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Modeling of CUKconverter for solar

Modeling of CUKconverter for solar

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Modeling and Simulation of Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithm Based Solar

Photo Voltaic System using CUK Converter

Rajiv Roshan, Yatendra Yadav, Umashankar S,

Vijayakumar D

School of Electrical Engineering,

VIT University,

Vellore, India

E-mail: rajiv.roshan2009@vit.ac.in,

yatendra.yadav05@ymail.com,

umashankar.s@vit.ac.in,

vijayakumar.d@vit.ac.in

Kothari D P

Director General

J B Group of Institutions

Hyderabad, India

E-mail: dpk0710@yahoo.com

Abstract This paper proposes a method for modeling and

simulation of photovoltaic system and Maximum Power Point

tracking (MPPT). Due to poor efficiency of Photo voltaic (PV)

systems some MPPT methods are proposed. All MPPT methods

follow the same goal that is maximizing the PV system output

power by tracking the maximum power on every operating

condition. . In this paper maximum power point tracking

technique (Incremental conductance) for photovoltaic systems

were introduced to maximize the produced energy. The general

model was implemented on Mat lab, and accepts irradiance and

temperature as variable parameters and outputs the I-V

characteristic and P-V characteristic.

Keywords- PV system; Maximum power point tracking

(MPPT); DC-DC Converter

I. INTRODUCTION

Unfortunately, PV generation systems have two major

problems: the conversion efficiency of electric power

generation is very low (9-16%), especially under low

irradiation conditions and the amount of electric power

generated by solar arrays changes continuously with weather

conditions. Moreover, the solar cell V-I characteristic is

nonlinear and changes with irradiation and temperature. In

general, there is a point on the V-I or V-P curve only, called the

Maximum Power Point (MPP), at which the entire PV system

operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum

output power [4].The location of the MPP is not known, but

can be located, either through calculation models or by search

algorithms. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

techniques [16] are used to maintain the PV array's operating

point at its MPP. Among the various techniques proposed, the

Incremental Conductance(IC) maximum power point tracking

algorithm is the most commonly used method due to it

performs precise control under rapidly changing atmospheric

conditions without steady state oscillation.

In this work, first a mathematical model of a solar PV

module is developed using the I-V relations of a solar cell array

[3] and simulated in MATLAB. The irradiance level (S) and

temperature (T) of each section is continuously measured.

II. PV CELL

A photovoltaic system converts sunlight into electricity.

The basic device of a photovoltaic system is the photovoltaic

cell. Cells may be grouped to form panels or modules. Panels

can be grouped to form large photovoltaic arrays.Fig.1 shows

the equivalent circuit of the ideal photovoltaic cell. The basic

equation for output current of module [2] is

Figure 1. Single-diode model of the theoretical photovoltaic cell and

equivalent circuit of a practical photovoltaic device including the series and

parallel resistances

] 1 ) [exp(

, ,

=

akT

qv

I I I

cell o cell ph

Where I is the PV array output current, V is the PV output

voltage,

cell ph

I

,

is the cell photocurrent that is proportional to

solar irradiation,

cell o

I

,

is the cell reverse saturation current

that mainly depends on the temperature, K is a constant. These

techniques vary in many aspects as: simplicity, convergence

speed, digital or analogical implementation, sensors required,

cost, range of effectiveness, and in other aspects [3-4]. The I-V

characteristics of Photo Voltaic system strongly depend on

irradiation and temperature. For selected value of temperature

978-1-4673-6150-7/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE 584

and irradiation and the plots shown in the figure 2 as shown as

I-V graph.

Figure 2. Voltage Vs Current characteristics of PVA with Variation of

Irradiation

Figure 3. Voltage Vs Current characteristics of PVA with Variation of

Temperature

Fig.2, 3, 4, 5 shows the simulation results of PV system

with different increase in solar radiation [14] causes the output

current to increase and the horizontal part of the curve moves

upward. An increase in cell temperature causes the Voltage to

move leftward, while decreasing temperature produces the

opposite effect. Thus, the I-V curves and P-V curves display

how a photovoltaic module responds to all possible loads under

different solar radiation and cell temperature conditions. Figure

6.gives the detailed simulink model of Photovoltaic system.

