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With 7 billion people on the planet theoretically from today there will be an inevitable increase in

the demand on the world's natural resources. Here are six already under severe pressure from current
rates of consumption:

1. Water

Freshwater only makes 2.5% of the total volume of the world's water, which is about 35 million km3. But
considering 70% of that freshwater is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover and that we only
have access to 200,000km3 of freshwater overall, it isn't surprising that demand for water could soon
exceed supply. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations is predicting that by 2025,
1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity.

2. Oil

The fear of reaching peak oil continues to haunt the oil industry. The BP Statistical Review of World
Energy in June measured total global oil at 188.8 million tonnes, from proved oil resources at the end of
2010. This is only enough to oil for the next 46.2 years, should global production remain at the current
rate.

3. Natural gas

A similar picture to oil exists for natural gas, with enough gas in proven reserves to meet 58.6 years of
global production at the end of 2010.

4. Phosphorus

Without this element, plants cannot grow. Essential for fertiliser, phosphate rock is only found in a
handful of countries, including the US, China and Morocco. With the need to feed 7 billion people,
scientists from the Global Phosphorus Research Initiative predict we could run out of phosphorus in 50
to 100 years unless new reserves of the element are found.

5. Coal

This has the largest reserves left of all the fossil fuels, but as China and other developing countries
continue to increase their appetite for coal, demand could finally outstrip supply. As it is, we have
enough coal to meet 188 years of global production.

6. Rare earth elements

Scandium and terbium are just two of the 17 rare earth minerals that are used in everything from the
powerful magnets in wind turbines to the electronic circuits in smartphones. The elements are not as
rare as their name suggests but currently 97% of the world's supply comes from China and they can
restrict supplies at will. Exact reserves are not known.

List of 27 Major Industries of India
SARITA SOREN


India is a fast developing country. Since independence she has achieved remarkably in industrial sectors.
Some of the major industry are mentioned below-

1. Iron and Steel-

Iron and Steel industries are considered to the backbone of any nation. First Iron and Steel company in
India was established in Kulti (West Bengal) in the year 1874 AD Brakar Iron company was the name of
the establishment. But this first modern Iron and Steel plant was set up by Jamshedji Ta-ta Sakchi
(Jharkhand) in 1907.

Places-

Jamshedpur, Bokaro (Jharkhand); Bhadravati (Kamataka); Bhilai (Chattisgarh); Rourkela (Orissa); Durgapi
Burupur, Kulti, Hirapur (W. Bengal); Salem (Tamil Nadu Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh).

2. Cotton Industries-

The first industries set up in India us cotton industries. The first modern cotton industries was set by
Cawassji Dawar in Mumbai in 1854 AD.

The major centers of the cotton industries in India are following

Places-

Mumbai, Akola, Sholapur, Pune, Nagpur, Sata (Maharashtra); Ahmadabad, Surat, Baroda, Rajkot,
Bhavnagar (Gujarat); Indore, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Bhopal (Madhya Prades Kanpur, Lucknow, Agra,
Saharanpur, Modinagar, Varan; Rampur (Uttar Pradesh); Kolkata (W. Bengal); Chennai, Coimbator
Madurai (Tamil Nadu); Ludhiana, Amritsar (Punjab); Bangalore (Kamataka); Panipat (Haryana) and Delhi.

3. Sugar Industries-

Sugar industries are also one of the oldestand important industries of India.

Places-

Devaria, Gorakhpur, Barabanki, Basti, Sitapur, Mozaffarnagar, Ghaziabad, Kanpur, Faizabad, Jaunpur
Pradesh); Saran, Champaran, Darbhanga, Motihari, Sub Majhaulia, Madhaura, Panchrukhi, Sasamusa,
Gopalganj Pune, Nasik, Manmad, Sholapur, Kolhapur, Ahmadn2 (Maharashtra); Mursnidabad, Howrah,
Nadia, 24 Pargana Bengal); Coimbator. Madurai, Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu)Phagwara, Amritsar (Punjab);
Rohtak, Panipat (Haryana); Bijapur, Shimoga (Karnataka); Hospet, Kode, Hyderabad (A.P.); Sarangpur,
Palanda (Madhya Pradesh); Surat (Gujarat).

4. Jute Industries-

First Jute industries in India was set up in Risra near Kolkata in 1859 AD. In the following places Jute mills
are concentrated.

Places-Risra, Kolkata, Sialdah, Shri Rampur, Shivpur (W. Bengal); Guntoor, Vishakhapatnam (Andhra
Pradesh); Katihar, Darbhanga, Purnea (Bihar); Kanpur, Gorakhput (U.P.); Cuttuck (Orissa).

5. Paper Industries-

The first modern paper industries was set up near Lucknow in 1879 AD. And in similar manner the first
newsprint industries was set up in Nepanagar in Madhya Pradesh in the year 1955.

