“...

demographic revival requires the development of a climate in society open to family needs and receptive to motherhood, and the creation of conditions for a better balance between work and family life.” [1]

Statements like this are a clear example of the increasing sensitivity and concern of EU institutions, for the family. The socio – economic difficulties and challenges, especially the economic and demographic ones of recent decades are causing a rediscovery of the family, as well as the social function it fulfils which are essential for individuals and for society. But this is not enough. The problems of the European family have been increasing in recent years, to the point of creating a desolate panorama. Europe is plunged in an unprecedented demographic winter and has become an elderly continent, with a large birth deficit, fewer marriages and more of them broken, homes emptying. This is causing tangible effects, both economically and socially. Economically, there is an increase in public expenditure on account of the ageing population, on pensions and health costs. Added to the effects of the collapse of public revenues by the birth deficit, this expenditure may lead to the reduction / elimination of social benefits and finally the bankruptcy of the welfare state. As to the non –economic effects, a society is forcefully emerging, broken by family collapse, with households ever more empty, with increasing individualism and loss of the values and norms that enable social cohesion.
[1] EU Commission communication “Dealing with the effect of ageing on the population of the European Union” (COM 2009 18/04)

In this context and in response to this situation we endorse the proposals from the European Parliament: "The future EU strategy must recognize the important role of family as a key social institution for the survival, protection and development of the child”[2] and the proposal from the European Commission to "encourage member countries to incorporate the family dimension in their economic and social policies" [3]. Indeed, the family should benefit from the greatest protection possible in order to facilitate effectively fulfilling its role. Hence, society, and also particular public authorities, based on the conviction that the good of the family is an essential and indispensable value of the civil community, need to have the political disposition to protect the family with political measures, economic measures, social measures, legal measures, etc. This will thereby help to strengthen the unity and stability of families, enabling them to fulfil their specific roles. It is therefore necessary to reorient the family policies which are developing the various administrations of the EU States, that they may also focus on the family as a social group, in order to facilitate the fulfilment of its tasks. A family policy that specifically addresses the family group as an emotional, educational, economic and social means, should not legislate solely in terms of individuals but in terms of people living in a family. A family policy limited exclusively to sectoral policies, or limited to comprehensive plans for family members as individuals will always be incomplete.
[2] Report "Towards an EU Strategy on the Rights of the Child" (A6-0520/2007). (P. 24) [3] “Commission Opinion on The family and demographic change“ (SOC 245 - EESC 55/2007)

In view of this, the Institute for Family Policy (IPF) has prepared this indepth study on the evolution of the family in Europe, which it presents annually in the European Parliament. This report has been drawn up by a multi-disciplinary team of experts in the fields of demography, psychology, medicine, and combining professional and family life, etc., which sets out and analyses the most significant areas, based on information provided by various international organisations. As a result of this analysis, the Institute for Family Policies (IPF) proposes a set of social, economic and cultural measures, among others, that it considers vital for the gradual implementation in European policy of a genuinely “family-oriented” approach.

Eduardo Hertfelder de Aldecoa President of the International Federation Institute of Family Policies (IPF) November 2009

Europe (EU-27) has reached 500 million people…
500,5 492,9 484,5 480,3 475,5
Millions of inhabitants

500

The 27 EU nations reached 500 million (500,482,231)because of an increase of over 3.2 million people during 2008-2009.

…growth has been slow…
In 29 years since 1980, the EU population grew by nearly 43.4 million people, representing growth of 9.5% (0.33% anually). In the 10 years since 1999, the population increased 19.4 million: an increased of 3.8%.

475 462,6 457,0 450

468,9

UE27 Population (1 January) 425 1980 1984 1989 1994 1998 2002 2006 2009
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSAT and National data

EU enlarged population 103.364.111 inhabitants (21%)

1st January 2009

…of which 400 million are from the EU15 countries
While the largest 15 EU contries number 397,000,000, the population of the enlargement countries has reached 103 million.
EU15 Population EU enlarged population
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

EU15 Population 397.118.120 inhabitants (79%)

90.000.000

82.062.249
Number of inhabitants

Germany United Kingdom

France Italy

70.000.000

Germany’s 82 million citizens, make it the most populated country in the EU-27…
Germany’s 82 million citizens make it the most populated contry in the EU, accounting for 16.4% of the European total. France follows with 64 million, the United Kingdom has 61 million, and Italy 60 million. These 4 nations alone have 267,800,000 inhabitants, representing 53.5% of the total EU population.

64.105.125

61.612.255

60.090.430

50.000.000

30.000.000
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

1.500.000

1.340.341

Estonia Luxembourg

Cyprus Malta

Number of inhabitants

…while Malta with 412,614 has the smallest population in the EU.
Malta with 412,614 has the smallest population in the EU-27. Next smallest is Luxembourg (491,702), then Cyprus (801,622) and Estonia (1,340,341)

1.200.000

900.000

801.622 491.702

600.000

412.614

300.000

0
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

The population increase is due almost entirely to the EU-15 countries, they account for the 98% of the total growth…
The 15 pre-accession countries contributed 98% of the total population increase: 42.5 million between 1980-2009…
Population growth (1980-2009)

42.549.742 (98%)

France (10,3 million), Spain (9,4 million), UK (5,3 million), Germany (3,8 million) and Italy (3,7 million) are the EU contries with the greatest population growth, contributing 75% of the total increase.

872.413 (2%)
EU15 Population growth Enlarged EU population growth (1980-2009)
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

…on the other hand the countries that have enlarged the EU since 2004 have had stagnant population since 1980 (growing by 800,000).
Poland has grown by 2.8 million, and to a lesser extent Slovakia, Slovenia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic and Malta, but the rest of the 12 EU 2004-07 accession countries (Lithuania,Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria) experienced a population fall during 1980 - 2009. Their 103.3 million inhabitants represent one fifth of the EU-27..

…in particular, France (103 million) and Spain (9.4 million) constitute 45% of the EU-27 population growth.

Immigration is the basis of population increase in the 27 countries… …8 of every 10 new people were immigrants
1,846 1,846 EU27 Increase trough Inmigration
Millions of inhabitants

1,612 1,401

2

EU27 Natural Increase 1,146

78% of EU population growth between 1999-2008 is the result of immigration…
Between 1999 and 2008, the population increased by 20.5 million. 15,900,000 of these were immigrants.

1

0,633

0,658

0,555 0,601 0,643

0,421

0,283

0,314

0,420

0,550 0,342

…and which has continued in 2008, with an increase of 69%.
Likewise, 69% of the EU-27 population growth in 2008 (1.4 million inhabitants) was due to immigration.

0 1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

Natural increase is 12 times lower than even the USA.

In 8 of 10 countries in the EU with growing populations, the basis of this is immigration.
Growth by origin (1999-2008)
7 6 5
Millions of inhabitants

Inmigration Natural growth

Italy had a fall in its native population (-0,14 million) but 23 times more immigrants (+3,28 million). Germany, likewise with immigration
(1,19 million) its natural decrease (-1,22 million).

