You are on page 1of 92

H

A
N
D
B
O
O
K
Fastrak CSC
Structural steelwork
analysis and design

.
c
s
c
w
o
r
l
d
.
c
o
m
/
f
a
s
t
r
a
k
Friday 16 November 2012 11:25
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 2
CSC Inc
500 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 300,
Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Tel: 877 710 2053
Fax 312 321 6489
Email: sales@cscworld.com
usa.support@cscworld.com
Internet: www.cscworld.com
CSC (UK) Ltd
Yeadon House
New Street
Pudsey
Leeds
LS28 8AQ
Tel: (44) 113 239 3000
Fax: (44) 113 236 0546
Email: sales@cscworld.com
support@cscworld.com
Internet: www.cscworld.com
Civil & Structural Computing (Asia) Pte Ltd
16 Collyer Quay #21-00
Singapore 0493183
Tel: (65) 6258 3700
Fax: (65) 6258 3721
Email: sales@cscworld.com
support@cscasia.com.sg
Internet: www.cscworld.com
CSC WORLD (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd
Suite B-12-5, Block B, Level 12,
North Point Offices, Mid Valley City,
No.1, Medan Syed Putra Utara,
59200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel: (60) 3 2287 5970
Fax: (60) 3 2287 4950
Email: sales@cscworld.com
support@cscasia.com.sg
Internet: www.cscworld.com
Disclaimer page 3
Disclaimer
CSC Inc. does not accept any liability whatsoever for loss or damage arising from any errors which might
be contained in the documentation, text or operation of the programs supplied.
It shall be the responsibility of the customer (and not CSC)
to check the documentation, text and operation of the programs supplied,
to ensure that the person operating the programs or supervising their operation is suitably qualified
and experienced,
to ensure that program operation is carried out in accordance with the user manuals,
at all times paying due regard to the specification and scope of the programs and to the CSC Software
Licence Agreement.
Proprietary
Rights
CSC Inc, hereinafter referred to as the OWNER, retains all proprietary rights with respect to this program
package, consisting of all handbooks, drills, programs recorded on CD and all related materials. This
program package has been provided pursuant to an agreement containing restrictions on its use.
This publication is also protected by copyright law. No part of this publication may be copied or
distributed, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or
computer language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, manual or
otherwise, or disclosed to third parties without the express written permission of the OWNER.
This confidentiality of the proprietary information and trade secrets of the OWNER shall be construed in
accordance with and enforced under the laws of the United Kingdom.
Fastrak documentation: Fastrak software:
CSC Inc. 2012 CSC Inc. 2012
All rights reserved. All rights reserved.
Trademarks
Fastrak is a trademark of CSC Inc.
TEDDS is a registered trademark of CSC Inc.
Orion is a trademark of CSC Inc.
CSC Inc.The CSC logo is a trademark of CSC Inc.
HOOPS is a trademark of CSC Inc.
Autodesk and Revit are registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and/or other
countries.
Microsoft and Windows are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
Acrobat Reader Copyright 1987-2012 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Adobe and Acrobat are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated which may be
registered in certain jurisdictions.
All other trademarks acknowledged.
Friday 16 November 2012 11:25
page 4 Table of Contents
AISC Specification - Building Designer Handbook
Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Chapter 2 Construction Methods and Member Types . . . . . . . . . 8
Simple Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Composite or simple beam?. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Composite Beam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Continuous Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Member Beams and Member Columns . . . . . . . . . . . 11
General Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
General Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Moment Framing and Gravity Loads . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Backspan Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
General Points to Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Additional Member Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Trusses and Truss Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Steel Joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Diaphragm Braces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Bearing Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Chapter 3 Stability Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Using Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Using Steel Moment Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Using Other Moment Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Using Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Seismic Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Chapter 4 Diaphragm Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Rigid Diaphragms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Single diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Slab items defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
No diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Taking slabs out of a diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Semi-Rigid Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Flexible Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Story Shears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Chapter 5 Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports . . . . . 37
Moment Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Axial Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Torsional Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Release from a Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Member Orientations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Supports and Base Fixity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Chapter 6 Load Cases and Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . 43
Gravity Load Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Self Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Live and Roof Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Table of Contents page 5
Perimeter Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Lateral Load Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Wind Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Notional Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Seismic Load Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Construction Stage Combination . . . . . . . . . . . 47
The Combinations Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Classifying Combinations and Setting the Critical Combinations . . . . . . 50
Gravity Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Lateral Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Seismic Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Setting the Critical Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Chapter 7 Analysis And Design Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Building Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Overview of the Analysis and Design Process . . . . . . . . . . 53
Set Auto Design Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Analysis Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
First-order or Second-order Analysis? . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Stability Coefficient Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Reduced Stiffness Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Curved Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Torsion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Cracked Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Design Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Design Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Design Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Force Limits - Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Element Pre-sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Live Load Reductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Composite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Steel Joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Initial Review of Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Maximum Nodal Deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Stability Coefficients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Seismic Drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Loading Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Review of Selected Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Review Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Reviewing Stability Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Reviewing Story Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3D Analysis Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Continuous Beam Example . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Braces Carry Gravity Loads Example . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Refining Member Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Chapter 8 Building Effective Models . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Place grid lines accurately . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Save time by using Attributes effectively . . . . . . . . . . 71
Use simple construction where possible . . . . . . . . . . 72
Use Perimeter Loading for edge beams where applicable . . . . . . . 72
Is it a Floor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Set the appropriate level of Diaphragm Action . . . . . . . . . 73
Friday 16 November 2012 11:25
page 6 Table of Contents
Set the appropriate level of deflection checks . . . . . . . . . . 73
Switch off irrelevant load combinations . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Building Size and Orientation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Design simple construction for gravity loads only . . . . . . . . . 74
Prevent out of plane instability . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Check the model analysis results . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Staged modeling and design . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Chapter 9 Assumptions and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Analysis Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Deflection checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Absolute and Relative Deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Deflections in Composite Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Foundation loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Vertical cross bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Foundation shear and vertical load . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Column axial load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Live Load Reductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Notional Load Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Loads used in Notional Load calculations . . . . . . . . . . 81
Gravity loads carried by braces not accounted for in Notional Load calculations . . . . 81
Axial load in discontinuous columns used twice in Notional Load calculations . . . . 82
Chapter 10 Sign Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Object Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Beams (Simple, Composite and General) and Truss member (chord) . . . . . . 84
Braces and Truss member (internal) . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Foundations/Bases - Foundation Forces . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Foundations/Bases - Base Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Nodal Deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Chapter 1 : Introduction AISC Specification - Building Designer page 7
AISC Specification - Building Designer Handbook
Chapter 1 Introduction
This handbook provides an overview of Fastrak Building Designer in the context of design to
the AISC Specification. The applicable construction methods and member types are described,
and the analysis/design procedures explained. In addition, guidance is provided on effective
modeling with tips and examples to help you to make the most of the software.
A brief description of the contents follows:
Construction Methods and Member Types (Chapter 2)
discusses the use of simple and continuous construction and describes the various
member types available.
Stability Design (Chapter 3)
describes the various means of providing lateral resistance.
Diaphragm Modeling (Chapter 4)
describes the different types of diaphragm modeling available for transferring horizontal
loads to the lateral load resisting system.
Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports (Chapter 5)
describes the various end releases, member orientation and supports.
Load Cases and Load Combinations (Chapter 6)
describes the different load case and load combinations types.
Note The Wind Wizard and the Seismic Wizard used for automatic loadcase
generation are fully described in the ASCE7-05 Wind Wizard Handbook and
the ASCE7-05 Seismic Wizard Handbook respectively.
Analysis And Design Procedures (Chapter 7)
provides an overview of the steps required to analyze and design your building and
describes the various analysis and design options.
Note The member design procedures are fully described in the AISC Specification -
Member Design Handbook
Building Effective Models (Chapter 8)
hints and tips for creating a model that quickly and efficiently yields results.
Assumptions and Limitations (Chapter 9)
these are fully described here.
Sign Conventions (Chapter 10)
conventions used in reporting the results.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 8 Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types
Chapter 2 Construction Methods and Member Types
To maximize your construction options Fastrak Building Designer provides a range of
construction methods and member types.
Major topics Simple Construction
Continuous Construction
Composite Beam Design
Member Beams and Member Columns
General Beams
General Columns
Backspan Beams
Trusses and Truss Members
Steel Joists
Diaphragm Braces
Shear Walls
Bearing Walls
Simple Construction
For simple construction (e.g. composite beams with pinned ends)
The most effective design for a multi-story structure is likely to be simple
1
beams and general
columns (designed for gravity only) with simple braces to resist the lateral forces.
Fastrak Building Designer will happily design moment frames or continuous beams
automatically within a model, BUT, the design of these elements is much more comprehensive
(and hence takes longer). For this reason you should only use such elements when your model
specifically requires them.
Note If Fastrak Building Designer gives warnings about braces on simple beams, the
answer is not necessarily to make the affected elements into general beams. Look
at the modeling and talk to CSC support if you are not sure of the route that you
want to take.
Simple construction implies certain types of modeling and certain specific design rules
(both inclusions and exclusions). We assume that you are familiar with these.
Footnotes
1. Pin type connections thus in this context a composite beam is simple.
Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types AISC Specification - Building Designer page 9
Analytical Properties (simple construction)
Both simple and composite beams are automatically configured with (and restricted to)
pinned connections.
When considering stability you should be aware that for those general columns set by you to
be Gravity Only Design, the program automatically inserts pins just above every floor level.
Note however that pins do not get inserted at the base level, or where the general columns are
connected to a braced bay. The insertion of these pins ensures that all lateral load is transferred
to the lateral load resisting system. An example is shown in the figure below.
Note If a general column is switched so that it is not Gravity Only Design, the program
automatically removes any pins within it.
Design Properties (simple construction)
It is best to establish the default design properties (lateral bracing assumptions, sections for
study, etc.) by setting up appropriate default attributes. For information about working with
attributes refer to - Building Designer Help \ Working with Attributes
Composite or simple beam?
Composite beam design is not a linear process, and some beams are not suitable for design as
composite beams. You should take care when selecting beams for composite design, and set
appropriate design attributes.
The benefits of composite design are well known, however many beams are not suitable for
composite design, including:
beams with no slab,
very short beams,
beams with significant eccentric load (for example a beam supporting a column close to
the support),
beams with decking arrangements that will not allow effective composite action.
In short you should be diligent about the use of composite beams. Exercise care when
determining which beams are appropriate for composite design, if in doubt design all beams
as simple beams first and then select those beams that you wish to be composite at a
second pass.
Added release My and Mz
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 10 Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types
Composite Beam Design
Composite design of beams is a complex procedure when carried out rigorously. We
assume that you are familiar with the concepts of composite design before you use the
software.
Fastrak Building Designers composite design routines can automatically choose the optimum
stud layout and as such the design of any composite beam may have a range of possible
solutions.
Example A typical 30 ft composite spine beam can be shown to be acceptable:
with studs at 7.5 in centers and a W 18x50,
with studs at 8 in centers and a W 18x55,
which of these solutions is better is up to you.
While it can sometimes be useful to optimize a design, you might well take the view that you
would prefer to control the stud spacing and other critical design issues rather than allow the
software to choose a different layout for every beam.
Please consider the following when you set up the attributes for a composite beam.
It is important to realize that you can define attributes that may make the design of composite
beams impossible for example by setting the stud spacing on a girder to 12 in, this does not
provide the minimum amount of shear interaction, then the selection of a suitable beam size is
not possible.
Note For more information refer to the Composite Beam chapter in the AISC
Specification Member Design Handbook
Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types AISC Specification - Building Designer page 11
Continuous Construction
For continuous steel construction (e.g. moment frames)
Fastrak Building Designer allows you to model members which are more complex than pin
ended beams and columns. There are currently four member construction types that you can
use:
Member Beams and Member Columns these can be any section in any material but
cannot be checked or designed by the software.
General Beams these are restricted to steel sections but such beams can then be
designed by the software.
General Columns these are restricted to steel sections but such columns can then be
designed by the software.
All of the above members can carry both axial load and moment, the distinction being:
Member Beams and General Beams are beam-columns typically dominated by moments
but with significant axial force and forces present in other axes excluding torsion.
Member Columns and General Columns are column-beams dominated by axial but with
significant moments.
Member Beams and Member Columns
For construction in other materials including concrete and timber
A member can be almost anything. The view above shows member beams and member
columns being used to form concrete framing to support part of the steel structure. (In this
example additional support and lateral stability is also being provided by concrete shear walls,
these are a separate construction type - see Shear Walls. Also refer to Stability Design for
notes on the alternative methods of providing lateral stability.)
The procedure for defining member beams and member columns is identical to the procedure
for defining other beams and columns you set up the default attributes and then create
members by clicking between any two points. The two main topics that require some thought
are given below.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 12 Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types
Section/Material Properties
Fastrak Building Designer has default values for various materials. To use a material that is not
listed choose Other and you will then be able to enter the properties directly.
Section properties can be calculated automatically for rectangular sections by entering the
breadth and depth and clicking Calc. Props. The example above shows the section property
dialog for a concrete beam section.
Note that for the purposes of deflection estimation and in any model that mixes steel/
concrete/other materials, attention needs to be paid to defining the correct properties.
For concrete elements this means considering:
adjusting the gross section properties to allow for cracking,
Note In the above dialog, if you define b and d then click Calc. Properties - Fastrak
Building Designer calculates the gross section properties of a simple rectangular
section for you. You can make adjustments to the calculated values to allow for
cracking and/or to allow for irregular shapes, etc. You should also bear in mind
that global adjustments are automatically made to the inertias of all concrete
beams, columns and shear walls during analysis to allow for cracking based on the
values you specify on the Cracked Sections page of the Analysis Options dialog,
see Cracked Sections on page 58.
adjusting the value of E (Youngs Modulus) to allow for load duration.
Note When you select a concrete grade an average short term value of E is indicated for
guidance. You must always define the value of E to be used for analysis.
Analytical Properties (End Releases)
This is common to Member Beams, Member Columns, General Beams, and General
Columns, refer to Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports.
Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types AISC Specification - Building Designer page 13
General Beams
General Beams are, in a sense, a more constrained subset of Member Beams:
You still have all the geometrical freedom to define the member at almost any angle/
orientation,
General Beams are constrained to be a steel section,
The advantage is that Fastrak Building Designer designs these steel sections automatically.
They can be designed for gravity and lateral loads.
They can be designated part of a Moment Frame. Such beams then adopt different initial
sizing criteria in an attempt to ensure auto-design of general beams in such frames have
reasonable stiffness during the analysis/design process - see Element Pre-sizing
Creating General Beams
You can create General Beams in the same way as any simple- or composite-beam. Simply
create a new beam attribute set and set the Construction Type on the Design tab to General.
Any new beam you create using this attribute set will be a General Beam.
Note You can set the end releases as part of the attribute set (the default setting is
pinned).
You can create General Beams in several other ways:
1. While creating any beam (regardless of the current default attribute set), you can hold
down the control key to indicate a series of points that define a continuous beam. Since
simple beams and composite beams are never continuous this procedure will always
convert the beam to make it a continuous general beam.
Note Continuous general beams do not need to be co-linear, provided the web remains
in a common vertical plane.
2. If you click on two simple beams with the Split/Join tool active Fastrak Building Designer
converts these to a continuous general beam.
3. If you insert points in simple beams by using the Modify tool and then move those points
to create a non co-linear beam, then Fastrak Building Designer converts the beam into a
continuous General Beam.
Analytical Properties (End Releases)
This is common to all Member Beams, Member Columns, General Beams, and General
Columns, refer to Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports.
Design Properties
As with simple- and composite-beams it is best to establish the default design properties
(lateral bracing assumptions, sections for study, etc.) by setting up appropriate default
attributes. If the attributes you require have not been set up, you could of course edit the
properties of any General Beam directly.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 14 Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types
General Columns
General Columns are, in a sense, a more constrained subset of Member Columns:
You still have all the geometrical freedom to define the member at almost any angle/
orientation,
General Columns are constrained to be a steel section,
The advantage is that Fastrak Building Designer designs these steel sections automatically.
They can be designed for gravity and lateral loads, but for simple construction they should
be set for Gravity Only Design, in which case they are designed for gravity combinations
only.
General Columns can be designated part of a Moment Frame. Since columns in a moment
frame require a greater inertia than would otherwise be the case, General Columns use a
different orderfile containing sections more suited to resist bending.
Creating General Columns
Simply create a new column attribute set with the desired properties. Any new column you
create using this attribute set will be a General Column.
While working in the 3D structure view you can also create columns by clicking on start and
end points. While creating any column in this way you can hold down the control key to
indicate a series of points that define a continuous column.
Analytical Properties (End Releases)
This is common to all Member Beams, Member Columns, General Beams, and General
Columns, refer to Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports.
Design Properties
As with beams it is best to establish the default design properties (lateral bracing assumptions,
sections for study, etc.) by setting up appropriate default attributes.
If you have not set up the attributes you wanted you could of course edit the properties of any
General Column on an individual basis.
Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types AISC Specification - Building Designer page 15
Moment Framing and Gravity Loads
Backspan Beams
We expect that (generally) for gravity loads you will only introduce moment framing locally
and selectively. We anticipate that one of the most common requirements for this usage will be
to define backspan beams
.
The above view shows several simple examples of backspan beams at the first floor level.
Note This model is for illustration purposes only - building layout is at your discretion.
Consider the left-hand-side you will see a cantilever slab area. Some of the cantilevers are on
column lines, however, others extend from the side of a supporting beam and so rely on a
backspan beam to restrict rotation.
Along the front elevation the column line steps back between foundation and first floor levels
and so the columns from first floor to roof are supported on the ends of cantilevers with
backspans.
This can all be achieved very effectively by using General Beam design. However you may find
that the general points noted below still apply.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 16 Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types
General Points to Note
Pattern Loading
If you are creating continuous beams you should consider the possibility that pattern load
cases could be critical.
Fastrak Building Designer will NOT automatically create pattern load cases for continuous
beams. However, you can create more load cases containing the appropriate loads and then
create more combinations to cover the pattern load cases.
Pattern loading is also applicable to the backspan beam, it will not affect the cantilever, but if
the cantilever load is reduced/removed the negative moments in the backspan will increase.
Hence, if the cantilever moment is significant the pattern load cases are likely to be more
important to fully investigate.
Continuity
Care is required where the beam depth varies to either side of a beam or column web and it is
desired for the supported beams to be continuous through the support. If the difference in
flange levels is significant the load path through the two moment connections may not be clear
or feasible. Undesirable local forces may be set up in the supporting member.
Transfer Beams / Levels
Levels where the columns that support the floors above are discontinuous are known as
transfer levels and the beams/cantilevers that support these discontinuous columns tend to be
known as transfer beams.
The screen shot at the start of this chapter showed transfer backspan beams. You can design
various transfer beam configurations within Fastrak Building Designer.
Fastrak Building Designer considers live load reductions during the design of columns.
However, these reductions are applied during the member design phase, the building analysis
is always based on all loads applied simultaneously. By default therefore transfer beams will
always be designed for the full (un-reduced) loading in the supported columns. If you regard
this as over-conservative, then you can optimize the design of the transfer beams interactively.
Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types AISC Specification - Building Designer page 17
Additional Member Types
Plus the following additional member types
Fastrak Building Designer allows you to easily model more complex systems which might
comprise multiple analysis members. The following additional member types and systems are
available:
Trusses and Truss Members Truss members can be formed in any material. They will
attract loads and participate in the 3D structural analysis, elements of the truss can be
checked (i.e. not yet be designed) provided they are defined in steel.
Steel Joists Steel joists are simply supported secondary steel members. They will attract
loads and participate in the 3D structural analysis, they can be checked or designed.
Diaphragm Braces these are used to model flexible or semi-rigid diaphragms, serving to
transfer lateral loads to the lateral load resisting systems in the 3D structural analysis. As
they are not real members they are neither checked or designed.
Shear Walls these provide resistance to lateral loads in the analysis model. Concrete
shear walls can be checked or designed, (shear walls in other materials are analyzed but are
not checked/designed).
Bearing Walls these are subjected to gravity (vertical) loads only. They are typically
built from masonry or timber but cannot be checked or designed by the software.
Trusses and Truss Members
In the current version of the software you can define truss members in your model and these
will attract loads and participate in the 3D structural analysis, but elements of the truss can
only be checked (but not designed).
Fastrak Building Designer has a Truss Wizard to help you define many different types of truss.
Steel Joists
Steel joists (or bar joists) - are simply supported secondary members - which do not support
any other members. They only support loaded areas.
Steel joists can be defined with ends at differing levels.
They can not support any other member.
Slab and roof loads are supported by steel joists and loads are distributed to them.
Steel joists are aligned to the analysis wire by their top chord.
Standard types
Steel joists are constrained to standard types specified by the Steel Joist Institute. They are
standardized in terms of span, depth and load carrying capacity. There are four standard types
of steel joist available in Fastrak Building Designer.
K series joists -open web, parallel chord steel joists - depths 8" to 30" with spans up to 60ft.
KCS series joists - K series adapted and specially designed for constant moment/shear
along length (position of point loads become irrelevant).
LH series joists - long span joists - depths 18" to 48" for clear spans up to 96ft.
DLH series joists - deep long span joists - depths 52" to 72" for clear spans up to 144ft.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 18 Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types
Special Joists
SP suffixes can be added to K, LH and DLH Series joists. Special Joists can handle
'non-uniform' loading situations. They will attract loads and participate in the 3D structural
analysis, but they can not be checked or designed. Load diagrams for the relevant joist can be
output to forward to the fabricator for designing.
Joist Girders
These are provided as an option to support steel joists. They will attract loads and participate
in the 3D structural analysis, but they can not be checked or designed.
Creating Steel Joists
You can create steel joists in the same way as any simple- or composite-beam. Simply create a
new beam attribute set and set the Construction Type on the Design tab to Steel Joist. Any new
beam you create using this attribute set will be a Steel Joist.
Analytical Properties
Steel joists must be simply supported and cantilever ends can not be defined. They cannot be
released axially.
Only Joist Girders and SP joists are able to support members along their length.
The inertia and area values are taken directly from the Steel Joist Institute tables.
Diaphragm Braces
Diaphragm braces are not real members - they are used in order to model those floors or
roofs which can not be considered to be rigid due to their type of construction - they are
usually termed Flexible Diaphragms or Semi-Rigid Diaphragms.
Whether the resulting diaphragm is considered flexible or semi-rigid can be controlled by
careful definition of the diaphragm brace properties.
Creating Diaphragm Braces
You create diaphragm braces in a similar way to simple braces. In the Brace attribute set you
should specify Diaphragm on the Design tab and then enter the required values for elastic
modulus and area on the Size tab.
Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types AISC Specification - Building Designer page 19
While they are applied singly, you are advised to always create a pair of cross diaphragm braces
within a panel. Mostly these should connect between columns such that each column is
restrained by at least two diaphragm braces at each floor level as shown in the plan below..
In pitched roofs it would be advisable to tie the apex of roof members back to the vertical
columns supporting the roof..
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 20 Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types
You have to decide the layout of braces around openings. For small openings, the braces could
cross the opening and join the surrounding columns - as shown for the smaller (lower) of the
two openings in the figure below. For larger openings, they could be laid out around the
opening to provide a triangulated framework connecting the nodes of the opening framing.
Two ways in which you might want to do this are shown below..
Analytical Properties
Diaphragm braces are released at both ends in the rotational y- and z-directions and fixed at
both ends in the rotational x-direction.
The only properties required are an area (A) and elastic modulus (E). Default properties are
given in the attributes set, however as there is no 'correct' answer for how stiff a semi-rigid
diaphragm should be, you are entirely responsible for determining appropriate values.
Typically they need to be very slender members with low stiffness.
To assist in this determination consideration should be given to the proportion of the
horizontal loading that is resisted by each of the frames in the lateral load resisting system.
This is achieved after analysis by considering the Story Shear results. See Reviewing Story
Shear for more details.
Diaphragm braces have zero self weight.
Since they are not real members they:
do not interact with any of the members that they "cross" including one another - i.e. they
only interact at their ends,
are not designed,
are not listed,
are not exported to 3D cad programs e.g. Revit.
However they are exported to analysis programs e.g. S-Frame.
Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types AISC Specification - Building Designer page 21
Shear Walls
Shear walls are typically used to provide resistance to lateral loads and support other members.
The following limitations apply to their use:
Vertical walls only
Rectangular walls only
Only Concrete shear walls are checked/designed
Creating Shear Walls
To create Shear Walls you should first create an appropriate Shear Wall attribute set. The
attribute set consists of the walls material, thickness and analysis properties.
If the material is specified as concrete, you should select the concrete grade. The program will
then display a typical short term E value for the grade chosen. You will then need to decide on
an appropriate value of E to be used in the analysis, taking into account factors such as creep,
cracking and shrinkage. If another material is specified you will also be required to specify an
appropriate E to be used in the analysis.
Note The shear wall inertia is adjusted during analysis to allow for cracking based on
the values you specify on the Cracked Sections page of the Analysis Options
dialog, see Cracked Sections on page 58.
You can then create the wall itself from any of the 3D or 2D views:
1. While working in the 3D structure view or a frame view you can create a shear wall by
clicking on start and end points at the base of the wall, followed by a third point which can
be located anywhere in the floor at the top of the wall. The wall will extend vertically
upwards between the start and end point. To the height defined by the third point.
2. While working in a 2D floor view you can create a shear wall by clicking on start and end
points. You then select the construction levels at which the wall starts and ends.
Analytical Properties
A mid-pier idealization is used for Shear Walls, this consists of:
Two horizontal elements at the bottom of the wall running between the two set out points
and the mid point.
Two horizontal elements at the top of the wall running between the two set out points and
the mid point.
Further pairs of horizontal elements for any intermediate construction level that is
designated as a floor.
Vertical elements joining the mid-points at the top and bottom of the wall and any
intermediate floor levels.
A support (which is fully fixed in the plane of the wall and pinned out of plane) is added at
the midpoint of the wall baseline, unless it is being supported by one or more columns,
another shear wall, or a transfer beam.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 22 Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types
Consider the core wall arrangement shown below:
The mid-pier analytical model for this can best be reviewed graphically by showing the
release state of the model (pick Select/Show/Alter State, and then pick Releases from the
dialog).
If openings have been added to the wall the mid pier model will be modified accordingly.
Additional vertical elements are introduced to the sides of the opening and a coupling beam
introduced above. Addition of openings will reduce the strength, stiffness and self weight of
the wall.
Once a shear wall has been defined, extensions can be added to the wall ends. These do not
increase its strength or stiffness, but the self weight would be increased.
The strength and stiffness introduced to your structure will depend on the wall thickness and
also the E value used in the analysis. Care should be taken to ensure that the E value used is
realistic.
Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types AISC Specification - Building Designer page 23
Note The alignment (Left, Center, or Right) of the shear wall is for cosmetic purposes
only and does not affect its analytical properties.
Note Shear Walls do not act as a medium via which loads calculated by the Simple
Wind Loading generator and Wind Wizard are applied to your structure. If this
is required an additional Wind Wall panel would have to created in the same
location as the shear wall.
Design Properties
The design method for concrete shear walls is described in the Shear Walls section of the AISC
Specification - Member Design Handbook.
Transfer Shear Walls
A shear wall may be partially or fully supported by a beam or truss member, but only if the
supporting member has concrete or Other material properties and its model type for shear
wall modeling is set to Top Edge Beam.
Using Shear Walls to Provide Stability
This topic is covered in the Stability Design section, refer to Using Shear Walls.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 24 Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types
Bearing Walls
Bearing walls are used to provide resistance to vertical loads but not lateral loads and to
support certain other member types.
Limitations
The following limitations apply to their use:
Vertical walls only.
Wall is rectangular with a horizontal top.
Analysis model considers vertical (gravity) load only.
