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Plan to Learn: case studies

in elearning project
Edited by:
Beverly Pasian, M.A.
Gary Woodill, Ed.D.
2006, Canadian eLearning Enterprise Alliance,
Beverly Pasian and ary !oodill, and c"apter aut"ors
#$B%: 0&'()*+,6&0&(
-or additional copies o. t"is pu/lication, please go to:
Table of Contents
C"apter * 3 #ntroduction *
Beverly Pasian and ary !oodill
C"apter 2 & Literature 4evie1 +
ary !oodill and Beverly Pasian
Developing ePM Skills
C"apter 5 & 6anaging t"e creation o. an online mat" tutorial **
.or nurses
A2 7op8ins
C"apter + & -le9masters: a uni:ue elearning initiative *(
A2 Apple/ee, ;2 <eness
C"apter , & Creating t"e instructor tool/elt: managing 25
elearning .aculty development at a tec"nical community college
A2 !illiams
C"apter 6 & #nsig"ts .rom managing a multi&.aceted college 52
elearning project
=2 $iedlac>e8, =2 Pitts
Importance of leadership
C"apter ( & An online .ood security certi.icate at t"e local and 5)
international levels
42 6alins8i, 42 6c4ae
C"apter ) & oing t"e distance: "o1 an education .aculty +(
initiated online pro.essional learning
$2 4ic", =2 7i//ert
C"apter ' & 6anaging large&scale customi>ed elearning content ,*
B2 $oong, !2 C"ua, %2 =im 7ai
C"apter *0 & Leading t"e c"arge .or elearning in Britis" 60
Colum/ia?s "ig" sc"ools
42 La/onte
Change management
C"apter ** & Communications c"allenge: migrating @.2.@ to 6+
C2 =a1alila8, 42 Cor/ett
C"apter *2 & A"e <irtual <ermont 4esidency project (5
L2 !illiams
C"apter *5 & An instructional design model .or program ('
management: a case study o. t"e implementation o. an online
post&degree certi.icate in special education
;2 6y8ota, ;2 Bonneycastle
C"apter *+ & 6anaging online learning projects at a distance: '2
a case o. 1or8place training
62 Cleveland&#nnes, 62 Ally
C"apter *, & eLearning and sustaina/le development in ;orset, *02
England, process and participation
62 =ers"a1
C"apter *6 & #mplementation o. elearning in t"e Australian *0)
Customs $ervice
;2 7ill
Managing risk in an elearning project
C"apter *( & ;istance learning process management to improve **6
t"e :uality o. a B$c degree
2 C"ia>>ese, L2 $eta
C"apter *) & A success.ul vendor relations"ip .or a large&scale *2(
laptop programme at 4yerson Bniversity
;2#2 -els, -2 Prescod, C2 %orrie
C"apter *' & Evolving a large scale "ig"er education elearning *5+
project management system: AEL at t"e Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1an
;2 6orrison, $2 4o1an
C"apter 20 & Barriers and ;rivers o. Bniversity elearning projects: *+*
case study o. learnD1u
62 Arami, -2 !ild
Dealing with cultural conflicts
C"apter 2* & 6oving targets: .actors a..ecting decisions to s"i.t *+(
university courses and services online
L2 !allace
C"apter 22 & Enly one million teac"ers to train *,5
$2 Cric"ton, 2 =opp
C"apter 25 & C"anging your learning management system: *6+
.rom "ype to "appiness
62 6itc"ell, 62 $8inner
C"apter 2+ & !"en 1orlds collide: project management and collegial *6'
62 Bullen
Notes on authors and editors *((
C"apter *
Beverly L. Pasian Bodec
Corporation Toronto,
Ontario, Canada
Gary Woodill Operitel
Corporation Peterboro!",
Ontario, Canada
Compiling a /oo8 o. case studies needs t1o
t"ings & a critical su/ject area and e9cellent
aut"ors2 Everyt"ing else .alls naturally into
place2 Bot" criteria "ave /een met in
e9ceptional .as"ion .or t"is volume2
A"e current generation o. eLearning projects
Ft"ose since *'',G "ave /een managed using
various met"ods to varying degrees o. success2
Ao t"is, 1e posed a :uestion: !"yH Certainly
t"ere are many ans1ers /ut t"e one on 1"ic"
1e "ave .ocused is project management2 #n
more traditional .ields, t"is area "as included
/ot" t"e strategic organi>ational issues as 1ell
as t"ose at more tactical project levels 3 t"e
processes, met"ods, tec"ni:ues, rules,
principles, languages, and resources it ta8es to
complete t"ings2 !it" respect to eLearning
projects, 1e can see no di..erence2 $trategic
vision and commitment along 1it" accurate
and pro.essional day&to&day e9ecution go "and
in "and2
A"e issues a..ecting t"e management o.
eLearning projects "ave not, until no1, /een
t"e .ocus o. any dedicated analysis2 A"is
volume represents t"e .irst step to1ard
ac"ieving a greater understanding o. t"e
management o. eLearning projects on t"e part
o. an international group o. researc"ers2 A"e
analysis "as revealed a com/ination o.
Fsome1"atG predicta/le o/servations and
surprising revelations2 !"ile eac" c"apter
s"eds its o1n lig"t on one or more o. t"ese
t"emes, all are descri/ed /elo12
Project management processes should
be in place at the beginning
Project teams can get t"e most / .rom
t"e structure, planning and accounta/ility t"at
P6 can i. t"ey are in place .rom t"e start2
$ome o. t"e 8ey elements t"at t"e eLearning
project managers .ound "elp.ul included
identi.ying t"e projectIs purpose, t"e decision&
ma8ers and accompanying processes, and t"e
goals, milestones and delivera/les o. eac"
project p"ase2 Aa8ing t"is approac" ena/led
P6Is to .ocus on 1"at 1as ac"ieva/le, and not
1"at 1ould "ave /een great to do2
!valuation tools should bookend a
Project management tools and mec"anisms
can /e very use.ul in 8eeping t"e project
grounded and closely tied to t"e initial
o/jectives set out in t"e project plan2 Closing
t"is loopJ/y determining 1"et"er or not t"e
o/jectives "ave /een metJinvolves creating
and implementing an evaluation plan t"at
mig"t involve myriad elements t"roug" t"e
li.e o. t"e project Fe2g2 alp"a and /eta tests,
pilot programG2
"elationships are ke# to managing
e$earning projects
A"is 1as one o. t"e dominant t"emes in
almost all t"e c"apters: ensuring t"at all
project team mem/ers, sta8e"olders and end
users s"ould /e 8ept in t"e loop .rom t"e
/eginning2 Communications and e9pectations
"ave to /e managed all t"roug" project li.e
cycles .or eac" team mem/er2 #tIs very easy .or
misunderstandings: in.ormation .lo1 is
especially important 1"ere t"e tec"nology0
pedagogy0project trio e9ists2 Aa8ing clear
action in order to maintain good relations"ips
J/y involving representatives .rom "ig"&ris8
groups early in t"e process, .or e9ampleJis
Training and preparation are needed
for facult# and learners
#t is unrealistic to e9pect t"at everyone
participating in an eLearning project 1ill /e
.amiliar 1it" t"e online environment and t"e
tec"nology or application /eing used in your
project2 Ao accommodate t"e learning curve,
time is needed .or everyone involved to
prepare t"emselves .or t"eir speci.ic role or
activity2 Preparation 1ill, "o1ever, mean
di..erent t"ings to di..erent people2 -aculty,
.or e9ample, may not /e .amiliar 1it" t"e
c"allenges o. communicating online Finitiating
messages and responding to ot"ersG and 1ill
re:uire dedicated training2 Conducting needs
assessments and planning .or t"is training is
"elp.ul2 Pro.iling t"em as Ktec"nology sa.arisL
is anot"er 1ay o. "ig"lig"ting a group .ocus,
rat"er t"an on t"e particular needs o. one
!"ere learners are concerned, donIt assume
t"at t"ey all enjoy online learning2 6ost are
pro/a/ly .amiliar 1it" t"e tec"nology, /ut
F/ased on some o. our project teamsG t"ey may
not it to more traditional met"ods2
Evercoming t"is additional /arrier /ecomes a
very real c"allenge to t"e eLearning project
team2 $c"eduling additional time to conduct
pilot testing is one 1ay o. addressing t"is
"isks need to be managed% particularl#
for relationships
Everyone 1it" e9perience in managing
elearning projects can testi.y to t"e
pro/lematic relations"ip /et1een t"ose
responsi/le .or tec"nology and t"ose
responsi/le .or pedagogy For KcontentLG2
Con.lict seems inevita/le /et1een t"ese
groups and t"is represents a potential ris8 to
t"e management o. t"e project2 A"e :uestion
s"ould no longer /e "o1 to avoid con.lict in
relations"ips, /ut "o1 to manage t"em
constructively2 Con.lict, even anger, are
per.ectly naturalJeven reasona/leJresponses
in many situations, /ut itIs t"e .ear and
su/se:uent need Fon t"e part o. someG to
avoid t"ese situations2 4is8 needs to /e
mitigated, reduced, managed and sometimes
avoided /ut only as part o. a larger ris8
management strategy2
Project leadership is important
Leaders"ip in an eLearning project is
dominated /y t1o roles: t"e project sponsor
and t"e project manager2 A"eir relations"ip is
critical, as are t"ose t"ey "ave 1it" t"e
remaining team mem/ers2 A"ese roles de.ine
t"e vision, o/jectives, milestones and success
.or t"e project2 #t is t"e remaining team
mem/ers 1"o "elp t"em ac"ieve it2
Articulating t"e project vision to t"e team is a
critical .unction o. t"e sponsor and supported
/y t"e manager2 A"e mem/ers rely on t"ese
statements as touc"stones to ground t"eir
activities over t"e su/se:uent 1ee8s and
mont"s o. t"e project 1or82 But once t"ose
statements are made, t"e sponsor and manger
are .urt"er needed to motivate t"e team,
negotiate on t"eir /e"al. F1"ere necessaryG
and generally /alance t"e various interests o.
t"e project sta8e"olders and team mem/ers
against t"e realities o. t"e eLearning project
A"e project manager is t"e most comple9 role,
generally relying on a com/ination o.