4 3 2 1 0 -1
F ra i ng

Spain has immigration 9 times greater than its internal birth increase. Poland, Romania and Bulgaria are losing citizens by emigration. Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and Bulgaria have falling populations and low immigration.

-2

Un

Only France, Holland, Finland and Slovakia have internal rates of increase higher than their immigration figures.

nc e do m Sp ai n Ho lla n I re d l an d Be l gi um F in la De nd nm a S w rk ed P o en rt u ga Po l l an Cy d pru Au s Lu st r i xe mb a ou G r rg ee S lo ce va kia Ma S lo l t a ve n E s ia Cz t on ec hR ia ep ub li Li t hu c an ia La tv i a I ta ly Hu ng ar y Ro ma B u n ia lg G e ar ia rm an y dK
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

ite

The immigrant population has reached 29 million... ...representing 5.8% population of Europe… of the

2007
466.214.986 (94,2%)

28.913.543 (5,8%)

The 28,913,543 immigrants account for 5.8% of the total population of the EU27.

EU27 Rest of the population EU27 Immigrant Population
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

30.000.000 EU27 Immigrant Population 25.000.000
Nº Immigrants

28.913.543

…and it has nearly doubled (94%) in the last 10 years (1999-2007).
The immigrant population has almost doubled in the past 10 years, from 14.9 million in 1999 to nearly 29 million in 2007, representing growth of 94%.

20.000.000

15.000.000

14.900.541

10.000.000

1997
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

94 %

2007

Germany (7.2 million) and Spain (4.6 million) are the EU countries with the hightest number of immigrants..
8.000.000

7.255.949

Germany Spain

Nº Inmigrants

6.000.000

France

4.606.474
4.000.000 3.510.000

…Followed by France (3.5 million) and the UK (3.4 million)…
These four countries alone (Germany, Spain, France & the UK) have 66% of the total of immigrants in the EU.

United Kingdom 3.425.000

2.000.000

0
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

2007
800%

755%
Spain Ireland Italy Cyprus

% Immigration growth

...And Spain is the country which has grown the most…
Immigration has grown the most in Spain over the last 10 years, from barely 538,900 in 1997 to over 4.6 million in 2007: a growth of the 754%

600%

400%

295% 232%
200%

158%

…representing 10.2% of its present population.

0%

1997-2007 period
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

Europe is growing older: The population over 65 years already exceeds to the population under 14 years.
There are already 6.5 million more aged over 65 (85 million) than those under 14 (78.5 million).
18 , 4 % 17, 0 %
% Total Population

1 9%

19 , 5%

1 7%

17, 3 %

16 , 4 % 16 , 4 % 15, 7%

In the past 15 years (1993-2008) we have lost 10.5 million young people…
The EU under – 14 population has fallen from 89 million in 1993 to just 78.4 million in 2008.

15, 6 % 14 , 7%

1 5%
13 , 7%

Over 65s (EU25) Under 14s (EU25)

…there is an increase of 16.5 million elderly people.
Over – 65s have risen from 68.3 million in 1993 to 84.9 million in 2008: an increase of 16.5 million elderly people.
2008

1 3% 1 990 1 995 2000 2004
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

There are now 22 million over- 80s, representing 4.4% of the EU population.

Of the EU-27, Bulgaria (13,4%) and Germany (13,7%) have the lowest percentage of young people: only 1 in 8
13,9% Bulgaria Germany
% of total population

13,9% 13,80% 13,70%

Lithuania 13,6% Slovenia

13,4%
13,3%

Bulgaria (13,4%), Germany (13,7%), Latvia (13,8%), Slovenia (13,9%) and Italy (14,1%) are the EU-27 countries with the lowest percentage of young people. In these countries, only 1 out every 8 inhabitants is under 14.

13,0%

2008
22,5%
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

Ireland

France Luxerbourg

20,6%
% of total population

… by contrast, Ireland has the higher percentage of young in the UE-27: one in every five people.
Besides Ireland (20,6%), France (18,5%), Denmark (18,4%) and Luxembourg (18,2%) are the EU-27 countries with the highest percentage of young. In these countries, 1 in 5 people are under 14.

Denmark

20,0%

18,50%
17,5%

18,40%

18,2%

15,0%

2008
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

Italy and Germany are the countries with the largest elderly populations: 1 in 5 people is over 65.
21%

20,1%
% of total population

Italy

Germany Sweden

20,1%

Greece

Italy and Germany (20,1%), Greece (18,7%), Sweden (17,5%) and Portugal (17,4%) are the EU27 countries with the largest elderly populations. In these countries, 1 in 5 people is over 65. Portugal, followed by Spain, is ageing faster in the EU-27: its over -65 percentage has grown from 11.2% in 1980 to 17.4% in 2008.

19%

18,70%

17,50%
17%

2008
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

14% Ireland
% of total population

Slovakia Poland

13,5% 12,50%

On the other hand, the EU country with the lowest proportion of elderly is Ireland: 1 in almost 10.
Ireland (10,9%), Slovakia (12,0%), Cyprus (12,5%) and Poland (13,5%) are the EU-27 countries with the lowest proportion of elderly. In these countries, 1 in 10 people are over 65 years.

Ciprus

12%

12,00%

10,9%

10%

2008
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

The birth deficit, and the increase in elderly, have caused the average EU27 citizen’s age to increase… …it has reached 40.3 41 years…
40,3
Average age of EU27 inhabitants

40
39,4 38,9 38,5 38,1

39,7

The birth deficit, and the increase in elderly, have caused the average EU citizen’s age to increase from 37.3 in 1993, to 40.3 in 2008.

39

… with an increase of 3 years in the last 15 years..
The average age in the EU27 has increased from 37.3 in 1993 to 40.3 in 2008, meaning an increment of 3 years in the last 15 years.

38
37,3

37,7

37
93 95 99 97 01 05 03 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 08

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

…and this is likely to rise further in the years to come.

Italy and Germany have the highest average age 42.5…
EU27 Population average age (2008)
It aly Germany Greece Bulgaria UE15 Slovenia Aust ria Port ugal Sweden Finland UE27 Spain Belgium Hungary Lat via Rep.Checa Est onia Denmark Unit ed Kingdom France Holand M alt a Lit huania Romania Poland Luxemburg Slovakia Ciprus Ireland

42,5 42,4 41,3 41,1 40,7 40,6 40,5 40,5 40,5 40,4 40,3 40,2 40,2 40,1 40,0 39,9 39,7 39,5 39,2 39,2 39,2 39,1 39,0 38,6 38,3 38,3 37,5 37,0 35,1

Italy (42.5), Germany (42.4), Greece (41.3) and Bulgaria (41.1) are the EU27 countries with an average age above European media of 41 years.

…By contrast, Ireland is the youngest country with lowest average 35.1…
After Ireland, Cyprus (37) and Slovakia (35.1) have the lowest average age.