Figure 4. Voltage Vs Power characteristics of PVA with Variation of

Irradiation

Figure 5. Voltage Vs Power characteristics of PVA with Variation of

Temperature

Figure 6. Simulink model of PV Module for change in radiation

585

III. MPPT ALGORITHM

Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play a main role

in photovoltaic (PV) power systems because they maximize the

power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions,

and therefore maximize the array efficiency. Thus, an MPPT

[18] can minimize the overall system cost. There are many

MPPT methods available the most widely-used technique is

incremental conductance method described in the following

sections. They also vary in complexity, sensor requirement,

speed of convergence, cost, range of operation, popularity,

ability to detect multiple local maxima and their applications

[3-4]. Specifically the Power Point Tracker is a high frequency

DC to DC converter. They take the DC input from the solar

panels, change it to high frequency AC, and convert it back

down to a different DC voltage and current to exactly match

the panels to the loads. MPPT's operate at very high audio

frequencies, usually in the 20-80 kHz range. The advantage of

high frequency circuits is that they can be designed with very

high efficiency transformers and small components.

Some MPPTs are more rapid and accurate and thus more

impressive which need special design and familiarity with

specific subjects such as fuzzy logic [20] or neural network

[21] methods. MPPT fuzzy logic controllers have good

performance under varying atmospheric conditions and

exhibits better performance in contrast with P&O control

method [8]; however the main disadvantage of this method is

that its effectiveness is highly dependent on the technical

knowledge of the engineer in computing the error and coming

up with the rule base table. It is greatly dependant on the how

designer arranges the system which requires skill and

experience.

Incremental Conduction Algorithm

The Incremental Conductance method[6-10] offers good

performance under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions.

The derivative of output power P with respective to panel

voltage V is equal to zero at Maximum Power Point(MPP).

The solar panel P-V characteristics as shown in Fig.7 Further

that derivative is greater than zero is the left of the MPP and

less than to the right of MPP. The basic equations of this

method are as follows [1].

0 =

dV

dP

for

mp

V V = (2)

0 >

dV

dP

for

mp

V V < (3)

0 <

dV

dP

for

mp

V V > (4)

The Incremental Conductance MPPT method works with

two sensors measuring panels operating voltage V and current

I. The necessary incremental changes dV and dI approximated

by comparing the most recent measured values for V and I with

those measured in previous values.

dV(k) = V(k) - V(k-1) (5)

dI = I(k) - I(k-1) (6)

Equations 2, 3, 4 are used to determine whether the system

is operating at a voltage greater or less than . The flow

chart of Incremental Conductance method shown in Fig.8.It

makes use of instantaneous and incremental conductance to

generate an error signal which is zero at MPP; however it is not

zero at most of the operating points, but it make the error from

the MPPs near to zero [3]. The control diagram of the system

for simulating MPPT algorithm is shown in Figure 9.gives the

detailed simulink model of incremental conductance algorithm.

Fig.10 shows the change in duty ratio at two different

irradiation levels.

Figure 7. Basic idea of incremental conductance method on a P-V curve of a

solar module

586

Figure 8. Flowchart of Incremental conductance method

Figure 9. Simulink model of Incremental Conductance MPPT

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

Diagram of the PV system and MPPT designed in

MATLAB/Simulink is presented in Fig.6, 9. The PV module is

modeled using electrical characteristics to provide output

current and voltage of the PV module. The provided current

and voltage are fed to the converter and the controller

simultaneously The PI control loop is eliminated and the duty

cycle is be adjusted directly in the algorithm. The irradiation

level is varying between two levels. First irradiation level is

1000w/m; at t=0.1s second irradiation level suddenly changes

to 400w/m and then back to 1000w/m at t=0.3s.The changing

irradiation level as shown in Fig.9 The step size of duty cycle

is chosen to be 0.02 so the converter can smoothly track the

MPP. Fig.10 shows the change in duty cycle adjusted by

MPPT to extract maximum power from the module. The

change in PV output voltage current and power by change in

irradiation as shown in Fig.11, 12, 13.

