# CHAPTER 1 WAVES

1.1 Understanding Waves ( ……………/ 25 X 100 ! ……………… "

#earning \$%t&'(es
A student is able to :
• Describe what is meant by wave motion.
• Recognise that waves transfer energy without transferring matter.
• Compare transverse and longitudinal waves and give examples of each.
• State what is meant by a wavefront.
• State the direction of propagation of waves in relation to wavefronts
• .define
i. amplitude
ii. period,
iii. freuency,
iv. wavelength,
v. wave speed.
• S!etch and interpret a displacement"time graph for a wave.
• S!etch and interpret a displacement"distance graph for a wave,
• Clarify the relationship between speed, wavelength and freuency
• .Solve problems involving speed, wavelength and freuency.
• Describe damping in a oscillating system.
• Describe resonance in a oscillating system.
#. \$ill in the blan!s by choosing a words given.
parallel perpendicular rarefraction trough compression crest
a% &he wave that travels along the spring consists of a series
'#%(((((((..and ')%((((((((((.
b% A longitudinal wave is a wave in which the vibration of the medium
is '*%((((((((.to the direction of propagation of the wave.
c% A transverse wave is produced when the vibration of the medium is
'+%(((((((.to the direction of propagation of wave.
d% &he wavelength is the distance between two ad,acent

1
). /atch the following terms with the meaning given.
&erms /eaning
0avefront #
'1% &he displacement of a
crest or a trough from
the euilibrium
position of a wave.
0avelength )
'2% &he number of waves
produced by a source
in one unit time.
Amplitude *
'3% &he distance between
the same phase on
wave.
\$reuency +
'#4% 5ines ,oining all points
of the same phase.
0avespeed -
'##% &he measurement of
how a crest is moving
from a fixed point.
6eriod .
'#)% &ime ta!en for an
oscillation to complete
one cycle.

*. Complete the sentence and chart given below with suitable words.
a% 7n a damping oscillation,'#*%........................and '#+%((((((.(
remain constant while '#-%(((... decreases.

'#.,#1,#2,#3%
4
2
E)a(*+es ',
-a(*ing in 's&i++ating s.ste(
1
3
2
b% State two causes of damping in an oscillating system:
i. (((((((((((((')4%
ii. (((((((((((((')#%
*. \$igure shows the displacement"distance and displacement 8time graphs of an
oscillating system.
\$rom the graphs determine the((.
a% 6eriod :((((((((((((((.'))%
b% \$reuency :((((((((((((((..')*%
c% 0avelength :(((((((((((((.(')+%
d% Speed of the waves.:((((((((((((((')-%

3
1.2 / Ana+.sing re,+e&ti'n ', 0aves ( ……………/ 10 X 100 ! ………… "
#earning \$%t&'(es
A student is able to /
• Describe reflection of waves in terms of the angle of incidence, angle of reflection,
wavelength, freuency, speed and direction of propagation.
• Draw a diagram to show reflection of waves.

#. Diagram #.# and #.) shows water waves and sound waves propagating towards a
reflector.
Diagram #.#
Diagram #.)
a % ' i% 0hat is meant by reflected waves9
(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((('#%

' ii% Complete the diagrams #.# and #.) to show the phenomena of reflection of
waves.
4
')%,'*%,'+%,'-%
'iii% 0ith reference to diagram #.# and #.),compare the incident and reflected angle,
wavelenght, freuency, speed and direction of propagation of the reflected
wave with the incident wave. Complete the table with a suitable word..
Angle of reflection((((((((..the angle of incidence
'.%
0avelength remains unchanged
\$reuency (((((((((((
(.'1%
Speed (((((((((((
(.'2%
Direction of the
propagation
(((((((((((
(.'3%
'iv% State the principle of the reflection of waves.
((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((.'#4%
5

