost many thousands of
dollars.
Redundancy is a must to ensure this
category of uptime.
Industrial networking
technology has advanced
along with innovations in
the wind turbine industry.
There are several ways
to achieve redundancy.
SPANNING TREE
PROTOCOL
Spanning Tree Protocol
(STP) as defined in the
IEEE 802.1D standard is
designed to eliminate loops in a network
by cutting the network into a loop-free
tree shape.
STP/RSTP 1
Root
Switch 1
B
a
c
k
u
p

L
i
n
k
Backup Link
Switch 3
Switch 2
Switch 5
Block Port
Switch 4
Industrial
networking
technology
has
advanced
along with
innovations
in the wind
turbine
industry.
1404PG_20 20 4/7/14 11:47 AM
April 2014 | 21
www.power-grid.com
achieves network redundancy, it has
some drawbacks.
One is slow recovery time.
With STP, recovery usually takes 15
seconds after the spanning tree is estab-
lished.
This recovery time is too long for wind
farm applications.
RAPID SPANNING TREE PROTOCOL
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
is much like STP, but to overcome the
slow convergence (recovery) time of STP,
the IEEE has released IEEE 802.1w
and 802.1d-2004 standards to make
improvements based on STP.
This shortened the recovery speed to
about 1 second.
For a critical network such as one used
on a wind farm, however, it is much bet-
ter to be able to recover from a network
failure in less than 100 milliseconds to
Switch
Moxa Turbo Ring
Recovery Time < 20 ms
REDUNDANT CONNECTION 2
RING OR STP 3
Fiber-optic Cable
Twisted Pair Cable
Managed Ethernet Switch
Rackmount Ethernet Switch
Turbo Chain
Control Center
1404PG_21 21 4/7/14 11:04 AM
22 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
4
Fiber-optic Cable
Twisted Pair Cable
Managed Ethernet Switch
Rackmount Ethernet Switch
Control Center
Turbo Chain
Given the variety of deployment sizes
and shapes of a wind farm installation,
rings, although they can achieve fast
recovery, are not the optimal solution.
CHAINS AND OPEN RINGS
Chains and open rings are advanced
redundancy technologies that solve the
inflexible topologies of rings and the
slow recovery times of STP and RSTP.
This technology also can recover from
a network fault in less than 20 millisec-
onds.
By using this newer, innovative redun-
dancy concept, network administrators
can have more freedom in the shape of
the redundant topology among any net-
work segment.
Chains and open rings support the
perfect topology shapes for many new
wind farms.
ensure the reliability of the network.
STP and RSTP are open standards
that many Ethernet switch manufactur-
ers have implemented in their managed
switch products, which makes it con-
venient for interoperability, but again,
recovery time in a critical application is
likely more important than being able to
use a mixture of brands of networking
hardware.
PROPRIETARY RING REDUNDANCY
Ring redundancy is common in indus-
trial Ethernet networks across many ven-
dors.
It overcomes the recovery time prob-
lem of STP and RSTP.
Many ring redundancy technologies
feature a guaranteed recovery time of a
few milliseconds.
Ring redundancy ensures nonstop
operation of networks with an extremely
fast recovery time.
Depending on the amount of switches
on the network and the manufacturer,
you can recover from a network outage
in the sub-20-millisecond range.
Take Turbo Ring from one manufac-
turer, for example.
If any segment of the network is dis-
connected or powered down, the net-
work system will recover in less than 20
milliseconds by activating the backup
path in a ring.
But there are still some drawbacks to
ring redundancy.
Interoperability is a challenge because
redundant ring technologies are propri-
etary to individual suppliers.
In addition, ring redundancy only
supports limited amounts of rings in a
single switch.
1404PG_22 22 4/7/14 11:04 AM
April 2014 | 23
www.power-grid.com
As you can see, by using a chain
or open ring architecture, bandwidth is
optimized, redundancy is fast, configura-
tion is easy and you need fewer connec-
tions.
If this approach is taken while plan-
ning the next wind farm, many miles of
fiber-optic cable as well as the trenching
required for installation can be saved.
Add these two costs together with the
cost of the saved fiber connections on
the switch, and, in most cases, the newer
more advanced network will pay for itself
many times over compared with taking a
more traditional connectivity route.
Although a lot of the aforementioned
might seem complicated or new, it is
accomplished easily.
Best, some have seen savings in the
hundreds of thousands of dollars.
This is a newer, more advanced
approach for executing the connectiv-
ity required in wind farms, but just as
the wind turbines have evolved in effi-
ciency, reliability and cost, so have the
networks that connect them.
Many project managers and network
engineers will be happy to see a way to
decrease the total cost of an installation.
What’s even better, these cost savings
can be achieved solely by considering
a different communications approach.
This concept has been around for a
few years and is one of those best-kept
secrets, but communica-
tions requirements have
increased so much over
the years with wind farms that it’s time
to look at a new way to do things.
With so much money to be saved and
so much reliability to be gained, this
newer way of thinking is likely some-
thing most will not want to overlook
when it comes time to build a reliable
communications infrastructure.
Chains and open rings work by con-
necting several Ethernet switches togeth-
er to form a daisy chain where each side
of the network segment is connected to
the rest of the network without requiring
routers.
With the chain and
open ring methodology,
network engineers can
create as many redun-
dant connections as they
have switches and ports
by linking a new chain or
open ring to any segment
of the Ethernet network.
Some vendors even allow for the addi-
tion of chains or rings to happen without
any reconfiguration of the network.
This means that the addition of wind
turbines—network expansion—is easier
than it ever has been and reduces costs
while optimizing the network.
The best part about this topology is
that chains and open rings work with
existing network architectures.
If part of your network is IT-oriented
and uses RSTP or is unable to be
changed, you still can connect a chain
or open ring to it; they are compatible.
This would mean that at least part
of your network would have the fastest
redundancy scheme, and the other older
part would continue to function as origi-
nally intended.
Using the latest technology provides
better redundancy, flexible
architecture and compat-
ibility with IT systems, and
it also saves substantial
money.
Because of the unique
chain and open ring topol-
ogy, one fewer connection
and two fewer ports are
required.
The saved connections are those that are
typically long-distance runs.
For instance, for RSTP and rings, your
network diagram in the best-case scenario
would look like Figure 4.
The red dashed lines are required
redundant connections for ring coupling.
Using
the latest
technology
provides
better
redundancy
and fexible
architecture.
1404PG_23 23 4/7/14 11:04 AM
24 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
T
he editors at POWERGRID
International magazine—the
official publication of DistribuTECH
Conference & Exhibition—announced
the magazine’s 2014 Projects of the
Year in late January during the Electric
Light & Power and POWERGRID
International Awards Dinner in San
Antonio.
The winners of the 2014 POWERGRID
International Projects of the Year awards
were selected in four specific categories:
Demand Response/Energy Efficiency,
Customer Engagement, Renewable
Energy Integration and Smart Grid.
DEMAND RESPONSE
/ENERGY EFFICIENCY
The winner of the Demand
Response/Energy Efficiency Project of
the Year is Pepco Holdings Inc. (PHI)
for its Energy Wise Rewards program.
With plans to reach some 380,000
customer end points across four states
with different energy-efficiency policies,
PHI’s Energy Wise Rewards is one of the
largest demand response programs in
the nation.