speciali>ed tec"nical, administrative,
pedagogical and su/ject matter e9pertise2
Communications and information flow
must be well&managed
Project communication s"ould /e open and
transparent, and t"e .lo1 o. in.ormation
s"ould leverage #nternet tec"nologies2 A"e
goal s"ould /e to maintain a level o. a1areness
concerning project developments amongst all
sta8e"olders all t"e time2 Aoo o.ten 8ey project
personnel unilaterally ma8e t"e decision to
.ilter in.ormation, leaving vested parties
dissatis.ied 1it" project updates2 As an
alternative to ma8ing decisions on /e"al. o.
sta8e"olders regarding "o1 muc" in.ormation
t"ey need, elearning project mem/ers "ave
demonstrated more progress /y s"aring as
muc" in.ormation as t"ey "ave to ena/le
project sta8e"olders to ma8e relevant
decisions .or t"emselves2
Managing projects ' managing change
Projects create c"ange2 #tIs a certainty t"at t"e
organi>ational landscape 1ill /e di..erent /y
projectIs end, and t"e only :uestion to .ocus
on, .rom a project management perspective, is
"o1 t"is 1ill "appen2 <arious tools, met"ods
and resources are availa/le to support t"e
project management team2
Ergani>ational c"ange, on t"e ot"er "and,
re:uires a more "olistic approac" t"at is
separate .romJ/ut not detac"ed .romJt"e
project management activities2 #n many 1ays,
t"ese are parallel developments and re:uire
conjoined e..orts in areas suc" as strategic
planning and communications2
e$earning project management is a
learning e(perience
eLearning project management is an
e9perience particularly 1ell&suited to s"aring
t"e 8no1ledge e9pertise it develops2 6any
project environments use communications
tools on a limited /asis and t"en only .or t"e
project in :uestion2 eLearning projects, on t"e
ot"er "and, use tec"nology Femail, t"e !e/,
.ile&s"aring applicationsG created speci.ically
.or t"e purpose communication or learning2
A"eir use re:uires minimal e..ort on t"e
project team and demands little in t"e 1ay o.
/e"avioural c"anges2 A"ese cases demonstrate
"o1 project management and sta8e"olders
can regularly s"are project updates 1it" little
or no c"ange to t"eir operational activities2
A"e perspectives o..ered in t"ese cases spea8
to multiple&&and truly glo/alJt"emes2 !ritten
/y 2' aut"ors .rom ) countries, t"ese
o/servations ma8e a strong case .or t"e glo/al
a1areness o. and commitment to elearning
project management2 Ever time, more
researc" 1ill emerge pertaining to elearning
project management 1it" an eye to1ard
e9amining t"e relations"ip /et1een t"e
:uality o. project implementation and t"at o.
t"e actual learning2 Put anot"er 1ay, to 1"at
degree can eac" o. t"ese t"emes Mread:
.actorsNJand ot"ers to /e identi.iedJdirectly
impact t"e :uality o. t"e learning e9perienceH
!"ile t"ere is little more t"an anecdotal
evidence to suggest t"at t"is supposed impact
is signi.icant, additional researc" is needed to
investigate and document t"e relations"ip2
Actual impacts and t"eir meaning 1ill .ollo12
As an initial step, /ridging t"e gap /et1een t"e
elearning and project management
communities t"roug" t"ese case studies is
/ene.icial to all2
ood management can lead to good learning2
C"apter 2
eLearning Project 6anagement:
a revie1 o. t"e literature
Gary Woodill Operitel
Corporation Peterboro!",
Ontario, Canada
Beverly L. Pasian Bodec
Corporation Toronto,
Ontario, Canada
Be.ore speci.ic literature on elearning project
management e9isted, elearning projects 1ere
usually classi.ied as so.t1are development Fi.
t"ey 1ere categori>ed at allG2 Any project
management approac"es to elearning 1ould
"ave generally /een /ased on generic project
management principles, or on several
standards speci.ically designed .or so.t1are
development2 A"ese included standards .or
so.t1are development set out /y t"e
#nternational $tandards Ergani>ation F#$EG,
/ased in eneva, $1it>erland, and /y t"e
$o.t1are Engineering #nstitute in t"e B$A2
Applica/le standards include #$E '000&5 on
so.t1are development, and t"e protocol on
so.t1are process assessment, #$E *,,0+
FOa"ran, *'')G2 A"e $E# approac" 1as a .ive
level Computer 6aturity 6odel FC66G .or
$o.t1are F7ump"rey, *')'G2
As 1ell, t"e Project 6anagement #nstitute
provides a modelJ8no1n as t"e KProject
6anagement Body o. =no1ledge FP6BE=GJ
t"at is more generic and rooted in "istorical
project management initiatives in t"e .ields o.
de.ence, arc"itecture and engineering2 #t "as
/een adopted /yJ/ut not adapted toJseveral
ot"er areas, and is no1 /eing loo8ed at /y a
.e1 practitioners in t"e elearning community2
7o1ever, t"is ne1 application o. t"e P6#
model isnIt generating a ne1 approac"
speci.ically designed .or elearning projects2
4at"er, t"e P6# model is /eing used almost
intact Fand sometimes a.ter t"e .actG to e9plain
1"at s"ould "appen or "as "appened in t"e
project2 Bsing t"e P6# model as a diagnostic
tool rat"er t"an a prescriptive .orce is a
misapplication o. its value and, especially .or
t"ose pedagogical and tec"nological e9perts in
t"e elearning community, a lost opportunity to
/ .rom t"e structure it o..ers2 Adapting
t"is model to re.lect t"e needs o. elearning
pro.essionals 1ould /e "ig"ly valua/le .or t1o
sets o. pro.essionals: t"ose responsi/le .or t"e
pedagogy o. elearning as 1ell as t"ose
responsi/le .or its implementation2
%ot surprisingly, an e9tensive literature on
elearning project management doesnIt e9ist2
Enly one /oo8 on t"e su/ject F$"ac8el.ord,
2002G "as /een pu/lis"ed, a .e1 articles, and a
lot o. 1"at li/rarians li8e to call Kep"emeral
materialsL2 A"e latter include company
/roc"ures, corporate 1"ite papers, con.erence
presentations and speec"es, /log comment&
aries, and online articles 1"ic" "ave not /een
pu/lis"ed in printed .orm2 Again, as in t"e case
o. t"e P6# materials, t"ere are enormous gaps
in t"e literature on elearning project
management2 Little e9ists in t"e 1ay o. models
.or t"em to .ollo1 or /est practices For lessons
learnedG .or t"em to / .rom2
A"e accompanying literature revie1 is
some1"at a//reviated and is mainly /ased on
a searc" t"roug" t"e arc"ives o. t"e
Educational 4esources #n.ormation Center
FE4#CG, a government .unded service t"at
collects educational literature F1ell over *
million pieces to dateG, searc"ing engines suc"
as oogle and Alta <ista and leading academic
journals in t"e areas o. project management
and educational tec"nology2 A content analysis
o. t"is material gives a picture o. t"e present
state o. elearning project management in
Englis" spea8ing countries, and "ig"lig"ts t"e
need .or .urt"er t"eoretical, analytical and
critical 1or8 in t"is .ield2
e$earning Project Management
Because t"ere is no t"eoretical /ase .or project
management t"at is speci.ic to elearning,
many people placed in t"e role o. project
manager .or elearning turn to esta/lis"ed
approac"es designed .or ot"er types o.
projects2 $"ac8el.ord F2002G contends t"at t"e
most traditional system .or elearning project
management is pro/a/ly t"e K1ater.allL
met"od adopted .rom so.t1are development,
1"ic" is descri/ed as "aving t"e .ollo1ing
;e.inition and approval o. a set o.
Creation o. a timeline and /udget to
produce t"e delivera/les de.ined in t"e
re:uirements p"ase
A design and implementation p"ase to
produce t"e delivera/les
A post&mortem to evaluate success and
.ailure in producing t"e delivera/les on
time and on /udget Fp2 6G
#n contrast to t"e 1ater.all met"od,
$"ac8el.ord advocates .or Kt"e elearning
project development cycleL2 A"is met"od
recogni>es t"at Kc"anges are not only
inevita/le /ut desira/le as 1ellL Fp2 6G2 Because
o. t"is, t"e development cycle met"od includes
t"e revisiting o. t"e delivera/les /y all parties
and t"e possi/ility o. ma8ing adjustments, as
several points in t"e project2 A"e rest o.
$"ac8el.ordIs /oo8 is devoted to t"e details o.
t"e elearning development cycle met"od,
including a set o. templates .or managing
Aoenniges F200+G provides, in a virtual /oo8
.ormat, "er more t"an 20 years o. elearning
project management e9perience, as 1ell as a
use.ul set o. templates .or managing elearning
projects2 Aemplates include:
Pre&$tart&o.&!or8 Agenda Aemplate
$tart&o.&!or8 Agenda Aemplate
!or8 Plan Aemplate
4A$# E9ercise Aemplate
<arious Aools .or Puoting
Project C"ange %otice -orm
C"ange 6anagement 6odels
$tatus Log Aemplates
uidelines .or -ile&%aming Conventions
Project $tyle uide
Puality Assurance C"ec8lists
4eproduction $peci.ication -orms
=ruse F200+G, 1"o calls "imsel. t"e Kelearning
guruL, suggests t"e .ollo1ing are t"e usual
steps in a success.ully managed elearning
<endor is providing a single point&o.&
contact project manager2
!ee8ly progress meetings are "eld2
;etailed project sc"edule is created and
routinely revie1ed2
A prototype is created, tested, re.ined, and
.inali>ed early in t"e development process2
6ajor content c"anges are made in scripts
and story/oards2
;evelopment process parallels t"e
#nstructional $ystems ;esign process2
Eseryel, $c"uver van Blan8en, and $pector
F200*G also provide templates and design
guidelines .or elearning project management,
as part o. an overall elearning design pac8age
.unded /y t"e European Bnion2
A .e1 vendors "ave developed relatively
sop"isticated approac"es to managing
elearning in.rastructure implementation
projects2 6itc"ell and !oodill F200,G descri/e
in detail t"e process 1"ere/y =onica 6inolta
Business $ystems in t"e Bnited $tates
s1itc"ed .rom one learning management
system to anot"er, using colla/orative project
management and c"ange management
procedures F.or details, see C"apter 5G2 A"is
approac" is similar to t"e one advocated /y
6orrison F2005G, 1"o calls .or an e#learnin!