…the EU15 countries have a slightly higher average age (4 moths more) than for all EU27.

33

35

37

39

41

43

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

The pyramid of age / population is being inverted…

EU-25 1980

EU-27 2008

4

, % 0

4 -

, % 0

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

… causing an unprecedented demographic winter

If this continues… … by 2050… … the consequences of the unprecedented demographic winter…

…will be catastrophic…

By 2050, the European population (EU27) will have fallen by 27.3 million inhabitants...
500.000.000

499.389.380
496.408.451 494.784.171

Number of inhabitnats

In 2010 the EU27 population will begin to fall from 499 million to 472 million in 2050 representing a decrease of 27.3 million inhabitants.
486.991.917

485.000.000

…descending to 472 million inhabitants…

Population forecast EU-27
470.000.000

472.050.235
2040 2050

-500.000

Variacion 2010-2050
2010 2020 2030
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

-2.500.000
Number of inhabitnats

…Germany will suffer the largest fall in population.
The EU-27 countries with the largest falls in population will be: Germany (7.5 million), Italy (7.3 million), Poland (4.4 million) and Romania (4.2 million)

-4.500.000

-4.427.133 -4.208.825

-6.500.000

-7.502.494 -7.308.135
-8.500.000
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

Germany Italy Poland Romania

Over 65s(EU2 7) 30% Und er 1 5s (EU27) 2 8,1 % 0

29,90 %

One in 3 inhabitants will be over 65 years…
The European population over 65 will reach 135 million people, accounting for 29.9% of the population. The EU countries with the largest proportions of elderly will be Spain (35.7%) and Italy (35.5%)

% EU population over 65 and under 14

25%

2 4,50%

2 0,60% 20% 1 9,5% 1 7,3% 1 7,0% 1 5,6% 1 5% 1 ,7% 3 1 5,7% 1 ,80% 4 1 4,00% 1 3,40% 1 3,4 0%

…only 1 in 8 people will be under 15
Only 1 in 8 people will be under 15 (13.4% of t hepopulation of the 27 countries, or less than 60 million. Spain and Bulgaria will be the two countries with the smallest ratios of under -15s: 1 in 10 people.

1 0% 1 990 2 000 2 008 2 020 2 030 2 040 2 050

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

…The pyramid population will be y inverted…

of age/ completel

EU-27 2050

The pyramid of age/ population will be completely inverted, as the over– 65s become the base.

…By 2060, the average EU age will be 46.7.
,8 ,6 ,4 ,2
,0 ,0 ,2 ,4 ,6 ,8

There are 774.000 fewer babies born annually than 26 years ago...
6.159.013

In 2007 the figure barely reached 5.3 million births…
Birth rate (EU27)

6.000.000
5.936.592 5.822.462

In 2008, 774.000 fewer babies were born in the EU27 than in 1982, which represents a decrease of 12.5%. Between 1990 and 1995 there was a dramatic decrease in the number of children born, the figure falling by 691.562 in the EU27.
5.384.190

Number of Births

5.500.000

… there has been a slight increase during the last three years (20052008)
Mientras en el periodo 1995-2005 los nacimientos permanecieron estancados, en los últimos 3 años (2005-2008) se han incrementado en más de 252.000 nacimientos. During 2007 – 2008, there was an increase of 145,000 births .

5.130.900

5.122.949

5.13 2 .0 0 0

5.000.000

1982

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

…although the population increased by 37 million during 1982-2008…

…Which indicates a very low birth rate (1,38) in Europe (EU27)…
2,1 2,1

2,01 1,91
Birth Rate

2,05 1,87

2,06

2,09 2,03

The birth rate (1.38) is a very long way off the level required for population renewal (2.1) …
In 2007 the EU27 birth rate was 1.38 children/female, which far below the Population Renewal (2.1 children/femaile).

1,8

1,8

1,5 EU-27 Renewal Level United States (USA) 1,2 1983 1987

1,47 1,38 1,28 1,32

… and the USA birth rate (2.09)
… and the USA birth rate (2.09) which is almost at the level of population renewal.

1993

1997

2001

2007

… with a sligth increment due to immigration
In the period 1997-2007, and due to the explosion of immigration (doubled), there has been a slight increase of fertility rates of the EU27.

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

...Far below the expectations of European citizens (2.3 children)… (*)
(*) Report of the High Level Group on the future of social
policy in an enlarged European Union. (2004).

1,35

1,34 1,31

2007

Birth rates in some countries are at critical level...
Slovakia (1,25), Romania (1,3), Poland (1,31), Portugal (1,34) and Italy (1,35), etc, barely reach 1.3

Birth Rate

1,3

1,3

1,25

1,25

…Slovakia has the lowest EU birth rate (1.25)…
Portugal Poland

1,2 .
Romania Slovakia

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

2,05 2 1,95
Birth Rate

2,01 1,98
Ireland Sweden

2007
France Denmark

...Others are recovering from the birth crisis…
Ireland (2,01), France (1,98), Sweden (1,88), Denmark (1,84) and United Kingdom (1,84) shave the highest birth rate among the 27 EU countries, recovering from the birth crisis.

1,9 1,85 1,8 1,75 .
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

1,88 1,84

…Ireland has the highest EU birth rate.

People start families later in life: at almost 30 (UE25).
30

29,7
29,3 29 28,9

Average age at materninty has increased by 2.6 years.
Age at maternity has increased by 2.6 years in the EU25 in recent years, going from 27.1 in 1980 to almost 30 (29.7) in 2007.

Age

28,4 28,2 28 27,6 Age of mother at birth of first child (EU25)

27,1
27 1980 1985 1990 1995

Slovenia (4,26), Czech Republic (4,25) and Hungary (4,06) are the EU 27 countries where age at maternity has increased the most over the period (1980-2007).

2000

2003

2007

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

Italy (31.37) is the EU country where women have their first child later in life.
At 31.37 on average, Italian women are, along with Spaniards (30.88) and Irish women (30.62), having their first child latest among the 27 EU countries.

In Europe (EU-27) there is one abortion every 25 seconds…
1.800.000
1.608.455

…there are more than one million, two hundred thousand abortions a year…
1.353.769 1.232.789 1.234.312

Nº of Abortions

1.400.000

In 2007 1.234.312 pregnancies were ended in abortion. Each day, 3.381 children are prevented from being born in Europe (EU27): that is, there are 141 abortions every hour.

1.000.000
867.377 759.924 899.623

927.977

European Union 27 (EU27) European Union 15 (EU15) 600.000 1995 2000 2005 2007

…Equal to the combined populations of Luxembourg and Malta…
Each year in Europe, abortion figures are the equivalent of the populations of Luxembourg and Malta combined, or the entire population of Slovenia or Cyprus.
1.234.312 (19% )

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

…1 in every 5 pregnancies (19%) is ended by abortion.
Of the 6.461.939 pregnancies in 2007 in the EU27, 1.223.015 were ended by abortion, equal 19% of pregnancies.
Births

2007

5.238.924 (81% )

Abortions
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

Since 1990, there have been 28 million abortions in the EU…
30.000.000

28.022.500
25.561.135

25.000.000
Acumulated number of abortions (EU27)

20.000.000

19.089.436

As many as the population of Malta, Luxembourg, Cyprus, Estonia, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ireland, Finland and Slovakia. More than half have occurred in Romania, France and the United Kingdom.
Romania (7.087.840), France (3.740.496) and United Kingdom (3.522.422) accounted for 51% of abortions in the EU-27 since 1990.

15.000.000

11.834.803
10.000.000

5.000.000

2.468.236
0

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

…which means that abortion is the main cause of death in Europe.

United Kingdom, France, Romania and Italy are the EU27 countries with the highest abortion rate…
250.000 219.336 209.699
United Kingdom France Romania (*) Italy

Nº of Abortions (2007)

200.000 150.246

150.000

126.562 100.000

The United Kingdom (219,336 abortions), France (209,699), Romania (150,246), Italy (126,562), Germany (116,871) and Spain (112,138) have the highest annual abortion rates in the EU. Alone, those 6 countries account for 934,852 abortions: 75.7% of abortions in the 27 EU member states.

50.000

0
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

Increment on abortion figures (1997-2007)
70.000 62.560 60.000
Nº of Abortions

…Spain is the EU27 country with the greatest increase in the number of abortions…
Whereas in many EU countries (usually those of the 2004 – 07 enlargement) the number of abortions fell during 1997 – 2007, the Spanish rise was spectacular, from 49,578 in 1997 to 112,138 in 2007 (i.e. 62,000). The decline in Germany Italy, and the stagnation in France, is remarkable. &

50.000 40.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 0
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

Spain United Kingdom France Holand

27.481

7.939

5.917

Every 3 minutes a teenage girl has an abortion in Europe…
2007

14% 86%

The under -20 abortion figures exceed the 2007 figure of 174,789: every day 479 teenage girls aborted in the EU. Which means an abortions took place every 3 minutes.

…representing abortions.
Nº teenage abortions Rest of abortions
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

1

in

7

of

all

The nearly 175,000 abortions in 2007, accounting for the 14.1% of all abortions, representing 1 in 7. 2007
48.150
United Kingdom France Romania

60.000 50.000
Nº of teenage abortions

The United Kingdom has the highest EU teenage abortion rate.
United Kingdom (48,150 abortions) is the EU27 country where more teenage girls have abortions. Followed by France (31,779), Romania (17,272), Spain (15,307) and Germany (14,989).

40.000

31.779
30.000 20.000 10.000 0
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

Spain Germany

17.272

15.307 14.989

Dramatic fall in marriage rate in Europe… ...725.000 fewer marriages than 1980…
3.094.093 2.966.412
2.900.000

There are 1 in 4 fewer marriages than in 1980.…
Over 28 years (1980-2008), the number of marriages in the EU27 has decreased by more than 725,142 marriages,
2.402.052

2.865.662

Nº of Marriages

2.600.000

2.504.093 2.504.692
2.300.000

2.368.951

…equivalent a 23,4% ... ...and is causing a critical marriage rate (4.87).
This has changed a marriage rate of 6.75 in 1980 to a critical one in 2007 (4.87).

Number of marriages (EU27)
2.000.000

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

...In spite of a population increase of 42.6 million (1980-2008).

The marriage rate has fallen in 9 out 10 countries, among the 27 EU countries…
Evolution of Marriage rate 1983-2008 ( %)
-46% -43% -37% -36% -28% -28% -28% -23% -22% -17% -16%
Po rt ugal A ust ria Greece U nit ed King dom B elgium Luxembourg Germany It aly France Sp ain Holland

Only Denmark and Sweden increased their marriage rate over the last 25 years since 1983.

..In some countries the fall has been dramatic…
E.g. Bulgaria (-51%), Slovenia (-49%) or Estonia(-47%) the fall in marriage rate has been around 50%, for every 2 marriges in 1983 there is only 1 now.

-7% Ireland -4% F inland
Sweden D enmark

…as well as in countries with a large number of marriages.
26% 28%
600.000

-49% -47% -44% -40% -36% -35% -34% -28% -25% -19%

Slovenia Est onia

Nº of Marriages

500.000

Hungary Lat via C yprus C zech R epublic Slovakia M alt a Lit huania Po land

Nº of Marriages (1990)
400.000

Nº of Marriages (2007)

300.000

200.000

-4% R omania -51%
B ulgaria

100.000

0

-60%

-50%

-40%

-30%

-20%

-10%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

Germ any

UK

France

Italy

Poland

Spain

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and National data

Germany (368,000), United Kingdom (270,000) and France (266,000) are the countries where there is a higher number of marriages …
4 0 0 .0 0 0 3 6 8 .3 2 9 3 50 . 0 0 0

2007

3 0 0 .0 0 0

Nº of Marriages

2 50 . 0 0 0

2 70 . 0 0 3 2 6 6 . 50 0 2 4 8 . 70 2 2 4 9 .8 4 7 2 0 3 .6 9 7 18 9 .2 4 0

2 0 0 .0 0 0

150 . 0 0 0

10 0 . 0 0 0

50 . 0 0 0

73 .6 2 7 4 6 .3 2 9 57. 74 0 4 0 .8 0 0 3 5.9 9 6 57.157 2 9 . 4 9 7 2 7. 4 3 7 4 5.50 0 3 6 .576 2 9 .6 4 0 2 3 .0 6 5 2 7. 8 9 8 2 2 . 54 4

7.0 2 2

1. 9 6 9

0

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

…they represented 38% of all marriages in the EU-27 in 2007.

There are over one million divorces… …equivalent to one marital breakdown every 30 seconds
1.100.000

1.030.911
981.992

There are 358,000 more divorces than in 1980...
Marital breakdown has increased by 357,994 in 27 years (1980-2007), an increase of 55%.

Number of divorces

900.000

805.136

815.532

877.538

776.291
700.000

672.917
Number of divorces (EU-27)
500.000 1980 1985 1990 1994 2000 2004 2007

...In spite of the fact that the number of marriages entered into has decreased over this period.
In 27 years (1980-2007), the number of marriages in the EU27 decreased by 675,075 marriages.

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

Over 10.3 million marital breakdowns in 10 years (1997-2007) in the EU27 that have affected over 17 million children.

...and Spain is the EU country where family breakdown has increased the most… ...268% in just 10 years (1997-2007)
210.000 170.050
169.425 154.786 194.408 187.000

165.555

Number of divorces

160.000

154.628 165.824 114.005

144.257 134.477 125.721

In the EU, family breakdown has increased by far the most in Spain in the last ten years: more than tripling from 34,147 divorces in 1997 to 125,721 in 2007.