1.1 Ana+.sing re,ra&ti'n ', 0aves ( ……………/ 12 X 100 ! ……………… "
#earning \$%t&'(es
A student is able to :
• describe refraction of waves in terms angle of incidence, angle of refraction,
wavelength, freuency , speed and direction of propagation.
• Draw a diagram to show refraction of waves.
#. \$igure below shows the plane waves approaching a convex"shaped shallow area.
'a% Complete the diagram by drawing the wavefronts of the waves entering the shallow
area. 5abel clearly the wavelength in a shallow area with :# and in deep area with
:). '#%,')%,'*%

'b% Complete the table below, to show what happen to wavelength, freuency, speed
and direction of the propagation of wave after the phenomena of refraction.
0avelength '+%
\$reuency '-%
Speed '.%
Direction of the
propagation
'1%
). Diagram below shows the phenomena of re,ra&ti'n ', 0ater 0ave ', t2e sea 0ater
6

#. 0hy are the speed and wavelength of waves in the middle of the sea almost
uniform9

((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((.'2%

). 0hy do the distances between the wavefronts decrease as the waves approach the
beach9
((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((('3%
*. 0hy is the water in the bay stationary compared to the water at the cape9
i.(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((
ii(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((
iii((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((..
'#4%,'##%,'#)%

7
1.3 Ana+.sing di,,ra&ti'n ', 0aves ( …………… / 14 X 100 ! ……………. "
#earning \$%t&'(es
A student is able to
• describe diffraction of waves in terms of wavelength, freuency, speed,
direction of propagation and shape of waves,
• draw a diagram to show diffraction of waves.
#. Diagram # shows a listener who is able to hear the sound of the radio behind the wall of
a building.

Diagram #.
;ame the wave phenomenon shown in the diagram above <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'#%

). <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<')% of waves is a phenomenon in which waves <<<<<<<<<<<<<'*%
as they pass through a <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'+% or round an <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'-%.
*. Diagram *a and *b shows water waves passing through a narrow gap and a wider gap
respectively.
'.% '1%

Diagram *a Diagram *b
'a% Complete diagrams *a and *b above to show the wave pattern after passing through
the gaps.
'b% =ased on your answer in 'a% state the relationship between the wavelength , si>e of the
gaps and the wave pattern formed.

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
8

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
'2%,'3%
'c% Compare the water waves before and after passing through the gap in terms of
'i% wavelength :<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'#4%
'ii% \$reuency :<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'##%
'iii% Speed :<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'#)%
'iv% Amplitude :<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'#*%
). Diagram + shows light from a laser pen is diffracted if it passes through a narrow
slit comparable in si>e to its wavelength.

'a% 7n the space below , draw and label the diffraction pattern of light through a
narrow slit.
'#+%
'b% As the light passes through the single slit , it is diffracted to produce a wide
<<<<<<<<<< '#-% fringe at the centre.
'c% After diffraction , interference also occur to produce alternate bright and
<<<<<<<< '#.% fringes at the side of the middle bright fringe.
'd% &he bright fringe is caused by <<<<<<<<<<<<'#1% interference and the dar!
9
fringe is produced by <<<<<<<<<<< '#2% interference.
1.5 5nter,eren&e ', Waves ( ……..……./ 20 ) 100 ! ..…………. "
#earning \$%t&'(es
A student is able to :
• state the principle of superposition
• explain the interference of waves
• draw interference patterns
• interpret interference patterns
• apply the following formula in problem solving