delivery tea$ "eaded /y a steering group2 #n
"is c"apter on project management, 6orrison
argues t"at t"e team must "ave enoug" people
in it 1it" s8ill sets to manage t"e overall
initiative, t"e vision and strategy, t"e project
plan, .inances, tec"nologies involved,
customers, content, 8no1ledge management
aspects, learner support, project processes,
c"ange procedures, and "uman resources2
Broo81ood 6edia Arts, an elearning so.t1are
and 1e/ developer, outlines t"eir approac" to
project management on t"eir 1e/site
F "ttp:00111 2/roo81ood 2c om G2 $tages
E..ective Communication
;esign ;escription
Project Cost Estimating
Project $c"eduling
!or8 Aut"ori>ation
Project $tatus Arac8ing
Client 4evie1 and Approvals
C"ange Control
Et"er 1riters on elearning project
management advise clients on "o1 to select
and manage vendors, certainly an issue in any
elearning project t"at uses outside suppliers
.or tec"nology, content or services2 7artley
F200*G gives a K$upplier&<ia/ility C"ec8listL in
"is article on avoiding t"e pit.alls o. elearning
implementation2 rossman F200,G, in a recent
presentation, includes t"ese steps in vendor
management as part o. an overall eP6
7o1 to select a L6$ vendor
A"e importance o. .ocusing on 8ey
7o1 to 1or8 success.ully 1it" your L6$
7o1 to "elp su/ject matter e9perts adjust
to t"e L6$ environment
Project management dos and donIts
7o1 to do cost&e..ective usa/ility testing
o. your L6$
7o1ard F200+G 1arns o. .our major pit.alls to
/e avoided in any L6$ implementation:
Lac8 o. speci.ications o. reports and data
/e.ore project starts
;i..iculty in ma8ing c"anges in an
application 3 o.ten easier to c"ange your
/usiness t"an to c"ange t"e so.t1are
Lengt"y projects 3 /y t"e time a long
project "as .inis"ed, many t"ings "ave
KPleasing everyone pleases no oneL2 A"e
process o. so.t1are implementation o.ten
e9poses con.licts 1it"in an organi>ation
t"at need to /e resolved /e.ore t"e project
can proceed2
According to =ing F200*G, elearning
implementation can "ig"lig"t a Kclas" o.
culturesL 1it"in an organi>ation, especially
1it"in academic institutions2 $"e notes t"at
Kelearning projects may /e c"aracteri>ed /y
clas"es o. culture as academics adapt to
tec"nology, as educational managers /ecome
c"ange agents, as early adopters are .orced to
convert t"eir online teac"ing materials .rom
one implementation plat.orm to anot"er, and
as university computer resource departments
/ecome central to real&time delivery o.
teac"ing, learning and assessment2L
)se of Software in ePM
Because elearning is centred on so.t1are, it is
not surprising t"at t"ere are t"ose 1"o
advocate using so.t1are to manage, or at least
partially manage, an elearning project2 As
early as *''(, Bartoli 1as advocating .or t"e
Kautomated design o. interactive course1are,L
using reusa/le pre&/uilt multimedia elements
.rom a data/ase2 But, /ecause suc" o/jects are
deconte9tuali>ed, t"e automatic /uilding o.
elearning elements .or a project "as not
proven to /e very success.ul2
eneral project management so.t1are,
especially 6$&Project, is o.ten used in larger
elearning projects2 %o/le F200,G recently
revie1ed a set o. K"ig"&tec" and lo1&tec"L
tools t"at could /e use.ul in elearning project
management2 %o/le sees project management
as "aving .ive elements o. project control 3
Arac8ing, 4eporting, 4evie1, Analysis, and
Approval, and suggests tools .or eac" element2
Loc8itt F2000G also revie1s so.t1are use.ul .or
project management in training and
Training for ePM
-or 7arnett F2002G, /eginning to /e an
elearning project manager is learning a
voca/ulary, learning to Ktal8 t"e tal8L2
7o1ever, .or many, elearning project
management is more a set o. s8ills needed to
see a project to success.ul completion2
6cLoug"lin and Luca F2002G descri/e t"e
need .or an online training program .or
elearning project managers2 E9cept .or t"e
proposed Certi.icate in eLearning Project
6anagement at t"e Bniversity o. Calgary t"at
#Im trying to /uild, t"ere does not seem to /e
any speci.ic .ormal training program entirely
devoted to eP62 4at"er, project management
o. elearning is usually a part o. degrees in
eLearning, ;istri/uted Learning, Enline
Learning or ;istance Education, or can /e a
su/ject in degrees in general project
Case Studies
A num/er o. case studies o. eLearning project
management can /e .ound scattered
t"roug"out t"e literature in edited /oo8s on
distance education or elearning in general2
Bradley F200*G, .or e9ample, descri/es t"e
process o. delivering an online 6asters degree
in t"e 1or8place, using a large&scale
distri/uted colla/oration approac"2 A"e
Bniversity o. $al.ord F2005G presents issues in
t"e implementation o. elearning 1it"in t"e
%ational 7ealt" $ervice in t"e B=2 Ells1ort"
and #ori>>o F200*G outline pro/lems
encountered 1it" t"e implementation o.
elearning in t"e B$ Army2 %apierala and
Aves8ov F2002G discuss t"e development o. an
in&"ouse elearning project at a non&
agency2 =oller, -ran8en.ield and $arley
F2000G provide insig"t into implementing
elearning in a "ospital2 $everal aut"ors Fe2g2,
aylord, *')(Q 7arr, 2002Q 7odgson and Lam,
200+Q Bys, %leya, and 6olelu, 200+G 1rite
a/out managing elearning projects in "ig"er
education settings2 Cases in t"e "ig"er
education community remain limited 1it"
=enny F200*&0+G /eing one o. t"e .e1 to
insig"ts to t"e c"allenges and solutions in a
university setting2
ePM Standards
-inally, a .e1 articles discuss critical issues
related to elearning project management2 Ene
is t"e .act t"at t"ere are no agreed upon eP6
standards2 auder, C"ristie and $trong F200+G to t"e 1ell&8no1 Capa/ility 6aturity
6odel FC66G o. t"e $o.t1are Engineering
#nstitute as a direction .or t"e eP6 industry,
calling .or organi>ations doing t"is 1or8 to
rise to a Klevel .iveL standard2 6an.ord and
6c$porran F2005G, and 6ars"all and 6itc"ell
F2002G, also suggest t"at elearning project
managers .ollo1 t"e C66 model2 7odgson
and Lam F200+G call .or K:uality managementL
o. elearning projects2
#n summary, t"ere is not an e9tensive
literature on elearning project management,
per se2 A"is revie1 s"o1s t"at muc" 1or8
needs to /e done to .urt"er develop t"is
gro1ing su/&.ield o. project management
Bartoli, C2 and olas, =2 F*''(G2 An Approac"
to Ato$atin! Develop$ent o% &nteractive
Corse'are. FE4#C ;ocument E;+*65*2G
Berge, O2 F200*G2 -rom project management to
strategic planning2 #n Oane Berge FEd2G,
(stainin! Distance Trainin!: &nte!ratin!
Learnin! Tec"nolo!ies into t"e )abric o% t"e
Enterprise2 $an -rancisco: Cossey&Bass2
Bersin, Cos" and Associates2 F200+G2 A"e .our
Kgotc"asL o. L6$ implementation2 #n Bersin
and Associates W"at Wor*s +e'sletter, April
Bonamy, C2, C"arlier, B2 and $aunders, 62
F200+G2 A"e evaluative researc" o. comple9
projects in elearning: t"e case o. t"e REPBELI
Fe&Puality in elearningG Project2 #n
Proceedin!s: +et'or*ed Learnin!
Con%erence, 200+2
Bradley, C2 and Boyle, A2 F200*G2 A"e
;evelopment o. an Enline Course .or a <irtual
Bniversity2 #n Proceedin!s, ED#MED&A ,--.
FAampere, -inland, Cune 2,&50, 200*G2 FE4#C
;ocument E;+66*+0G
Courtney, =2 F200+G2 Constellations o.
colla/oration: t"e "idden .oundations o. a
success.ul elearning project2 #n Proceedin!s:
+et'or*ed Learnin! Con%erence, ,--/.
Cousin 2, ;eep1ell, -2, Land, 42, and Ponti,
62 F200+G2 A"eorising #mplementation:
<ariation And Commonality #n European
Approac"es Ao Elearning2 #n Proceedin!s:
+et'or*ed Learnin! Con%erence, 200+2
;enton, C2C2, $mit", B2, ;avis, A2, $trader, 42,
and Clar8, -2 F2002G2 Tec"nolo!y Pro%essional
Develop$ent Enabled by an Electronic
Mana!e$ent (yste$. FE4#C ;ocument
E8lund, C2 and Lo1e, ;2 F2000G2 A Puality
Assurance 6et"odology .or t"e Production o.
Aec"nology ;elivered Education and Araining2
#n ;avies, S E1en, C FEds2G Proceedin!s o%
Web+et,--- 0 World Con%erence on t"e
WWW and &nternet. AACE2 <A, B$A2 p2 *62&
Ells1ort", C2 and #ori>>o, L2 F200*G2 Learning
at a ;istance: surviving implementation at t"e
B$ Army #ntelligence Center?s distance
learning E..ice2 #n Oane Berge FEd2G,
(stainin! Distance Trainin!: inte!ratin!
learnin! tec"nolo!ies into t"e %abric o% t"e
enterprise. $an -rancisco: Cossey&Bass2
Eseryel, ;2 $c"uver van Blan8en, 62 and
$pector, C262 F200*G2 Current Practice in
;esigning Araining .or Comple9 $8ills:
#mplications .or ;esign and Evaluation o.
A;APAM#AN2 #n Proceedin!s, ED#MED&A ,--.