Design is not included.
Members can only be defined onto the top of a bearing wall at grid intersection points,
wall column positions and at a user defined distance along the wall.
However, the following members can not be supported by bearing walls - columns,
beams with moment connections and braces.
A shear wall cannot be supported on a bearing wall but a bearing wall can be supported on
a shear wall.
Beam members cannot be continuous over a wall (in the first release).
Please note that the program will allow beams to connect to the top of the wall at any slope or
diagonal angle except
Horizontal along the top and parallel with the length of the bearing wall
The supported end of a sloping beam will have reaction components in both vertical and
horizontal planes, the horizontal component is ignored by the bearing wall.
Features
A bearing wall item can be defined across vertical steel but the wall panel will 'split' at the
steel position - see figure below.
Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types AISC Specification - Building Designer page 25
A bearing wall item can be defined over the top of a beam but cannot have a beam within
or on top of the definition extents - see figure below. This is because a beam cannot be
supported in the plane of a bearing wall.
Bearing wall items must be rectangular with their vertices at grid intersection points but
do not have to coincide with steel members - see figure below.
Bearing wall items can be defined across floor levels but will be split at each floor level.
Bearing walls can be connected to other bearing walls at ends or anywhere in their length
and do not have to be orthogonal.
Creating Bearing Walls
To create Bearing Walls you should first create an appropriate Bearing Wall attribute set. The
attribute set consists of the walls material, thickness and self weight. The wall material is
simply an identifying name - e.g. concrete, block, masonry.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 26 Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types
You can then create the wall itself from any of the 3D or 2D views:
1. While working in the 3D structure view or a frame view you can create a bearing wall by
clicking on start and end points at the base of the wall, followed by a third point which can
be located anywhere in the floor at the top of the wall. The wall will extend vertically
upwards between the start and end point. To the height defined by the third point.
2. While working in a 2D floor view you can create a bearing wall by clicking on start and
end points. You then select the construction levels at which the wall starts and ends.
Analytical Properties
Bearing walls are modeled using a series of vertical column members, 'wall columns', and
horizontal beam members, 'wall beams', as indicated in the diagram below. The beams have
pinned ends and are placed at the top of the wall spanning between the columns. The next
panel above is pinned to the one below and similarly the lower end of a column is pinned to a
supporting beam. At the lowest level the column is 'fixed' to a pinned support.
Members supported by the wall either (fortuitously) bear directly on one of the wall columns
or on one of the wall beams at the head of the wall. All wall columns and wall beams in an
individual panel are given properties automatically by Fastrak, based on the width of the panel
with which they are associated.
Chapter 2 : Construction Methods and Member Types AISC Specification - Building Designer page 27
For bearing walls that are defined between other vertical column members e.g. General
Columns, the wall columns at the edge of the panel are omitted and the associated wall beam
is connected to the General Column (for example) and the adjacent wall column - see figure
below.
Irrespective of whether the wall spans between other vertical column members or not - any
load applied to the wall beam at the edge of the panel is shared between the end column and
the first internal column. This can result in some load being lost directly into the supports.
Load transfer in the bearing wall model is not the same as it would be in for example, a
masonry wall. A point load applied at the top of a masonry wall would result in a distributed
load on any beam supporting the masonry wall, whereas in a bearing wall the supporting
beam would be subjected to a pair of point loads, (or possibly even a single point load if the
applied load coincides exactly with a wall column location).
Self weight of the bearing wall is concentrated in the wall beams so seismic weight is
concentrated at the top of the wall and not split between the floor above and below.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 28 Chapter 3 : Stability Design
Chapter 3 Stability Design
This chapter provides a simple overview of some of the alternative ways in which you can meet
stability design requirements in Fastrak Building Designer.
Major topics Using Bracing
Using Steel Moment Frames
Using Other Moment Frames
Using Shear Walls
Seismic Frames
Using Bracing
This is the most traditional approach and well positioned and proportioned bracing is
undoubtedly the best method of providing stability.
Fastrak Building Designer allows all sorts of bracing configurations including:
tension only bracing,
cross bracing,
K bracing,
V bracing, and
inverted V bracing (as shown in the screen shot above).
Note For V and inverted V bracing the analytical model may need to include sliding
connections so that the beam is not supported by the bracing under gravity loads.
For further information on how to do this see Add bracing in the Quick Start
Guide.
Note Great care must be taken if modeling vertical cross bracings, see Vertical cross
bracing in the Assumptions and Limitations chapter for more details.
Chapter 3 : Stability Design AISC Specification - Building Designer page 29
Using Steel Moment Frames
If you have to provide stability using moment frames, then you can do so within the software
using General Beams and General Columns. In such circumstances it is highly likely that you
will want to consider the advantages and disadvantages of introducing some level of base
fixity. The base fixity options are noted in Supports and Base Fixity.
Where General Beams and General Columns are used in this way, you should designate them
as being part of a moment resisting frame. This will ensure that the initial sizes assigned in the
analysis/design process are reasonable. The designation can be carried out graphically by
using the Moment Frames feature located on the Building tab in the Show/Alter State dialog.
Alternatively the designation can be set by editing the properties of each member.
Using Other Moment Frames
You are able to create moment frames using any material and section by using Member Beams
and Member Columns. It is not necessary to designate such members as being Moment
Frames as they only participate in the analysis and are not designed.
If you attempt to provide stability using other materials and framing, then you need to pay
particular attention to the definition of appropriate section and material properties. This was
touched upon in Member Beams and Member Columns.
Using Shear Walls
Stability for the very simple frame shown above is provided by shear walls. In this view the
walls are rendered as if they are large solid panels, however the modeling idealization being
used is actually a mid-pier vertical beam element with a fixed base, and rigid cantilever arms
extended out at each floor level to support any attached beams or slabs.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 30 Chapter 3 : Stability Design

Swapping to the axis stick view shown above and switching off the simple beams and columns
the idealization becomes more apparent.
For further information refer to the following article which was published in the UK:
Shear Wall Analysis - New Modelling, Same Answers - The Structural Engineer, 1st
February 2005, Vol. 83 No.3, page 20 which is available on the CSC web site - select
Services, Technical Papers.
This modeling idealization of shear walls with beam elements is traditionally well accepted.
The points made in Using Other Moment Frames regarding section and material properties
are of course important.
In recent years we have seen a trend towards Finite Element modeling of shear walls. This can
be accomplished by exporting the Fastrak Building Designer model to general analysis
software such as CSC S-Frame, editing it to remove the general beams and then meshing up the
wall panels. While this appears to be a more detailed approach that has advantages such as the
ability to deal with irregular openings in wall panels, there are disadvantages. For instance, you
do not escape from the need to consider making the appropriate adjustments to gross section
and material properties as touched upon in Member Beams and Member Columns. But, it can
be done...
Chapter 3 : Stability Design AISC Specification - Building Designer page 31
Seismic Frames
If you want to specify specific frames as a Seismic Load Resisting System, note that only
Gravity and Lateral General Beams, General Columns and braces can be included. However,
only some of the Gravity and Lateral members may be part of Seismic Load Resisting Systems,
not all.
At a frame/member level, R is considered in the X and Y direction and the following frame
types are available:
Special Moment Frame (SMF)
Intermediate Moment Frame (IMF)
Ordinary Moment Frame (OMF)
Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)
Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames (OCBF)
The designation of frame type is done graphically by using the Seismic X or Seismic Y feature
located on the Building tab in the Show/Alter State dialog.
The following frame types are beyond scope:
Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF)
Special Truss Moment Frame (STMF)
Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF)
Composite Special Concentrically Braced Frames (C-SCBF)
Composite Ordinary Braced Frames (C-OBF)
Composite Eccentrically Braced Frames (C-EBF)
Seismic Frames are only checked at the Full Design stage.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 32 Chapter 4 : Diaphragm Modeling
Chapter 4 Diaphragm Modeling
In a typical building lateral load resistance is provided at a few discrete points and it is
assumed that applied lateral loads will be distributed to the lateral load resisting system
(LLRS) either by floor diaphragm action or by a bracing system.
Thick concrete floors provide adequate diaphragm action to distribute these loads. These
diaphragms are usually assumed to be 'rigid'. However, floors and roofs of different
construction can also be used to transmit the horizontal loads to the LLRS but are considered
not to be 'rigid', instead they are classed as either semi-rigid or flexible. All three types of
diaphragm can be modeled in Fastrak Building Designer.
Major topics Rigid Diaphragms
Semi-Rigid Diaphragms
Flexible Diaphragms
Story Shears
Rigid Diaphragms
A rigid diaphragm will maintain exact relative positioning of all nodes that it constrains, i.e.
the distance between any two nodes constrained by a diaphragm will never change, therefore
no axial load will develop in any member that lies in the plane of a diaphragm between any
two constrained nodes. You can however elect to remove General Beam, Member Beam and
truss chord nodes from the diaphragm, allowing axial forces to develop within those
members.
Any asymmetry in the stiffness of the LLRS can produce 'twist' in the diaphragm - also
referred to as torsion effects. Out of plane effects are usually minimized or eliminated.
Note Nodes at support positions, (either column or supplementary), are automatically
excluded from all diaphragms.
In Fastrak Building Designer, at each floor level there are 3 options for rigid diaphragm
modeling:
Single diaphragm (Default Setting)
Slab items defined
No diaphragm
It is also possible to switch diaphragm action off for one or more individual slabs within a
floor by .
General Beams, Member Beam and Truss Chords can be taken out of a diaphragm in
order to allow axial forces to develop within those members - see
Chapter 4 : Diaphragm Modeling AISC Specification - Building Designer page 33
Single diaphragm
This option switches diaphragm action on for an entire floor. Note that completely isolated
areas of the floor are constrained by the same diaphragm. Hence, in the example above, if
lateral load is applied to the left hand block it will be resisted by the combined bending of both
blocks. The towers can not move independently at the level of the diaphragm. Having one
diaphragm across both blocks would produce incorrect results.
Note The extents of a diaphragm are best reviewed graphically (pick
Select/Show/Alter State, and then pick Show Diaphragm from the dialog).
Each independent diaphragm is shown in a different color.
Slab items defined
Using this option discrete diaphragms are created for each area of interconnected slabs.
If this option were applied to the example from the previous section a more realistic model
would be created. Two separate diaphragms would exist at each floor level above the podium.
As a consequence lateral load applied to the left hand block is not resisted by the right hand
block. Each can move independently.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 34 Chapter 4 : Diaphragm Modeling
No diaphragm
This option switches diaphragm action off for an entire floor. Obviously, in this case an
alternative means of transferring lateral loads i.e. a bracing system, would have to be provided.
Taking slabs out of a diaphragm
It is possible to switch diaphragm action off for one or more individual slabs within a floor.
This is only possible if the diaphragm has been defined using the Slab items defined option.
To demonstrate this, the example from the previous section is modified to include a link
bridge between the blocks. Initially, by using the Slab items defined option, a single diaphragm
is created at the level of the bridge. This constrains all the floor nodes within both blocks at the
level of the bridge, so that at this level the blocks can not move independently.
Providing the linking slab is substantial this may be considered to be appropriate. However, if
the link becomes more slender, a point will be reached where this is no longer the case.
Chapter 4 : Diaphragm Modeling AISC Specification - Building Designer page 35
By using the Alter Diaphragm function in the Show/Alter State dialog, diaphragm action can
be switched off for the slab within the link bridge.
Because the remaining areas of slab at this level are no longer considered interconnected, two
discrete diaphragms are formed and the blocks act independently.
Semi-Rigid Diaphragms
A semi-rigid diaphragm cannot be assumed to be rigid. It can deform in plane (beam
bending) and is influenced by the distribution of the stiffness of the lateral load resisting
system (LLRS). Consequently, there can be 'twist' and the distribution of the horizontal loads
is a complex interaction of the stiffness of the diaphragm and the LLRS.
In Fastrak Building Designer, semi-rigid diaphragms are modeled by introducing
Diaphragm Braces. within the plane of the floor.
Flexible Diaphragms
The accepted definition of a flexible diaphragm refers to the behavior that allows for some
deformation in plane of the diaphragm (similar to beam bending) but without the 'twist' that
can occur in rigid diaphragms. As such the distribution of the lateral loads is not influenced by
the distribution of the stiffness of the LLRS.
A flexible diaphragm can be considered as a discrete form of semi-rigid diaphragm.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 36 Chapter 4 : Diaphragm Modeling
Floors constructed from timber decking or thin sheets of profiled steel which, importantly,
deform at the joints between sheets might be considered as flexible diaphragms.
In Fastrak Building Designer, flexible diaphragms are modeled in the same way as
semi-rigid diaphragms, by introducing Diaphragm Braces. within the plane of the floor.
Story Shears
When modeling semi-rigid and flexible diaphragms, the designer cannot be sure of the
'correct' value to enter for the elastic modulus and area of the diaphragm braces. One way in
which he can make this judgement is by consideration of the proportion of the horizontal
loading that is resisted by each of the frames at each level in the lateral load resisting system,
LLRS.
This is achieved after analysis by considering the Story Shear results. See Reviewing Story
Shear for more details.
Chapter 5 : Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports AISC Specification - Building Designer page 37
Chapter 5 Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports
Once you start using Member Beams, Member Columns, General Beams, General Columns
and Shear Walls, you are no longer dealing with a simple model where all the beams have
pinned ends and only resist major axis moments.
The design forces established in frames with moment connections are all distributed
according to relative member stiffnesses. Therefore, in addition to ensuring that the member
properties are correct, you need to review and take control over member end releases and
member orientations.
Note An important double check on all of this is to spend some time reviewing the
analysis results. You may want to read Initial Review of Analysis Results on
page 61 for some notes/tips on this.
Major topics Moment Releases
Axial Releases
Torsional Releases
Release from a Diaphragm
Member Orientations
Supports and Base Fixity
Moment Releases
Member end moment releases are best reviewed graphically by showing the release state of the
model (pick Edit/Show/Alter State, and then pick Releases from the dialog). The releases for
all supports, general beams, general columns, member beams and member columns are
shown. (The releases for simple beams and composite beams are not shown purely to limit
screen clutter they are always released for major and minor axis bending.) Moment releases
are indicated by a double arrowhead.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 38 Chapter 5 : Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports
In the view above the front-left-elevation is created with General Beams and General Columns
to form a moment resisting frame. The downward arrows at the nodes at the end of most of
the beams therefore indicate that the beams are pinned in the minor axis moment direction.
While this view is active you can select node positions (one or several at a time) and edit the
releases via the Properties pane.
Note You can only select end nodes for the currently active member type.
When setting/changing moment releases for General Beams the options available include:
Free Used to indicate the free end of a cantilever. (Not really needed analytically, but
needed to set effective lengths more appropriately.)
Simple Connection The connection is pinned for both major axis (M
x
) and minor axis
(M
y
) bending.
Moment Connection The connection is fixed for major axis (M
x
) bending but remains
pinned for minor axis (M
y
) bending.
Fully Fixed The connection is fixed for both major axis (M
x
) and minor axis (M
y
)
bending.
Continuous This setting is automatically applied when a continuous beam is created
and effectively creates a non-editable fully fixed connection between the spans of the
continuous member. The connection can only be edited by splitting the beam.
When setting/changing moment releases for Member Beams the options are slightly different:
Free Used to indicate the free end of a cantilever.
Pinned This is the same as the Simple Connection noted above, the connection is
pinned for both major axis and minor axis bending.
Pinned About Local Y For member beams the focus is on the analysis model and so the
usual analytical sign conventions are applied. X is along the member, Y is the major cross
section axis and Z is the minor cross section axis. Hence this setting creates a pinned
connection for major axis bending but the connection remains fixed for minor axis
bending. These conflicting sign conventions are a universal issue when moving between
analysis and design codes.
Pinned About Local Z This is the same as the Moment Connection noted above for
general beams, the connection is fixed for major axis bending but remains pinned for
minor axis bending. Due to the conflicting sign conventions noted above the minor axis is
referred to as Z rather than Y.
Fully Fixed This is the same as the Fixed Connection noted above, the connection is
fixed for both major axis and minor axis bending.
Chapter 5 : Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports AISC Specification - Building Designer page 39
Continuous This setting is automatically applied when a continuous beam is created
and effectively creates an non-editable fully fixed connection between the spans of the
continuous member. The connection can only be edited by splitting the beam.
Note If the sign conventions seem confusing the very best way to review what you are
doing is to show the graphical representation of the member releases as discussed
at the start of this section.
Note You can also edit the intermediate connections on General Columns.
Axial Releases
Pick Edit/Show/Alter State, and then pick Axial Releases from the Analysis tab to graphically
review the axial release state of the model.
The axial releases for all general beams, general columns, member beams, member
columns and truss chords are shown and can be edited.
The axial releases for V braces are shown, but can not be edited.
The axial releases for simple beams, composite beams, braces, truss internals and sides are
not shown purely to limit screen clutter they are always released axially.
General Beams and Member Beams can be released axially at either end, but not both.
If a beam is continuous it can only be released axially at one or other of its extreme ends.
General Columns and Member Columns can only be released axially at the top end.
While this view is active clicking on a node will toggle its state between Fixed and Released.
Note You can only select end nodes for the currently active member type.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 40 Chapter 5 : Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports
Torsional Releases
Pick Edit/Show/Alter State, and then pick Torsional Releases from the Analysis tab to
graphically review the torsional release state of the model.
The default torsional release state is Fixed.
You are prevented from releasing both ends of the same member in torsion.
Clicking on a node will toggle its state between Fixed and Released.
Note You can only select end nodes for the currently active member type.
Release from a Diaphragm
A diaphragm will maintain exact relative positioning of all nodes that it constrains, i.e. the
distance between any two nodes constrained by a diaphragm will never change, therefore no
axial load will develop in any member that lies in the plane of a diaphragm between any two
constrained nodes. You can however elect to remove General Beam, Member Beam and Truss
Chord nodes from the diaphragm, allowing axial forces to develop within those members.
For example, consider the braced tower shown below, in which a lateral load has been applied
at first floor level:
Chapter 5 : Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports AISC Specification - Building Designer page 41
If a diaphragm has been activated at that level, then by default none of the lateral load will be
transferred into the general beam. To generate axial force in the beam you are required to edit
the beam properties and exclude one or both of the beam ends from the diaphragm.
Because in the above example the load is being applied to end 1 of the beam, this is the end
that requires to be excluded. If only end 2 were excluded the load would remain in the
diaphragm.
Note Nodes at support positions, (either column or supplementary), are automatically
excluded from all diaphragms.
Member Orientations
All member orientations are reflected in the graphical views as appropriate.
By default the software places beams of all types with their major axis horizontal (in the global
XY plane). For the vast majority of beams this will be the required orientation.
By default the software places vertical columns with their major axis in the global XZ plane.
Clearly, at best, these default column orientations are only likely to be correct around 50% of
the time.
You can control the orientation of each newly inserted member by setting the appropriate
member orientation (under the Alignment tab) of the current attribute set.
You can edit the orientation of one or more selected members simultaneously by adjusting the
appropriate details in the Property pane.
An exception to the above is the case of inclined General Columns as you define these
Fastrak Building Designer calculates the orientation angle automatically so that the web is
vertical. You can not edit this angle.
Caution Since foundation shears and moments are reported relative to each columns local
axis system the automatic calculation of the member orientation for inclined
general columns can initially be a little confusing.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 42 Chapter 5 : Member End Releases, Member Orientation and Supports
Supports and Base Fixity
A few points are worth noting on this topic:
1. The view in Moment Releases also shows that you can view and edit support releases
when viewing member releases graphically.
2. Fastrak Building Designer automatically creates supports as you create any columns, by
default these supports are always released (pinned).
3. For General and Member Columns you can select the support and adjust the base fixity
between different fixity settings:
a) Pinned the default setting.
b) Nominally Pinned where a rotational spring stiffness (10 or 20% of column stiffness)
is automatically calculated and applied.
c) Nominally Fixed where a rotational spring stiffness of 100% column stiffness is
automatically calculated and applied.
d) Fixed a fully fixed support.
e) In cases b and c above you can also specify a user-defined base fixity.
Note A nominally fixed support is not the same as a fully fixed support, a nominally
fixed support will rotate according to the spring stiffness and this will affect
deflections. If you have a genuinely fixed support you are indicating that no
rotation will occur at the support.
The above options may be of particular interest where you want to achieve overall stability by
frame action as opposed to diagonally braced panels.
Overall you should find that, by default, members tend to be pinned in Fastrak Building
Designer, so if you are editing releases you will generally be adding fixity. This is the opposite
of the way in which most analysis packages work (where everything is initially fixed and
releases have to be added) but we consider this to be a more conservative and realistic
approach.
Chapter 6 : Load Cases and Load Combinations AISC Specification - Building Designer page 43
Chapter 6 Load Cases and Load Combinations
Loads are applied to the model in loadcases categorized by type, (Dead, Imposed, Wind, etc.)
Once the loadcases have been created, combinations are then generated for design. Various
Wizards are provided to assist in the process.
Major topics Gravity Load Cases
Lateral Load Cases
Seismic Load Cases
Combinations
Classifying Combinations and Setting the Critical Combinations
Gravity Load Cases
Gravity loadcases can be created for:
self weights,
dead,
snow,
live, and
roof live loads
Self weight loads can all be determined automatically. However other dead and live load cases
have to be applied manually as you build the structure.
Self Weight
Self weight - excluding slabs loadcase
Fastrak Building Designer automatically calculates the self weight of the structural beams/
columns for you. The Self weight - excluding slabs loadcase is pre-defined for this purpose. It
can not be edited and by default it is added to each new load combination.
Self weight of concrete slabs
Fastrak Building Designer expects the wet and dry weight of concrete slab to be defined in
separate loadcases. This is required to ensure that members are designed for the correct loads
at construction stage and post construction stage for composite beams. These loadcases are
not pre-defined. However, two loadcase types are reserved to assist in their creation:
Slab Wet select this loadcase type to define the wet weight of concrete at construction
stage.
Slab Dry select this loadcase type to define the dry weight of concrete, post
construction stage.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 44 Chapter 6 : Load Cases and Load Combinations
Fastrak Building Designer can automatically calculate the above weights for you taking into
account the slab thickness, the shape of the steel deck profile and wet/dry concrete densities. It
does not explicitly take account of the weight of any reinforcement but will include the weight
of decking. Simply click the Automatic Loading check box when you create each loadcase.
When calculated in this way you cant add extra loads of your own into the loadcase.
If you normally make an allowance for concrete over pour (ponding) in your slab weight
calculations, the software can also do this for you. When specifying the slab Attributes - you
will find two ways to add this allowance on the Floor Construction tab. These are:
as a value, by specifying the average increased thickness of slab
or, as a percentage of total volume.
Using either of these methods the extra load is added as a uniform load over the whole slab.
Live and Roof Live Loads
Roof live loads can not be applied to slabs, they can only be applied to roof elements.
Therefore, in models where slabs exist at the roof level it is necessary to overlay a roof on top of
the slabs in order to define the roof live load.
Reductions in live and roof live load can be applied to take account of the unlikelihood of the
whole building being loaded with its full design live load. The reduction is calculated based on
total floor area supported by a design member (beam or column). Roof live and live load types
each have their own reductions applied in accordance with either Section 4.8 and 4.9 of ASCE
7-05, or Section 4.7 and 4.8 of ASCE 7-10 as appropriate.
If a level is not set to be a floor then no live load reductions will be accounted for in the beams
at that level, or in the columns supporting that level. (See Is it a Floor? on page 72).
Note The load reduction only applies to horizontal simple and composite beams, and
vertical general columns. For beams the strength check will take account of these
reductions, however deflections are conservatively calculated ignoring them.
Note When assessing the live load reduction it is always assumed that any cantilever
slab area associated with a beam or column is small and hence the following K
LL

factors are always used. Columns - 4, Beams - 2 and cantilver beams 1 as per
table 4.2 in ASCE7-05&-10.
Perimeter Loads
Provided you have a gravity loadcase selected, (other than one of the self weight cases
mentioned above), you will be able to access the Create Perimeter Load... command from the
Loading menu. This will generate a uniform load for you around the entire building perimeter.
For further information on applying any of the gravity loads refer to the Quick Start Guide
Chapter 6 : Load Cases and Load Combinations AISC Specification - Building Designer page 45
Lateral Load Cases
Lateral loadcases can be created for:
Wind Loads, and
Notional Loads
Wind Loads
The ASCE7-05&-10 Wind Modeller
Fastrak Building Designer has a fully functional Wind Modeller which assesses wind loading on
your building structure via a choice of methods:
If designing to ASCE 7-05 you can choose between:
Rigid Buildings of All Heights (Clause 6.5.12.2.1)
Low-Rise Buildings (Clause 6.5.12.2.2)
If designing to ASCE 7-10 you can choose between:
Directional Procedure Part 1 - Rigid Buildings of All Heights (Chapter 27)
Envelope Procedure Part 1 - Low-Rise Buildings (Chapter 28)
The Wind Wizard is run to create a series of static forces that are combined with other actions
due to dead and live loads in accordance with Section 2.3.2 of ASCE 7-05 or ASCE7-10.
Note Access to the Wind Wizard is prevented until at least one wall or roof have been
defined.
The following assumptions/limitations exist:
The structure is an enclosed building.
The wind is being calculated to apply to the Main Wind Force Resisting System (MWFRS).
It must be a rigid structure.
The structure must be either enclosed or partially enclosed.
Parapets and roof overhangs are not explicitly dealt with.
Note For further information refer to the ASCE7-05 Wind Wizard Handbook.
Simple Wind Loading
If use of the Wind Wizard is not appropriate for your structure there is a facility to load walls
with a stepped horizontal pressure load - this facility is referred to as Simple Wind Loading.
Simple wind loads are created in a similar way to other loadcases. Within the Loadcase dialog,
provided the load type is set to Wind, an extra Wind loading tab becomes available. The
Generate... button on this tab is then used to create the stepped pressure. Alternatively,
provided a loadcase of type wind is currently selected, the same Simple Wind Loading...
functionality can be accessed from the Loading menu. To apply the wind to the building you
must create a series of walls.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 46 Chapter 6 : Load Cases and Load Combinations
The Simple Wind loading strikes all outward facing walls which can be seen in the wind
direction defined. If the wind strikes an inward facing wall then it passes through the wall and
does not load the structure. The simple way to verify in which direction your wall surface
faces, look at Show/Alter State in the structure view.
Notional Loads
Fastrak Building Designer allows you to build notional loads automatically into your
combinations as follows:
Notional load X+
Notional load X-
Notional load Y+
Notional load Y-
The magnitude of the notional load is calculated as 0.003
1
of the gravity component in each
combination.
There are specific requirements in the AISC Specification about when and in which
combinations the notional loads should be included. Although you have complete control on
the use of notional loads, a warning will be issued in some cases if you do not include them
correctly. Note that it is possible to include two notional loads in the same combination
provided they are not acting in opposing directions. For example (X+ Y+) or (X+ Y-) are both
acceptable, but (X+ X-) is not.
For further information on when notional loads must be included see Stability Coefficient
Caution See Notional Load Calculations in the Assumptions and Limitations section of
this document for important information about which loads are taken into
account in these calculations.
Seismic Load Cases
In a structure where the seismic requirements must be met, Fastrak Building Designer will use
the Equivalent Lateral Force (ELF) method. Where the seismic requirements are particularly
severe then the ELF method cannot be used and in this case the building is Beyond Scope.
Given that the ELF method is valid then the Seismic Wizard is run to create a series of static
forces that are combined with other actions due to dead and live loads in accordance with
Section 2.3.2 of ASCE 7-05&-10.
Note Access to the Seismic Wizard is prevented until at least one dead and one live
loadcase have been defined.
