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Vibration and Waves

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So far we have discussed equilibrium of bodies i.e. we have concentrated

only on statics. From this lecture onwards we learn about the motion of

particles and composite bodies and how it is affected by the forces applied

on the system. Thus we are now startin study of dynamics.

!hen we describe the motion of a particle" we specify it by ivin its position

and velocity as a function of time. #ow the motion chanes with time is iven

by the application of $ewton%s II

nd

Law. &ne such particle at position

movin with velocity and acted upon by a force is shown in fiure 1.

The force ives rise to an acceleration . $otice that in eneral the

position" the velocity and the acceleration are not in the same direction.

'ach of these vectors is specified by ivin its component alon a set of

conveniently chosen a(es. For a particle movin in a plane" if we choose the

)artesian coordinate system *(+y a(es, then the position is iven by

specifyin the coordinates *(" y," velocity by its components and

acceleration by its components . These are related by the

relationship

and

These e(pressions are easily enerali-ed to three dimensions by includin

the -+component of the motion also. #owever" in this lecture we will be

focusin on motion in a plane only. !ith these components the equations of

motion to be solved are

)oupled with the initial conditions solutions of these equations provide the

velocity and position of a particle uniquely. #owever" the )artesian system of

coordinates is only one way of describin the motion of a particle. There

arise many situations where describin the motion in some other coordinate

system i.e." ta.in components alon some other directions is move

convenient. &ne such coordinate system is polar coordinates. In this lecture

we discuss the use of this system to describe the motion of a particle. To

introduce you to polar coordinates and how their use may ma.e thins easy"

we start with the discussion of a particle in a circle.

)onsider a particle is movin with a constant anular speed in a circle of

radius R centered at the oriin *see fiure /,. Its x and y coordinates are

iven as

with both x and y bein functions of time *see fiure /,.

&n the other hand" if we choose to ive the position of the particle by ivin

its distance r from the oriin and the anle 0 that the line from the oriin to

the particle ma.es with (+a(is in the counter+cloc.wise direction" then the

position is iven as

In this coordinate system" r is a constant and 0 a linear function of time.

Thus there is only one variable that varies with time whereas the other one

remains constant. The motion description thus is simpler. These co+

ordinates are .nown as the planar polar coordinates. 1s e(pected"

these coordinates are most useful in describin motion when there is some

sort of a rotational motion. !e will therefore find them useful" for e(ample" in

discussin motion of planets around the sun rotatin bodies and motion of

rotatin ob2ects.

So to start with let us set up the unit vectors is polar co+ordinates * r, ) .

3iven a point " the unit vector is in outward radial direction and has

manitude of unity. The 0 unit vector is also of manitude unity and is

perpendicular to and in the direction of increasin 0 *see fiure 4,.

&bviously the dot product . In term of the unit vectors

in x and y direction these are iven as

1s is clear from these e(pression the direction of and 0 is not fi(ed but

depends on the anle 0. &n the other hand" it does not depend on r. If we

o alon a radius" and 0 remain unchaned as we move *recall that two

parallel vectors of same manitude are equal,. 5ut that is not the case if 0 is

chaned.

The position a of a particle in polar co+ordinates to iven by writin

1s particle moves about" chanes. 6oes the mean that the velocity

The answer is no. 1s already discussed is a function of " the anle from

the (+a(is. Thus as a particle moves such that the anle 0 chanes with

time" the unit vector also chanes. Its derivative with respect to time is

therefore not -ero. Thus the correct e(pression for is

Let us now calculate . 1s already stated" does not chane as one

moves radically in or out. Thus chanes only if 0 chanes. Let us now

calculate this chane *fiure 7,

1s is clear from the fiure

where the dot on top of a quantity denotes its time derivative. The

e(pression above can also be derived mathematically as follows:

Thus the velocity of a particle is iven as

!e note that the unit vectors in polar coordinates .eep chanin as the

particle moves because they are iven by the particles current position. Thus

even if a particle were movin with a constant velocity" the components of

velocity alon the radial and the directions will chane. Let us calculate the

velocity of a particle movin in a circle with a constant anular speed. For

such a particle

so the velocity is iven as

This is a well .nown result: the velocity of a particle movin in a circle with a

constant anular speed is in the tanential direction and its manitude is

89. #ow about the acceleration in polar coordinates: This is the derivative

of with respect to time. Thus

1s was the case with the unit vector " the unit vector also is a function of

the polar anle 0 and as such chanes as the particle moves about. Thus in

calculatin the acceleration" time derivative of also should be ta.en into

account. From fiure 7 it is clear that

This can also be derived mathematically as

;sin this derivative and the chain rule for differentiation" we et

<ou can see that the e(pression is a little complicated. The comple(ity of the

e(pression arises because the unit vectors are chanin as the particle

moves. <ou can chec. for yourself that for a particle movin with a constant

velocity" the e(pression above will ive -ero acceleration. 6espite little

complicated e(pressions for the acceleration" employin polar coordinates

becomes really useful in situations where motion is circular+li.e as we will

see in two standard e(amples later. Let us first o to one familiar e(ample of

a particle movin in a circle for which r = 8 " . This ives

which is the correct answer for the centripetal acceleration. For this

reason is .nown as the centripetal term. Let us now solve an e(ample of

mechanics usin polar co+ordinates.