Places-

Titagarh, Triveni, Kolkata (W. Bengal); Kagaznagar, Tirypati (Andhra Pradesh); Merrut, Saharanput,
Mozaffarnagar (Uttar Pradesh); Dalmianagar, Brauni, Katihar (Bihar); Bhopal, Hoshangabad, Balaghat
(Madhya Pradesh); Salem (Tamil Nadu); Mumbai, Pune (Maharashtra); Bhadravati, Dadeli (Karnataka);
Punnaloor, Kozikode (Kerala); Surat, Baroda (Gujarat); Sangroor (Punjab); Faridabad, Sonipat (Haryana);
Kota (Rajasthan).

6. Cement Industries-

The first cement factory in India was set up in Chennai in 1904 AD. To increase the production of cement
in the country Associated Cement Company was set up in 1934. Following are the places where the
cement factories are situated :

Places-

Sindri, Khilari, Banjari, Japla, Kalyanpur, Jhinkapani (Jharkhand); Dalmianagar (Bihar); Jabalpur, Katni
(Madhya Pradesh); Durg, Raipur (Chhattisgarh); Churk, Kanpur, Dala (U.P.); Hirakund (Orissa);
Porbandar, Ahmadabad (Gujarat); Likheri, Sawai, (Rajasthan); Bangalore, Bijapur (Karnataka); Guntur,
Mangalagiri (Tamil Nadu); Kottayam (Kerala) and Surajgarh (Haryana).

7. Aluminium Industries-

The first Aluminium factory of India was set up in J. K. Nagar (W. Bengal) in 1937 AD. Following are the
places where Aluminium factories are located.

Places-

Mouri (Jharkhand), Korba (Chhatttisgarh), Always (Kerala), Renukoot (U.P.), Hirakund (Orissa).

8. Chemical Fertilizer Industries-

The first Super Phosphate chemical industries was set up in Ranipet (Tamil Madu) in the year 1906.
Following are the places where the chemical fertilizer industries are located.

Places-

Sindri (Jharkhand); Barauni (Bihar); Gorakhpur, Varanasi (U.P.); Ramagundam, Vishakhapatnum (A.P);
Rourkela, Talchar (Orissa); Khetri, Kota, Slkar (Rajasthan); Mumbai, Ambarnath (Maharashtra); Namrup,
Chandarpur (Assam Burnpur, Haldla, Risra (W. Bengal); Mangalore, Munlrab (Kamataka); Neyvell,
Ranlpet (Tamil Nadu); Kandla, Ha2j! Bhavanagar, Barodra (Gujarat); Alwaye (Kerala); Nangal (Purijju

9. Engineering Industries-

Heavy machines and spares for the industries are manufactured in these industries. Following are the
places where the engineering industries are located :

Places-

Hatia (Jharkhand); Durgapur, Kolkata (W. Benga Hyderabad, Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh); Naini
(Uttar Pradesh); Bangalore (Kamataka); Ajmer (Rajasthan); Ambernatr Pimpri (Maharashtra); Plnjore,
Batala (Punjab).

10. Railway Industries-

(i) Railway Engines-Chitranjan (West Bengal); Varana; (U.P.):

(ii) Railway Coaches-

Perambur (Tamil Nadu), Kapurthala (Punjab), Bangalore (Kamataka), Kolkata (W. Bengal).

(iii)Railway Workshops-Kharagpur (W. Bengal); Jamalpur Samastipur, Barauni (Bihar); Ajmer (Rajasthan);
Jhans (U.P.).

11. Ship-Building-

Vishakhapatnam (Andhra, Pradesh), Cochin (Kerala), Kolkata (W. Bengal), Mumbai (Maharashtra),
Mazgoan (Maharashtra).

12. Aircraft Building-

Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Koraput, Nasik.

13. Automobile Industries-

Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Gurgaon.

14. Cycle Industries-

First cycle industry in India was set up if 1938 in Mumbai.

Places-

Ludhiana, Faridabad, Agra, Kanpur, Varanasi, Gwali of Patna, Asansol, Kolkata, Gauhati and Delhi.

15. Glass Industries-

Kandra, Bhurkunda, Dhanbad (Jharkhand Patna, Kahalgaon (Bihar); Firozabad, Naini, Shikohabad (U-P)
Baildharia, Risra, Burdwan, Raniganj (W. Bengal); Mumbai, Nagpur (Maharashtra); Barodra (Gujarat);
Ambala (Haryana Amritsar (Punjab); Hyderabad (A.P.); Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh- Bangalore (Kamataka)
and Guahati (Assam).

16. Leather Industries-

Kanpur, Agra, Kolkata, Batanagar, Patna Mokama, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore.

17. Woollen Industries-

Dhariwal, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Srinagar, Bangalore.

18. Silk Industries-

Bhagalpur, Bangalore, Tanjore, Kanchipuram, Srinagar, Varanasi and Jallundhar.