FAampere, -inland, Cune 2,&50, 200*G2 FE4#C
;ocument E;+62',,G
arton, C2 and 6cCulloc", E2 F200+G2
)nda$entals o% tec"nolo!y pro1ect
$ana!e$ent2 Le1isville, AT: 6C Press2
auder, C2, C"ristie, A2 and $trong, C2 F200+G2
eLearning Puality: /ecoming a level .ive
learning organi>ation2 Proceedin!s, A(C&L&TE
Con%erence, 200+2
aylord, A2 F*')(G2 Brin!in! 2p an Online
(yste$: E3periences at t"e 2niversity o%
Alas*a # Pro1ect Mana!e$ent: A 4ey to
(ccess%l Or!ani5ation and &$ple$entation2
FE4#C ;ocument E;2'05)0G
rossman, C2 F200,G2 )inesse 6or LM(:
(trate!ies %or a (ccess%l &$ple$entation2
Paper presented at t"e eLearning Producers
Con.erence, $an -rancisco, 6ar2 *+&*(, 200,2
7arr, 22 F2002G2 Connections: A
Co$pre"ensive (tdent Portal: Concept
Paper and Proposal2 FE4#C ;ocument
7artley, ;2 F200*G2 Ban8ruptcy&Proo. Uour
Elearning Project2 Learnin! Circits,
;ecem/er 200*2
7artnett, C2 F2002G2 Aal8 t"e Aal8: $ound li8e
a Project 6anager2 eLearnin! Developers
7ornal, 6arc" *2, 20052
7odgson, P2 and Lam, P2 F200+G2 Puality
6anagement o. a joint university elearning
project2 Global Edcator, Culy 200+2
7o1ard, C2 F200+G2 7o1 to avoid t"e pit.alls
o. L6$ implementations2 Learnin! Circits,
Culy 200+2
7oyt, B2 and $toc8man, 62 F200*G2 4esearc"
-indings on a <irtual Araining Center:
measuring 1e/ /ased training as an e..ective
project management .acilitation intervention2
#n Proceedin!s, Web+et ,--.. FErlando, -L,
Ecto/er 25&2(, 200*G2 FE4#C ;ocument
7ump"rey, !2 F*')'G2 Mana!in! t"e
(o%t'are Process. 4eading, 6A: Addison&
=enny, C2 F200*G2 !"ere Academia 6eets
6anagement: a model .or t"e e..ective
development o. :uality learning materials
using ne1 tec"nologies2 #n Meetin! at t"e
Crossroads. Proceedin!s o% A(C&L&TE ,--..
F6el/ourne, Australia, ;ecem/er '&*2, 200*G2
FE4#C ;ocument E;+6(',0G
=ing, <2 F200*G2 A student&.ocused approac"
to t"e management o. elearning projects2 #n
Proceedin!s: &nternational Con%erence on E#
Edcation F#CEE200*G2
=nir8, -rederic8 F*'),G 6icroco$pters 8
Edcational 9esearc"ers: Writin!, Pro1ect
Mana!e$ent, (tatistics (o%t'are, 8 Data
9etrieval. FE4#C ;ocument E;26*66+G2
=oller, C2, -ran8en.ield, C2 and $arley, C2
F2000G2 A1elve Aips .or ;eveloping
Educational 6ultimedia in a Community&
/ased Aeac"ing 7ospital2 Medical Teac"er2
v22, n*, p(&*0, Can2
=olodins8y, C2, Cran1ell, 62, and 4o1e, E2
F2002G2 Bridging t"e eneration ap across
t"e ;igital ;ivide: Aeens Aeac"ing #nternet
$8ills to $enior Citi>ens2 7ornal o%
E3tension2 v+0, n5, Cune2
=ruse, =2 F200+G2 C7EC=L#$A: 6anaging
elearning projects2 ;ocument .ound at
"ttp:001112elearningguru 2com 2
Li, 72, Aang, $2 6an, =2-2, and Love, P2
F2002G2 <7Build2com: A !e/&Based $ystem
.or 6anaging =no1ledge in Projects2 &nternet
9esearc"2 v*2, n,, p5(*&('2
Loc8itt, B2 F2000G2 Practical Pro1ect
Mana!e$ent %or Edcation and Trainin!2
FE4#C ;ocument E;++,2,2G
Luca, C2 F*''(G2 Pro1ect Mana!e$ent %or +e'
Media2 Pert": %e1 6edia 6anagement2
Luca, C2 and 6cLoug"lin, C2 F200,G2
;eveloping online learning materials 3 project
management, design and pedagogy2 #n
Proceedin!s, ED#MED&A ,--:, 6ontreal,
Cune 200,2
6an.ord, C2 and 6c$porran, 62 F2005G2
elearning :uality: /ecoming a level .ive
learning organi>ation2 Proceedin!s o% t"e .;t"
Annal +ACC<, Palmerston %ort", %e1
Oealand Culy, 20052
6ars"all, $2 and 6itc"ell, 2 F2002G An
elearning 6aturity 6odelH Proceedin!s, ,--,
A(C&L&TE Con%erence.
6ay/erry, E2 F200+G2 -ail to Plan 3 Plan to
-ail2 #n Learnin! Circits, Culy 200+2
6cLoug"lin, C2 and Luca, C2 F2002G2
E9periential Learning En&Line: A"e 4ole o.
Async"ronous Communication Aools2
Proceedin!s, ED#MED&A ,--,. FE4#C
;ocument E;+((06,G2
6itc"ell, 62 and !oodill, 2 F200,G2
C"an!in! 6or Learnin! Mana!e$ent
(yste$: %ro$ "ype to "appiness. Paper
presented at t"e eLearning Producers
Con.erence, $an -rancisco, 6ar2 *+&*(, 200,2
6orrison, ;on F2005G E#Learnin! (trate!ies:
"o' to !et i$ple$entation and delivery ri!"t
%irst ti$e. %e1 Uor8: !iley2
%apierala, =2 and Aves8ov, L2 F2002G2
;eveloping elearning #n&"ouse: A
Case $tudy2 eLearnin! Developers 7ornal,
Aug2 2(, 20022
%icol, ;2 F200+G2 T"e 9is*s Associated 'it"
Elearnin! &nvest$ents in )E and =E. A
(enior Mana!e$ent Brie%in! Paper.
Bniversity o. $trat"clyde, $cotland2
%o/le, 62 F200,G2 Pro1ect Mana!e$ent Tools
to Gide Process and Practice2 Paper
presented at t"e eLearning Producers
Con.erence, $an -rancisco, 6ar2 *+&*(, 200,2
P"illips, 42 F*''(G2 T"e Developer>s =andboo*
to &nteractive Mlti$edia: A Practical Gide
%or Edcational Applications. London: =ogan
Page2 FE4#C ;ocument E;+*2'5*G
P"illips, 42 F200*G2 A Case $tudy o. t"e
;evelopment and Project 6anagement o. a
!e/0C; 7y/rid Application2 7ornal o%
&nteractive Learnin! 9esearc"2 v*2, n2&5,
P"illips, 42 and Luca, C2 F*'''G2 ;eveloping a
group1or8 oriented online unit on interactive
multimedia project management2 #n =2
6artin, %2 $tanley and %2 ;avison FEdsG,
Aeac"ing in t"e ;isciplines0 Learning in
Conte9t, Proceedin!s o% t"e ?t" Annal
Teac"in! Learnin! )or$, 52(&55*2
Pic8, P2 F*'),G2 T"e &$ple$entation o%
DOB&(@LE2AE+ at t"e Britis" Col$bia
&nstitte o% Tec"nolo!y Library. Paper
presented at t"e #CT $eminar FE4#C
;ocument E;2)*,,+G2
Pitc"er, %2, ;avidson, =2, and", C2
F2000G2 <ideocon.erencing in 7ig"er
Education2 &nnovations in Edcation and
Trainin! &nternational2 v5(, n5, p*''&20',
Popp, 42 F*'')G2 4entc*y Mi!rant
Tec"nolo!y Pro1ect: E3ternal Evalation
9eport, .BBC#B?. FE4#C ;ocument E;+26)+*G
Project 6anagement #nstitute2 F2000G2 A
Gide to t"e Pro1ect Mana!e$ent Body o%
4no'led!e DP6BE= uideG2 %e1to1n $:2,
Pennsylvania: Project 6anagement #nstitute2
Project 6anagement #nstitute2 F200,G2
&nnovations: Pro1ect $ana!e$ent researc"
,--/2 %e1to1n $:2, Pennsylvania: Project
6anagement #nstitute2
$c"eer, A2 F200*G2 ;istance Learning
#mplementation at t"e #nternal 4evenue
$ervice: A Catalyst .or Ergani>ational C"ange2
#n Oane Berge FEd2G, (stainin! Distance
Trainin!: &nte!ratin! Learnin! Tec"nolo!ies
into t"e )abric o% t"e Enterprise2 $an
-rancisco: Cossey&Bass2
$cottis" Enterprise2 F2002G2 An investi!ation
into s*ills %or eLearnin! in (cotland2 $cottis"
Enterprise 4esearc" 4eport2
$"ac8el.ord, B2 F2002G2 Pro1ect Mana!in! E#
Learnin!2 Arlington, <A: American $ociety .or
Araining and ;evelopment2
$in8, ;2 F2002G2 #$;&&-aster, Better, Easier2
Per%or$ance &$prove$ent2 v+*, n(, p*6&22,
$trauss, 72 F*'')G2 P6$: Project 6anagement
$yndrome2 #n t"e ED2TEC= 9eport, .BBC#
.BB?2 v*5, n*&*2, *''(&')2 FE4#C ;ocument
Aoenniges, Lisa2 F200+G =o' to Mana!e a
Lar!e#(cale Learnin! &nitiative: Tools and
Te$plates Based on ,- 6ears o% A'ard#
Winnin! Pro!ra$s. $unnyvale, CA: Brandon
Bniversity o. $al.ord F2005G Gidelines to
&n%or$ t"e Develop$ent o% e#Learnin! in t"e
+=(2 England: %7$2
Bys, P2, %leya, P2, and 6olelu, 2 F200+G2
Tec"nolo!ical &nnovation and Mana!e$ent
(trate!ies %or =i!"er Edcation in A%rica:
=ar$oni5in! 9eality and &dealis$. Education
6edia #nternational2
!"ite, 62 F2005G2 Content 6anagement .rom
<endor $election to $uccess.ul 4ollout2
Online2 v26, n6, p20&22, 2+, %ov&;ec2
!ilson, C2 F200*G2 Project management teams:
a model o. /est practice in design2 #n ;2 Boud,
42 Co"en2, and C2 $ampson FEds2G Peer
Learnin! in =i!"er Edcation: Learnin!