Lecture 24

Harmonic oscillator I: Introduction

#avin analy-ed the motion of particles in different situations" let us now

focus on a very special .ind of motion: that of oscillations. This is a very

eneral .ind of motion seen around you: 1 partial movin around the bottom

of a cup" a pendulum swinin" a clamped rod vibratin about its equilibrium

position or a strin vibratin. 1 ood first appro(imation to these motions is

the simple harmonic oscillation. Let us see what does that mean: 1t a stable

equilibrium point" the force on a body is -ero> not only that" as a particle

moves away from equilibrium" its potential enery increases and it is pulled

bac. towards the equilibrium point. Thus around a stable equilibrium point

(

?

*for simplicity" let me ta.e one+dimensional motion, the potential

enery can be written as

Since at an equilibrium point" the force F(x

0

) on the particle vanishes"

Further" because (x) has a minimum at x

0

" this ives

!ritin I et

and the correspondin equation of motion for a mass m as

1s I will show a little later" the solution of this equation is of the form

and is .nown as the simple harmonic motion. It is the simplest possible

motion about a stable equilibrium point. &f course if k = 0 " the force will

have hiher order dependence on y and the motion becomes more

complicated. Further" even if " if we include hiher order terms" the

resultin motion will become more comple(. It is for this reason that we call

the motion above simple harmonic motion. !e will see that this itself is quite

a rich system. 1 system that performs simple harmonic motion is called a

simple harmonic oscillator. 1 prototype if this system is the sprin+mass

system with k bein the sprin constant and m the mass of the bloc. on the

sprin *fiure 1,.

In these lectures" I will tal. about the motion of this system and how it is

represented by a phasor diaram. I will then introduce dampin into the

system. The simplest dampin is a constant opposin force li.e friction and

ne(t level is a dampin proportional to the velocity. Then I will apply a force

on the system and see the motion of force damped and undamped oscillator.

1lon the way" I will solve many e(amples to show wide applicability of

simple harmonic motion.

To start with let us ta.e our prototype system of mass and sprin with

unstretched lenth of the sprin so that equilibrium distance of the mass

is . $ow when the mass is displaced about by x in the positive direction"

the force is in neative direction so that

or

This is the eneral equation for simple harmonic oscillator. 8ecall that in

such cases we assume a solution of the form

and substitute it in the equation to et

Since this equation is true for all times" we should have

Thus there are two solution and . 1 eneral solution is then iven

in terms of a linear combination of the two solutions so let us write

Since is real it is clear that . Thus

If we ta.e A = A

R

+ iA

I

" where both A

R

and A

I

are real then the solution

above ta.es the form

which alternatively can be written as

1nother equivalent way of writin the solution is

or

where

1 is the ma(imum distance that the mass travels durin a simple harmonic

oscillation. It is .nown as the amplitude of oscillation. The quantity is

.nown as the phase with bein the initial phase. 1ll the bo(ed equations

above are equivalent ways of writin the solution for a harmonic oscillator.

The eneral raph depictin the solution is iven in fiure

/.

Thus A is the ma(imum distance traveled by the bloc. and ives its

initial displacement. The constants C and D or A and are determined by

the initial conditions" i.e. initial displacement and velocity of the mass. In

eneral any two conditions are enouh to determine the constants.

For a displacement

the velocity of the mass is iven by

Thus the ma(imum possible manitude of the velocity is

0

A . The eneral

displacement and the correspondin velocity of the mass with respect to

time are displayed in fiure 4.

It is clear from the fiure that for a iven displacement" the velocity is such

that when displacement is at its ma(imum or minimum" the velocity is -ero

and when the displacement is -ero" the velocity has the larest manitude.

This is physically clear. !hen the sprin is compressed or stretched to its

ma(imum" the particle is at rest and when the particle passes throuh the

equilibrium point" its speed is at its ma(imum. Let me now solve a few

e(amples.

Lecture 26

Harmonic oscillator III: Forced oscillations

In the previous two lectures" you have learnt about free harmonic oscillator

and damped harmonic oscillator. In this lecture we study what happens

when a harmonic oscillator is sub2ected to a force. The simplest case is

when an oscillator is sub2ected to a constant force F . In that case nothin

much ta.es place e(cept that the equilibrium point ets shifted by (F/k). <ou

see an e(ample of it when a mass is attached to a vertical sprin.

Mathematically we write

This can be written as

for an undamped oscillator and

for a damped oscillator. 6efine a new variable so that the equation

reads *I write only the undamped oscillator equation,

This is the equation you are well familiar with. From its solution" that for x is

written as

So the mass oscillates about . I now ta.e up an oscillator sub2ected

to a time+dependent force.

1 eneral time+dependent force F(t) can always be decomposed into its

Fourier components li.e so enerally we study an

oscillator sub2ected to a force of the form. " where

and F is the amplitude of the force. Let me start by first studyin the motion

of an undamped oscillator under such a force.

The equation of motion for an undamped oscillator under a time+periodic

force is

or equivalently

The eneral solution is a combination of homoeneous part of the equation

and a particular solution (

p

. Thus

#ere you can chec. that

Let me start the oscillator from rest at equilibrium. It starts movin because

of the applied force. The initial conditions then are . ;nder

these conditions the solution comes out to be

So the eneral solution is a combination of motion of two frequencies. The

resultin motion can be represented on a phasor diaram by addin the two

motions vectorially. This shown at t = 0 and two other different times in fiure

1.

1s is clear from the fiure" at t = ?" the net displacement is -ero. 1s the time

proresses" the displacement chanes with the lenth of the rotatin vector

also chanin with time. 1s an illustrative e(ample" I ta.e the

frequency " and two different frequencies" for

the force. The resultin solutions are shown in fiure /.

So you see from the fiure above that the ma(imum displacement of

oscillations .eeps chanin. This is what I had inferred from the phasor

diaram also. The motion is still periodic and reminds us of the phenomena

of beats.

Interestin is the case when . #owever" I cannot put it directly in the

formula become we are dividin by . So we have to ta.e the

limit . Let me substitute in the formula or and

ta.e . This leads to

Thus the displacement .eeps on increasin with time oscillatin with the

frequency of the oscillator. This is the phenomena of resonance. The

correspondin plot of displacement is shown in fiure 4.

Forced oscillations of an ndam!ed at resonance

Figure 3

#avin discussed forced oscillations for undamped oscillator" we now move

on to study a damped oscillator movin under the influence of a periodic

force. The equation of motion then is

1s earlier" the eneral solution of this equation is oin to the sum of the

homoenous and inhomoeneous part. So

1s the time proresses will ma.e the homoeneous solution die down

so finally the only solution remainin will be

This is .nown as the steady state solution. &bviously it does not depend on

the initial conditions. Let us now find this solution.

For the equation of motion

I assume a steady state solution of the form 5ut when substituted in

the equation" this will ive rise to a term containin because of in

the equation. So a eneral solution should be of the form.

!hen substituted in the equation" this leads to

These equations ive

So the eneral solution is

where

Thus after reachin steady state" the displacement las behind the applied

force by an anle with and oscillates with an amplitude

The oscillation frequency of steady+state solutions is obviously equal to the

frequency of the applied force. 1 typical displacement and its shift with

respect to the applied force are shown in fiure 7.

1s far as ettin the steady state solution for a forced damped oscillator is

concerned" we are done. !hat we need to do now is to analy-e the solution

in different situations.

First of all we notice that irrespective of whether the system is lihtly damped

or heavily damped" it will always oscillate under an applied time+periodic

force. Let us first consider the case of liht dampin and see how the

amplitude varies with the applied frequency. The amplitude as a function of

9 is iven as

This amplitude oes to as . This is nothin but the stretch of

the sprin under a constant force. For very lare frequencies . In

between the amplitude has a ma(imum at as is easily seen. So in this

case" the amplitude as a function of frequency loo.s as shown in fiure @ for

two different values of .

It is clear from the fiure that the amplitude is ma(imum around

which reminds us of the phenomenon of resonance for undamped oscillator.

For lare values the pea. shifts to the left *lower frequency,.

For heavy dampin * A , we do not see any amplitude ma(imum

near but the system has lare amplitude for low frequencies. 1

schematic plot of amplitude as a function of frequency loo.s li.e fiure B. It is

evident that only for low frequencies the system oscillates with reasonable

amplitude.

!hat about the phase of the system with respect to the applied force: I

leave this as an e(ercise for you to plot the phase of displacement as a

function of frequency.

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