110.000 147.214 60.000 23.191 10.000 1990 1995 2000 2007 33.104 Germany United Kingdom France Spain

200.000

38.973

187.000
144.257 134.477 125.721

150.000
Number of divorces

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

100.000

… 4 countries 58% of divorces
Germany, United Kingdom, France and Spain are the EU27 countries with the highest number of divorces. The number of divorces in these countries is over 591,500 and account for 58% of total.

50.000

0 2007

Germany
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

United Kingdom

France

Spain

For each two marriages entered into in Europe, one breaks down…
In 2007 2,400,000 marriages were celebrated in Europe, and 1 million broke down, meaning 1 in 2.3 marriages in Europe fails.

3.094.093
2.900.000

2.966.412

2.865.662
2.600.000

2.300.000

2.504.692

2.504.093

2.419.018

2,421,716

2.000.000

(ratio 5:1)

1,388,107

1.700.000

Nº Divorces EU-27 Nº Marriages EU-27

(ratio 2,4:1)

The difference between marriages entered into and marital breakdown has been halved…
In 1980 the difference between marriages entered into and marriages which broke down was 2,421,716. In 2007 the difference is only 1,388,000. The ratio has gone from almost 5:1 in 1980 ( for every 4.6 marriages entered into, one broke down)… to a ratio of 2:1 in 2007 ( for every 2.3 marriages entered into, one breaks down).

1.400.000

1.100.000

805.136
800.000

776.291

815.532

877.538

1.030.911

500.000

672.917
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2007

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

Belgium, Hungary and Spain are the EU27 countries with the highest rate of marital breakdown: for every three marriages entered into, two end in divorce…
400.000 Nº of Marriages (2007) 350.000 Nº Marital Breakdown (2007) Rate of Marital Breakdown (2007)

1,0 0,9 0,8

0,66
250.000

UE 27

300.000

0,620,62 0,57
0,56 0,55 0,55 0,54 0,54 0,53 0,51

0,7 0,6

200.000

0,49 0,49 0,48 0,45 0,44 0,44 0,44 0,43 0,38

0,5 0,4
0,28 0,27

150.000

100.000

0,22 0,19 0,19

0,3 0,16 0,2 0,1 0,0

50.000

0

Au str ia Lu xe mb ou rg Bu lga ria Po rtu Cz ga ec l hR ep ub lic Es ton Un ite ia dK ing do m Ge rm an y Lit hu an ia

Fr an ce Le ton ia Fin lan d Slo va kia Ho lla nd Slo ve nia Sw ed en De nm ark Cy pr us Po lan d Gr ee ce Ro ma nia

Be lgi um

Sp ain Hu ng ary

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

…and the divorce rate is above the EU27 average in 3 in 4 countries (75%).

Ita ly Ire lan d

At 43%, the unmarried population of Europe has almost equalled the married (45%).

19,5 million (4%)

33,4 million (7%)

1995

195 million (41%)

26,2 million (5%)

33,5 million (7%)
2007

204 million (43%)

230 million (48%)
Single Married Divorced Widower

215 million (45%)
Single Married Divorced Widower

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data and national data

Married Europeans have declined from 230 million, or (48%) in 1995 to 215 million (45%) in 2007, divorced and unmarried have increased from 19.5 million
(4%) and 195 million (41%) in 1995 to 26.2 million (5%) and 204 million (43%) respectively, in 2007.

Fewer people are marrying for the first time… …there are 2 million marriages…
3.094.093 2.966.412
3.000.000

2.865.662
2.700.000

8 in 10 marriages (79%) are for the first time, while in 1980 was 86%
2.504.692 2.419.018

2.661.231 2.496.042

2.400.000

2.424.823

2.504.093

In 1980, 86% of those going to the altar in the EU did so for the first time; in 2007 it was only 79%. Thus, 1 in 5 marriages is now a remarriage.

2.100.000

2.088.796

2.050.969 1.912.605

1.800.000

Nº Marriages EU-27 Nº First time marriages

1.912.605 (79%)
1995 2000 2007

2007

1.500.000 1980 1985 1990

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data, UNECE and national data

…so 1 in 5 marriages is remarriage
First time marriages Remarriages

506.413 (21%)

One out of every 3 children (36.5 %) is born outside marriage in the EU27.. …this affects nearly 2 million children every year.
38%

36,5%

Of 5,384,190 births in the EU in 2008, some 1,970,940 children (36.5%) are born out of wedlock.

33%

31,9%

Porcentage (%)

28%

27,4%

In some countries, more children are born outside marriage than within it.
There are more births without marriage than within, in Estonia (59.1%), Slovenia (54.7%), Sweden (54.6%), France (51.3%) and Bulgaria (51.1%).

23%

22,1% 18,1%

18%

12,6%
13%

8,8%
8%
1980 1984 1990 1995

Extramarital births (EU-27)

France with 420,000 births, is the country with the highest number of births outside marriage.
2008

2000

2004

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data, UNECE and national data

The highest number of births outside marriage is in France (428,000), followed by the United Kingdom (360,802), representing 40% of the EU total.

The size of European households is decreasing … ...Only 2.4 members per household
2.82
Nº Members household

Nº members household

2.8 2.68 2.61 2.5 2.4 2.4

1.5 persons per household have been “lost” since 1980.
In barely 25 years (1980-2005), the average size of households has decreased by “losing” 1.5 persons. It has gone from almost 3 persons (2.82) to 2.4 members per household.

2.3 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

3,25

3,2 3,1 2,9 2,9

Source: In-house from EUROSTAT and European Environment Agency data

3
Nº Members household

Malta Cyprus Romania Spain Sweden Finland Denmark Germany
UE27: 2,4

...And in some countries hardly reaches 2 members.

it

2,75

Germany (2.1), Denmark (2.1), Finland (2.1), and Sweden (2.2) are the countries with the lowest number of members per household. By contrast, Malta (3.2), Cyprus (3.1), Romania (2.9) and Spain (2.9) are the countries with the highest number of members per household. .

2,5

2,25

2,2 2,1 2,1

2,1

2 Nº Members Household (2005)
Source: In-house from EUROSTAT and European Environment Agency data

European households are becoming more solitary... ...1 out of every 4 households in Europe has a single dweller…

Single

24,9%

14,8%

Single with dependent children 2 adults

28%

27,7%
2 adultos with dependent children

27.7% of European households have only 1 person.

4,3%

3 or more adults (with and without children)

Source: In-house drawn from EUROSTAT and European Environment Agency data

…and now more than 55 million Europeans live alone.

Households have fewer children... …2 out of 3 households have no children…

4% 13% 16%

67%

67% of European households have no children and only 33% of households have a child/children.

