You are on page 1of 6

I PV

I d
V
I
Rs
R p

Modeling and Simulation of Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithm Based Solar
Photo Voltaic System using CUK Converter
Rajiv Roshan, Yatendra Yadav, Umashankar S,
Vijayakumar D
School of Electrical Engineering,
VIT University,
Vellore, India
E-mail: rajiv.roshan2009@vit.ac.in,
yatendra.yadav05@ymail.com,
umashankar.s@vit.ac.in,
vijayakumar.d@vit.ac.in
Kothari D P
Director General
J B Group of Institutions
Hyderabad, India
E-mail: dpk0710@yahoo.com







Abstract This paper proposes a method for modeling and
simulation of photovoltaic system and Maximum Power Point
tracking (MPPT). Due to poor efficiency of Photo voltaic (PV)
systems some MPPT methods are proposed. All MPPT methods
follow the same goal that is maximizing the PV system output
power by tracking the maximum power on every operating
condition. . In this paper maximum power point tracking
technique (Incremental conductance) for photovoltaic systems
were introduced to maximize the produced energy. The general
model was implemented on Mat lab, and accepts irradiance and
temperature as variable parameters and outputs the I-V
characteristic and P-V characteristic.
Keywords- PV system; Maximum power point tracking
(MPPT); DC-DC Converter
I. INTRODUCTION
Unfortunately, PV generation systems have two major
problems: the conversion efficiency of electric power
generation is very low (9-16%), especially under low
irradiation conditions and the amount of electric power
generated by solar arrays changes continuously with weather
conditions. Moreover, the solar cell V-I characteristic is
nonlinear and changes with irradiation and temperature. In
general, there is a point on the V-I or V-P curve only, called the
Maximum Power Point (MPP), at which the entire PV system
operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum
output power [4].The location of the MPP is not known, but
can be located, either through calculation models or by search
algorithms. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
techniques [16] are used to maintain the PV array's operating
point at its MPP. Among the various techniques proposed, the
Incremental Conductance(IC) maximum power point tracking
algorithm is the most commonly used method due to it
performs precise control under rapidly changing atmospheric
conditions without steady state oscillation.
In this work, first a mathematical model of a solar PV
module is developed using the I-V relations of a solar cell array
[3] and simulated in MATLAB. The irradiance level (S) and
temperature (T) of each section is continuously measured.

II. PV CELL

A photovoltaic system converts sunlight into electricity.
The basic device of a photovoltaic system is the photovoltaic
cell. Cells may be grouped to form panels or modules. Panels
can be grouped to form large photovoltaic arrays.Fig.1 shows
the equivalent circuit of the ideal photovoltaic cell. The basic
equation for output current of module [2] is

Figure 1. Single-diode model of the theoretical photovoltaic cell and
equivalent circuit of a practical photovoltaic device including the series and
parallel resistances
] 1 ) [exp(
, ,
=
akT
qv
I I I
cell o cell ph

Where I is the PV array output current, V is the PV output
voltage,
cell ph
I
,
is the cell photocurrent that is proportional to
solar irradiation,
cell o
I
,
is the cell reverse saturation current
that mainly depends on the temperature, K is a constant. These
techniques vary in many aspects as: simplicity, convergence
speed, digital or analogical implementation, sensors required,
cost, range of effectiveness, and in other aspects [3-4]. The I-V
characteristics of Photo Voltaic system strongly depend on
irradiation and temperature. For selected value of temperature
978-1-4673-6150-7/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE 584
and irradiation and the plots shown in the figure 2 as shown as
I-V graph.


Figure 2. Voltage Vs Current characteristics of PVA with Variation of
Irradiation

Figure 3. Voltage Vs Current characteristics of PVA with Variation of
Temperature
Fig.2, 3, 4, 5 shows the simulation results of PV system
with different increase in solar radiation [14] causes the output
current to increase and the horizontal part of the curve moves
upward. An increase in cell temperature causes the Voltage to
move leftward, while decreasing temperature produces the
opposite effect. Thus, the I-V curves and P-V curves display
how a photovoltaic module responds to all possible loads under
different solar radiation and cell temperature conditions. Figure
6.gives the detailed simulink model of Photovoltaic system.

Figure 4. Voltage Vs Power characteristics of PVA with Variation of
Irradiation

Figure 5. Voltage Vs Power characteristics of PVA with Variation of
Temperature

Figure 6. Simulink model of PV Module for change in radiation
585
III. MPPT ALGORITHM
Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play a main role
in photovoltaic (PV) power systems because they maximize the
power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions,
and therefore maximize the array efficiency. Thus, an MPPT
[18] can minimize the overall system cost. There are many
MPPT methods available the most widely-used technique is
incremental conductance method described in the following
sections. They also vary in complexity, sensor requirement,
speed of convergence, cost, range of operation, popularity,
ability to detect multiple local maxima and their applications
[3-4]. Specifically the Power Point Tracker is a high frequency
DC to DC converter. They take the DC input from the solar
panels, change it to high frequency AC, and convert it back
down to a different DC voltage and current to exactly match
the panels to the loads. MPPT's operate at very high audio
frequencies, usually in the 20-80 kHz range. The advantage of
high frequency circuits is that they can be designed with very
high efficiency transformers and small components.
Some MPPTs are more rapid and accurate and thus more
impressive which need special design and familiarity with
specific subjects such as fuzzy logic [20] or neural network
[21] methods. MPPT fuzzy logic controllers have good
performance under varying atmospheric conditions and
exhibits better performance in contrast with P&O control
method [8]; however the main disadvantage of this method is
that its effectiveness is highly dependent on the technical
knowledge of the engineer in computing the error and coming
up with the rule base table. It is greatly dependant on the how
designer arranges the system which requires skill and
experience.
Incremental Conduction Algorithm
The Incremental Conductance method[6-10] offers good
performance under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions.
The derivative of output power P with respective to panel
voltage V is equal to zero at Maximum Power Point(MPP).
The solar panel P-V characteristics as shown in Fig.7 Further
that derivative is greater than zero is the left of the MPP and
less than to the right of MPP. The basic equations of this
method are as follows [1].
0 =
dV
dP
for
mp
V V = (2)
0 >
dV
dP
for
mp
V V < (3)
0 <
dV
dP
for
mp
V V > (4)

The Incremental Conductance MPPT method works with
two sensors measuring panels operating voltage V and current
I. The necessary incremental changes dV and dI approximated
by comparing the most recent measured values for V and I with
those measured in previous values.
dV(k) = V(k) - V(k-1) (5)
dI = I(k) - I(k-1) (6)

Equations 2, 3, 4 are used to determine whether the system
is operating at a voltage greater or less than . The flow
chart of Incremental Conductance method shown in Fig.8.It
makes use of instantaneous and incremental conductance to
generate an error signal which is zero at MPP; however it is not
zero at most of the operating points, but it make the error from
the MPPs near to zero [3]. The control diagram of the system
for simulating MPPT algorithm is shown in Figure 9.gives the
detailed simulink model of incremental conductance algorithm.
Fig.10 shows the change in duty ratio at two different
irradiation levels.

Figure 7. Basic idea of incremental conductance method on a P-V curve of a
solar module
586

Figure 8. Flowchart of Incremental conductance method

Figure 9. Simulink model of Incremental Conductance MPPT
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
Diagram of the PV system and MPPT designed in
MATLAB/Simulink is presented in Fig.6, 9. The PV module is
modeled using electrical characteristics to provide output
current and voltage of the PV module. The provided current
and voltage are fed to the converter and the controller
simultaneously The PI control loop is eliminated and the duty
cycle is be adjusted directly in the algorithm. The irradiation
level is varying between two levels. First irradiation level is
1000w/m; at t=0.1s second irradiation level suddenly changes
to 400w/m and then back to 1000w/m at t=0.3s.The changing
irradiation level as shown in Fig.9 The step size of duty cycle
is chosen to be 0.02 so the converter can smoothly track the
MPP. Fig.10 shows the change in duty cycle adjusted by
MPPT to extract maximum power from the module. The
change in PV output voltage current and power by change in
irradiation as shown in Fig.11, 12, 13.


Figure 10. Changing irradiation with Time(sec)

Figure 11. Change in Duty ratio with irradiation
587

Figure 12. PV output power changing with Irradiation

Figure 13. PV module output voltage changing with Irradiation

Figure 14. PV module output current changing with Irradiation

Figure 15. CUK converter output voltage

Figure 16. CUK converter output current
V. CONCULSION
This paper has presented a Maximum Power Point
Tracking technique and their efficiency performance at
different weather conditions. The proposed PV system and
MPPT was simulated. The Incremental Conductance method is
more efficient compared to all MPPT methods because panel
terminal voltage is changed according to its value relative to
the MPP voltage. The Incremental Conductance method offers
good performance under rapidly changing atmospheric
conditions.
REFERENCES

[1] Safari, A; Mekhilef, S "Simulation and Hardware Implementation of
Incremental Conductance MPPT with Direct Control Method Using Cuk
Converter," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol.PP, no.99,
pp.1-1, 0doi: 10.1109/TIE.2010.2048834.
[2] A.Woyte, V. Van Thong, R. Belmans and J.Nijs, "Voltage Fluctuations
on Distribution Level Introduced by Photovoltaic systems", IEEE
Transactions on Energy conversion, Vol.21, No. 1,March 2006.
[3] S.M.Ale-Emran, M.Abedi, G.B.Gharehpetian and
R.Noroozian,"Dynamic Operation of a Photovoltaic SystemConnected
to Distribution System", International Symposium on Power Electronics,
SPEEDAM 2008.
[4] V. Salas, E. Olias, A. Barrado, and A. Lazaro, Review of the maximum
power point tracking algorithms for stand-alone photovoltaic systems,
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 15551578, Jul. 2006.
[5] Zhou Yan; Liu Fei; Yin Jinjun; Duan Shanxu; , "Study on realizing
MPPT by improved Incremental Conductance method with variable
step-size," Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2008. ICIEA 2008.
3rd IEEE Conference on , vol., no., pp.547-550, 3-5 June 2008, doi:
10.1109/ICIEA.2008.4582575.
[6] T.L. Kottas, Y.S.Boutalis and A. D. Karlis, New Maximum Power Point
Tracker for PV Arrays Using Fuzzy Controller in Close Cooperation
with Fuzzy Cognitive Network, IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., vol.21, no.3,
2006.
[7] I.S.Kim, M.B.Kim and M.Y.Youn, New Maximum Power Point
Tracking Using Slinding-Mode Observe for Estimation of Solar Array
Current in the Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron., vol.53,no.4, pp. 1027-1035, August, 2006.
[8] Chihchiang Hua; Chihming Shen; , "Comparative study of peak power
tracking techniques for solar storage system," Applied Power
Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1998. APEC '98. Conference
Proceedings 1998, Thirteenth Annual, vol.2, no., pp.679-685 vol.2, 15-
19 Feb 1998, doi: 10.1109/APEC.1998.653972.
[9] Hohm, D.P.; Ropp, M.E.; , "Comparative study of maximum power
point tracking algorithms using an experimental, programmable,
maximum power point tracking test bed," Photovoltaic Specialists
588
Conference, 2000. Conference Record of the Twenty-Eighth IEEE , vol.,
no., pp.1699-1702, 2000 doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2000.916230.
[10] Hussein, K.H.; Muta, I.; Hoshino, T.; Osakada, M.; , "Maximum
photovoltaic power tracking: an algorithm for rapidly changing
atmospheric conditions," Generation, Transmission and Distribution,
IEE Proceedings- , vol.142, no.1, pp.59-64, Jan 1995 doi: 10.1049/ip-
gtd:19951577.
[11] Tse, K.K.; Ho, B.M.T.; Chung, H.S.-H.; Hui, S.Y.R.; , "A comparative
study of maximum-power-point trackers for photovoltaic panels using
switching-frequency modulation scheme," Industrial Electronics, IEEE
Transactions on , vol.51, no.2, pp. 410- 418, April 2004, doi:
10.1109/TIE.2004.825226.
[12] Faranda, R.; Leva, S.; Maugeri, V.; , "MPPT techniques for PV Systems:
Energetic and cost comparison," Power and Energy Society General
Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st
Century, 2008 IEEE , vol., no., pp.1-6, 20-24 July 2008, doi:
10.1109/PES.2008.4596156.
[13] N.Femia, D.Granozio, G.Petrone, G.Spaguuolo and M.Vitelli,
Optimized One-Cycle Control in Photovoltaic Grid Connected
Applications, IEEETrans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 2, no 3, July
2006.
[14] Kar, A.; , "A New Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for PV
Modules under Partial Shading and Rapidly Varying Illumination," India
Conference (INDICON), 2009 Annual IEEE , vol., no., pp.1-4, 18-20
Dec. 2009, doi: 10.1109/INDCON.2009.5409472.
[15] T. Esram, and P. L. Chapman, Comparison of Photovoltaic Array
Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques, IE EE Trans.
EnergyConv., vol.22, no.2, June, 2007, pp.439-449.
[16] Fermia, N.; Granozio, D.; Petrone, G.; Vitelli, M.;, "Predictive &
Adaptive MPPT Perturb and Observe Method," Aerospace and
Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.43, no.3, pp.934-950,
July 2007, doi: 10.1109/TAES.2007.4383584
[17] Lixin Pang; Hui Wang; Yuxia Li; Jian Wang; Ziyu Wang; , "Analysis of
Photovoltaic Charging System Based on MPPT," Computational
Intelligence and Industrial Application, 2008. PACIIA '08. Pacific-Asia
Workshop on , vol.2, no., pp.498-501, 19-20 Dec. 2008, doi:
10.1109/PACIIA.2008.357.
[18] Lu, J.; Stegen, S.; Butler, D.; , "High frequency and high power density
transformers for DC/DC converter used in solar PV system," Power
Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), 2010 2nd IEEE
International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.481-484, 16-18 June 2010,
doi: 10.1109/PEDG.2010.5545743.
[19] Mutoh, N.; Ohno, M.; Inoue, T.; , "A Method for MPPT Control While
Searching for Parameters Corresponding to Weather Conditions for PV
Generation Systems," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on ,
vol.53, no.4, pp.1055-1065, June 2006, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2006.878328.


BIOGRAPHIES




Rajiv Roshan is currently pursuing his Bachelor
Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering at
VIT University.
Currently presenting a paper on real time
simulation. His area of interests are power system,
electrical machines and renewable enegy sources






Yatendra Yadav is currently pursuing his
Bachelor Degree in Electrical and Electronics
Engineering in at VIT University.
Currently writing a paper on Real Time
Simulation. His areas of interest are High Voltage
Direct current (HVDC) Transmission System,
Renewable Energy Systems and Smart Grid





Umashankar. S (M10) received his Bachelor
Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering
and Master Degree in Power Electronics in the year
2001 and 2004 respectively. Currently he is Asst.
Professor-Senior in the School of Electrical
Engineering at VIT University, Vellore. He worked
as Senior R&D Engineer and Senior Application
Engineer in the power electronics and Drives field
for more than 7 years. He has published/presented
many national and international
journals/conferences. He has also co-
authored/edited many books/chapters on wind power/energy and allied
areas. His current areas of research activities include renewable energy, real
time digital simulator, HTS generator, FACTS, and power quality.





D. Vijayakumar received his Bachelor Degree
in Electrical and Electronics Engineering and
Master Degree in Power Systems in the year
2002 and 2005 respectively.
He worked as a Lecturer in Pallavan College of
Engineering from 2005 to 2006. He received his
Doctorate in 2010 at Electrical Department in
Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology
(MANIT), Bhopal, India. Presently, He is an
Associate Professor in the School of Electrical
Engineering, VIT University, Vellore. His current areas of research interest
are power system protection, and Renewable energy sources.

D. P. Kothari (F10) received the B.E. degree
in electrical engineering, the M.E. degree in
power systems, and the Ph.D. degree in
electrical engineering from the Birla Institute of
Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, India.
Currently, he is Director General, J B Group of
Institutions, Hyderabad, India. He was Head,
Centre for Energy Studies, lIT Delhi (1995-97),
and Principal, Visvesvaraya Regional
Engineering College, Nagpur (1997-98). He has
been Director i/c, lIT Delhi (2005) and Deputy Director (Administration),
lIT Delhi (2003-06). He has published/presented around 600 papers in
national and international journals/conferences. He has also co-
authored/co-edited 22 books on power systems and allied areas. His
activities include optimal hydrothermal scheduling, unit commitment,
maintenance scheduling, energy conservation, and power quality. He has
guided 28 Ph.D. scholars and has contributed extensively in these areas as
evidenced by the many research papers authored by him. He was a Visiting
Professor at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne,
Australia, in 1982 and 1989. He was a National Science Foundation Fellow
at Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, in 1992. He is a Fellow of the
IEEE, Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE) and Indian
National Academy of Sciences (FNASc). He has received the National
Khosla award for Lifetime Achievements in Engineering for 2005 from
lITRoorkee. The University Grants Commission (UGC) has bestowed UGC
National Swami PranavanandaSaraswati award for 2005 on Education for
outstanding scholarly contribution.
589