Seismic load cases can only be created by the Seismic Wizard, it is not possible to define these
loadcases manually.
The base load cases created act in each direction +/- X/Y and depending on the Seismic
Design Category may also act with a +/- eccentricity.
Footnotes
1. The value of 0.003 is used and not 0.002 in order to avoid calculating
b
as per equation A-7-2 of the 2005 AISC
Specification, or equation C2-2a of the 2010 AISC Specification.
Chapter 6 : Load Cases and Load Combinations AISC Specification - Building Designer page 47
For further information on the seismic design capabilities of Fastrak Building Designer refer to
the ASCE7-05 Seismic Wizard Handbook.
Combinations
Once your load cases have been generated as required, you then combine them into load
combinations. If a Construction Stage Combination is required, click the Add Construct.
button. Additional combinations can either be created manually, by clicking Add... - or with the
assistance of The Combinations Wizard, by clicking Generate...
Construction Stage Combination
If you have created a Slab Wet loadcase you are required to generate a Construction Stage load
combination so that it can be considered in the design process. Other loadcases can also be
included in this combination, however loadcases of type: Slab Dry; Wind and Seismic are
specifically excluded.
The Construction Stage load combination is then used specifically in the design of any
composite beams within the model.
Note The Slab Wet loadcase can not be included in any other combination.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 48 Chapter 6 : Load Cases and Load Combinations
The Combinations Wizard
Depending on which code the design is being carried out to, (ASD or LRFD), then the relevant
combinations to LRFD 1-7 (including for both strength and serviceability) or ASD 1-8
(including for both strength and serviceability) are set up automatically.
LRFD Strength Combinations (ASCE7-05)
The following are the basic load combinations according to ASCE7-05 (2.3.2):-
1. 1.4 (Dead)
2. 1.2(Dead) + 1.6(Live) +0.5(Roof live or Snow)
3. 1.2(Dead) + 1.6(Roof live or Snow) + (Live or 0.8Wind)
4. 1.2(Dead) + 1.6(Wind) + Live + 0.5(Roof live or Snow)
5. 1.2(Dead) + 1.0(Earthquake) + Live + 0.2(Snow)
6. 0.9(Dead) + 1.6(Wind)
7. 0.9(Dead) + 1.0(Earthquake)
LRFD Strength Combinations (ASCE7-10)
The following are the basic load combinations according to ASCE7-10 (2.3.2):-
1. 1.4 (Dead)
2. 1.2(Dead) + 1.6(Live) +0.5(Roof live or Snow)
3. 1.2(Dead) + 1.6(Roof live or Snow) + (Live or 0.5Wind)
4. 1.2(Dead) + 1.0(Wind) + Live + 0.5(Roof live or Snow)
5. 1.2(Dead) + 1.0(Earthquake) + Live + 0.2(Snow)
6. 0.9(Dead) + 1.0(Wind)
7. 0.9(Dead) + 1.0(Earthquake)
ASD Strength Combinations (ASCE7-05)
The following are the basic load combinations according to ASCE7-05 (2.4.1):-
1. 1.0 (Dead)
2. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Live)
3. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Roof live or Snow)
4. 1.0(Dead) + 0.75(Live) + 0.75(Roof live or Snow)
5. 1.0(Dead) + (1.0(Wind) or 0.7(Earthquake))
Chapter 6 : Load Cases and Load Combinations AISC Specification - Building Designer page 49
6. 1.0(Dead) + 0.75(Wind or 0.7(Earthquake)) + 0.75 Live + 0.75 (Roof Live or Snow)
7. 0.6(Dead) + 1.0(Wind)
8. 0.6(Dead) + 0.7(Earthquake)
ASD Strength Combinations (ASCE7-10)
The following are the basic load combinations according to ASCE7-10 (2.4.1):-
1. 1.0 (Dead)
2. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Live)
3. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Roof live or Snow)
4. 1.0(Dead) + 0.75(Live) + 0.75(Roof live or Snow)
5. 1.0(Dead) + (0.6(Wind) or 0.7(Earthquake))
6. a. 1.0(Dead) + 0.45(Wind) + 0.75(Live ) + 0.75 (Roof Live or Snow)
b. 1.0(Dead) + 0.525(Earthquake) + 0.75(Live) + 0.75 (Snow)
7. 0.6(Dead) + 0.6(Wind)
8. 0.6(Dead) + 0.7(Earthquake)
LRFD Service Combinations (ASCE7-05)
The following are the basic service load combinations:-
Short term effects
1. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Live) +1.0(Roof live)
2. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Live) + 0.5(Snow)
Drift effects
1. 1.0(Dead) + 0.7(Wind) + 0.5(Live) + 0.5(Roof live or Snow)
LRFD Service Combinations (ASCE7-10)
The following are the basic service load combinations:-
Short term effects
1. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Live) +1.0(Roof live)
2. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Live) + 0.5(Snow)
Drift effects
1. 1.0(Dead) + 0.7(Wind) + 0.5(Live) + 0.5(Roof live or Snow)
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 50 Chapter 6 : Load Cases and Load Combinations
ASD Service Combinations (ASCE7-05)
The following are the basic service load combinations:-
Short term effects
1. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Live)
2. 1.0(Dead) +1.0(Roof live or Snow)
3. 1.0(Dead) + 0.75(Live) +0.75(Roof live or Snow)
Drift effects
1. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Wind)
2. 1.0(Dead) + 0.75(Live) + 0.75(Wind) + 0.75(Roof live or Snow)
ASD Service Combinations (ASCE7-10)
The following are the basic service load combinations:-
Short term effects
1. 1.0(Dead) + 1.0(Live)
2. 1.0(Dead) +1.0(Roof live or Snow)
3. 1.0(Dead) + 0.75(Live) +0.75(Roof live or Snow)
Drift effects
1. 1.0(Dead) + 0.6(Wind)
2. 1.0(Dead) + 0.75(Live) + 0.45(Wind) + 0.75(Roof live or Snow)
Classifying Combinations and Setting the Critical Combinations
Having created your combinations you classify them as either gravity, lateral, or seismic and
also indicate whether they are to be checked for strength, or service conditions, or both.
You also have the option to make any of the combinations inactive.
At the same time you should nominate which are to be the critical combinations for the
automatic sizing process. (Gravity Sizing and Lateral Sizing.)
Note For details of Gravity Sizing, Lateral Sizing and Full Design see Overview of the
Analysis and Design Process in the next chapter.
Gravity Combinations
These combinations are used for Gravity Sizing. (They are not used for Lateral Sizing.)
All members in the structure are automatically sized (or checked) for the gravity combinations
during the gravity sizing process.
Chapter 6 : Load Cases and Load Combinations AISC Specification - Building Designer page 51
In addition, all members in the structure are checked for the gravity combinations during the
Full Design process.
Lateral Combinations
These combinations are used for Lateral Sizing. (They are not used for Gravity Sizing.)
All members which have not been set as Gravity Only are sized (or checked) for the lateral
combinations during the gravity sizing process.
In addition, all members which have not been set as Gravity Only are checked for the lateral
combinations during the Full Design process.
Seismic Combinations
These combinations are not considered in either the Gravity Sizing or Lateral Sizing.
All members which have not been set as Gravity Only are checked for the seismic
combinations during the Full Design process.
Setting the Critical Combinations
You are required to identify at least one critical gravity combination and one lateral
combination. The critical lateral combination could contain notional, or wind loads (not
seismic). Up to four lateral combinations can be selected, typically one of each sign (i.e.
+X,+Y,-X,-Y) in which case they will be acting at 90 degrees to each other.
The purpose of nominating critical combinations is to reduce the time taken to perform the
Gravity Sizing and Lateral Sizing processes.
It is down to your judgement as the designer to identify the most critical combinations. Given
that this choice may not be clear or may be made incorrectly, there is the potential for sections
to fail under other design combinations. However, this situation will be detected because
Fastrak Building Designer always requires you to perform a Full Design, (which is a full
analysis/check design process for all active load combinations) before the building can be
given a 'valid overall design' status.
Note For details of Gravity Sizing, Lateral Sizing and Full Design see Overview of the
Analysis and Design Process in the next chapter.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 52 Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures
Chapter 7 Analysis And Design Procedures
This chapter provides an overview of the analysis and design process, and describes the
various options involved. Suggested techniques for reviewing the answers are also given.
Major topics Definitions
Building Validation
Overview of the Analysis and Design Process
Analysis Options
Design Options
Initial Review of Analysis Results
3D Analysis Effects
Refining Member Designs
Definitions
Some definitions of words and phrases that are used in the remainder of the chapter are given
below:
Automatic Design mode
you select the desired order file for the member and the program then automatically
determines the most suitable section from the list.
Check Design mode
you assign your desired section size to the member and the program then determines if the
section is sufficient.
Direct Analysis Method (DAM)
a rigorous second order analysis. that allows for both P-(big)Delta effects and P-(little)delta
effects eliminating the need for calculating the effective buckling length (K factor). - see
Appendix 7 of the 2005 AISC Specification, or Chapter C of the 2010 AISC Specification.
Drift
the absolute horizontal deflection of a column or the relative deflection of two floors within a
building when it is usually called interstory drift.
First-order analysis
a standard linear elastic static analysis.
Gravity members
gravity members resist only vertical loading. They are designed for gravity and seismic
combinations only. Simple beams and composite beams are typically gravity members.
However, columns and other members can also be set to Gravity Only.
Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures AISC Specification - Building Designer page 53
Lateral members
lateral members resist vertical (gravity) and horizontal (lateral) loading. General beams,
general columns and braces are lateral members. They are designed for gravity, lateral and
seismic combinations.
Live load
live loads on roofs and floors are treated separately, (Snow is different again).
Live load reductions
reduction in live load to take account of the unlikelihood of the whole building being loaded
with its design load. Based on total floor area supported by a design member (beam or
column). Roof Live and Live load types each have their own reduction.
Notional loads
used to allow for an assumed out-of-plumbness and as a minimum level of lateral load. See
Appendix 7 of the 2005 AISC Specification or Chapter C of the 2010 AISC Specification for
more information.
P-Delta analysis
analysis that allows for the presence of second-order effects - referred to in this documentation
as Second-order analysis.
Stability Coefficient, (
2
/
1
)
the ratio of second-order drift to first-order drift, after modifying the first-order drift for the
effects of reduced stiffness - see 7.3(2) of the 2005 AISC Specification, or C2.1(2) of the 2010
AISC Specification for more information.
Building Validation
Validation is a check on your structure which you must perform before you can analyze and
design it. Validation checks all elements in your structure for a wide range of conditions. If any
condition is not satisfied then Fastrak Building Designer tells you.
Two types of validation message can be displayed.
Errors
Error messages prevent the analysis/design process from continuing until appropriate
corrective action is taken.
Warnings
Although warning messages do not prevent the analysis/design process from continuing, it is
very important that these messages are reviewed to decide whether any action is warranted.
Note For assistance in understanding and resolving error and warning messages please
refer to the Analysis section of the Fastrak Building Designer Help
Overview of the Analysis and Design Process
Every design member in your model will be set into one of two possible modes:
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 54 Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures
Check Design mode you assign your desired section size to the member and the
program then determines if the section is sufficient.
Automatic Design mode you select the desired section type (e.g. W, M, S.) for the
member and the program then automatically determines a suitable size of the chosen
section type.
For those members set in Automatic Design Mode a two stage sizing process is performed.
Gravity Sizing
A first order analysis is performed and then the members are designed for those gravity
combinations that you have nominated critical. The analysis is carried out using guessed
section sizes and the subsequent design will result in sections that are either smaller or larger
than these. Hence there may be some slight discrepancy between the original analysis results
and those that would have been obtained if the final sections had been used. (A second run of
the gravity sizing would remove any discrepancy.)
You might now choose to make adjustments to the model or select an alternative critical
gravity combination.
On completion of the gravity sizing process all members will be set into Check Design mode.
At this point it is possible that the lateral members are under-sized (having been designed for
the critical gravity combinations only) so it is recommended that you reset them to Automatic
Design mode (See Set Auto Design Mode) before moving on to the next step in the automatic
design process which is Lateral Sizing. Alternatively you can proceed straight to the Full
Design.
Lateral Sizing
As part of the lateral sizing process the notional loads are calculated as 0.003
1
of the gravity
component in each combination.
A second order analysis is performed and then the members are designed for the lateral
combinations that you have nominated critical. The critical combinations may include gravity,
lateral (notional loads or Wind) but not seismic loadcases. You can choose up to four lateral
combinations - essentially allowing selection of one in each principal wind or notional load
direction.
An auto-design is carried out for the lateral members based on the results of this analysis. The
gravity members have already been auto-designed for the gravity combinations during the
Gravity Sizing stage and so these are not considered. Potentially the gravity members could be
marginally affected by changes in section size elsewhere in the structure and by second-order
effects but if this is the case it will be picked up in the Final Check Design stage.
If any section sizes change the analysis is then re-performed with the new section sizes,
followed by a check design for the critical combinations.
Footnotes
1. The value of 0.003 is used and not 0.002 in order to avoid calculating
b
as per equation A-7-2 of the 2005 AISC
Specification, or equation C2-2a of the 2010 AISC Specification.
Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures AISC Specification - Building Designer page 55
Stability Analysis
A stability analysis is always executed during the lateral Sizing in order to determine the first
and second-order story drifts. From these the Stability Coefficient, (
2
/
1
) can be calculated.
This is the ratio of second-order drift to first-order drift, after modifying the first-order drift
for the effects of reduced stiffness - see 7.3(2) of the 2005 AISC Specification, or C2.1(2) of the
2010 AISC Specification for more information. If the ratio is greater than 1.71 then notional
loads should be applied in all combinations. When the Stability Coefficient exceeds 1.71 the
design of the column is given a warning status - use Show/Alter State to view. It is your
responsibility to ensure that all combinations include notional loads.
If the Stability Coefficient exceeds 2.85 the structure is unsuitable and using Show/Alter State
will show that the particular column is Beyond Scope.