Of the households with children, 50% of them have only 1 child.
0 children 1 child 2 children + 2 children
Source: In-house drawn from EUROSTAT and European Environment Agency data

…And only 17% of households have 2 or more children

Some effects of the prevailing situation

Increased health care costs

Increased state pensions

Higher costs
Aging of the population

1 1

Breakdown of social security benefits

Empty homes

Selfishness

Breakdown of the welfare state

2 2
Birth deficit

3 3
Family breakdown

Broken down society

Aging society, with no children, empty homes, broken families and no values

Although there is growing awareness of the problems faced by families and proposals to incorporate the family perspective in the EU…
The Charter of Fundamental Rights legitimises European Union involvement in the debate on family policies
(article 33) …
…”although it is clear that, for reasons of subsidiarity and efectiveness, the definition and implementation of family policies is the competence of Member States”.

The Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee recommends that the European
Union…
…”encourage Membe States to include the family area in their economic and social polices”
(Opinion on “The family and demographic growtha” (SOC 245 – CESE 55/2007)

The European Parliament report on the Commission Communication states:
“Future EU strategy must recognize the important role of the family as a key social institution for the survival, protection and development of children.”
Report 'Towards an EU strategy for children's rights' (Page 24). (A6-0520/2007).

EU Commission Communication states
'The strategy which is carried out to improve the situation must include the following points: • Promote demographic renewal in Europe creating better conditions for families.' ).
“Dealing with the effect of the ageing population of the European Union”(COM 2009 180/4), (Page 7

The Communication of the European Commission on points that…
... “At the Barcelona European Council of 2002, Member States made a clear commitment to increase childcare facilities, which between here and 2010 should be available for at least 90% of children aged 3-6 and 33% of children under 3. Now the time has come to create these childcare services”. (Page 8).
“The demographic future of Europe: from challenge to opportunity” (COM 2006)

… both the EU Commission and Parliament favour supporting the family, maternity and balance between family & working life, as a response to the demographic winter…
The Communication of the European Commission points out that:
“Support policies for Member States of the European Union must have three key points”: • Compensation for direct and indirect costs associated with the family. • Parent help services in the form of education and care for young children, care and supervision for older children and, increasingly, services for depedent people in an ageing society.. • Organisation of working and employment conditions and access to services at a local level.

“Promoting solidarity between generations” (COM 2007)

The Report of the European Parliament ask that:
..”States ensure a high level of protection of maternity and fight discrimination against pregnant women in the workforce”.
“Equality between men and women in the EU ” (A6-0290/2007),

The Report of the European Parliament deals
“Authorities - national, regional, local must increase their financial contribution for creating / running high - quality child care services at prices parents can afford'.
Report on 'Balance between professional, family and private life'. (A5-0092/2004). (Page 9).

… both the EU Commission and Parliament favour supporting the family, maternity and balance between family & working life, as a response to the demographic winter…
The EU Commision communication on points out that::
“The demographic revival requires the development of a climate in society open to family needs and receptive to motherhood, and the creation of conditions for a better balance between work and family life. In countries where it is difficult to reconcile work with family, female employment rates tend to be low, mothers often leave the labour market and birth rates are lower because people feel they cannot cope with motherhood Policies should promote gender reconciliation and equality, entail conditions for better

parenting and promote high – quality child care. Such proposals should become a priority’.
“Dealing with the effect of ageing on the population of the European Union” (COM 2009 18/04) (page 7)

This concern for the family should concretize in: ... Appropriate institutions for the Family ... Adequate budgetary provision ... Plans, measures and laws to address and resolve family problems..

All this, at both EU & national level

a) Family Agencies

However, there is no organisation which is in charge of Family Policy...
Although there are 5 Vice-presidencies and 21 Committees within the European Commission, none of them covers the Family...

EUROPEAN COMMISSION Presidency

... Family matters being dealt with by the Committee on Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities…

Committee on Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities

...Nor does it Observatory...

have

a

Family

The Observatory on Family Policies was created in 1989 and closed in 2004, when it was replaced by the Observatory on Demography and the Social Situation

...Or a Green Paper on the Family.
Committee Team: - 47 Portafolio Activities
- 33 Non-Portfolio activities - 0 Family Activities Of the 126 Green Papers written since 1984, none has been on the Family (*).

(*)Only the Green Paper "Confronting demographic change: a new solidarity between generations" of 2005 reflects indirectly some aspects of the family (birth, youth, etc.

Differing levels of family matters awareness by Governments…

Department of Social and Family Affairs Ireland

Department of Family, Elderly, Women’s and Youth Affairs Germany

Department of Health, the Family and Youth Austria

Department of the Family and Social Cohesion Luxemburgo

State Deparment for Family Policies Belgium

Department of children, schools and families United Kingdom

Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs Slovenia

Ministry for Children and Family Affairs Latvia

Department of Labour, Family and Social Affairs Slovakia

Ministry of Labour, Family and Equality of Opportunity Romania

Ministry of Labour,Social, Relations,,Family, Solidarity and City France

Ministry of Health, Social and Family Affairs Hungary

Ministro sin cartera para Juventud y Familia (Adjunto al Ministerio de Salud, Bienestar y Deporte) Holland

…although half of European nations have a Ministry for the Family.

b) Social Security Benefits

Europe allocates less and less money to the family…
2.4%

2.3%

2.2%
2.2%

2.2%

Family aid has not only fallen from 2.3% to 2.1% of GDP in the last 10 years …
2.1%

Percentage GDP

2.1%

The European Union has changed from allocating 2.6% of GDP to family matters in 1996, to just 2.1% in 2006.

2.0%

Family expenditure as a percentage of total socal spending (%)

8,5%
8,5%

8,5%

Family expenditure
1.8% 1996 1998 2000 2003 2006

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data, UNECE and national data (1990-99 UE15, 2000-2004 UE25, 2005-06 UE27)

8,3%
8,3%

8,3%

…the EU has reduced its proportion for social expenditure…
For every 13 euros the European Union spends on social expenditure, only 1 is directed to the family. In some countries the proportion (of social expenditure) is very small, such as Poland (4.4%) and Italy (4.5%).

8,2%
8,1%

8,0%
% Gastos Familia UE sobre G.Sociales
7,9% 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006

...And barely € 1 per day per person (439 € per person / year).

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data,

…and futhermore with huge differences between countries…
Whilst some countries target families as a priority for assistance, providing levels far higher than the European average…
Denmark, Luxembourg, Germany, Sweden, Austria and Finland set aside above 3% of GDP for the family, 40% more than the European average (2.1% of GDP). Denmark (3.7% GDP) and Luxembourg (3.4% GDP) are the EU27 countries that offer most assistance to families.

…other countries do not prioritise families for assistance.
Poland sets aside just the 0.8% del GDP for the family, Lithuania, Bulgaria and Malta the 1.1%, etc. From the EU-15, Spain, Portugal and Italy, are the countries that offer least assitance to families, setting aside just 1.2% of the GDP, which is far below the European average (2.1% GDP).
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data,

… this leads to significant “discrimination” in family matters.
Family social security benefits: value in Euros/person/year (2006)
Luxembourg Denmark Sweden Ireland Finland Austria Germany France Belgium Netherlands United Kingdom Cyprus Italy Greece Slovenia Spain Hungary Portugal Czech Republic Malta Estonia Lithuania Slovakia Latvia Poland Bulgaria Romania

2.158 1.353 933 865 864 811 796 649 535 451 449 317 248 231 223 212 192 151 136 124 120 76 74 63 51 27 23 0 500 1.000 1.500 2.000 2.500

The difference between countries are significant (from 23€ to 2,158€ euros)…
Whilst Luxembourg provides more than 2,100 euros / person in family benefits each year, and Denmark €1,300, Romania and Bulgaria spend around €25 per person per year. Poland, Latvia, Slovakia and Lithuania provide under €100 every year. Portugal and Spain, are the EU15 countries, which offer the lowest assistance to the family.

…This is creating 1st & 2nd– class countries.

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data,

Child benefits are the main measure of family support… …on average, these are 120 euros/month…
In 3 out of 4 member states, they are provided universally. 80% of the first 15 EU member states give them to all families, yet only 2 in 3 of the 2004 & 2007 enlargement countries do so

…with average extended cutoff age of 22 years.
Although the average cut-off age for benefits is 17.3, most countries offer extension for children who are studying or unemployed. The average extended cut-off age is 21.9. Holland, Finland, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Francce and Bulgaria do not offer extended cut-off age for child benefit.
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from MISSOC data and national data

…but with large differences between countries.

The benefit differences are so great it would be worth living in such countries as Luxembourg, Ireland, Austria and Germany…
Families with 2 children (2008)

A family with 2 children without income – related restrictions, would receive 471 euros / month in Luxembourg; in Ireland € 332 / month; in Germany 328; in Austria 293, etc. By contrast, in Latvia the same family would receive 25 euros / month; €29 / month in Poland (with strict income – related restrictions), and €33 / month in Greece

A quarter of families in European Union do receive child benefit directly

the not

Families with 3 children (2008)

The income – related restrictions prevent a great number of families in Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Spain, Poland and Bulgaria receiving those benefits.
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from MISSOC data

A family with three children, without income – related restrictions, would receive 833 euros / month in Luxembourg, 535 / month in Ireland, 510 / month in Austria, 498 in Germany, etc. The same family would receive 59 euros each month in Bulgaria, 44 / month in Poland (with strict income – related restrictions in both cases), 43 in Latvia.

…than in Latvia, Poland or Spain.

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from MISSOC data

In 2008, child benefits were increased by 5.3% on average... This was specially due to Bulgaria (nearly Slovakia and the Czech Republic
increased theirs more than 25%).
100% Variation Benefits per Child % 2007-2008 80% First Child Second Child

doubled), (which

Bulgaria most increased benefits in the EU, 94% for a first child and 75% for second one. Slovakia (33%), Czech Republic (28% for a 1st child and 20% for a 2nd), Romania (18% ~ 1st; 21% ~ 2nd) have increased benefits 20%. On the contrary, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, United Kingdom, Swden, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland have not increased their benefits Belgium and Malta have increased for the first child and have decreased for the second one..

60%

40%

20%

5,3%
0%
Bu lga S l o r ia Cz va k e ch ia Re pu b li c Ro ma n S l o ia ve n P o ia r tu ga l Ma l ta Sp a in Be l g iu m Ir e la n d Au s tr ia De nm G e a rk rm an Cy y p ru s Ho lan d Hu nga ry Ita l y F ra n ce Es to n i F in a lan G re d e ce Lat v L i t h ia uan Lux ia em bur go Po Un lan i te d d Kin gdo Sw m ed en
Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from MISSOC data

-20%

-40%

… Although there has been no increase in benefits for 1st and 2nd child in one third of European countries (9) this year.

c) Balance between family and profesional life

The average duration of maternity leave is 25.3 weeks…
Licences in Europe: Weeks per born child
Extra-licence Licence

100

80

Although Sweden (75.7 weeks), Bulgaria (58.6), United Kingdom (52) and Denmark (50) are the countries with the longest maternity leave in the EU-27, and have an average of more than a year (59 weeks)… … a two thirds majority (19 countries) failed to meet the average amount of maternity leave.

Weeks

60

There are large differences in flexibility…
Although 2 out of 3 countries (18 countries) contemplate the extension of the license, only few countries -8- permit significant extension in special cases:large families, multiple births,etc.

40

20

0

…and in the benefits offered
In some countries 100% of salary is covered whilst in others the amount is lower, and there are even countries with periods that are not remunerated.

Source::In-house from EUROSTAT and MISSOC data

…Although there is a very marked difference both in time of duration, possibility of extention, and in amount of pay or benefits received.

The flexibility of working hours is still very inadequate…
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
ed en Ho l an d De nm a rk F in l an d Au s tr ia Be l g iu Un i te m dK i ng do m F ra n ce Lu xe mb ur g o Ge rm an y Ir e la n d Ita ly Es to n ia Sl o ve Cz n ia ec hR ep ub S l o li c va kia Po l an d Sp a in Le to n ia Lit hu an ia Ma l ta Gr ee ce Ro ma n ia Hu ng ar y Po r tu ga l Cy p ru s Bu l ga r ia

In 66% of cases, the employer imposes the schedule, leaving no choice to 2 out of 3 employee.
Only four countries (Sweden, Holland, Denmark and Finland) does the employee have the option of choice about half of the day.

Sw

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

Fully set by employee The employee can adjust hours w ithin certain limits The employee can choose from several preset schedules Completely set by the company

…even though it fundamentally needs to be reconciled with family life.

There is a link between social expenditure on the family and the rate of child poverty
30% 4,2%

Rate of Under-18s Poverty Risk
25%
25% 24% 23% 21 % 23%

Family Spending % GDP
3,5%

20%
1 7%

20% 1 9% 1 9% 1 6%

2,8%

15%

1 5% 1 4% 1 2% 1% 1 1 4%

2,1%

10%

1 0%

1,4%

5%

0,7%

0%

0,0%

Ita ly

Po rtu ga l G U re ni te ec d e Ki ng do m

Source: Institute for Family Policies (IPF) drawn from EUROSTAT data

The higher the level of family benefits, the lower the likelihood of child poverty

Ire la nd Fr an ce Au st ria Sw ed en Fi nl an d G er m an Lu y xe m bo ur g D en m ar k

Sp ai n

H ol la nd Be lg iu m

EU 15

Most countries make no provision for the problems of family conflict, crisis or breakdown… …in spite of the fact that the Council of Europe has been urging for this be put in place for many years
COUNCIL OF EUROPE. RECOMMENDATION OF 2 SEPTEMBER 1974
“This organisation recommends that Member States establish Family Guidance Centres to offer comprehensive assistance to families, and that these centres should be State funded even where they are privately run”.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE. RECOMMENDATION OF 27 JUNE 1980
Recommends that Member State governments: • • • Recognise the importance of organisations dedicated to family guidance in order to improve emotional, individual and family harmony, and Promote the development of such organisations through adequate funding. Study the possibility of using the media, particularly radio and television, to reinforce family culture and education.