%ro$ 8 'it" eac" ot"er. FE4#C ;ocument
C"apter 5
6anaging t"e Creation o. an Enline
6at" Autorial .or %urses
A$anda =op*ins Mont
9oyal Colle!e Cal!ary,
Alberta, Canada
*bstract+ A"e creation o. an online %ursing 6at" Autorial 1as in direct response to a gro1ing need
.or students in t"e Bndergraduate %ursing Program at 6ount 4oyal College to relearn /asic
mat"ematical principles .or t"e purposes o. #ntravenous A"erapy and 6edication Administration in
t"e clinical setting2 A"is case study descri/es t"e p"ases o. development used as a project
management met"odology in t"e development o. t"e online %ursing 6at" Autorial and re.lects upon
t"e c"allenges and lessons t"at 1ere learned as a result o. managing t"e production o. a student sel.&
assessment learning tool2
,e# words+ Project Pro.ile, Learning E/ject Aypology and $coping, Project C"arter, $tory/oard,
Aemplate, 6aintenance uide, $igno.. ;ocument, $urveys and Assessments
An astonis"ing num/er o. Canadians die eac"
year at Canadian "ospitals due to inade:uacies
in t"e administration o. medication and 1"at
"ospital administrators are de.ining as Kadverse
ventsL FEnevold, 200+G2 According to a 6ay
200+ study pu/lis"ed /y t"e Canadian 6edical
Association Cournal, one in nineteen adults 1ill
/e given t"e 1rong medication or dosage upon a
"ospital visit FPaul 7arte Pro.essional Corp2,
200+G2 #nappropriate dosage calculation is t"e
result o. errors in mat"ematical medication
calculations2 A"ese distur/ing .acts 1ere t"e
catalyst .or t"e development o. an online
%ursing 6at" Autorial2
At 6ount 4oyal College, t"e Bndergraduate
%ursing Program "as identi.ied a de.iciency in
studentsI a/ility to do /asic mat"2 A"is issue is
related to t"e .act t"at students initially learn to
complete /asic mat"ematical operations on t"eir
o1n in elementary sc"ool, /ut t"ey t"en come to
rely on calculators to solve mat"ematical pro/&
lems in t"e "ig"er grades2 According to Al/erta
Learning, KVstudents continue to ac"ieve e9cel&
lent results on international tests, s"aring t"e
"ig"est scores in reading, improving .rom t"ird
to second in mat"ematics and ran8ing .ourt" in
scienceLFAl/erta Learning, 200+G2 Based on
t"ese statistics t"ere appears to /e a
KdisconnectL /et1een t"e Al/erta Learning
international test results, t"e reality o. Kadverse
events,L and student mat"ematical per.ormance
upon entering t"e %ursing Program at 6ount
4oyal College2
A"e online %ursing 6at" Autorial 1as initially
created .or use in t"e Bndergraduate %ursing &
Program at 6ount 4oyal College2 A"e intention
o. t"e project 1as .or students to use t"e tutorial
as a resource .or studying and /ecoming more
pro.icient at applying /asic mat" s8ills to prac&
tical nursing situations, in t"e "ope o. diminis"&
ing t"e dismal statistics identi.ied /y t"e Canad&
ian 6edical Association Cournal2
Prior to t"e development o. t"e online %ursing
6at" Autorial, students 1rote mat" tests /e.ore
and during eac" clinical course2 Preparation .or
t"ese tests 1as t"roug" sel. study and 1it" t"e
assistance o. practice 1or8s"eets2 $ome o. t"e
concepts 1ere di..icult to grasp 1"en students
"ad not yet /een e9posed to t"e e:uipment
associated 1it" speci.ic procedures and 1ere not
a/le to use a calculator in t"e testing environ&
ment2 #. students .ailed to attain '0W on t"eir
mat" test t"ey 1ere re:uired to see8 remedial
"elp and re&1rite t"e mat" test2 -or /ot" t"e
students and t"e instructors, t"is procedure
consumed a great deal o. time2 A"e goal o. t"e
online %ursing 6at" Autorial 1as to ensure t"at
nursing students 1ere success.ul in t"eir clinical
courses 1it"out t"e need .or so muc" time2
#n t"e design and development o. t"e online
%ursing 6at" Autorial, t"ere 1ere a num/er o.
project management c"allenges2 A"ose 1"ic"
are descri/ed in t"is c"apter include: restruct&
uring team roles, "iring a multimedia student
intern, and applying t"eory and practice2 A"is
goal o. t"is c"apter is to e9plain t"e c"allenges,
t"e solutions soug"t, and t"e lessons learned in
developing and managing t"e online %ursing
6at" Autorial2
The -nline Nursing Math Tutorial
A"e online tutorial is composed o. .our modulesQ
*2 Basic 6at" 4evie1
22 6edication Administration and La/el
52 #ntravenous A"erapy and 6edication
+2 Pediatric 6edication Administration
and #<s
Eac" module is divided into sections and 1it"in
t"ose sections t"ere are 6acromedia -las" ani&
mations t"at demonstrate t"e application o.
mat"ematics to a speci.ic issue, practice pro/&
lems 1it" ans1ers, and e9planations2 $tudents
also "ave access to sel.&study pre& and post&
assessments .or eac" module2 A"e pre and post
assessments are located 1it"in t"e Blac8/oard
Course 6anagement $ystem and are designed to
test students on t"eir 8no1ledge and under&
standing o. t"e mat" concepts demonstrated in
eac" module2
A"e -las" animations .or 6odule *: Basic 6at"
4evie1, "ig"lig"t and demonstrate /asic mat"
principles t"at 1ill assist students t"roug"out
t"e remaining modules as 1ell as re.res" t"eir
understanding o. mat" concepts2 A"e -las"
animations Fe2g2, #nsulin Administration &
6odule 2, 4econstituting a Po1der to a Li:uid &
6odule 5, and Administration o. 6edications
.or Pediatric Bse & 6odule +, as s"o1n /elo1 in
-igure *G, reiterate and apply t"e mat" concepts
.rom 6odule * and demonstrate t"e application
and relation /et1een mat" and nursing
A"e pre and post assessments .or eac" module
are "oused 1it"in a Blac8/oard site and provide
automatic .eed/ac8 to students2 A"e assess&
ments reduce t"e in&class time re:uired to
distri/ute and administer t"e :ui>>es0tests and
are used to assess student understanding o. t"e
-igure *: Macro$edia )las" ani$ation e3a$ple
%ro$ Modle / EAd$inistration o% Medications
%or Pediatric 2seF
A"e online assessments are designed to increase
opportunities .or practice and learning /y
allo1ing students to re&ta8e t"e assessments as
o.ten as t"ey need or 1is"2 All assessment
mar8s are arc"ived and allo1 t"e instructors to
trac8 student progress as t"ey 1or8 t"roug" t"e
A"e practice pro/lems are located 1it"in eac"
section o. a module2 A"e intent o. t"ese pro/&
lems is to give students t"e opportunity to
practice t"eir s8ills 1it"in t"at particular
section2 Ans1ers are provided so students can
c"ec8 t"eir 1or82 #. t"ey "ave trou/le 1it" t"e
calculations, t"ey can eit"er 1or8 t"roug" t"e
tutorial again, or proceed to t"e Blac8/oard pre&
and post&assessments 1"ere speci.ic .eed/ac8
on t"e calculations is provided2
Developing a Project
-or all educational tec"nology projects devel&
oped in 6ount 4oyal CollegeIs Academic
;evelopment Centre FA;CG, t"e #nstructional
;esign F#;G Aeam .ollo1s a project management
plan /ased on si9 p"ases o. development2 A"e
#nstructional ;esign Aeam does not t"in8 o. t"is
core process model as somet"ing permanent and
sta/le, /ut rat"er, as somet"ing t"at is .luid,
transitional, and continuously evolving2 A"e
process evolves as ne1 tec"nologies emerge and
old ones .ade, as t"e s8ills, needs, and e9pecta&
tions o. students and instructors c"ange and
gro1, as 1e continue to e9periment 1it" ne1
met"ods and learn .rom our mista8es2
FAcademic ;evelopment Centre, 2002G
.igure /+ Phases of Development for Educational Technology Project Production
A"e core process model, as illustrated in -igure
2 and outlined in Aa/le * /elo1, consists o. si9
p"ases t"at are .undamental to developing any
type o. 1e/&/ased educational tec"nology
project at 6ount 4oyal College2
Eac" educational tec"nology project developed at
6ount 4oyal College is uni:ue in its design and
delivery2 A"e p"ases o. development remain
consistent t"roug"out all projectsQ "o1ever,
t"eir di..erences emerge 1it" regard to project
c"allenges and solutions2 A"e online %ursing
6at" Autorial "ad its o1n uni:ue project
management c"allenges2
"estructuring Team "oles
!it" every educational tec"nology project,
content presentation varies /ased on t"e
audience, student learning styles, and project
structure2 -or t"e online %ursing 6at" Autorial
t"e audience 1as identi.ied as primarily eig"teen
to t1enty&.ive&year&old .emale students2
A"e initial project structure 1as /ased on t"e
understanding o. t"e project o/jectives, 1"ic"
suggested t"at t"e structure s"ould /e a stand&
alone 1e/site accessi/le to students .rom any
computer 1it" #nternet access, and developed in
an easy to use, concise, and clear .ormat2
Alt"oug" all o. t"ese elements appeared to /e
consistent 1it" t"e traditional online course
.ormat, t"e actual development o. t"e tutorial
proved to /e some1"at outside o. t"ese
/oundaries2 A"e content .or t"e tutorial "ad to
/e 1ritten in a step&/y&step .ormat, rat"er t"an
in te9t/oo8 paragrap" style2 A"e intention o. t"e
tutorial 1as to provide practical in.ormation to
t"e learner, t"at /eing t"e /asic principles and
illustrations o. mat" se:uences and t"eir
relation to practical clinical settings2
As t"e content 1as su/mitted to t"e
#nstructional ;esign Aeam it /ecame evident
t"at t"e .ormat o. t"e $u/ject 6atter E9pertIs
content 1as not representative o. a tutorial style
o. 1riting as it 1as e9tensive in lengt" and too
detailed .or a 1e/&/ased course tutorial2
#nitially, t"e $u/ject 6atter E9pert included too
muc" detail a/out t"e se:uences o. t"e mat"
applications, 1"ic" 1as inconsistent 1it" t"e
stated project o/jectives: to /e concise and clear2
-or t"e content 1it"in t"e tutorial to /e
pedagogically e..ective, t"e #; Aeam determined
t"at t"e mat"ematical principles and nursing
application procedures s"ould /e .ormatted into
step&/y&step instructions and t"at -las"
animations could /e used as a descriptive,
narrative component to augment t"e
Bot" lac8 o. time and limited resources 1ere
critical .actors in t"e development o. t"e online
tutorial2 ;ue to t"e amount o. content 1it"in
eac" module, it 1as decided t"at t"e team
needed to recruit someone 1it" editorial
e9pertise to assist in re.ormatting t"e content to
ma8e it suita/le .or 1e/ delivery2 A"e solution
1as to utili>e t"e #; AeamIs #nstructional
Aec"nology Programmer .or t"e purposes o.
editorial 1or82 7er /ac8ground 1as in tec"nical
1riting, and given t"e limited programming
scope o. t"e tutorial, t"e team 1as a/le to use
"er e9pertise 1it"in t"e project2 As t"e editor,
s"e re&1rote and .ormatted t"e content into
step&/y&step instructions and assisted in
story/oarding t"e animations using t"e detailed
descriptions and narratives 1ritten /y t"e
$u/ject 6atter E9pert2 -rom a project manage&
ment perspective, t"e solution o. e9tending t"e
responsi/ilities o. team mem/ers 1as /ot"
.inancially advantageous and resource savvy2
Alt"oug" restructuring team roles can cause
duplication at times, it 1as a via/le and creative
resource solution to t"e c"allenge presented2
%ot only did it en"ance t"e role o. t"e #nstruct&
ional Aec"nology Programmer, /ut adding an
editor to t"e #; Aeam en"anced t"e :uality o.
su/se:uent course1are development projects2
As a result o. t"is particular c"allenge, t"e
#nstructional Aec"nology Programmer0 Editor
created a content style guide .or t"e #nstruct&
ional ;esign Aeam .or .uture projects2 Eac"
educational tec"nology project developed at
6ount 4oyal College is uni:ue in its design and
delivery2 A"e p"ases o. development remain
consistent t"roug"out all projectsQ "o1ever,
t"eir di..erences emerge 1it" regard to project
c"allenges and solutions2 A"e online %ursing
6at" Autorial "ad its o1n uni:ue project
management c"allenges2
0iring a Student Multimedia Intern
Bpon initial scoping o. t"e animations re:uired
.or t"e online %ursing 6at" Autorial, it 1as
evident t"at t"ere 1as t"e potential .or more
t"an si9ty animation se:uences 1it"in all .our
modules2 A"e #; Aeam 1or8s on a series o.
projects t"roug"out t"e academic calendar year,
and given t"e lac8 o. resources and time, and
previous commitments to ot"er projects,
developing over si9ty animations in a s"ort time
period 1as inconceiva/le2 7o1ever, /e.ore
cutting /ac8 on t"e animation se:uences, t"e
team too8 time to re.lect upon t"e project
#t 1as evident to t"e #; Aeam t"at in order to
create a tutorial t"at 1as .ully capa/le o.
illustrating and descri/ing t"e detailed
mat"ematical principles associated 1it" clinical
nursing tec"ni:ues and procedures, a large
num/er o. animations 1ould /e necessary2
;ue to t"e large volume o. educational
tec"nology projects in development t"roug"out
one year, t"e team needed to scope t"e online
%ursing 6at" Autorial in relation to t"e ot"er
projects in development2 #t 1as evident t"at t"e
#nstructional Aec"nology rap"ic Artist, 1"o
1as also responsi/le .or t"e inter.ace and
1e/site development o. t"e tutorial, 1ould /e
una/le to e..ectively complete t"e animations .or
t"e delivery o. t"e tutorial2
!"en t"ere is a pro/lem 1it" a lac8 o. resources
it is important t"at t"e project manager /ring all
team mem/ers toget"er to /rainstorm and
re.lect on project priorities2 Bpon re.lection, it
1as decided t"at t"e team 1ould see8 out a
student multimedia intern to complete t"e
animations2 -ortunately, Calgary is "ome to a
num/er o. tec"nical institutions, and t"ere.ore,
.inding a student intern 1as not di..icult2 A"is
1as an a..orda/le solution as t"e intern 1as
re:uired to complete an interns"ip .or course
credit and as a graduation re:uirement2 !"en
developing "ig"&:uality educational tec"nology
projects, "iring an intern can /e ris8y2 A"e
intern "ired .or t"e project 1as 1or8ing in
e9c"ange .or a course credit and possi/le career
connections, t"ere.ore it 1as necessary t"at t"e
intern /e accounta/le to complete t"e project
re:uirements2 #t is important 1"en "iring an
intern t"at t"e project manager treats t"e "iring
process as any ot"er "iring o. a team mem/er2 A
proper port.olio s"ould /e s"o1n and compet&
ence o. tec"nological s8ills e9"i/ited2 Ao ensure
t"e success.ul completion o. t"e online %ursing
6at" Autorial delivera/les, t"e project
manager0#nstructional ;esign Consultant
created a contract t"at outlined t"e internIs role
and responsi/ilities in relation to t"e project, as
1ell as a detailed project sc"edule t"at identi.ied
t"e animation se:uences needed2 Proper
sc"eduling and reporting structures "elped to
ensure a success.ul interns"ip .or t"e student,
and t"e development o. an e..ective educational
tec"nology project in t"e end2
*ppl#ing the Theor# to the Practical
A"e most di..icult tas8 .aced /y t"e #; Aeam 1as
determining "o1 to illustrate t"e clinical setting
e9periences2 #n a .ace&to&.ace e9perience,
students "ave t"e opportunity to go to t"e
e9perimental clinical setting at 6ount 4oyal
College and practice medication administration
using t"e e:uipment in t"e la/2 7o1ever, t"e
e9perimental la/ is not open a.ter "ours and
t"ere.ore, 1e "ad to duplicate t"e e9perimental
la/ setting .or an online environment2 A"e
project o/jective 1as to give students sel.&
assessment opportunities, regardless o. location2
Phase of
Main *ctivities "e1uired Documents
P"ase *: Aeam
#denti.y team mem/ers and resources2 #nitial
/rainstorming and revie1 o. t"e Project
Project Pro.ile
Learning E/ject Aypology
and $coping
P"ase 2: Plan
on Paper
-inali>e ideas, set goals, esta/lis" time&lines2
#denti.y roles and responsi/ilities .or eac"
team mem/er2 Eutline module structure2 -ill
in $tory/oard Aemplates2 6a8e Project
Project C"arter
$tory/oard Aemplate
P"ase 5: Build
a Prototype
Begin develop&ment o. t"e e9ternal 1e/&site,
multi&media, and Blac8/oard Course 6an&
agement site2 Edit and .ormat content2
Project C"arter
$tory/oard Aemplate
P"ase +:
at"er and
at"er .inal pieces o. in.ormation and0or
content2 Add .inal touc"es to t"e project2
Complete production o. t"e Project C"arter2
Create 6aintenance uide2
Project C"arter
6aintenance uide
P"ase ,:
;eliver and
7and o.. t"e project .rom t"e #nstructional
;esign Aeam to t"e $u/ject 6atter E9pert2
6aintenance uide
$ign E.. ;ocument
P"ase 6:
A"is is an ongoing process t"at occurs 1"ile
t"e project is implemented2 A"e project is
generally evaluated /y students 1it"in t"e
course or program, as 1ell as #nstructors2
$urveys and Assessments
Table 2+ Phases of Development Main Activities and Required Documents
!"ere t"e di..iculty arose 1as in t"e #; AeamIs
o1n lac8 o. 8no1ledge 1it" regard to t"e
practical application o. medication
administration in relation to mat" s8ills2 A"e
#nstructional Aec"nology rap"ic Artist and
6ultimedia #ntern "ad success.ully completed
t"e animation se:uences .or t"e modules related
to /asic mat" s8ills, /ut it 1as time to /ridge t"e
gap /et1een t"e mat" principles and t"e
application in a clinical setting2 !it"in p"ases 2
and 5 o. t"e development stages, as descri/ed in
-igure 2 and Aa/le *, t"e #nstructional ;esign
Consultant and $u/ject 6atter E9pert
story/oarded t"e animations desired .or t"e
course2 A.ter more t"an t"ree story/oard
attempts detailing #ntravenous A"erapy and
6edication Administration .or adults and
c"ildren, t"e process 1as still di..icult to
understand as a developer2 Aime and resources
1ere running lo1 and it 1as imperative t"at t"e
team .ind an alternative solution to descri/ing
and visually representing t"e se:uence o.
medication administration in t"e clinical setting2
A"e solution 1as a K%ursing *0*L course .or t"e
#nstructional ;esign Consultant and t"e $tudent
6ultimedia #ntern2
!it"out proper understanding o. t"e series o.