Five years after it was launched with
help from Comverge, a provider of
demand response solutions to utilities,
Energy Wise Rewards has helped PHI
reduce energy use and costs, improve
reliability, and protect the environment
by enabling the utility to control more
than 2,300 MW of energy.
The program was designed so par-
ticipants could choose to take part
through either a Web-programmable
thermostat or outdoor switch. The
Web-programmable thermostat can
be controlled manually or remotely
through the Internet and offers up to
four time periods for each
day of the week.
Similarly, the outdoor
switch is a small device
installed outside near
the customer’s central air
conditioner compressor.
Once enrolled, customers
participate in the program to reduce
electricity use by allowing the utility to
cycle central air conditioners off and on
for short periods during peak use.
Participating subsidiary customers at
Pepco, Delmarva Power and Atlantic
Projects
of the Year
BY KRISTEN WRIGHT, SENIOR EDITOR
City Electric have been able to take
more control over their energy use,
save money on their energy costs, and
easily participate in a successful energy
management program in PHI’s Energy
Wise Rewards.
The runner-up was PSE&G and
Trinitas Regional Medical
Center for the PSE&G
Hospital Efficiency
Program at Trinitas
Regional Medical Center.
CUSTOMER
ENGAGEMENT
The winner of the Customer
Engagement Project of the Year is
Consolidated Edison for the cool-
NYC program, a residential demand
response program that helps alleviate
stress on the electricity grid during
The winner of the POWERGRID International Demand
Response/Energy Efficiency Project of the Year is
Pepco Holdings Inc. (PHI) for its Energy Wise Rewards
program.
Winners were
annouced
live during a
DistribuTECH
dinner in San
Antonio.
1404PG_24 24 4/7/14 11:04 AM
April 2014 | 25
www.power-grid.com
End of Summer Interactive Infographic (Continued)
least once throughout the summer.
CoolNYC’s user-interactive program
results website received more than
2,500 unique page views during its first
week, and 45 percent of users complet-
ed the year-end survey within 24 hours
after it was posted.
The runners-up were Pepco and
Delmarva Power for their 2 Ways to
Save Program.
RENEWABLE ENERGY
INTEGRATION
The winner of the Renewable
Energy Integration Project of the Year
is Florida Power & Light Co. (FPL) for
its Smart Islanding program.
FPL has installations with distributed
energy resources, which are synchro-
nous machines that generate power
from land fill gas. To trip the distrib-
uted energy resources to comply with
IEEE 1547, FPL uses an islanding sys-
tem with synchrophasor technology to
detect islanding conditions and trip
the distributed energy resources in the
stipulated time. The principal vendor is
Schweitzer Engineering Labs.
The Port Charlotte Landfill Generator
connection to an existing FPL feeder
was one of the first installations of this
about the impact
of the program
and $15 gift cards
at the conclusion.
Enrolled custom-
ers collectively
generate nearly
a megawatt with
their RACs and
achieved a 22 per-
cent reduction in
energy usage over
Con Edison’s six
demand response
events that totaled
30 hours during
summer 2013.
CoolNYC used local environmen-
tal groups to inform members about
the program, coordinated events in
specific neighborhoods and marketed
with targeted emails. Installation rates
increased from the 2012 program, and
demand response participation rates hit
nearly 70 percent across all events.
The customer service team also
encouraged participants to take advan-
tage of the smartAC kit’s
automation and remote
control capabilities. The
coolNYC program saw
a 31 percent growth in
iPhone app downloads as
a result. And more than
73 percent of users took
advantage of the Web
application, logging in at
summer peak demand in New York
City. The city has more than 6.5 million
room air conditioning units (RACs),
which account for 20 percent of sum-
mer demand.
In 2011, Consolidated Edison part-
nered with ThinkEco to create a pro-
gram that enables the aggregation of
RAC loads into a centralized command
and control resource. The pair cre-
ated the smartAC technology platform,
which retrofits these air conditioners
with easy-to-use hardware, software
and a cloud-based architecture that
networks them to allow the RACs to
be controlled over the Internet by a
computer, tablet or smart phone. The
platform also comes with a wireless
thermostat that permits consumers and
Consolidated Edison to regulate the
RAC temperatures and balance custom-
er comfort with load shedding during
grid emergencies.
Customers who participate in cool-
NYC receive regular e-newsletters
The winner of the Customer Engagement
Project of the Year is Consolidated Edison
for the coolNYC program.
The winner of the Renewable Energy Integration
Project of the Year is Florida Power & Light Co. (FPL)
for its Smart Islanding program.
1404PG_25 25 4/7/14 11:04 AM
26 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
power interrupted.
FPL also is putting the smart grid in
the hands of field restoration crews by
developing mobile applications such as
the Restoration Spatial View, or RSV. The
tool combines outage tickets, weather
information, electrical network infor-
mation, customer energy consumption
and voltage, restoration crew location,
meter status and more, all layered on a
map view. Another tool FPL developed
is the smart meter Event Processing
Engine to use the meters’ power on and
off messages to proactively generate
outage tickets without customer input.
FPL piloted the application in 2012 and
deployed the technology throughout
the territory in June 2013. Since the
launch, FPL has created more than
19,000 outage tickets for transformers
and lateral devices.
The runners-up were Oncor Electric
Delivery and the Department of Energy
for their Dynamic Line Rating Smart
Grid Demonstration Project.

making it possible for FPL to improve
its service reliability while giving cus-
tomers more control over their energy
usage. Major suppliers include General
Electric, Honeywell and Silver Spring
Networks.
By the end of 2012, FPL had installed
more than 10,000 intelligent devices
on its T&D grid and added enhanced
digital technology to nearly 600 substa-
tions. The new sensors and monitors
installed on transformers, breakers and
battery banks are helping the company
determine the health of the equipment
and predict potential issues before they
disrupt service to customers.
Smart meters help support the com-
pany’s more than 99.98 percent service
reliability. Smart technology deploy-
ment throughout FPL’s 35-county ser-
vice area has enabled the company to
identify outages and help diagnose their
causes and restore power more effi-
ciently. In 2012, the process improve-
ment resulted in savings of $3.4 million
in productivity and an average annual
reduction of 4.3 million minutes of
new protection scheme. In addition to
using the synchrophasor technology to
detect islanding conditions, radio com-
munication was implemented between
the sites—about 5 miles—further low-
ering the costs of the interconnect. The
original protection scheme standard
used only fiber communications, which
is much less susceptible to loss of chan-
nel, but it can have a significantly larger
installation cost.
The islanding system using synchro-
phasor technology is FPL’s standard
protection package for any distributed
generator larger than 3 MW. The system
offers great protection for FPL, its exist-
ing customers, as well as the new gener-
ation interconnect. The communication
medium used is flexible. The distribu-
tion system topology can change and
grow over time, and the system will not
be affected by the changes.
Finally, the system uses standard
relay components so the cost of instal-
lation no longer is a consideration on
the viability of the project.
The runner-up was PSE&G for its
Hackensack Solar Farm.
SMART GRID
The winner of the Smart Grid
Project of the Year is FPL for its
Reaping the Benefits of the Smart
Grid Project.
In March 2013, FPL completed one
of the most ambitious smart grid proj-
ects in the country when it wrapped up
an $800 million program nine months
ahead of schedule. Just three years ear-
lier, FPL announced its Energy Smart
Florida project and was one of only six
utilities to receive a $200 million grant
from the DOE. Today, these technology
investments, which include the instal-
lation of 4.5 million smart meters, are
The winner of the POWERGRID International Smart
Grid Project of the Year is FPL for its Reaping the
Benefits of the Smart Grid Project.