AIM:
To instigate the development in Europe of “family-oriented” government policies and to implement genuine, effective, comprehensive and universal Family Policies... ...

Built around the following Axes:
• • Giving the Family status as a policy priority Making the “Family-oriented” approach an integral part of all measures put in place by the European Union Recognise and promote family rights in all areas, particularly • • • • Right of parents to reconcile work and family life. Right of parents to have the number of children they want. Right of parents to choose the type of education their children . receive. Right of children to live in a stable home

… with the following strategies…
• Promoting demographic renewal in Europe by creating better conditions for families. Promoting convergence between national family policies to avoid differences between countries Pushing for equality of opportunity for all European families, to avoid discrimination based on number of children, income levels, income distribution, etc.

Following action plans that…
…Promote the Family as an institution, Encourage a universal concept of the Family and also a culture and environment that allows the Family to manage its day-to-day existence, Help parents to have the children they want, Include, in a genuinely constructive and humane fashion, the different areas of professional, family and personal development, Provide assistance during cases of family crisis, Recognise the fundamental right of parents to educate their children, Promote the active participation of parents and family associations And, through specific measures, take account of families with particular needs.

I.
1.

…which promote the Family as an institution…
By creating the Commission for the Family to promote the Family as a policy
priority in European Union countries, and to ensure that all European legislation considers the Family as a social base with rights and roles that must be respected and promoted.

2.

By urging EU member states to set up a Ministry for the Family with
sufficient organisational and budgetary capacity to develop Family promotion and protection measures in Europe.

3.

By drafting a Green Paper on the Family in Europe which analyses the
problems faced by the Family along with their causes and consequence, and sets out solutions and alternatives.

4.
5.

By promoting a European Agreement on the Family between political parties,
social agents and family institutions. A council of ministers dealing with the family should meet once/year, as per the Report
of the European Parliament about protecting families and children.

II …which promotes a Family-oriented culture, disseminating a universal concept of the Family and encouraging an environment which favours it...
6.
By re-establishing the Family Policy Observatory, with social involvement, to analyse the situation and development of the Family in Europe and to advise on, manage and oversee policy measures affecting it, and to ensure that public policy measures are drawn up to take account of the Family. By running campaigns to increase awareness within society and to promote an environment and culture that favours the Family, placing value on childhood and maternity. By incorporating into European Directives on communication media the criteria of respect for and promotion of the Family, in addition to the creation of Independent Audiovisual Councils one of whose objectives is the protection of minors and the Family.

7.

8.

III …which assist families in the management of their day-to-day existence, helping parents to have the children they want...
9. By promoting the establishment of gradual convergence between family protection measures in different European countries, so that: • • 2.5% GDP: In 5 years time, all countries are setting aside a minimum of 2.5% of GDP for social spending on the family. Making assistance universal: In 5 years time, all countries are promoting universal family assistance practices or at least, as the first step towards achieving this, are establishing limits (per capita) which include 90% of families. 125€ /month: all member states should increase support for underage children to 125 € / month within 5 years Making benefits tax-exempt: Countries establish tax convergence objectives for tax exemption on family benefits. Benefits linked to annual inflation rate: Countries put in place measures ensuring that family benefits increase in line with inflation.

• •

III …which assist families in the management of their day-to-day existence, helping parents to have the children they want......
10. By adopting measures of support for pregnancy and maternity • General direct support of 1,125 euros (= 125 euros/month, over 9 months) for pregnant women, to be paid over the last 22 weeks of pregnanc y. Reducing by 50% the VAT payable on a series of essential infant products (baby hygiene items such as nappies, soap, moisturising creams, wet wipes, feeding products such as formula milk, containers and feeding bottles, cereal and food preparations and baby furniture items such as cots, chairs and prams, baby carriers, car seats etc.). Setting up Care Centres for Pregnant Women to help for all mothers, married or single, with their pregnancies, with particular attention for immigrant mothers. Specific support programme for pregnant teens to confront the particular pro blems pregnancy can cause these particularly defenceless groups in society.

III …which assist families in the management of their day-to-day existence, helping parents to have the children they want......
10. By urging governments to adopt a more equal distribution of benefits aimed at the Family – currently accounting for 8% of total social benefits – gradually increasing their amount. 11. By increasing tax convergence in Europe to make it Family-oriented

III …which assist families in the management of their day-to-day existence, helping parents to have the children they want......
13. Urge that member states and regional & local authorities define and implemente housing policies that particularly consider families • • 50% cut in VAT on new family dwellings 50% cut in individual taxes (judicial document taxes, tax on family inheritances, council taxes, etc.) for all families, and exemption for large families. Specific housing policy for young families and those with children. Special tax discounts for families which rent, especially for large families or those with dependent relatives Agreement among local & regional administrations to make housing cheaper.

• •

IV ... Which include, in a genuinely constructive and humane fashion, the different areas of professional, family and personal development…
14.
In all European Union countries, promoting and encouraging maternity leave of 23 weeks with 100% salary, and paternity leave of 6 weeks with the same conditions as maternity leave. Ensuring parents’ right to choose. • • 16. 17. 18. Promoting extension of benefits for fathers/mothers who request extended leave to look after their children. Enlarging the network of nurseries for the 0-3 age group.

15.

By insisting on universal assistance for families caring for elderly relatives in their home. Promoting the adoption of rational working days by companies to allow professional and family life to be combined. Development of a guide of information and awareness of good practices about balance between family & working life (following Report of the Eurpean Parliament on
reconciling professional, family and private lives (A5-0092/2004).

V... That help overcome family crises...
19.
By insisting on preventive measures to assist in cases of family crisis (following Council of Europe recommendations) to reduce instances of family breakdown in Europe.

Updating and modernisation of Council of Europe recommendations (19741980). Promoting Family Guidance Centres, both public and private. Urging EU countries to draw up a Law for Preventive Measures and Family Mediation. Carrying out studies, analyses and surveys to discover the causes of family breakdown and introducing measures whose aim is to reduce and/or alleviate their negative consequences.

• •

VI …Which recognise the right of parents to educate their children...
20. By recognising Education as a Fundamental Family Right (not as a public service) • Making the education costs met by families (text books, schools etc.) income taxdeductible. Increasing the number of parent representatives on School Councils. Promoting the right of parents to choose their children’s education, promoting directives on the school-cheque, and assisting States that implement it (up to 25% of the cost).

• •

VII …and promoting the active involvement of families and family associations...
21. By creating Internet Portal “InfoFamilias” with information on services for European
families.

© IPF, Institute for Family Policies, 2009

IPF is the owner of this document and reserves all rights for its total/partial translation/reproduction by any media. However, the material contained may be reproduced for non-profit purposes, and for public dissemination, provided that its source is quoted. Published by IPF, Institute for Family Policies c/ Génova, 7 – 3º izda. 28004 Madrid Tel. + 34 911022888 email: ipf@ipfe.org website: www.ipfe.org Report Director: Mariano Martínez-Aedo © IPF 2009. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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