Figure 10. Changing irradiation with Time(sec)

Figure 11. Change in Duty ratio with irradiation

587

Figure 12. PV output power changing with Irradiation

Figure 13. PV module output voltage changing with Irradiation

Figure 14. PV module output current changing with Irradiation

Figure 15. CUK converter output voltage

Figure 16. CUK converter output current

V. CONCULSION

This paper has presented a Maximum Power Point

Tracking technique and their efficiency performance at

different weather conditions. The proposed PV system and

MPPT was simulated. The Incremental Conductance method is

more efficient compared to all MPPT methods because panel

terminal voltage is changed according to its value relative to

the MPP voltage. The Incremental Conductance method offers

good performance under rapidly changing atmospheric

conditions.

REFERENCES

[1] Safari, A; Mekhilef, S "Simulation and Hardware Implementation of

Incremental Conductance MPPT with Direct Control Method Using Cuk

Converter," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol.PP, no.99,

pp.1-1, 0doi: 10.1109/TIE.2010.2048834.

[2] A.Woyte, V. Van Thong, R. Belmans and J.Nijs, "Voltage Fluctuations

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Transactions on Energy conversion, Vol.21, No. 1,March 2006.

[3] S.M.Ale-Emran, M.Abedi, G.B.Gharehpetian and

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SPEEDAM 2008.

[4] V. Salas, E. Olias, A. Barrado, and A. Lazaro, Review of the maximum

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BIOGRAPHIES

Rajiv Roshan is currently pursuing his Bachelor

Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering at

VIT University.

Currently presenting a paper on real time

simulation. His area of interests are power system,

electrical machines and renewable enegy sources

Yatendra Yadav is currently pursuing his

Bachelor Degree in Electrical and Electronics

Engineering in at VIT University.

Currently writing a paper on Real Time

Simulation. His areas of interest are High Voltage

Direct current (HVDC) Transmission System,

Renewable Energy Systems and Smart Grid

Umashankar. S (M10) received his Bachelor

Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering

and Master Degree in Power Electronics in the year

2001 and 2004 respectively. Currently he is Asst.

Professor-Senior in the School of Electrical

Engineering at VIT University, Vellore. He worked

as Senior R&D Engineer and Senior Application

Engineer in the power electronics and Drives field

for more than 7 years. He has published/presented

many national and international

journals/conferences. He has also co-

authored/edited many books/chapters on wind power/energy and allied

areas. His current areas of research activities include renewable energy, real

time digital simulator, HTS generator, FACTS, and power quality.

D. Vijayakumar received his Bachelor Degree

in Electrical and Electronics Engineering and

Master Degree in Power Systems in the year

2002 and 2005 respectively.

He worked as a Lecturer in Pallavan College of

Engineering from 2005 to 2006. He received his

Doctorate in 2010 at Electrical Department in

Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology

(MANIT), Bhopal, India. Presently, He is an

Associate Professor in the School of Electrical

Engineering, VIT University, Vellore. His current areas of research interest

are power system protection, and Renewable energy sources.

D. P. Kothari (F10) received the B.E. degree

in electrical engineering, the M.E. degree in

power systems, and the Ph.D. degree in

electrical engineering from the Birla Institute of

Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, India.

Currently, he is Director General, J B Group of

Institutions, Hyderabad, India. He was Head,

Centre for Energy Studies, lIT Delhi (1995-97),

and Principal, Visvesvaraya Regional

Engineering College, Nagpur (1997-98). He has

been Director i/c, lIT Delhi (2005) and Deputy Director (Administration),

lIT Delhi (2003-06). He has published/presented around 600 papers in

national and international journals/conferences. He has also co-

authored/co-edited 22 books on power systems and allied areas. His

activities include optimal hydrothermal scheduling, unit commitment,

maintenance scheduling, energy conservation, and power quality. He has

guided 28 Ph.D. scholars and has contributed extensively in these areas as

evidenced by the many research papers authored by him. He was a Visiting

Professor at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne,

Australia, in 1982 and 1989. He was a National Science Foundation Fellow

at Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, in 1992. He is a Fellow of the

IEEE, Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE) and Indian

National Academy of Sciences (FNASc). He has received the National

Khosla award for Lifetime Achievements in Engineering for 2005 from

lITRoorkee. The University Grants Commission (UGC) has bestowed UGC

National Swami PranavanandaSaraswati award for 2005 on Education for

outstanding scholarly contribution.

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