applications re:uired 1it"in eac" animation, t"e
animation 1ould not /e e..ective and could
possi/ly illustrate unsa.e and .alse medication
administration procedures2 Bot" t"e #nstruct&
ional ;esign Consultant and 6ultimedia #ntern
1ent to t"e e9perimental la/ setting and 1ere
guided t"roug" eac" se:uence o. medication
administration2 Along 1it" descriptions and
detailed instructions on t"e use o. eac" mac"ine
and administration tec"ni:ue, t"e team too8
digital p"otograp"s o. eac" stage2 Eac" p"oto&
grap" 1as t"en loaded into Ado/e P"otos"op
and re&traced .or use 1it"in t"e animation
se:uence developed using 6acromedia -las"2
Alt"oug" t"e process o. story/oarding t"e
remaining animations 1as not consistent 1it"
t"e previous story/oard templates, gaining a
stronger understanding o. nursing procedures
1as an important process .or t"e #nstructional
;esign Aeam2 -rom a project management
standpoint, alt"oug" t"e process o. learning ne1
s8ills too8 time a1ay .rom project development,
it en"anced t"e e..ectiveness and understanding
o. t"e e..ort t"e development team put into t"e
animation se:uences2 Aa8ing t"e time to under&
stand t"e su/ject o. an educational tec"nology
project can reduce restructuring time and allo1
.or t"e creation o. an e9tremely e..ective and
co"erent tool2
A"ere are c"allenges 1it"in every educational
tec"nology project t"at is created, developed,
and implemented in "ig"er education2 #t is t"e
creative solutions to t"ose c"allenges t"at .orm a
uni:ue and success.ul educational project2
4egardless o. t"e c"allenge, t"e primary goal
1it"in all projects is to place t"e learning
process and content at t"e .ore.ront o. t"e
development2 #n t"e creation o. t"e online
%ursing 6at" Autorial, t"e successes arose .rom
creative project management solutions, 1"ic"
conserved resources and maintained a "ig"er
:uality o. student learning as a result2
$essons $earned
Do 9estrict Tea$ 9oles
#denti.y t"e needs o. t"e project and assess t"e
re:uired tec"nical, editorial, and design s8ills
needed to complete t"e e&learning project2 Aa8e
an inventory o. team mem/ersI s8ills sets and
utili>e t"e diverse talents on a team rat"er t"an
in"i/it t"e production o. a project /ased on pre&
determined roles2
&nvesti!ate Alternative 9esorces
4at"er t"an pro"i/iting t"e creation o. an
e..ective multimedia tool /ased on a lac8 o.
resources, investigate alternative resource
options2 7ire a student intern as a 1or8 study2
A"is is a resource.ul solution to completing a
project on time and tas8 and in assisting a
student 1it" .uture career plans2
Learn t"e Basics be%ore bildin! t"e Co$ple3
#. t"e content o. t"e e&learning course is .oreign
to t"e developer and t"e project management
team, learn t"e /asics and .undamentals o. t"e
course content2 #t is important t"at content
drive any e&learning course and it is t"e
responsi/ility o. t"e developing team to "ave a
.undamental understanding o. "o1 t"e content
drives t"e multimedia2
Academic ;evelopment Centre2 20022 Project
Pro.ile2 Calgary: Academic ;evelopment Centre2
Al/erta Learning2 ;ecem/er (, 200+2 Al/erta
students s"o1 strong results in international
tests2 MonlineN2 Al/erta overnment, Mcited
Canuary *6, 200,N2 Availa/le .rom !e/:
F "ttp:00111 2educ a ti o n2g o v2a/2ca 0 ne1 s 0200+0;
ece m /er 0 nr&#ntl A ests2asp G
Enevold, =2 6ay 25, 200+2 7ospital ;eat" Aoll
Alarming2 MonlineN2 Calgary $un2 Mcited Canuary
*', 200,N2 Availa/le .rom !orld !ide !e/:
F "ttp:00111 2canoe2ca0%e1s$t a nd0Calgary$un0
%e1s0200+00,0250+(00 ( *2"tm lG
Paul 7arte Pro.essional Corporation2 200+2
6edical 6ista8es2MonlineN Mcited Canuary *',
200,N2 Availa/le .rom !orld !ide !e/:
F "ttp:00111 2"artela12co m 0medmi s ta8es2"tm G
A"e %ursing 6at" Autorial is currently availa/le
in C;&4E6 .ormat t"roug" t"e 6ount 4oyal
College Boo8store,
"ttp:00111 2mtroyal2ca 0 / oo8store0 2
C"apter +
)le3$asters: developing elearning
project management s8ills
Andrelyn Applebee
2niversity o% (ydney
(ydney, Astralia
Debora" Aeness,
2niversity o% Canberra
Canberra, Astralia
*bstract+ A"is c"apter addresses t"e )le3$asters elearning project and t"e lessons learnt /y t1o
project managers in t"eir eig"teen&mont" journey, underta8en in a campus&/ased, regional university
in Australia, to project manage .ive .ully online masters programs .rom conception to
implementation2 A"e e9tension o. t"eir e9isting project management s8ills and 8no1ledge into t"e
eLearning area resulted in t"e creation o. eLearning project management tools and strategies t"at
1or8ed across multiple project teams and resulted in t"e ac"ievement o. t"e overall project
o/jectives2 <arious eLearning A#P$ relevant to project management practitioners 1ill /e "ig"lig"ted
t"roug"out t"e c"apter2
,e# words+ eLearning project management, postgraduate programs, c"ange management, li.ecycle
model, eLearning tips, .aculty communication plans
A"e eLearning project commenced in 200*,
1"en t"e <ice C"ancellorIs Advisory Commit&
tee o. t"e Bniversity o. Can/erra, Australia
implemented online delivery .or a set o. .ull
.ee&paying priority masters programs in an
e..ort to e9tend t"e student /ase, to develop
ne1 income streams and respond to mar8et&
oriented pressures2 A"e overarc"ing
institutional goal 1as to ma8e t"e project 1or8
1it"in t"e e9isting pedagogical .rame1or8 and
to deliver t"e outcomes on time and on
/udget2 -ive teams comprising 20 .aculty 1ere
invited to move .rom teac"ing in a traditional
.ace&to&.ace environment to a .ully 1e/&/ased
team&delivered approac", co&operating 1it"
one central team o. designers and ot"er
support personnel2 A lead time o. *2 mont"s
1as allocated to prepare t"e project strategy,
plan and resources2
A"e learning materials 1ere conceived as
traditional distance education pac8ages: a
collection o. printed /oo8lets toget"er 1it" a
!e/site using t"e BniversityIs Learning
6anagement $ystem FL6$G, !e/CA2 A"e
printed materials 1ere usually t"ree /oo8lets:
t"e Stud# -utline Fa complete description o.
t"e curriculum documentG, t"e Stud# 3uide
Ft"e core content o. t"e learning pac8ageQ
various sel.&assessment F.ormativeG e9ercises,
and guidelines a/out "o1 to complete t"e
online component and t"e summative
assessmentG, and t"e 4ook of "eadings
Fjournal articles and /oo8 e9tracts reproduced
.or students under t"e BniversityIs statutory
CAL licenceG2 -aculty 1ere encouraged to use
t"e 5ebCT site .or interaction Fstudent&to&
student, student&to&lecturerG and
constructivist activities2 A"e !e/CA site 1as
con.igured to include lin8s to various
Bniversity services and .acilities Ft"e Li/rary,
Bniversity policies, administrative
in.ormationG, and P;- versions o. t"e printed
"oles of the project managers
A"e university .unded t"e esta/lis"ment o.
t1o ne1 central Bniversity structures, t"e
-le9i/le ;elivery ;evelopment Bnit F-;;BG
and t"e -le9i/le ;elivery $upport Bnit F-;$BG
1it"in t"e e9isting .aculty development Centre
.or t"e En"ancement o. Learning, Aeac"ing
and $c"olars"ip FCELA$G2 #n relation to t"is
investment t"ey appointed t1o 8ey sta..Q t"e
Central project manager FCP6G in t"e central
-le9i/le ;elivery ;evelopment unit and t"e
;ivisional project manager F;P6G in t"e
;ivision to oversee t"e project
The role of the Division project
A"e senior .aculty appointed 1it"in t"e
;ivision as ;ivisional Project 6anager FP;6G
"ad e9tensive pu/lis"ing, /udgeting and
project management e9perience2 A"e level o.
appointment 1as signi.icantly senior as it
allo1ed t"e ;P6 to communicate at an
appropriate decision&ma8ing level 1it"in t"e
Bniversity2 4eporting directly to t"e ;ivisional
Pro&<ice C"ancellor t"e ;P6 "ad a Rclean
slateI to 1or8 1it", su/stantial collegial
support, /ut no real po1er or aut"ority2 A
/udget o. X*00,000 1as allocated to t"e ;P6
.or advertising and promotion, development o.
materials and "iring o. support sta..2 Protocols
.or managing t"e course /udget, administering
t"e project, esta/lis"ing guidelines .or
;ivisional :uality control, setting mar8eting
goals, in addition to o..ering tec"nical advice,
strategic support, promotional and
promotional activities 1ere part o. t"e ;P6Is
responsi/ilities Fsee -igure *G2
.igure 2+ -le9masters Divisional Pro1ect DirectorGs role as conceived in Division o%
Co$$nication 8 Edcation
!it" suc" diverse roles and responsi/ilities
strategic planning 1as essential .or project
!$!*"NIN3 TIP
!nsure project managers are
appointed at suitabl# high level
within the organi6ational
"ole of the Central Project Manager
A"e production 0 pu/lis"ing team comprised t"e
Central Project 6anager FCP6G, one instruction&
al designer and t1o grap"ic designers, one print&
.ocused and one !e/&.ocused2 A"e sustaina/le
operational process 1as designed according to
8ey milestones, and remains very similar nearly
.our years a.ter t"e esta/lis"ment o. t"e project2
As 1ell as setting up central project manage&
ment antt c"arts out&lining tas8s, milestones
and timelines, t"e CP6 allocated responsi/ilities
1it"in t"e -;;B, and negotiated and "elped to
communicate responsi/ilities outside t"e unit2
A"e most di..icult aspects o. t"e project /ecame
increasingly o/vious as t"e CP6 and t"e ;P6
/ot" reali>ed t"at t"ey 1ere carrying
responsi/ility .or major c"ange management
1it"in t"e organi>ation2 A"ey 1ere re:uired to
esta/lis" ne1 teams and pu/lis"ing processes,
communicate ne1 responsi/ilities to .aculty, and
at t"e same time convince everyone t"at t"eir
1or8 1as adding value to t"e studentsI learning
e9perience2 Bot" managers regularly supported
sta.. /y ma8ing sure t"at everyone involved in
t"e project 1as reminded .re:uently a/out t"e
overall o/jectives and importance o. t"e project,
and "o1 t"eir contri/utions gave t"e project
impetus to1ard success.ul attainment o. t"e
agreed goals2
!$!*"NIN3 TIP
!ncourage all group members to
work towards common goal
$ifec#cle approach
A /rainstorming session /et1een t"e CP6 and
t"e ;P6 resulted in t"e adoption o. t"e li.ecycle
model, tas8s, timelines, delivera/les, resources
and 8ey milestones 1"ic" 1ere su/se:uently
entered into 6icroso.t Project .or circulation via
email and reporting to sta8e"olders2 A 8ey
output o. t"e initial planning 1as t"e
)le3$asters Project 6aster $c"edule t"at
.ollo1ed a si9&p"ase pattern o. development .or
eac" learning pac8age2
)i!re ,: T"e sta!es o% develop$ent %or eac" learnin! pac*a!e o% t"e eLearnin! pro1ect
H Aeness ,--/
A"is precedence&styled diagram illustrated t"e
critical pat" met"odology adopted2 A s"ort
detailed analysis o. t"e si9 p"ases .ollo1s2
#n P"ase .: Plannin!, a period o. up to
*, 1ee8s, starting *2 mont"s /e.ore
students started studying t"e su/ject2
A"e /road parameters o. t"e pac8ages
1ere identi.ied, and t"e structure o.