19. Medicine Industries-

Mumbai, Pimpri, Pune, Mathura, Haridwar, Rishlkesh, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Chennal, Bangalore and
Delhi.

20. Rubber Industries-

Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Hyderabad,

21. Heavy Chemical Industries-

Sindri, Tatanagar, Mumbai, Kolkata, Durgapur, Amritsar, Bhilai.

22. Match Industries-

Kolkata, Chennai, Baraily, Mumbai, Katihar.

23. Plastic Industries-

Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Kanpur.

24. Telephone Industries-

Bangalore, Rupnarayanpur (W. Bengal).

25. Petrol Refining Industries-

Digboi, Noonmati, Koyali (Gujarat), Vishakhapatnam, Trombay, Barauni, Mathura.

26. Petro Chemicals-

Hyderabad, Ahmadabad, Barodra, Lucknow, Bhuvaneshwar, Bhopal.

27. Pesticide Industries-

Cochin, Meddak (T. Nadu).
5 Sectors on a Hiring Spree
Edition: November 2011
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India's journey on the path of economic reforms has transformed it to one of the
world's fastest growing economies. Its large andgrowing population is its best
asset and can quadruple GDP and catapult India to the league of developed economies
over the next decade. All this if a billion could be transformed into a productive workforce.

For over half a decade now, India has been chanting the demographic mantra with little real
progress. Because, with opportunities come challenges. The services sector needs many
million knowledge workers. Lack of employability is endemic. India's large labour force has
been stubborn in transition. Over 90% of the labour force is inadequately trained.

Jobs continue to be created, needing an educated workforce and many in sunrise sub-
sectors. We need to recognise new opportunities and prepare the supply side. Let us take a
quick look at five existing sectors that are likely to hold us in good stead in the future in
terms of employment generation and business growth.
1. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
The IT sector has been India's sunshine sector for quite some time
now. The industry has contributed considerably to changing India's
image from a slow developing economy to a global player in providing
world class technology solutions. According to the IBEF (India Brand
Equity Foundation) figures, the Indian IT industry is set to touch $225
billion by 2020.

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Industry experts and NASSCOM say the Indian IT workforce will touch 30 million by 2020,
becoming the highest sector employer. This will be coupled with steady increase in pay in a
sector already offering a high base. The outsourcing industry too is looking towards India
and is expected to be a $2.5 billion industry in the next 24 months.

2. TELECOM
India's telecom story is only getting better. According to Zinnov
estimates, India already has nearly 850 million mobile phone
subscribers, with a 15% smart phone penetration. All this points to a
penetration that is fuelling the growth of enterprise mobility in India,
which will lead to significant employment growth.

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The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) too is targeting a 10-fold increase in
broadband subscribers to100 million by 2014. Outsourcing revenues from the telecom
sector, as per E&Y, are set to grow at a CAGR of 31% to nearly $2 billion in 2012. India
today is at a stage in telecom growth that probably America was 30 years ago. Our mobile
and Internet penetration has to increase further, resulting in a new era in enterprise mobility.

3. HEALTHCARE
There are clear indications that healthcare is going to be a major
sector that stimulates economic growth and contribute to
employment.

Over 40 million new jobs are expected to be generated by 2020, as
per a report titled 'India's New Opportunities-2020' by the All India
Management Association, Boston Consulting Group and the
Confederation of Indian Industries (CII). The Indian healthcare
industry also has advantages over other developing countries in becoming a global hub for
medical tourism. The medical treatment and educational services in India are a fraction of
the cost in developed countries.

While we may lag in molecule development and drug patents, an increasing disposable
income has led to a strong domestic market potential in India. This will result in significant
employment generation across various functions, such as sales, marketing, HR, IT and
operations, within the industry.

4. INFRASTRUCTURE
India's infrastructure growth has been exponential over the past
decade. Today, we are the fourth largest and probably the second-
fastest growing economy, with infrastructure being one of the
cornerstones. The infrastructure industry in India is highly fragmented
and hence difficult to gunge its exact size and the jobs it generates
each year in absolute terms.

However, be it roads and highways, railways, aviation, shipping,
energy, power or oil & gas, the Indian government and the various
state governments seem to making rapid progress. This has led to significant employment
generation, though a majority of it is still in the unorganised sector. Over the next 10 years,
the infrastructure sector in India will need to continue its growth momentum and is likely to
maintain a growth rate anywhere between 7-10%, a very healthy sign.

5. RETAIL
Over the past few months, the retail sector has grabbed headlines
with talks of 100% FDI in single brand retail, which is currently
capped at 51%. While the outcome is still undecided, the opening up
of India's retail will create a stronger, organised industry that will help
in generating employment.

Today, only a small part of retail in India is organised. Despite this, it
is estimated that the sector in India is worth more than $400 billion,
with domestic and international players planning to expand across the
country. Industry leaders predict that the next phase of growth will
emerge from rural markets. There are projections of the workforce
doubling by 2015, from the current five lakhs in both organised and unorganised sector.