1404PG_26 26 4/7/14 11:04 AM
April 2014 | 27
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implement comprehensive maintenance
plans with more proactive and efficient
strategies. A comprehensive plan incor-
porates several maintenance approach-
es, including a combination of condi-
tion-based, preventative, predictive and
reliability-centered measures.
COMPONENTS OF A
COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH
Preventative maintenance largely is a
calendar-based approach that calls for
I
t’s a common goal: Utilities across the
globe strive to deliver reliable electric-
ity as safely and efficiently as possible.
To meet and surpass those goals, every
critical equipment asset from generation
to delivery should operate at optimal
levels.
Transformers should be able to effi-
ciently change transmission voltages
down to lower distribution voltages, and
circuit breakers should interrupt fault
currents. Unfortunately, optimal opera-
tion is not always the case. Equipment
becomes degraded and aged, environ-
mental factors take their toll and assets
become damaged. To counteract these
issues and achieve ideal operating con-
ditions, utilities implement equipment
maintenance programs. Traditionally,
these maintenance plans have been
largely reactive, correcting issues as they
occur; however, the exponential and
continued growth of big data is creating
opportunities for utilities to strengthen
their maintenance plans by incorporat-
ing advanced predictive technology.
No matter how advanced technology
becomes, reactive maintenance never
will be completely eliminated because
unplanned situations that require imme-
diate action will continue to happen.
Reactive maintenance, however, should
be limited with proactive maintenance
strategies’ largely deterring the need for
reactive measures.
Instead, power utilities should
Jim Chappell is an executive vice presi-
dent at InStep Software, a leading global
provider of real-time performance manage-
ment and predictive asset analytics software
products and solutions.He can be reached at
jchappell@instepsoftware.com.
©

C
A
N

S
T
O
C
K

P
H
O
T
O

IN
C
.
/

E
V
E
R
Y
T
H
IN
G
P
O
S
S
IB
L
E
BY JIM CHAPPELL, INSTEP SOFTWARE
1404PG_27 27 4/7/14 11:05 AM
28 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
increases situational awareness of geo-
graphic areas on the grid, making it
easier to identify how assets affect one
another.
An example of applying a predici-
tive maintenance strategy in transmis-
sion and distribution is using predictive
software for transformer monitoring
through dissolved gas analysis, ther-
mal analysis and insulation breakdown.
For example, preventative maintenance
techniques and predictive analytics soft-
ware are used together to evaluate gas
levels and diagnose problems before a
fault occurs. Improving the reliability of
the transformer is of utmost importance
because it is an important component
of the transmission grid.
USING PREDICTIVE
ANALYTICS TO IMPROVE T&D
The benefits of including a predictive
maintenance plan in a comprehensive
strategy are immediate and long-term.
The obvious benefits include increased
reliability and efficiency, but how are
those achieved?
Using predictive maintenance tactics,
power delivery utilities can make smart-
er decisions about when and where
maintenance should be performed.
Utilities can reduce maintenance costs
with better planning and gain the insight
needed to delay maintenance that might
not be immediately necessary. Instead,
some suggested maintenance windows
can be extended to a more convenient
and cost-effective time.
Predictive analytics also can identify
underperforming assets and help per-
sonnel understand what factors contrib-
ute to abnormal operation. In the same
manner, predictive analytics technology
can prevent equipment failures by pro-
viding early warning of subtle changes
equipment to be serviced or replaced
at predetermined intervals or periods
of time. This could include replacing a
circuit breaker based on a specified time
interval or number of operations.
Conversely, a condition-based main-
tenance program focuses on the condi-
tion of equipment and how it is operat-
ing rather than on a length of time or
predetermined schedule. This approach
is highly reliant on operational data col-
lected and transmitted by equipment
sensors. For example, engineers moni-
tor the temperature of a transformer to
ensure it doesn’t step outside a certain
range, which could indicate a loading
issue.
Online predictive maintenance is a
key component of a comprehensive
strategy that involves using software
technology for real-time monitoring of
equipment health and comparing its
current operational state to a model
that defines normal or ideal operat-
ing conditions. Predictive analytics
software uses advanced algorithms to
detect subtle operational
variances for each piece
of equipment, which
often warn of impend-
ing problems that might
have gone unnoticed
otherwise. Utilities can
create automated alarm
notifications and use the
software to diagnose the
source of equipment and
system anomalies, in addition to priori-
tizing issues based on severity.
Reliability-centered maintenance is
a data-intensive strategy that involves
performing a failure mode, effects and
criticality analysis (FMECA) for assets
and then implementing maintenance
strategies based on the results. Using
this strategy, equipment maintenance
is altered and prioritized by its impor-
tance to the overall health of the plant,
grid or facility; however, the value
to be achieved through reliability-cen-
tered maintenance can’t be fully real-
ized without incorporating preventa-
tive, condition-based and predictive
techniques.
IMPLEMENTING
A PREDICTIVE PLAN
Although predictive asset analytics
in the power industry has been heavily
concentrated in generation, the tech-
nology is becoming increasingly more
prominent in transmission and dis-
tribution. Initially within the power
industry, predictive maintenance and
analytics were used to identify patterns
and learn modes of failure in cyclical-
operating mechanical equipment.
Predictive technology later expanded
to provide similar insight into transmis-
sion and distribution assets.
A predictive maintenance strategy
is most beneficial with
the implementation of
proper online condi-
tion monitoring and
analytics software.
Typically, predictive
analytics software ana-
lyzes information from
an enterprise historian,
ensuring all historical
and real-time sensor
data is included in the analysis and
model building.
Specifically within power delivery,
the technology can be used to monitor
and interpret the behavior of most sys-
tems and assets including transformers,
breakers, capacitor banks and other
substation equipment and devices. This
Using predictive
maintenance
tactics, power
delivery
utilities can
make smarter
maintenance
decisions.
1404PG_28 28 4/7/14 11:05 AM
April 2014 | 29
www.power-grid.com
warning of the issue by using advance
pattern recognition technology. This
type of find or early warning is common
when a predictive strategy is in place
and spans from simple asset malfunc-
tions to environmental effects to wide-
scale efficiency loss on the grid.
MAKING SENSE OF BIG DATA
As new technology develops in the
power sector, the use of predictive
maintenance strategies has migrated
from power generation plants to equip-
ment assets deployed as part of the
smart grid.
In particular, the use of predictive
analytics has become prevalent in
designing and monitoring infrastruc-
ture for transmitting and distributing
electricity. After making significant
investments in modern control, moni-
toring and smart devices, predictive
monitoring techniques allow utilities
to extend that investment by using and
analyzing collected data to make more
informed maintenance decisions.
Using advanced predictive analyt-
ics and diagnostic technology as part
of a comprehensive maintenance pro-
gram, utilities can monitor critical
assets to predict, diagnose and pri-
oritize impending equipment problems
continuously and in real time.
As many utilities struggle to make
sense of the massive amount of data
available through smart devices, smart
grids and machine sensors, predictive
maintenance remains a practical appli-
cation. Power delivery companies can
transform their maintenance strategies
by leveraging data and predictive asset
analytics solutions to spend less time
looking for potential issues and more
time taking actions to get the most out
of every asset.


that otherwise
might have gone
unnoticed. The technology
can identify problems days,
weeks and months before a
failure, which allows utili-
ties to be more proactive.
Not only do utilities reduce
expenses by extending the life
of their equipment, length-
ening maintenance windows,
increasing asset efficiency and
increasing availability, other
savings are realized when
considering the costs that
could have been, including
loss of power, replacement
equipment, lost productiv-
ity, additional man-hours,
etc., when a major failure is
avoided.
Implementing a software
suite that uses predictive ana-
lytics enhances the ability of
wide-area monitoring systems
(WAMs) to monitor and ana-
lyze power use over large geographic
areas. Predictive analytics also can be
combined with WAMS to better moni-
tor and analyze the power transmis-
sion system over large geographic areas
for improved situational awareness.
Through subsecond data monitoring,
smart grid software can prevent the
grid from
collapsing by
detecting small
oscillations that can serve
as early warning signs. By
employing analytics to inter-
pret data such as grid oscil-
lations, utilities can launch
proactive measures to pre-
vent problems such as a grid
collapse. The integration of
real-time asset health infor-
mation with WAMS can pro-
vide the additional insight
necessary to identify risk
points and analyze grid dis-
turbances.
EARLY WARNINGS
One of our large power
delivery customers at InStep
Software used predictive
analytic software called
PRiSM to identify a subtle
equipment variation that
would have gone unnoticed
for some time.
Company personnel discovered that
when a capacitor bank was energized,
the neutral current was abnormally
high. This condition did not trip the
real-time monitoring alarm. Rather
than waiting until more capacitors
failed, which could have caused more
problems, the utility received an early
1404PG_29 29 4/7/14 11:05 AM
30 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
BY RICK GEIGER, CISCO SYSTEMS INC.
Collaboration is essential
to expose IT to OT chal-
lenges and requirements
and to bring OT to under-
stand IT capabilities.
EMBRACING IT-OT
CONVERGENCE
Utility IT organizations
are expected to have the
development and process
maturity for handling
rid modernization, with its pro-
liferation of smart meters, grid
sensors, advanced distribution automa-
tion, wide-area measurements and the
like, is driving rapid growth in the size
and complexity of Internet Protocol (IP)
networks and data centers responsible
for grid operations—the area usually
known as operations technology (OT).
Process maturity and best practices to
design, secure and manage such large,
complex systems, however, are outside
the experience of most OT departments.
Many utility information technol-
ogy (IT) organizations have the experi-
ence and process maturity these grid
operations need.
To make this work, though, IT must
recognize the requirements of critical
control systems and the knowledge-
base, expertise and perspective of OT.
And OT must understand the
strengths and value of IT expertise in
networking, computing and security.
Successful companies are finding
ways to establish common ground and
to combine the proficiency and knowl-
edge of IT and OT.
Rick Geiger is the executive director of Cisco’s smart grid and utilities business
transformation team. He serves on the Gridwise Alliance board of directors and is
an IEEE Senior Member and member of the Power and Energy Society.
1404PG_30 30 4/7/14 11:33 AM
April 2014 | 31
www.power-grid.com
In OT departments, particularly,
compliance planning, tracking, review-
ing, submittal and auditing can domi-
nate process needs and requirements.
BREAK DOWN THOSE SILOES
Few IT departments have had to
understand the requirements and pri-
orities of real-time control systems.
As a result, nearly every utility engi-
neering department has horror stories
about an IT technician who runs a port
scan, installs patches or performs some
other normal IT maintenance process
that crashes a control system or other-
wise interferes with operations.
Many control systems cannot be
taken down for maintenance or any
other reason until provision has been
made for continuing safe operation.
There’s an inclination for IT to be
critical of such circumstances without
complex IT infrastructures
and networks.
To communicate these
capabilities, IT may help OT
gain insight through a dia-
logue around questions that
should be familiar from pro-
cess maturity assessments:
t What is IT’s process
model (such as ITIL)?
t Have all IT personnel
been trained in this
process model? Were
they trained once or
is there a cadence of
continuing educa-
tion and professional
development?
t Is there a defined
mentoring and edu-
cation program for
new hires?
t How is business
process management
maturity or progress
measured?
t What process is in place to make
corrections and apply lessons
learned to continuously evolve and
improve the model?
Business process models (BPMs) give
structure and repeatability to the means
used to achieve a business or opera-
tional result.
Repeatability is key; once a successful
way is developed, it can be taught to
others and used again without mistakes
or false starts.
Structure is also important. It allows
corrections and adjustments to improve
or meet changing requirements.
Every IT and OT department will
recognize these needs and qualities in
its daily operations.
Process development and maturity
for utilities also must consider the
many mandates for regulatory compli-
ance.
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32 | April 2014
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the organization.
Without executive leadership, the
respective organizations’ path of least
resistance is to continue to focus on
short-term goals without achieving
long-term change.
IT and OT have been separate since
the company was
founded. What is the
utility trying to achieve?
Why do IT and OT
need to come together
now? The vision and
commitment must be
clear.
IT and OT must gain
understanding of the
value, capabilities and needs of the
other organization.
There’s no automatic recipe that
works everywhere, but many examples
of success exist.
Collaboration begins with building a
common context: a basic understand-
ing of the goals, requirements and pro-
cesses of IT and OT. This starts with
fact sharing.
In the U.S., IEEE Power & Energy
Society (PES) regularly runs regional
Plain Talk courses for nonengineering
industry professionals.
Here IT professionals or anyone can
learn the basics of how electric power
systems work and the utility’s need for
security, communication, telemetry and
control.
In addition, most major OT suppliers
have open professional development
courses for utility personnel to learn
more about the basics and specifics of
their technology.
The goal is not to turn IT profession-
als into power system or control engi-
neers; rather, it is to provide them with
information, resources and a foundation
understanding how they came to be
that way.
Operational control systems often
originally were designed and installed
as stand-alone systems and were not
interconnected or available for remote
access.
There was no requirement for peri-
odic applications of patches or other
maintenance processes once correct
operation was established.
Likewise, there wasn’t any need
to respond to new malware or keep
updates current.
But the development of threat vec-
tors aimed at stand-alone systems and
the increasing connectivity required
for grid modernization are changing
all that.
OT system users are different from
IT users.
Typical OT system users range from
field-workers with different environ-
ments that require a different approach
to the human-machine interface to
users that operate 24/7 and require
a different approach to maintenance,
backups and patch management.
And the users’ tolerance for errors
and failures is much smaller than the
typical IT user’s.
Mirroring the difference in users,
vendors of OT systems traditionally
have been more limited and special-
ized.
Although the industry has begun to
insist that OT vendors meet the same
standards as IT vendors, this has been
an evolutionary process.
North American Electric Reliability
Corp. (NERC) critical infrastructure
protection (CIP) has encouraged this
transition, but the industry is still
evolving.
In nearly every utility, IT and OT
engage in their own separate strategies,
planning and budgeting.
Executive management might not
converge until the chief operating offi-
cer (COO) or even CEO level.
This autonomy and focus has served
utilities well, but now it can result
in a lack of dialogue,
few or no relationships,
and little opportunity
to establish trust or the
shared context for rel-
evant collaboration.
This is familiar to
every utility executive:
separate departments,
different missions,
focused execution and few opportuni-
ties to develop or experience a culture
of collaboration.
Collaboration is essential to expose
IT to OT challenges and requirements
and bring OT to understand IT capa-
bilities.
The goal is development and imple-
mentation of best practices, governance
and continuing education.
This includes ongoing assessment of
security, quality and effectiveness.
Creating collaborative IT-OT teams
is the best way to address the growing
complexity of networking and comput-
ing brought about by grid moderniza-
tion.
BUILDING COMMON GROUND
The start of common ground is shared
purpose and objective.
Defining this is a critical role of
executive management.
Utilities with the most successful
convergence initiatives have executive
management with a common vision,
commitment and collaboration and can
convey that commitment to all levels of
Collaboration
is essential to
expose IT to OT
challenges and
requirements
and bring OT to
understand IT
capabilities.
1404PG_32 32 4/7/14 11:33 AM
April 2014 | 33
www.power-grid.com
and OT closer together? Is it risk from
past conflict or poor results? Or is it the
perception of risk?
Often, perceived risks come down
to the very same turf and trust issues
discussed.
This is why common vision and com-
mitment at the senior executive level is
important.
Risk management often is achieved
by repeating what works.
Repeating the past might work well
in a relatively static environment where
the business model, regulatory model,
technology and expectations remain the
same or change slowly.
The utility industry is transform-
ing thanks to regulatory mandates and
public policy.
Utilities are being driven faster and
further than before. In this case, man-
aging risk by repeating the past might
increase risk in all areas.
Risk management has its own process
formalizations that can be found in ISO
31000, Project Management Institute,
and other standards.
As with all process formalization,
these do not provide guaranteed answers
but offer a framework for a methodical
approach that can be applied with
assessment of results and application of
lessons learned.
As the industry changes and past
practices no longer address changing
needs, ISO 31000-based risk manage-
ment becomes an active process of
clearly identifying business objectives,
assessing where uncertainty arises,
and applying resources to manage and
reduce uncertainty where possible and
actively monitor and reassess as prog-
ress is made.
What are the IT-OT convergence risks
and unknowns? Past attempts might
from which they can understand OT
needs and objectives.
Control system and power engineers
benefit from IT for non-IT profession-
als.
Executive education courses are
available at local colleges and universi-
ties and focus on the management of
information and communication tech-
nology.
The aim is to raise awareness of best
practices and process maturity that are
IT’s stock in trade along with capabili-
ties required to address the enterprise
environment, security and operations
management.
Courses also are available from
vendors of business process models,
such as the Information Technology
Infrastructure Library (ITIL), a widely
accepted approach to IT service man-
agement.
In addition to cross-training, com-
mon ground requires personal relation-
ships.
A lot of business conflict centers
around turf and trust issues. An under-
lying cause of such issues is insecurity
because of a perceived threat to some-
one’s job, department or organization.
Relationships are required for trust to
develop, turning “they” and “them” into
“we” and “us.”
People don’t develop personal rela-
tionships without opportunity. If rela-
tionships are essential, then so is pro-
viding the opportunity for them to
develop.
A good relationship builder is work-
ing on a cross-functional team to
accomplish a short-term deliverable
that requires the skills of both depart-
ments.
Careful attention needs to be given to
team dynamics to make sure there’s no
room for finger-pointing or one side’s
blaming the other for failure to meet
goals or schedules.
The team must be small enough that
no one can hide or say he or she doesn’t
agree with the goal or how it is met.
The first cross-functional team should
be built using volunteers and thought
leaders from the respective departments
to help establish a new best practice.
One of the best ways to find common
ground is to temporarily assign person-
nel from IT to OT and vice versa.
This assignment needs to be full-time
and long enough to build the relation-
ships that will be essential to future
collaboration.
Six months is a good start; 12 months
is even better.
Both organizations will take a
resource and productivity hit with such
a swap, as the skill set mix is not com-
pletely interchangeable.
Expectations should be set aggres-
sively to bring people out of their com-
fort zones, but not so aggressively to
result in failure or hopelessness.
Nothing works better than immer-
sion, and both organizations benefit.
Temporary reassignment also should
include a mentoring program. Assign a
volunteer to train the person from the
other department.
Working with the respective depart-
ment directors, managers and supervi-
sors is key so they are invested in its
success.
MANAGING THE RISK
OF CONVERGENCE
How should an executive at a regu-
lated, investor-owned utility manage or
minimize the risks that have prevented
his or her organization from bringing IT
1404PG_33 33 4/7/14 11:33 AM
34 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
Integration of renewable and distrib-
uted energy resources significantly chal-
lenges legacy reliability practices.
Demonstration projects funded by
the Department of Energy (DOE),
research from the national labs, the
Electric Power Research Institute
(EPRI), universities and others point
to near real-time telemetry and active
control as essential for reliability of
the envisioned ecosystem of distributed
energy resources.
The technology solutions that are
developing to address security and reli-
ability in the face of these unprece-
dented requirements involve enormous
expansion of network communications
for telemetry and control and equally
enormous expansion of data centers for
the computing power to store, analyze
and manage the vast quantities of data.
SUMMING IT ALL UP
Who is better equipped to handle
the significant challenges during the
decades to come? IT or OT?
OT has the critical knowledge of
power engineering, real-time control
systems and the operational require-
ments of reliability and power engineer-
ing.
IT has the critical knowledge of
advanced IP networking, architecture,
security and the process maturity to
address large, complex network, com-
puting and storage systems.
Grid modernization has vital needs
that can be addressed only through
collaboration, executive leadership and
alignment to common vision and goals.
IT and OT organizations must find
common ground to which they can
bring their capabilities to address the
needs of the utility control systems that
constitute critical infrastructure.

have had poor results, such as the
unfortunate IT technician mentioned.
Unsuccessful experience might be
used as a reason for inaction when it
should be examined for lessons learned.
It’s critical to manage risk based on
the suggestions given: establish com-
mon context, provide opportunity for
developing relationships and build
common ground.
The other key to managing risk is
establishing ownership and vested
interest in the successful results by the
IT and OT professionals responsible for
daily operations. Industry consultants
may provide essential information and
guidance, but internal teams should
never lose ownership of goals, process
and results.
To achieve commitment, internal
teams must engage in a collaborative
process to develop requirements, archi-
tecture and a design for the future state;
assess the current state; identify the
gaps; and develop a plan to move from
the current state to the desired future.
BUILDING THE BUSINESS CASE
Factors in developing a cost-benefit
analysis that shows the business case
for IT-OT convergence include:
t Ongoing process development and
optimization;
t Total system life cycle costs;
t Costs of synchronization and de-
duplication; and
t Cost factors for system life cycle
management on IT technology
timescales.
It is logical to start by looking at the
process evolution in IT and follow a
parallel path of process development,
maturity and optimization for OT. The
business case analysis needs to address
whether the organization can afford the
time and resources required and wheth-
er the processes and systems developed
to carry OT forward will be the same as
those in IT.
The cost model can be complex
because it must include system costs
and implementation, maintenance and
other life cycle costs that typically con-
stitute 70 to 90 percent of total cost.
Given the much shorter technology
time cycles of IT technology, replace-
ment or expansion systems and com-
ponents might not be available over the
normal 20-year time frames expected of
power delivery infrastructure. System
life cycle planning including new sys-
tem acquisition, migration planning
and decommissioning is prudently con-
sidered up front.
Duplicate systems carry the risk and
expense of making sure that any over-
laps stay in synch. The alternative to
duplicate process development siloed
within OT is to expand IT to provide
those process services in collaboration
with OT.
Although not free of cost, IT depart-
ments have been evolving in this direc-
tion for some time, building capabilities
such as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
and Applications as a Service (AaaS).
IMPLICATIONS FOR SECURITY,
RELIABILITY AND COMPLIANCE
Security and reliability are the stron-
gest drivers’ bringing about the col-
laboration of IT and OT. The industry
knows the magnitude and costs of
NERC CIP compliance as it has evolved.
More changes remain with pending
NERC CIP V5, NISTIR 7628, Common
Criteria, the February 2013 Executive
Order on Cybersecurity, and the poten-
tial unaddressed alignment with FIPS.
1404PG_34 34 4/7/14 11:33 AM
April 2014 | 35
www.power-grid.com
BY ERIK T. CHRISTIAN, TOLLGRADE COMMUNICATIONS
Without the ability to
get real-time situational
awareness data back from
distribution automation
applications, it becomes
increasingly challenging
to improve reliability and
restore power faster.
Luckily, new smart
grid technologies and
communications options
recently have come on the scene and
changed the dynamic of what was pre-
viously not viable or affordable. Low-
cost medium-voltage smart grid sensors
A
smart grid cannot function
without a digital communications
network. For example, with the advent
of smart metering or advanced metering
infrastructure (AMI), utilities had to
provide an architecture for automated,
two-way communication between the
meter and their head-end systems to
benefit from applications that could
take advantage of real-time data about
energy consumption.
Although outfitting homes with smart
meters has provided benefits, meters
alone cannot provide actionable visibil-
ity into the distribution portion of the
network where, according to the Edison
Electric Institute (EEI), more than 90
percent of outages occur.
The distribution network spans more
than 6 million miles in
the U.S. and has remained
largely unmonitored.
Aging, unmonitored sub-
station transformers and
feeder equipment are two
of the biggest challenges
that threaten electric grid
reliability in the U.S. and
around the world. For
example, in many util-
ity networks, it is common to have as
much as 70 percent of substation trans-
formers unmonitored. This is primarily
because the two traditional methods for
rolling out a communication network
—fiber or radio frequency (RF) mesh
networks—have been too costly for
most utilities to deploy ubiquitously.
Erik T. Christian is vice president of smart
grid at Tollgrade Communications.Reach him
at echristian@tollgrade.com.
The
distribution
network spans
more than 6
million miles
in the U.S. and
has remained
largely
unmonitored.
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36 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
turned to:
t A wide range of point-to-point
serial radio systems’ using licensed
frequencies; or
t Private mesh networks’ operating
unlicensed in the 900-megahertz,
2.4-gigahertz or 5.6-gigahertz
spectrum where they could get
somewhat limited bandwidth with
minimal interference.
Both efforts require utilities to become
experts at building and supporting their
own wireless infrastructure, which has
been costly and complicated.
With the availability of smart grid
sensors with built-in cellular capabili-
ties and ubiquitous 3G wireless cover-
age, utilities can leverage the cellular
network to modernize their grid at a
lower overall total cost of ownership. In
addition to more ubiquitous coverage, a
technology comparison by Qualcomm
found cellular networks also have the
added benefit of higher data rates,
with integrated communications are
a disruptive technology that is chang-
ing how utilities think about rolling
out intelligence and communications
into their distribution networks to sup-
port various distribution automation
applications. These sensors are soft-
ware-defined, inductively powered and
come integrated with cellular or wire-
less communications options. Some
even include multiyear bundled cellular
communications plans.
Similar to how smart meters pull data
back from the low-voltage grid, this
new generation of smart grid sensors is
purpose-built for the distribution net-
work and affordable enough to deploy
networkwide to solve various distribu-
tion automation applications. Whether
deployed at the substation, sectional-
izing a feeder or installed behind non-
communicating assets such as hydraulic
reclosers, these communicating sensors
can bring back the valuable data utili-
ties need to improve reliability and grid
efficiency while reducing operational
expenses.
CELLULAR BECOMES VIABLE
COMMUNICATION OPTION FOR
DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION
APPLICATIONS
One of the critical components of
grid modernization is a reliable, afford-
able communications network with
enough bandwidth to send real-time
grid data to back-office systems and to
cover the 6 million miles of distribution
network where visibility is lacking.
By using today’s ubiquitous cellular
networks as the communications layer
for grid modernization, automating the
distribution network can be an afford-
able reality for the first time.
Before cellular networks became a
viable option, utilities had one choice in
building a communications layer across
the distribution network: creating their
own private wireless networks. To
accomplish this, utilities traditionally
3G GPRS RF MESH PLC4
Network Type Operator-managed WAN Operator-managed WAN
Utility-deployed and
Operated
Utility-deployed
and Operated
Topology Cellular Cellular Star, Tree and Mesh Power Line
Spectrum Type Licensed Licensed Unlicensed Power Line
Typical Data Rate
1
1 Mbps 40 Kbps 9.6 – 10+ Kbps Several to 100+ Kbps
Message Delivery Latency
2
< 1 Sec 1 sec or above 1-60 sec < 1 sec
Coverage
3
· º8% + u.S. Populdlion
· 1Os ol |elers lo 1Os ol
km per Cell Site
· º8% + u.S. Populdlion
· 1Os ol |elers lo 1Os ol
km per Cell Site
· up lo |ulliple |m
· ldld Pdle lecredses
With Distance
2
Reliability/Availability
3
Pdle ol Successlul lin|
Esldblishmenl. > ºº%
Pdle ol Successlul lin|
Esldblishmenl. > ºº%
Dependent on the
Underlying Power Line
0
Security
Pro»ide dulhenlicdlion dnd conlidenlidlil] lor o»er·lhe·dir lin|. Applicdlion ld]er securil] mechdnism
can be deployed to ensure end-to-end security.
SUMMARY OF TECHNOLOGIES AND CAPABILITIES 1
1
0PPS ddld represenl lheorelicdl lor edge Wilh eighl lime slols. PlC ddld rdle is dependenl on lhe lin| disldnce.
2
I]picdl »dlues. ldlenc] depends on nelWor| lodd dnd lhe number ol hops belWeen source dnd deslindlion. ldlenc] lor Pl mesh
and PLC also depends on the backhaul network used.
3
Co»erdge dnd relidbilil] depend on bolh lhe lechnolog] dnd lhe specilic deplo]menl. Ihe cosl (bolh Cdpe/ dnd 0pe/) lor deplo]ing
dnd mdinldining d green·lield nelWor| lo meel lhe use cdse requiremenls should be ld|en inlo dccounl.
4
Chdrdclerislic ol l]picdl ndrroWbdnd PlC lechnolog], e.g., 03 dnd prime. Source: Qualcomm, 2011
1404PG_36 36 4/7/14 11:05 AM
April 2014 | 37
www.power-grid.com
Ops Planning Reliability
GIS DMS SCADA Historian
WAN
OMS
Load Monitoring Fault Detection Substation Monitoring Distributed Generation
Sensor Management Software With Predictive Grid Analytics
CELLULAR COMMUNICATING SMART GRID SENSORS 2
- Subst+tion monitoring,
- l+ult octcction +no loc+tion,
- listribution gcncr+tion, +no
- Volt/VAl optimiz+tion
lcy mc+surcmcnts +no lunction+lity
incluoc
- Currcnt, volt+gc, powcr l+ctor +no
l+rmonics,
- Iocntilic+tion +no cl+ssilic+tion ol
l+ult currcnt,
- lc+l-timc +l+rming witl
customiz+blc tlrcslolos,
- llow or oircction ol currcnt,
- ll+sc imb+l+ncc (+t tlc circuit or
subst+tion),
- Auto-pl+sc iocntilic+tion to
octcct pl+scs incorrcctly l+bclco
in gcogr+plic inlorm+tion systcms
(GIS) or b+ck-oll systcms +no to
lowcr mcss+gc l+tcncy +no bcttcr rcli-
+bility (scc ligurc 1) llcy +lso l+vc
built-in c+rricr-gr+oc ocsign, support,
m+intcn+ncc +no sccurity to bcttcr pro-
tcct tlc grio lrom tlc looming cybcrsc-
curity tlrc+ts tl+t coulo pl+guc m+ny
utilitics il tlcy l+o to sccurc tlcsc nct-
works on tlcir own In +ooition, witl
ccllul+r cmbcooco in tlc scnsor, tlcrc
is notling clsc to l+ng on tlc polc,
wlicl climin+tcs timc +no m+intcn+ncc
cxpcnscs comp+rco witl nonccllul+r
+ltcrn+tivcs
Sm+rt grio scnsors not only intcgr+tc
ccllul+r communic+tions but +lso ollcr
+ prc-bunolco, multiyc+r ccllul+r o+t+
pl+n lor utilitics tl+t +rc llcxiblc in c+r-
ricr cloicc +no w+nt + turnkcy +ctiv+-
tion +no provisioning, tlc prc- bunolco
option t+kcs +ll tlc gucsswork out ol
ccllul+r o+t+ costs +no ollcrs onc ol tlc
lowcst pricc points pcr scnsor +v+il-
+blc in tlc inoustry llis coulo bc +n
+ttr+ctivc option lor utilitics tl+t woulo
prclcr to c+pit+lizc tlc cost ol o+t+
pl+ns llcrc is no ncco to roll libcr to
+ subst+tion, +no tlcrc +rc no complcx
wirclcss nctworks to tcst, +rclitcct +no
sccurc Ccllul+r-cn+blco sm+rt grio scn-
sors c+n bc inst+llco on tlc oistribution
linc in lcss tl+n livc minutcs llc scn-
sors powcr up inouctivcly (cg, witlout
b+ttcrics), scll-+ctiv+tc onto tlc sccurco
ccllul+r nctwork +no immcoi+tcly bcgin
scnoing rc+l-timc grio lc+ltl o+t+ b+ck
to tlc utilitys opcr+tions ccntcr to sup-
port +pplic+tions incluoing
- lo+o monitoring,
1404PG_37 37 4/7/14 11:05 AM
38 | April 2014
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have long drive times to substations or
long, circuitous feeders. Minimizing
truck rolls and crew time in the field can
have a huge financial impact, removing
operational costs and allowing utilities
to deliver safe, affordable and reliable
energy.
The opportunity for cellular is not just
a phenomenon in North America. GSM
cellular sensors are taking off in Europe
and Latin America, as well. Utilities in
these countries are retrofitting their cur-
rent grid infrastructure by deploying
sensors that leverage cellular networks
and finding they can respond better
to the operational status of the grid to
improve reliability, monitor distributed
generation and restore power faster.
WHY IS NOW THE TIME
FOR CELLULAR-ENABLED
DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION
EQUIPMENT?
Smart meters alone can’t identify fail-
ure locations in the distribution por-
tion of a network, and the information
from smart meters cannot solve the next
generation of distribution automation
challenges on their own. By allowing
utilities to take advantage of cellular-
enabled smart grid sensors, they can
affordably pinpoint problems that cause
most outages. As better outage-location
information and fault data comes into
their back-office systems, utilities can
focus their repair efforts on faster, safer
restoration. Finally, by taking advantage
of built-in carrier grade security enabled
within the cellular network, utilities can
have an added layer of protection against
cyberattacks. In the U.S, this adds up to
big savings for utilities, consumers and
businesses that can take advantage of a
more reliable power grid.

a circuit or during certain times of the
year. The use of analytics is critical
to ensure data accuracy. In head-to-
head field trials, older-generation fault
current indicators (FCIs) generated as
many as four false alarms to every true
outage event confirmed by these cellu-
lar-enabled smart grid sensors. Utilities
can integrate this data from smart grid
sensors and FCIs with other back-end
systems such as data his-
torians, outage manage-
ment systems and distri-
bution management sys-
tems for a much broader
picture of the state of
their infrastructure.
The use of cellular-
communicating smart
grid sensors at the sub-
station is a game chang-
er in cost and scalabil-
ity. The cost of replacing
substation transformers after they fail
unexpectedly in the field is dramati-
cally more expensive than refurbishing
the asset. By having cellular smart grid
sensors that are hot stick deployable at
the substation, there is no need to roll
fiber, de-energize substations or rewire
conductor. Configurable alarms and
reports allow utilities to know when
transformers are being stressed by over-
loading or are in danger of aging pre-
maturely because of unbalanced load.
This enables utilities to gain real-time
visibility into their unmonitored substa-
tions and other parts of their distribu-
tion grid to keep an eye on aging or
stressed assets without having to install
costly backhaul communications.
Cellular smart grid sensors are a
dramatic operational expense-reduction
tool in rural environments where crews
protect crew safety;
t Ranking of worst-performing
circuits; and
t Overload and peak-load reports for
substation transformers.
In addition, this new breed of smart
grid sensor monitors real-time grid
conditions and measures fault current
using predictive grid analytics software.
When an event is detected, wave-
forms of that event are
captured along with back-
ground information (e.g.,
GPS location and time).
This is communicated
over a wireless network
back to the sensor man-
agement system software
in a utility’s operations
center. The system clas-
sifies faults and distur-
bances that do not cause
immediate outages in an
effort to build intelligence about what
might cause a future power failure. For
example, incidents like momentaries or
line disturbances are categorized and
can be filtered to show trends across
The
opportunity
for cellular
is not just a
phenomenon
in North
America. It’s
taking off in
Europe and
Latin America,
too.
1404PG_38 38 4/7/14 11:06 AM
PRODUCTS
April 2014 | 39
www.power-grid.com
Low-Profile Sprocket Booms
Ditch Witch’s new Low-Profile
Sprocket for compact trencher
booms is designed with low-profile
teeth on the tail roller, which help reduce seize-up and
flat-spotting during trencher operation. Engineered with
lower-profile teeth than traditional sprockets, the sprocket
reduces chain wear and minimizes binding caused by
rocks and other debris. The Low-Profile Sprocket is avail-
able in greasable and sealed models and is available on
compact equipment booms designed to trench depths of
18 to 48 inches. The Low-Profile Sprocket is compatible
with the following trencher booms in greasable and/or
sealed designs: standard boom, designed with abrasion-
resistant bars on the top and bottom, and manual chain
tension provisions; greasable boom, a rugged, proven
boom similar to the standard boom but features a grease
cylinder to tension the digging chain; and split boom,
an economical boom designed for operating in light- to
medium-jobsite conditions. The boom’s design allows for
quick, easy installation and removal.
Ditch Witch
GO TO WWW.PGI.HOTIMS.COM FOR MORE INFORMATION
Linux Real-Time Capabilities
DCS Solutions, a provider of wireless data
products, solutions and services, will use
Telit’s DE910-DUAL PCIe CDMA|EV-DO cel-
lular data card for mobile data communications in its DCS-
559 Wireless N-Router. With the new router, DCS looks to
deliver wireless broadband access over nationwide 3G
networks to users anywhere with minimal setup effort. The
DCS-559 provides highly secure wireless network access
for the mobile work force anytime, anywhere. It is also an
ideal solution as a fail-over for corporate wired systems,
ensuring business continuity during wired-ISP outages.
The mobile router is an ideal solution for remote surveil-
lance systems either as the main connectivity provider or
as a backup for wired connections. It allows quick con-
figuration of VPN tunnels and a redundant Internet access
path over the cellular network.
Telit/DCS
GO TO WWW.PGI.HOTIMS.COM FOR MORE INFORMATION
Cable Cutter
Ideal Industries Inc. has added to
its PowerBlade family of products with
the Merlin PowerBlade Cable Cutter
designed to cut ACSR cable commonly used in overhead
power lines and “guy-wire” tensioned cable installed to
improve utility pole stability. It fits onto standard corded or
cordless drills. Once installed, the Merlin Power Blade is
held securely in place with an adjustable torque arm, while
the user grips an ergonomic, textured Santoprene handle
for added stability. Next, the user pulls the drill’s trigger to
cut through ACSR cables in 20 seconds or less. The Merlin
PowerBlade blade is contoured to provide clean, rounded
cutting of ACSR cable. Ideal employed a new heat treat-
ment method that achieves extreme hardening of the
blades, which translates into hundreds, if not thousands,
of cuts before requiring replacement. Heavy-duty gears
are protected within a reinforced, all-metal housing to
maintain peak performance.
Ideal Industries Inc.
GO TO WWW.PGI.HOTIMS.COM FOR MORE INFORMATION
Box-joint Diagonal Cutter
The new X-Cut cutting pliers
from KNIPEX are compact, light-
weight, powerful and precise box-joint diagonal cutters
that cut through fine strands with great precision, easily
cutting through materials similar to hard piano wire, but
also feature a large jaw opening for multistrand cables.
The X-Cut model requires 40 percent less force than
conventional diagonal cutters. The box-joint design gives
the tool greater stability while eliminating backlash move-
ment, and the slim shape of the tool’s head provides easy
access in confined spaces. A double-supported joint axis
and optimum coordination of the cutting edge angle,
combined with a high-lever ratio, allow for heavy-duty,
high-capacity cutting. Manufactured of forged and oil-
hardened chrome-vanadium, heavy-duty steel, the X-Cut
cutter is available in a polished or chrome-plated finish
with multicomponent handles. An insulated X-Cut model
is also available.
KNIPEX
GO TO WWW.PGI.HOTIMS.COM FOR MORE INFORMATION
1404PG_39 39 4/7/14 11:06 AM
CALENDAR
40 | April 2014
www.power-grid.com
J
U
L
Y
M
A
Y
DistribuTECH 2015: The industry’s most
comprehensive conference on automation, smart grid
and T&D engineering. Feb. 3-5, 2015, San Diego.
Phone 918.832.9265 www.distributech.com
1421 S. Sheridan Road, Tulsa, OK 74112
P.O. Box 1260 : Tulsa, OK 74101
918.835.3161, fax 918.831.9834
http://pennwell.com
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, NORTH AMERICAN
POWER GENERATION GROUP
Richard Baker
918.831.9187 richardb@pennwell.com
PRODUCTION MANAGER
Daniel Greene
918.831.9401 danielg@pennwell.com
ADVERTISING TRAFFIC MANAGER
Dillon Waters
918-831-9454 dillonw@pennwell.com
SALES DIRECTOR, WESTERN,
INTERNATIONAL SALES MANAGER
Candice Doctor
918.831.9884 fax 918.831.9834
candiced@pennwell.com
EASTERN REGIONAL
SALES MANAGER
Tom Leibrandt
918.831.9184 fax 918.831.9834 toml@pennwell.com
CHINA & HONG KONG SALES MANAGER
Adonis Mak
ACT International
Unit B, 13/F, Por Yen Building
478 Castle Peak Road, Cheung Sha Wan
Kowloon, Hong Kong
+86.138.252.678.23 fax +852.2.838.2766
adonism@actintl.com.hk
ISRAEL SALES MANAGER
Daniel Aronovic
Margola Ltd.
1/1 Rashi Street, Raanana 43214 Israel
phone/fax +972.9.899 5813
aronovic@actcom.co.il
SENIOR DISTRIBUTECH EXHIBIT
& SPONSORSHIP SALES MANAGER
Sandy Norris
918.831.9115 fax 918.831.9834
sandyn@pennwell.com
DISTRIBUTECH EXHIBIT &
SPONSORSHIP SALES MANAGER
Melissa Ward
918.831.9116 fax 918.831.9834
mward@pennwell.com
REPRINTS
Rhonda Brown
219.878.6094 fax 219.561.2023
rhondab@fosterprinting.com
J
U
N
E
5 7
DistribuTECH India
www.distributechindia.com
New Delhi
5 8
AWEA Windpower
Conference & Exhibition
www.windpowerexpo.org
Las Vegas
5 9
CS Week Conference 38
www.csweek.org
San Antonio
6 9
UTC Telecom 2014
www.utc.org
Phoenix
1 4
Electric Utility Fleet
Managers Conference
www.eufmc.com
Williamsburg, Va.

3 5
POWER-GEN Europe
www.powergeneurope.com
Cologne, Germany

3 5
Renewable Energy World
Conference & Expo
Europe
www.renewableenergyworld-
europe.com
Cologne, Germany

8 11
EEI Annual Conference
www.eei.org
Las Vegas
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14 18
ESRI User’s Conference
www.esri.com
San Diego
20 22
COAL-GEN
www.coal-gen.com
Nashville, Tenn.
22 25
HYDROVISION
International
www.hydroevent.com
Nashville, Tenn.
24 29
CIGRE
www.cigre.org
Paris
1404PG_40 40 4/7/14 11:06 AM
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CALL FOR ABSTRACTS
DEADLINE TO SUBMIT AN ABSTRACT: JUNE 9, 2014
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1404PG_C3 3 4/7/14 11:06 AM
DDDeeellliiivveeerrr MMMooorrreee VVVaaallluueee fffrrrooommm
The Cisco Connected Grid Field Area Network (FAN)
Solution gives utility operators a way to run Advanced
Metering Infrastructure (AMI), Distribution Automation
(DA), and protection and control applications over a
single, intelligent, and highly secure network platform
based on open standards.
To learn more about our Award winning solutions visit us at
Cisco.com/go/smartgrid
© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
aaallluuueee fff
sss
Area Netw
way to run
stribution A
application
ure networ
To learn more about our Award winning solutions visit us at
DDDeeellliiivvveeerrr MMMooorrreee VVVaaa
YYYooouuurrr OOOppppeeerrraaatttiiiooonnnsss
The Cisco Connected Grid Field A
Solution gives utility operators a w
Metering Infrastructure (AMI), Dis
(DA), and protection and control a
single, intelligent, and highly secu
based on open standards.
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
1404PG_C4 4 4/7/14 11:06 AM

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