On successful completion of the above sizing processes a suitable section is assigned to each
member automatically. Each member is then set to Check Design Mode. At this stage you can
review the results for the section sizes that have been assigned and if necessary replace sections
you dont like with your preferred alternatives. You can also re-run the sizing process with
alternative critical lateral combinations if required.
You can then move on to the Full Design.
Full Design
When every member in the model is set to Check Design Mode, a final check must be
performed for all members for every active load combination, based on up-to-date
analysis results. This is required before you proceed to output the calculations.
The members to be considered in the full design process are specified via the Design Control
page of the Design Options. By default all members are selected.
The full design process is as follows:
A first-order analysis of all unfactored loadcases is carried to establish Serviceability Limit
State requirements such as deflections.
The seismic loads are determined as individual nodal forces and moments from the
first-order analysis for every active seismic combination.
The notional loads are determined for every active combination in which they have been
included.
Having established the seismic and notional loads, their contributions to frame
deflections/first-order story drift are determined using a first-order analysis.
A second order analysis of all active combinations is then performed to establish design
forces and second-order story drift.
Note The DAM requires that the members in this analysis are given a reduced stiffness.
This is implemented by reducing the elastic modulus, E-value, and the shear
modulus, G-value, of the steel to model the stiffness reductions. These reductions
in the moduli are made for all materials e.g. concrete and timber general members
and the components of the shear wall models.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 56 Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures
The reduced stiffness is not used in the calculation of deflections and vibrations
under serviceability limit state which are determined from the first-order
analysis. Note also that the reduced stiffness does not apply to the calculation of
design strengths e.g. in the flexural buckling calculations.
The Stability Coefficient, (
2
/
1
) is determined and checked as in the Lateral Sizing stage.
For active seismic combinations the seismic story drift, is checked against the limiting
value,
max
All members are checked for the appropriate design requirements. Gravity members are
checked for gravity and seismic combinations, lateral members are checked for all
combinations. Only active combinations are checked.
Set Auto Design Mode
After each run of Gravity Sizing every member is set to Check Design Mode. Typically you will
want to reset some of the members to Auto Design Mode before re-running the Gravity Sizing,
or moving on to the Lateral Sizing. This can be achieved by picking Set Auto Design Mode
from the Design menu.
Members can either be reset by their element type, or if required, only those members affected
by the lateral sizing can be reset. Alternatively, you can use the Auto Design item (located on
the Design tab of the Show/Alter State dialog) to click, (or box around) members to switch
them between Auto and Check Design Modes.
Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures AISC Specification - Building Designer page 57
Analysis Options
Under the Design menu there is an Analysis Options setting which shows the dialog below.
First-order or Second-order Analysis?
It is essential that your final design utilizes second-order analysis. However, second order
(P-) analysis can be more sensitive to parts of your model that lack stiffness. For this reason
there is also the option to run a first-order analysis to obtain sections and an overall building
performance with which you are satisfied before switching to P- analysis.
Stability Coefficient Tolerance
If very small deflections were to be used in the calculation of the Stability Coefficient. then
potentially very high Stability Coefficients could erroneously be reported.
To prevent this, the Stability Coefficient Tolerance provides you with a means to control the
value of deflection that can safely be ignored.
If the second order drift is less than the tolerance defined here (default stack height/10000),
the Stability Coefficient is returned as 'N/A' with a note to say that the 'Drift is small enough to
be ignored'.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 58 Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures
Reduced Stiffness Factor
For correct design to the AISC Specification using the DAM, this should be set to 0.8. As an
alternative to setting the analysis to first-order (see above) to explore the reason for the second
order analysis failure, it is possible to alter this factor. If you set it to a value of say 10, this will
stiffen both the Modulus of elasticity (E) and the shear modulus of elasticity (G) by a factor of
10 in the second order analysis. Although the results will not be able to be used for a valid
design, it should now be possible to run the analysis to see which member might fail a design
and hence be the cause of the analysis instability. This factor can then be reduced towards 0.8
for further investigation.
Note For further information on resolving analysis failures see the Analysis section of
the Fastrak Building Designer Help
Curved Beams
If you have defined curved beams in your structure, then the Curved Beams page is applicable.
This allows you to tell Building Designer into how many equivalent straight sections it is to
split the curved member. Curved members are modeled in analysis as a number of straight
members. You control the minimum number of such elements by the value that you set for
Minimum number of segments on the Curved Beams page.
We advise that to avoid local effects then the change in angle between any two straight
elements round the curve should be about 2.5. Building Designer adjusts the loading around
the curve to model it as accurately as possible on the straight elements. This introduces small
errors in the applied loading versus the reactions in the design tree. If you find that the loading
on curved members does not have a check against it (that is that the applied loading to
reactions tolerance is exceeded) then the likely reason is that the curved member is not split
finely enough to give an accurate solution. In this case you need to increase the Minimum
number of segments round the curve.
Torsion Factors
The Torsion Factors page is provided to permit you to adjust the torsional stiffness for
individual element types. The default is that the full torsional stiffness will be utilized for all
member types for all analyses.
If the resulting torsion in any member exceeds the torsion force limit then a warning is given
in the design results. You could then decide to relieve this by reducing the torsion factor and
re-analyzing the model. The forces would then be carried by other means.
Cracked Sections
The Cracked Sections page is provided to permit you to define the cracked section properties
of concrete members.
For analysis of the structure for all analyses and all load combinations, the concrete sections -
beams, columns and walls will use the cracked section properties defined on this page. The
default values displayed on this page are taken from 10.11.1 of the 2005 version of the Building
Code Requirements for Structural Concrete ACI 318.05.
Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures AISC Specification - Building Designer page 59
Design Options
Design Options are located under the Design menu.
Design Codes
You can switch between design codes from this page. Note that if you change between LRFD
and ASD, all design combinations will need to be recreated.
Design Control
This page of the dialog provides various control options.
The Perform check of fields provide a way to speed up the design process when you want to
only modify a particular part of the design of your structure. For instance if you have designed
all the floors in your model, and are satisfied with the resulting beams, but you want to work
with the columns, you can remove the check against the types of member with which you are
satisfied, and Fastrak Building Designer will ignore these during the design process. These
options only affect the checking process. If a particular element needs to be designed, then this
will happen irrespective of the settings you make here.
Force Limits - Members
A full 3D analysis may expose small forces that are normally ignored in the design of
members. The options for ignore forces below on the second page of the dialog simply provide
you with a way of setting negligible/nominal force levels with which you are comfortable.
When the small forces from the 3D analysis are below the specified threshold levels they are
ignored so that design can proceed automatically. If the forces are above these limits, then you
will be warned during the design process but the forces will still be ignored.
Element Pre-sizing
For second-order analysis it is useful to have the initial section sizes bearing some resemblance
to those that are eventually chosen. For this reason minimum length/depth and L/r
yy
ratios are
employed to prevent the initial sections from being under-sized.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 60 Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures
Note The program defaults are considered reasonable, however, they are not fine tuned
to any particular structure type. For example, if you generally work on seven
story braced frames you may prefer to set different pre-sizing limits to somebody
predominantly working on three story moment frames.
Live Load Reductions
Certain districts like Chicago impose an upper limit on the live load reduction calculation
over and above ASCE7-05&-10. The defaults on this page are the ASCE7-05&-10 values but
these can be reduced if required.
Composite
The calculation of the effective width is only carried out for composite beams if they lie within
the tolerance on rectilinearity set here. The default tolerance is 15 degrees; at greater angles
you will be prompted to enter the effective width manually.
Steel Joists
The load settings on this page determine the suitability or otherwise of steel joists within the
structure.
The gross moment of inertia reduction is also specified here, (default 15%).
Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures AISC Specification - Building Designer page 61
Initial Review of Analysis Results
Before spending time looking at detailed design results it is always worth reviewing things at a
broad-brush overview level. The most basic checks are made obvious within the workspace
summaries shown above.
Maximum Nodal Deflections
Maximum deflections are identified and noted if any of these are clearly much too high then
there may be mechanisms developing or the defined structure is simply not capable of dealing
with the loads being applied to it. If extreme deflections are being reported then the analysis
results may be suspect.
If there are any issues of this nature, then you should investigate these before spending
(potentially wasted) time looking at detailed design results.
Stability Coefficients
Once again, before spending too much time reviewing detailed designs, it is also advisable to
review the stability coefficients and decide on the approach you will take to designing for
stability. It is conceivable that any changes you make in order to deal with stability could affect
the designs of many elements.
Methods of providing lateral stability are discussed in the chapter Stability Design.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 62 Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures
Seismic Drift
Should your model be subject to seismic loading, once your have performed a Full Design, you
will have Seismic drift results to review.
Before spending too much time reviewing the detail of your seismic designs, it is also advisable
to review the seismic drift, and should this indicate a problem, decide on the approach you
will take to alter the structure overall stability to resist seismic actions more effectively. These
changes could alter the structure configuration and hence the designs of many elements.
Methods of providing lateral stability are discussed in the chapter Stability Design.
Loading Summary
This is simply a mathematical double check does the sum of applied loads equal the sum of
the base reactions? If there is a discrepancy identified by this comparison (but the maximum
deflections noted above seem reasonable), you will need to consider if loading in the structure
has been applied correctly.
Review of Selected Sections
It is always worth spending a little time reviewing the results to see if they are in line with
expectations. Where you have moment frames this is even more essential. A quick review does
not need to look at the design detail, simply look for items such as:
do the typical beam and column sizes look reasonable?
where you expect to see a large beam or column have you got one?
are there large beams or columns where you did not expect them?
where you expect similar sizes have you got similar sizes?
where you expect symmetry is there symmetry?
do you have zero moment at pin connections?
do you have non-zero moment at moment connections?
have you limited the use of composite beams to situations where composite beams are
practical in reality?
Review Analysis Results
It is always worthwhile taking time to review the analysis results for your entire model as this
gives you important information on how your structure is working. You can view deflected
shape diagrams, axial load, shear force, bending moment and foundation load diagrams for all
member types in your structure, or limit the views to just those particular member types of
particular interest.
In some cases this may also help you to identify issues with the analysis model.
Note The model can also be exported to various analysis programs including CSC
S-Frame. Here all the same sorts of results for the static analysis can be reviewed
and in most cases there is also access to more advanced analysis options, e.g.
Buckling Analysis, Vibration and Response Spectrum Analysis.
Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures AISC Specification - Building Designer page 63
Reviewing Stability Design
To assist your assessment of how the structure will behave under lateral load, graphical
feedback is provided for the floor center of mass and for the floor center of rigidity, both in the
floor view and the structure view. This information is given by load case and combination.
The various possible gravity, wind and seismic load cases in X and Y directions with their
eccentricities are reported back graphically by showing the load applied to each floor as a
single force together with its point of application.
A stability analysis is performed as part of the lateral analysis, this will determine the first and
second order story drifts and the corresponding stability coefficient, (
2
/
1
).
Center of Mass
For any given load case or combination, all gravity loads (self weight, slab dry, live, etc.)
applied to a given floor have a center of action (or center of mass), a point about which the
loads would balance if a pinned support were positioned at this location in plan.
To review graphically the centers of mass within the model pick Edit/Show/Alter State, and
then pick Center of Mass/Rigidity from the Analysis dialog.
Center of Rigidity
Any given floor has a center of rigidity or bending stiffness based on the stiffness of the
structure that supports it (i.e. the columns, walls etc. below).
To review graphically the centers of rigidity within the model pick Edit/Show/Alter State, and
then pick Center of Mass/Rigidity from the dialog. Due to the complex nature of assessing the
stiffness of such varied structural systems, the center of rigidity is only an approximation.
Stability Coefficient
As part of the initial gravity sizing, a first-order analysis is performed. From this the
deflections in global X and Y directions at all nodes are determined. The maximum drifts
obtained are displayed on the Design tab of the Project Workspace.
During the lateral sizing, a second-order (P-Delta) analysis is performed providing you have
selected this off the Analysis Options. Second-order deflections for the critical lateral
combinations are determined.
The stability coefficient, (
2
/
1
) is the ratio of second-order drift to first-order drift (after
modifying the first-order drift for the effects of reduced stiffness). If the ratio is greater than
1.71 then notional loads should be applied in all combinations. Above this value a normal
building structure will be quite flexible and additional lateral load resistance should be
included if possible. In addition the accuracy of the analysis results are model dependant. A
warning to this effect is given.
If the stability coefficient, (
2
/
1
) exceeds 2.85 the structure is unsuitable and a message is
displayed to this effect in the Design Results.
If you have selected a first-order analysis from the Analysis Options, an approximation to
second-order deflections is used and the limits are then 1.5 and 2.5.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 64 Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures
Note that seismic design has its own, more severe, requirements. Hence, if there are seismic
combinations specified then the building is declared unsuitable when >
max
- for more
details see the ASCE7-05 Seismic Wizard Handbook.
Reviewing Story Shear
To assist your assessment of the performance of any semi-rigid/flexible diaphragms, graphical
feedback is provided for the story shear at each floor level - story shear being that proportion
of the total horizontal load that is resisted at each story.
This information is given by load case and combination and is reported back graphically as a
series of horizontal loads just below each floor level in X and Y directions. By making the
appropriate selection in View Options you can choose to display just the X or Y direction story
shear, or both.
To review story shear click the Story Shear icon on the Output Graphics toolbar.
To prevent the display of irrelevant results, story shears less than a specified minimum value
are not displayed. The default is 0.1 kip, but this can be adjusted in Design Options if required.
For buildings with floors that are not readily identifiable or are sloping - the story shears may
be inaccurate.
3D Analysis Effects
Traditional design approaches tend to involve idealization and simplification of the analysis
model. Very often this would have meant simplification of the structure into discrete 2D
planes, which could be analyzed either by hand or in a simple 2D analysis. Engineers working
with 3D analysis packages sometimes encounter unexpected results, which only make sense
after some careful consideration. For the purposes of this document we are calling these 3D
Analysis Effects.