D
ax
= λ
#. State the 6rinciple of Superposition of waves.
'#%
). 7nterference is the superposition of two coherent waves. &wo waves are
coherent if they have the same wavelength , same <<<<<<<<<<<<<<')% and
constant <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'*%.
10
*. Complete the table below
(a"
S%*er*'siti'n
', t0' &rests
Constructive
interference
(6"
S%*er*'siti'n
', t0'
tr'%g2s
'+% '-%
(&"
S%*er*'siti'n
', a &rest and
a tr'%g2
'.% '1%
+. Diagram + shows an interference pattern produced by two coherent sources 6 and ?
6 ?
Diagram +
7n the diagram above , draw and label 'ne antinodal and 'ne nodal line.
'2%, '3%
-. Complete the table below to compare sound and light waves.
5ight Sound
Constructive =right fringes
11
interference '#4%
Destructive
interference '##% '#)%
..Diagram . shows an experiment to study the interference of light waves.
Diagram .
'a% 0hat is meant by monochromatic light 9
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'#*%
'b% 7n the boxes above , label a , x and D where
a @ distance<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'#+%
x @ distance<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'#-%
D @ distance <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< '#.%
'c % 0hat is the relationship between a, x, D and :9
'#1%
'd % Calculate the wavelength of light used if a @ 4. ) mm , x @ * mm , and D is + m.
A
D
ax
= λ B '#2%
12
1 &wo loud spea!ers placed ) m apart are connected to an audio signal generator
that is ad,usted to produce sound waves of freuency --4 C>. &he detection of
loud and soft sounds as a person moves along a line is at +.4 m from the
loudspea!ers. &he distance between ) consecutive loud sounds is 4.- m.
Calculate the
'a% 0avelength of the sound waves. '#3%
'b% speed of the sound waves. ')4%
13
1.7 S'%nd Waves ( ……………./ 20 ) 100 ! ……………. "
#earning \$%t&'(es
A student is able to :
• describe sound waves
• explain how the loudness relates to amplitude.
• explain how the pitch relates to freuency.
• describe applications of reflection of sound waves.
• calculate distances using the reflection of sound waves.
#. \$ill in the blan!s.
'a% Sound waves are <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'#% waves .
'b% Sound waves are produced when a vibrating ob,ect causes air molecules around
it to <<<<<<<<<<')% and producing a series of <<<<<<<<<<<'*% and
<<<<<<<<<<<'+%
). Diagram ) shows a tuning for! producing sound waves.
Diagram )
'a% 5abel the wavelength '-%
'b% 5abel areas of compression '.% and rarefaction '1%
14
*. Complete the concept map below.

'2%,'3%,'#4%,'##%,'#)%,'#*%
+. Diagram + shows a submarine transmitting ultrasonic waves directed at a big roc!
on the sea bed. After sometime, the submarine detects the wave again.
15
5ow pitch, loud sound, soft sound, high pitch
'a% State the wave phenomenon involved.
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'#+%
'b% State ) reasons why the submarine used ultrasonic wave but not ordinary sound
wave.
#.........................................................................................................................'#-%
).........................................................................................................................'#.%
'c% Calculate the distance of the submarine from the big roc! if the submarine
detects the second wave after #.- seconds. AEelocity of ultrasonic wave @
#-.4 m s
"#
B
'#1%,'#2%
'd% State ) other applications of sound waves.
#. ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((..
). (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((
'#3%,')4%
16
1.8 Ana+.sing e+e&tr'(agneti& s*e&tr%( ( ……..…….. / 20 ) 100 ! …………..…"
#earning \$%t&'(es
#. Diagram # show the electromagnetic spectrum. 0rite the names of the electromagnetic
waves in the boxes provided.
Diagram #
'#%,')%,'*%
). Flectromagnetic waves are <<<<<<<<<<'+% waves ,consisting of<<<<<<<<< '-% fields and

netic fields vibrating <<<<<<<<<<<<<'.% to each other.
*. <<<<<<<<<<<<<'1% has the highest freuency and the <<<<<<<<<'2% wavelength.
+. 5ist + properties of electromagnetic waves.
'i% <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
'77% <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
'777%<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
'7E% <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
'3%,'#4%,'##%,'#)%
17
-. Diagram ) show electromagnetic waves. /atch the correct source by drawing lines from
the boxes to the respective sources.
'#*%,'#+%,'#-%,'#.%
.. ;ame the electromagnetic wave which is used in the following appliance: