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THE CHAIN OF INFECTION

Chain of infection is a way of gathering the information needed to interrupt/ prevent an


epidemic. There are six links make up the chain of infection: the etiologic agent; the
reservoir; the portal of exit from the reservoir; the method of transmission; the portal of
entry into a host; and the susceptibility of the host.
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The illustration below represents how we can acquire an infection from somebody else:


























ETIOLOGIC/ INFECTIOUS AGENT

is a microorganism (bacteria, viruses, parasites or
fungi) which is capable of producing an infectious
process depends on the number of microorganisms
present, the virulence and potency of the
microorganisms (pathogenecity), the ability of the
microorganisms to enter the body, the susceptibility of
the host, and the ability of the microorganisms to live
in the hosts body.

RESERVOIR
is the source or carrier of the
infectious agents where
microorganisms reside, thrive, and
reproduce.
(e.g. humans, animals, water, food,
respiratory secretions)

PORTAL OF EXIT FROM THE RESERVOIR
Before an infection can establish itself in a
host, the microorganisms must leave the
reservoir or associate the portal of exit from
the reservoir, such as the respiratory tract
(nose, mouth), intestinal tract (rectum),
urinary tract or blood and other body fluids.
METHOD OF TRANSMISSION
After a microorganism leaves its reservoir, it requires a
means of transmission to reach another person/ host
through a portal of entry by either: (1) direct transmission
involves immediate and direct transfer of microorganisms
from person to person through touching, biting, kissing
or any activities that require a direct contact. (2) indirect
transmission involves an intermediate carrier lika an
environmental surface or a piece of medical equipment). (3)
airborne involves tiny infected particles from an infected
person released when they cough or sneeze which can be
breathed in (droplets of dust).

SUSCEPTIBLE HOST
Susceptible host is any person who is at
risk for acquiring the infection.
Impairment of the bodys natural
defenses and a number of other factors
can affect susceptibility ti infection.

CHAIN
OF
INFECTION
PORTAL OF ENTRY
Matakdanan ang usa ka tawo kung
makasulod na ang mikrobyo ngadto
sa iyang lawas, pinaagi sa by means of
inhalation, ingestion, breaks in the protective
skin barrier (e.g. surgery, intravenous lines,
injury), mucus membrane(mouth,eyes,nose).

Example:

Each links of the chain shows how organisms are transferred and how we can put our
strategies/ ways to prevent or to break the chain and to stop spreading it.



Hint:
To prevent this kind of situation you must keep yourself clean and wash your
hands thoroughly as doing the proper hand washing.





Reference:
Kozier, B., G. Erb, A. Berman, S. Snyder. (2004). Asepsis. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. 631-633.