Since Fastrak Building Designer allows you to model moment frames and uses a full 3D
analysis to generate design forces we anticipate that you may encounter these sorts of effects.
The following two subsections illustrate two simple examples.
Continuous Beam Example
The above model is not intended to be realistic, it does however illustrate a 3D Analysis Effect
quite clearly.
Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures AISC Specification - Building Designer page 65
Continuous beams (spanning 20 ft then 30 ft then 15 ft) run from right to left of this floor area.
These are supported on simple (pin-ended) steel beams spanning front to back which are in
turn supported by the columns. There are 3 internal lines of continuous beams which all
receive the same loading.
Designing by hand most engineers would probably consider that the analysis of a single 2D
continuous beam line with pinned supports (as shown below) would be an adequate
idealization.
A more accurate analysis would attempt to model the spring effect at each of the supports
that is the supports are not completely fixed against vertical translation.
This spring effect is inherently modeled in a full 3D analysis and the results after analysis and
design in Fastrak Building Designer are shown below.
Notice that different sections are chosen for the central continuous beam line running
horizontally when compared with the beam on either side of it.
A first reaction to this sort of result might be to suspect that the design is wrong. However, a
closer examination shows that the design is correct, and that it is correctly based on differing
design forces.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 66 Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures
The results diagrams for the central continuous beam line are shown below.
Compare these with the equivalent diagrams for one of the adjacent beams shown below.
Note The maximum negative moment has reduced in the adjacent beam.
This sort of variation is enough to force the selection of a larger beam on the central beam line
where the moments are higher.
Braces Carry Gravity Loads Example
This is probably a simpler example of a 3D analysis effect, however it does initially seem to fly
in the face of traditionally accepted design practice. In traditional hand calculations the load
chase-down puts all gravity loads into the columns. Where columns are also part of a bracing
system providing stability, brace and column forces from the lateral load are assessed in
isolation and are added to the column loads for column design checks as necessary.
Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures AISC Specification - Building Designer page 67
The possibility that braces carry gravity loads is never considered in this traditional hand
calculation approach.
Consider the simple model shown above. It is braced on all four sides and in this example the
initial sizes of the braces have been made very large to exacerbate the analytical effect.
When reviewing the results after design you might wonder why the column at C1 which is part
of a braced panel is smaller than the column at B1 which supports the same floor area.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 68 Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures
You can review the analysis results for the individual columns within Fastrak Building
Designer, where you can see the axial results as shown below. The column at grid intersection
B1 is on the left and the column which is part of the braced bay at C1 is on the right. It shows
that the column at C1 loses load to the brace at second floor level.
These sorts of effects can also be reviewed at a structure or a frame level. The view below
shows the axial load results for the front elevation. To see this you would first have to create a
Frame view for grid line 1.
Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures AISC Specification - Building Designer page 69
The large brace forces are clear to see. If we change the brace section size to a smaller, more
realistic section, then Fastrak Building Designer finds that the same section size is adequate for
both columns.
The effect still occurs but it is less significant in this instance.
When you define braces in Fastrak Building Designer you can either specify their section size
and these are then checked for you, or you can allow the program to auto design them. As a
closing point of guidance on this topic, we suggest that you keep brace sizes to a realistic
minimum during building design. This realistic minimum is likely to be driven by stability
considerations.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 70 Chapter 7 : Analysis And Design Procedures
Refining Member Designs
You can export any designed member to its respective design package for refinement of the
original design. In doing so you may decide to select a different section (larger or smaller),
interactively. You can then return this amended section size to the main model (where you will
have to re-analyze and check your model).
Caution A revised section may seem to work satisfactorily when designed in isolation,
however, it is quite possible that it will fail when checked after re-analysis of the
full model. It is also entirely possible that other members in your model may fail
(or have more capacity in hand) since the distribution of forces will be affected by
the different section size which you picked. In addition any second order effects
that are considered in the full model will not be present when the section is
designed in isolation.
For further information see Refining Member Designs in the AISC Specification Member
Design Handbook.
Chapter 8 : Building Effective Models AISC Specification - Building Designer page 71
Chapter 8 Building Effective Models
Fastrak Building Designer is a design based structural modeller.
It is possible to create complete building designs quickly and easily with Fastrak Building
Designer, however you should take account of the following points.
Note Please remember that Fastrak Building Designer is a modeling package, which
dictates the design model and which creates analysis models to accomplish this
design. It is important that you recognize that you must take ownership of the
creation of the model and the results that the software gives.
Major topics Place grid lines accurately
Save time by using Attributes effectively
Use simple construction where possible
Use Perimeter Loading for edge beams where applicable
Is it a Floor?
Set the appropriate level of Diaphragm Action
Set the appropriate level of deflection checks
Switch off irrelevant load combinations
Building Size and Orientation
Design simple construction for gravity loads only
Prevent out of plane instability
Check the model analysis results
Staged modeling and design
Place grid lines accurately
You can define grid lines quickly and simply in Fastrak Building Designer. Alternatively you
can import them into your model from a DXF file.
If you are importing grid lines from DXF files, please ensure:
that the grid lines you are using are accurate,
that the DXF file you are importing only contains grid lines.
If you are in doubt we advise you to use Fastrak Building Designers ability to import a DXF file
and create a ghost image of the structure. You can then add your grid lines on top of the
ghosted DXF image.
Save time by using Attributes effectively
It is important to realize that the attribute sets are used to set up defaults for the elements
(beams, columns ) in your model. The attribute sets are not linked to the elements once they
are created.
You can quickly make major changes to your model, for example changing the grade of steel,
by changing the appropriate attribute(s) and then applying these attribute(s) to the members.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 72 Chapter 8 : Building Effective Models
IMPORTANT. when you create any member it takes the current default attributes. The default
setting for a simple beam (unless you change it) is that it is braced continuously against lateral
translation. Please take care if creating beams that are not braced continuously against lateral
translation.
Once created a member is separated from the attribute set that it was created from and holds
its own attributes. A new attribute set can however be applied very easily to an existing
member if required.
Use simple construction where possible
Fastrak Building Designer will happily design moment frames or continuous beams
automatically within a model, but, the design of these elements is much more comprehensive
(and hence takes longer). For this reason you should only use such elements when your model
specifically requires them.
Use Perimeter Loading for edge beams where applicable
Fastrak Building Designer applies floor loading, area loads, line loads and point loads to the
slabs in your model and distributes them in the direction of span of the slab.
If you wish to apply loading directly to a beam, (particularly if that beam supports a slab), then
you should use element loads which apply the load directly to the member without involving
the slab.
To aid in the application of load to edge beams Fastrak Building Designer has a Create
Perimeter Load facility. You can access this from the Loading menu.
Is it a Floor?
When you define construction levels you have a number of choices/settings to control.
Construction levels are simply levels that you need to identify in order to construct your
model.
By setting a construction level to be a Floor you are indicating that it is a major level in the
building. Floor levels are used to determine items such as your inter story height and positions
from which column splices are laid out. If a level is not set to be a floor then no live load
reductions will be accounted for in the beams at that level, or in the columns supporting that
level.
Once a level is set to be a floor you also have the option to activate Diaphragm action within it.
Chapter 8 : Building Effective Models AISC Specification - Building Designer page 73
There will certainly be a number of levels that are clearly floor levels, but there could be many
others that are not. For example you create intermediate levels in order to define:
half landing levels and stairs,
K Bracing you require a construction level for the intermediate bracing connection
points,
steps in the building floor levels.
Where you define a level which is clearly not a floor, then you should not check the floor box.
Set the appropriate level of Diaphragm Action
You can switch diaphragm action on or off for a given floor, or select linked slabs to be a
diaphragm. If you switch diaphragm action on for a complete floor, you must also then decide
if this applies to the entire floor, or to part of the floor only. If the latter please set your
diaphragm to slab items defined.
For further information about the diaphragm options available refer to Reviewing Stability
Design.
Set the appropriate level of deflection checks
Fastrak Building Designer provides very comprehensive deflection checks on all beams. You
can set limits on the deflections for a variety of conditions (dead load only, live load only and/
or total load).
You should take care when setting the range of deflection checks. You may consider the default
deflection limits conservative for some buildings.
Deflection and deflection checks are relative to the ends of the individual members. For
cantilevers the supported end is treated as encastre when determining the relative deflection.
See Deflection checks on page 78.
Switch off irrelevant load combinations
Where you are looking at design changes, for example to rationalize an area of floor, you can
switch off irrelevant load combinations by making them inactive in the combinations dialog.
For example if you are looking to redesign a series of composite floor beams, then it is likely
that only the construction stage load combination and the dead + live load combination are
relevant. This may allow the you to switch off all other load cases and concentrate on the
gravity design issues.
Building Size and Orientation
The automatic calculation of (NLs) and building stability checks are carried out on the basis
that we are checking a single building. Effectively each portion of a structure between
expansion joints should be looked at as a separate building for stability.
The Seismic wizard determines the equivalent lateral forces and then applies these load cases
in combinations to the structure during analysis.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 74 Chapter 8 : Building Effective Models
Note NLs, building stability and seismic loads are calculated in the global X and Y
direction, you should take care to input the model with this in mind.
Design simple construction for gravity loads only
In order to speed the design process a distinction is made at two levels:-
combinations - there are three types of combination
Gravity combinations - those combinations consisting of gravity loads only (Self
Weight, Dead, Slab Dry, Slab Wet, Live, Roof Live and Snow)
Lateral combinations - those combinations which in addition to gravity load contain
lateral loads due to Notional Loads or Wind.
Seismic combinations - those combinations consisting of gravity and/or lateral loads
as well as seismic load cases.
beams, columns, simple braces and truss members - these are by definition/can be set to
be
Gravity Only - designed for gravity combinations and seismic combinations
Lateral and Gravity (not Gravity Only) - designed for all combinations types - gravity,
lateral and seismic
Setting General Columns that do not help resist lateral loads to be designed for gravity loads
only can significantly reduce the design time.
General beams and simple braces are always designed for both gravity and lateral
combinations.
Engineering judgement will be required when identifying members as being 'gravity load
only'. For example:
if an inclined braced member connects to a simple/composite beam, axial force in the
brace (from both gravity and lateral loads) puts the beam into bending and therefore the
beam should be designed for both gravity and lateral loads.
potentially, simple beams in a sloping roof would also need to be designed for both gravity
and lateral load
Note If a simple, or composite beam is identified to be designed for both gravity and
lateral combinations, only the component of the lateral load that acts in the
plane of the strong axis of the member is considered. Any axial loads, or loads in
the weak axis are ignored. A warning is provided if the ignored loads exceed a
preset limit.
Chapter 8 : Building Effective Models AISC Specification - Building Designer page 75
Prevent out of plane instability
Long members in a model that have axial force in them can be unstable during second-order
analysis because their individual elastic critical buckling load factor is lower than the elastic
critical buckling load factor of the building as a whole and is less than 1.0.
However, often such members, for example the rafters in a portal frame, are stable in design
because there are many smaller members or sheeting, for example, that restrain the member in
reality. They fail in the analysis because it is too resource intensive to model all the individual
restraining members in the model which would also add unwanted clutter.
To prevent or to reduce the incidence of such failures during the analysis a multiplier can be
applied to the minor axis inertia of these members which caters for the effect of the restraining
members.
This multiplier can be applied to Simple Beams, Composite Beams, General Beams and Beam
Members. It is defined on the Analysis tab of the Attributes set by checking the "Prevent out of
plane instability" box and then entering a suitable value in the "Multiply minor axis inertia by"
field.
Note This multiplier is applied to prevent unwanted behaviour in the analysis model.
While the analysis results may be affected by this adjustment, there is no
amplification of the minor axis inertia in the design of the member.
Check the model analysis results
Upon completion of the design process the Workspace presents:
Model deflection results these are not a pass/fail for the model but simply an indication
of the total defection of the model under all the differing loads applied. If the model
suffers from excessive deflections then the remaining results could be incorrect as the
overall building analysis may be indicating that the building is close to collapse.
This may be irrelevant if you are looking at a gravity design and are happy to ignore lateral
load for the time being. However, it may also mean that the forces for which the members
in the building are being designed could alter once the building is stabilized.
Building Stability Fastrak Building Designer carries out a full Stability Coefficient
analysis as part of the lateral analysis, post gravity sizing. Significant failure, as indicated
by a high Stability Coefficient, (
2
/
1
) may mean the lack of overall stability such as the
omission of diaphragm action or simply a loose piece of the structure not connected into
the main bracing/diaphragm system. Use the deflection results to look at this.
Seismic Stability if seismic load combinations are included in the model, then Fastrak
Building Designer will calculate the seismic stability coefficients for the building in X and
Y. Should one of these exceed the maximum allowable limit then the building is not
suitable to resist the seismic forces and should be reconsidered by the user.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 76 Chapter 8 : Building Effective Models
Load in versus load out all loads are checked in and out of the model, it is essential that
you check these results. Any difference between the two is typically because:
the analysis model is not particularly stable and the model has large deflections
you have applied loads to the structure that are not being fully dispersed by slabs and
members - for instance a patch load falls off the slab.
Staged modeling and design
Our major piece of advice when you are modeling in Fastrak Building Designer is:
DO NOT BUILD THE ENTIRE MODEL BEFORE YOU VALIDATE AND DESIGN IT.
It is important that you build the model, validate and design it in a staged process, for example:
Validate and design ONE floor before copying it up the building - there are often many
nuances to creating your model, in particular with composite design, and it is much more
effective to resolve any issues once (before you copy the floor to other levels in your
model) than it is to copy the floor to (say) ten other floor levels, and then address the
(usually simple) issues on each copied floor (in this case ten times the work!).
Resolve the gravity design before looking at the lateral design - pinned beams (such as
the composite beams) will mostly be unaffected by any lateral load, and hence you may
design the beams looking at gravity load only. This is done by selecting the critical gravity
combination and using the Perform Gravity Sizing command.
Resolve the building stability before applying all combinations - lateral load resisting
systems can be sized by selecting the four most critical lateral load combinations and
running the Perform Lateral Sizing command.
Checking the entire structure - the entire structure can be checked by setting the relevant
combinations to be active and running the Perform Full Design command.
Using this stepped process to carry out the design you should find the software provides
detailed design very effectively.
Chapter 9 : Assumptions and Limitations AISC Specification - Building Designer page 77
Chapter 9 Assumptions and Limitations
This chapter decribes the assumptions and limitations that apply to Fastrak Building Designer.
It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with these before using the software.
Note In addition to the limitations listed below it is very important that you are aware
of the further limitations that apply in relation to wind load generation, seismic
load generation and member design. You will find these limitations are fully
described in the relevant sections of the ASCE7-05 Wind Wizard Handbook, the
ASCE7-05 Seismic Wizard Handbook and the AISC Specification - Member
Design Handbook
Major topics Analysis Types
Analysis Results
Deflection checks
Foundation loads
Vertical cross bracing
Live Load Reductions
Notional Load Calculations
Analysis Types
Fastrak Building Designer utilizes two different analysis methods: first- and second-order
analysis.
First-order analysis is a standard linear elastic static analysis in which any effect on
forces due to changes in the geometry of the structure are ignored.
Second-order analysis is performed using a two step iterative method incorporating a
geometric stress stiffness matrix. This more rigorous analysis was chosen over the
amplified first-order method due to the possible limitations of the latter as discussed in
the Commentary to the AISC Specification.
When using second-order analysis the accuracy of the result will increase with the number of
nodes within members. Within a member the number of internal nodes in determined by the
number of incoming members. Fastrak Building Designer adds at least one internal node into
members if there are no incoming members except in the following circumstances:
simple beams and composite beams that are part of a diaphragm
1
.
braces and truss internals, since these are designed for axial force only.
In this way, the second-order analysis in Fastrak Building Designer allows for:
P- (P-big delta) effect resulting from gravity loads acting on the drift of the entire
structure or a part of the structure
Footnotes
1. Simple beams and composite beams are assumed to have negligible axial load and are not designed for any
second-order moments irrespective of whether they are part of a diaphragm or not. However, if the axial force
exceeds a certain specified limit you are warned that the force might be significant.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 78 Chapter 9 : Assumptions and Limitations
P- (P-little delta) effect resulting from the line of action of the axial force in a member
acting at an eccentricity due the deformed shape of the member.
For design using ASD, prior to second order analysis all loads are factored up by 1.6 and before
design all design forces are reduced by a factor of 1.6 as required by 2005 AISC Specification
7.3 (1), or 2010 AISC Specification C2.1(4).
First-order analysis is used to determine the global deformations for drift, story drift and
seismic drift calculations. It is also used to determine the relative deflections of members. The
Stability Coefficient (
2
/
1
) uses results from both the second- and the first-order analyses.
Second-order analysis uses a reduced stiffness in accordance with Appendix 7 of the 2005
AISC Specification, or Chapter C of the 2010 AISC Specification. A value of 0.8 is applied to
both the Elastic Modulus, E and Shear Modulus G of all materials and to any spring stiffness
you may have specified at a support.
Analysis Results
Combination results are always obtained from the second-order analysis, whereas loadcase
results are obtained from the first-order analysis. Superposition does not hold.
e.g. for a combination the base reactions reported do not equate to the sum of loadcase base
reactions x load factors.
Deflection checks
Absolute and Relative Deflections
Fastrak Building Designer calculates both absolute and relative deflections. Relative deflections
measure the internal displacement occurring within the length of the member and take no
account of the support settlements or rotations, whereas absolute deflections are concerned
with deflection of the structure as a whole. The difference between relative and absolute
deflections is illustrated in the cantilever beam example below.
Absolute deflections are given in the structure analysis results diagram. The deflections
reported in the Project Workspace analysis results summary are also absolute deflections.
Relative Deflection Absolute Deflection
Chapter 9 : Assumptions and Limitations AISC Specification - Building Designer page 79
Relative deflections are the ones used in the member design. They are given numerically in
the design summary dialogs for individual members. Where possible they are also given in the
individual member analysis results diagrams.
Note For composite beams the relative deflections are not displayed graphically. See
Deflections in Composite Beams for details.
Deflections in Composite Beams
The structure analysis results diagram within Fastrak Building Designer shows global
unfactored (see the load combination input where you can define this factor) deflections based
upon the steel member size. It cannot account for the staged construction of a composite beam
or other details such as camber. As such the 3D graphical report should be used for building
movement studies only, (though they may sometimes be useful in looking at concrete over
pour).
Deflections of composite beams can only be taken from the calculations within the design
summary for the individual member.
These deflections are always 'in span' - they account for the staged nature of the construction
and design process (which cannot be considered within an elastic analysis) - they will consider
pre camber of the beam and concrete over pour- if you have allowed for this.
Note For further details about how the staged nature of construction is accounted for
in the above calculations see Theory and Assumptions in the Composite Beam
Engineers Handbook.
Note For further details about how to apply pre-camber see Camber in the Composite
Beam Engineers Handbook.
Note For further details about how to make an allowance for concrete over pour see
Self weight of concrete slabs.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 80 Chapter 9 : Assumptions and Limitations
Foundation loads
There can be some differences in the base load values between the Fastrak Building Designer
summary table and the individual column designs. This occurs if there is bracing coming in at
the column base the brace loading at the base of the column is not handled in the standalone
application it is irrelevant to the column design. The foundation values in the Fastrak
Building Designer summary table are correct for foundation design these should be used and
not the standalone values.
Vertical cross bracing
Foundation shear and vertical load
When vertical cross bracings are modeled, only one member is considered active, irrespective
of lateral load direction. This means that at the base, only one of the two foundations has the
correct shear and vertical load. If the load direction is able to be reversed (and hence the other
brace should be active) then you need to allow for the correct shear and vertical load in the
corresponding foundation loads.
Column axial load
When vertical cross bracings are modeled, only one member is considered active, irrespective
of lateral load direction. The axial load in a column is only included into the column where the
bracing is connected. This means that if the lateral load is able to reverse, one column of a
braced pair will have some axial load that is not accounted for in the column design. The
diagram below illustrates this. In the design model, the left-hand column will be designed
without the axial compression that is actually present when the correct brace is active in
tension only. Therefore great care must be taken when selecting active/inactive bracing
members, and in cases where bracing loads are significant, additional checks on columns may
be necessary.
Live Load Reductions
No live load reductions are applied to General Beams, sloping General Columns, truss
members or braces.
T
T
C
T
C
Design Model Actual Loads
Chapter 9 : Assumptions and Limitations AISC Specification - Building Designer page 81
Notional Load Calculations
Loads used in Notional Load calculations
All Notional Loads are determined from the loads hitting a column at a floor - as a result
column element loads (loads applied directly to columns by the user) and column self weight
can not be included in the Notional Load calculations.
Note To apply loads at the top of a column so that they get included in the Notional
Load calculations you should use nodal loads, as opposed to column element
loads.
Gravity loads carried by braces not accounted for in Notional Load calculations
Any gravity load carried between floors in a brace element is not picked up in the calculation
of Notional Loads - in a majority of structures this is not an issue as braces tend to carry very
little gravity load. However just occasionally they can be used in a model where they do carry
gravity load - see brace supporting cantilever beam/slab on the right in the figure below.
(actually in this case the user should use a general beam and not a brace and then the
calculation of Notional Loads would be correct).
A quick look at the load case summaries in the design tree will advise the user of the relative
size of the error in the Notional Load calculation: Notional Load = 0.003 x gravity load.
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 82 Chapter 9 : Assumptions and Limitations
Axial load in discontinuous columns used twice in Notional Load calculations
If a structure has a transfer beam carrying a column, or if wall mid pier models do not align
vertically in a wall (due to openings etc.) then the Notional Loads for the axial load in the
supported column are used twice in the Notional Loads calculation - once when they are
applied to the supported column and a second time when picked up in the level of the transfer
beam. This is conservative as too much Notional Load is applied to the structure.
A quick look at the load case summaries in the design tree will advise the user of the relative
size of the error in the Notional Load calculation: Notional Load = 0.003 x gravity load.
Chapter 10 : Sign Conventions AISC Specification - Building Designer page 83
Chapter 10 Sign Conventions
This chapter describes the sign conventions as applicable to Fastrak Building Designer.
Major topics Object Orientation
Beams (Simple, Composite and General) and Truss member (chord)
Braces and Truss member (internal)
Columns
Shear Walls
Foundations/Bases - Foundation Forces
Foundations/Bases - Base Reactions
Nodal Deflections
Object Orientation
Fastrak Building Designer takes account of an objects orientation when displaying the analysis
results. Therefore, to apply the sign convention correctly you need to know which is end 1 and
which is end 2 for beams/walls and you also need to know which is Face A for columns.
If you switch the option to show the Element Direction on, then Fastrak Building Designer
shows an arrow on all beams, walls and columns. This arrow points from the start to the end of
beams/walls and from the bottom to the top of columns along Face A.
Note: Re the positive and negative depiction of moments
+ moment shown as above
- moment shown as above
The arrow always shows the direction of moment. Arrow
reversed for -ve moment.
+M
-M
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 84 Chapter 10 : Sign Conventions
Beams (Simple, Composite and General) and Truss member (chord)
For loads applied as shown, the sign
convention applicable to beams and
truss member (chords) is as indicated.
This sign convention is applicable to:
3D Graphic
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Axial
2D Analysis Results
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Deflection
Axial
Design Results
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Deflection
Axial
Report/Export
Element Design
Major Axis Shear, Moment and Deflection
Minor Axis Shear, Moment and Deflection
Axial Force (+ve compression)
End 1
End 2
+
+
x
y
z
+
Applied loads
+
x
z
+
+
-
- -
+
x
y
+
+
-
- -
x
+
-
Chapter 10 : Sign Conventions AISC Specification - Building Designer page 85
Braces and Truss member (internal)
Beam end forces (for applied loads shown on previous page)
The beam end force sign convention as
shown is applicable to:
DXF
Beam end forces
Report/Export
Beam end forces
-vx
+vz
+vy
-My
+Mz
End 2
+vz
+My
-Mz
End 1
x
y
z
-vx
Applied loads
For braces and truss internals, axial
compression is positive and axial
tension is negative. This convention
applies to:
3D Graphic
Axial
Design Results
Axial
DXF
Bracing forces
Report/Export
Bracing forces
Axial Force (Compression +ve, Tension -ve)
+
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 86 Chapter 10 : Sign Conventions
Columns
Applied Loads
For loads applied as shown, the sign
convention applicable to columns is as
indicated.
This sign convention is applicable to:
3D Graphic
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Axial
2D Analysis Results
Deflections
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Axial
Design Results
Deflections
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Axial
DXF
Column splice loads
Report/Export
Column splice loads
Note:
Major Moment is about the Major Axis
Major Shear is in the plane of the
Minor Axis.
Note: Simple Columns only cater for
moments due to load eccentricity.
Major Axis Shear, Moment and Axial
Minor Axis Shear and Moment
Face A
+
-
+
+
-
Chapter 10 : Sign Conventions AISC Specification - Building Designer page 87
Shear Walls
Applied Loads
For loads applied as shown, the sign
convention applicable to shear walls is
as indicated.
This sign convention is applicable to:
3D Graphic
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Axial
Report/Export
Shear wall forces
Major Axis Shear, Moment and Axial
Minor Axis Shear and Moment
End 2
End 1
+
-
+
+
-
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 88 Chapter 10 : Sign Conventions
Foundations/Bases - Foundation Forces
Fastrak Building Designer shows foundation forces in the 3D graphics, these are the forces that
act on the foundation. Note that elsewhere in the output, DXF and Excel export Fastrak
Building Designer gives the base reactions.
For loads applied as shown, the sign convention applicable to the 3D graphic for foundation
forces is as follows:
Columns (note aligned with the local axis system of
the column)
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Axial
This sign convention is applicable to:
3D graphic foundation forces A
C
-Mminor
-Mmajor
+Fminor
+Fmajor
+Fvert
Chapter 10 : Sign Conventions AISC Specification - Building Designer page 89
Shear Walls (note aligned with the local axis system
of the wall)
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Axial
This sign convention is applicable to:
3D graphic foundation forces
Supplementary supports (note aligned with the global
axis system)
X shear, moment
Y shear, moment
Axial
This sign convention is applicable to:
3D graphic foundation forces
End 2
End 1
-Mminor
-Mmajor
+Fminor
+Fmajor
+Fvert
X
Y
Z
-MX
+FX
+MY
+Fvert
+FY
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 90 Chapter 10 : Sign Conventions
Foundations/Bases - Base Reactions
Fastrak Building Designer shows base reactions in the reports, DXF output and in the export to
Excel , these are the reactions from the foundation. Note that in the 3D graphics, Fastrak
Building Designer gives the forces acting on the foundation.
For loads applied as shown, the sign convention for these base reactions is as follows:
Columns (note aligned with the local axis system of
the column)
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Axial
This sign convention is applicable to:
DXF
base reactions
Report/Export
base reactions
A
C
-Mmajor
+Fminor
+Fmajor
+Fvert
-Mminor
Chapter 10 : Sign Conventions AISC Specification - Building Designer page 91
Shear Walls (note aligned with the local axis system
of the wall)
Major shear, moment
Minor shear, moment
Axial
This sign convention is applicable to:
DXF
base reactions
Report/Export
base reactions
Supplementary supports (note aligned with the global
axis system)
X shear, moment
Y shear, moment
Axial
This sign convention is applicable to:
DXF
base reactions
Report/Export
base reactions
End 2
End 1
-Mminor
-Mmajor
+Fminor
+Fvert
+Fmajor
X
Y
Z
-MX
+FX
+MY
+Fvert
+FY
AISC Specification - Building Designer page 92 Chapter 10 : Sign Conventions
Nodal Deflections
Global Axes
In the 3D graphic, nodal deflections
relate to the global axis system as
shown.
X
Y
Z
+X
+Y
-Z