t"e printed materials, do1n to
"eadings .or eac" section, and t"e
types o. .ormative activities provided2
A"e -;;B team 1ould discuss
editorial 0 tec"nical issues, li8e t"e
pre.erred re.erencing style, and
deadlines 1ould /e agreed2
;uring P"ase ,: Writin!, 1"ic" too8
up to 2* 1ee8s, t"e 1riter 1as
encouraged to attend !e/CA training
1or8s"ops, and to maintain contact
1it" t"e instructional designer2 A"e
Bniversity "ad /een using t"e !e/CA
L6$ .or several years, /ut "ad 8ept no
record o. 1"ic" .aculty "ad attended
training 1or8s"ops2 A"ere.ore,
alt"oug" t"e pu/lis"ing team strongly
recommended t"at !e/CA training
1or8s"ops and seminars in teac"ing
online /e mandatory .or all .aculty
1riting and teac"ing t"e )le3$asters
su/jects, t"ese 1or8s"ops and
seminars remained optional2
!$!*"NIN3 TIP
Tr# to mandate essential pre&
re1uisite training courses
P"ase I: Prodction @ pblis"in! 1as
allocated eig"t 1ee8s in t"e sc"edule2
$ometimes materials passed t"roug"
t"is p"ase :uic8er t"an t"at, and
sometimes t"ey too8 slig"tly longer,
/ut eig"t 1ee8s remained t"e average2
Ence t"e 1riter "ad completed t"e
scripts .or t"e printed materials Fand
"ad, ideally, conceptuali>ed t"e online
.ormative assessment activitiesGQ t"e
scripts 1ere revie1ed /y t"e instruc&
tional designer2 A"e instructional
designer completed a detailed report
on all aspects o. t"e learning pac8age
and made suggestions .or c"anges and
improvements to /ot" t"e learning
materials, and to t"e design o. t"e
curriculum2 A"is served to develop t"e
:uality assurance aspects o. t"e
P"ase /: Trainin! 1as included to
give .aculty time to learn "o1 to use
!e/CA and ot"er tec"nologies2 A"is
p"ase 1as allocated .our 1ee8s
Foverlapping 1it" t"e production 0
pu/lis"ing p"aseG2
P"ase :: 9eprodction too8 up to
t"ree 1ee8s, depending on printerIs
sc"edules and P"ase ;: Dispatc" o.
"ard copiesQ population o. student
!e/CA data/ases, and moving
!e/CA sites to t"e KL#<EL area o.
server too8 a/out t1o 1ee8s2 A"e
1riters, t"e CP6 and t"e ;P6
c"ec8ed t"e page proo.s and signed&
o.. on t"em /e.ore print orders 1ere
placed2 A"ese materials 1ere t"en
converted to P;-s or 7A6L and
uploaded to t"e !e/CA sites t"at "ad
/een prepared2 A"e .aculty 1"o 1ere
later to teac", Fo.ten /ut not al1ays
t"e same people as t"e 1ritersG 1ere
t"en advised to create t"eir
Assignment ;rop /o9es F.or electronic
su/mission o. assignmentsG, t"eir
electronic mar8/oo8s, and complete
any ot"er tailoring o. t"e !e/CA site
re:uired2 Assistance 1as provided
during t"is process, and .aculty
signed&o.. on t"e !e/CA sites /e.ore
t"ey 1ere made live and students
given access2
Change Management
A"e sta.. located in t"e -le9i/le ;elivery
;evelopment Bnit F-;;BG "ad one o. t"e
most di..icult jo/s at t"e Bniversity: to assist
.aculty to develop materials in time .or a
pu/lis"ing process t"at 1as untested 1it"in
t"e institution2 #n o..ering more .le9i/le
learning options to students, t"e Bniversity
c"anged t"e nature o. teac"ing .rom an
essentially private and ep"emeral a..air to a
"ig"ly pu/lic matter2 A clas" resulted /et1een
t"e .aculty culture, t"e creative culture o. t"e
grap"ic designers and t"e pu/lis"ing culture
as all 1ere .orced to 1or8 to non&negotia/le
Ao manage t"is c"ange more sustaina/ly t"e
-;;B collected data t"at assisted, in.ormed
and updated /ot" t"e 1riters and .aculty2 A"e
1ee8ly circulation o. t"e antt c"art s"o1ed
t"e progress o. all learning materials2 A"e
antt c"art displaying color&coded Ron
time0/e"ind timeI su/missions Ft"ose 1riters
1"o "ad completed on time and t"ose 1it"
1or8 outstandingG and 1as, in itsel., a crucial
peer motivator2 A"e integration o. t"ese c"arts
as part o. t"e project su/system served t"e
purpose o. educating t"ose involved in t"e
venture o. project management met"ods and
protocols, and 1as instrumental in t"e c"ange
management and reporting process2
!$!*"NIN3 TIP
use peer pressure and the
natural competitive tendencies
of the team of writers to keep the
entire group on schedule
A"is tool 1as similarly utili>ed to in.orm 8ey
project c"ampions F;ivisional Pro&<ice&
C"ancellors etcG o. Ron timeR and Ron /udgetI
progress2 By ensuring t"at t"e project
c"ampions remained convinced o. t"e success
and value o. t"e project, t"e project success
1as more li8ely2
!$!*"NIN3 TIP
ensure upward feedback occurs
to stakeholders9project
5hat lessons have been learnt:
A"e implementation o. t"e project plan
re:uired a strong communication and
coordination emp"asis2 A"roug"out t"e
project t"e CP6 and t"e ;P6 met 1ee8ly to
coordinate, compare, c"ivvy, de&stress,
motivate, coerce and congratulate sta.. and
eac" ot"er2 A"ey ac8no1ledged and
recogni>ed t"e c"anges t"e team mem/ers
1ere e9periencing and did t"eir /est to
ameliorate tense situations as and 1"en t"ey
arose2 A"roug" constant communication,
1ee8ly conversations, .ormal and in.ormal
meetings /et1een t"e t1o 8ey managers,
strategies 1ere developed and implemented
t"at supported individual sta.. in uni:ue 1ays
Feit"er t"roug" additional researc" support,
editorial support or 1riting supportG2
An open, rela9ed style o. communication
e9"i/ited /y /ot" managers served to /rea8
do1n initial sta.. reservations to1ard t"e ne1
project2 F!it"out a sense o. "umor t"e project
outcomes may "ave /een in jeopardy2G A"e
;P6 1or8ed 1it" t"e 20 .aculty, unused to
eLearning in any .orm, and esta/lis"ed an
in.ormation s"aring process during regular
Aeam meetingsQ 1ee8ly email updatesQ
.unctions, suc" as t"e o..icial Launc" o. t"e
project, mid&semester updates and .inal
launc"Q electronic communication discussion
/oardsQ and individuali>ed one&on&one
support2 #t 1as t"ese conscious early decisions
to s"are in.ormation, to set up open
communication patterns Ft"roug" meetings,
telep"one con.erences, systematic emails and
internal listserves, accessi/le 1e/sites and
electronic .ile s"aringG t"at set t"e tone .or t"e
!$!*"NIN3 TIP
set up and publici6e
communication responsibilities 9
patterns earl# together with
opportunities for public rewards
to be acknowledged
Bot" project managers ac8no1ledged t"e use
o. t"e carrot and stic8 approac" 1it" .aculty 3
RcarrotsI included time&in&lieu or t"e lure o.
desira/le pu/lications etcQ 1"ilst Rstic8sI
included t"ings li8e t"e em/arrassment o.
seeing t"at you are t"e only one late 1it" your
script, or /eing called to Rplease e9plainI /y
your 7ead o. $c"ool .or missed deadlines22
!$!*"NIN3 TIP
)se carrots and sticks
appropriatel# to motivate staff
5ere deliverables met:
En t"e 1"ole, yes2 A"e processes and
procedures developed .or t"e elearning project
)le3$asters are no1 used more 1idely and
"ave impacted upon Bniversity&1ide policy
decisions2 A"e :uality assurance met"ods,
processes and standards t"at 1ere
implemented raised a1areness o. eLearning
activitiesQ protocols and project processes
strengt"ened t"e :uality o. t"e materials and
ultimately ensured t"e continuation o. t"e
project2 #n terms o. t"e development cycle over
),W o. t"e .aculty 0 1riters met t"eir due
dates 3 o. t"e remainder in t"e initial round o.
development, one set o. learning materials 1as
1it"dra1n until t"e .ollo1ing calendar year
and anot"er 1as developed in modules and
.or1arded to t"e students in t"ree parts2
!"at o. t"e remaining *,WH !it" t"e 1isdom
o. "indsig"t, "aving R/ac8upI sta.. in case o.
.amily illness 1ould "ave /een 1ise2 An issue
t"at still remains to /e solved is t"e
development o. an agreed strategy to deal 1it"
t"e situation t"at arises 1"en a su/jectIs
availa/ility "as advertised, students "ave
enrolled, and t"en t"e materials are not
1ritten in time2 #n a small Bniversity, t"is can
/e a major pro/lem2 #n many cases,
cancellation is not an alternative2 M4ecently
t"e Bniversity "as /een e9ploring alternatives
to t"e learning pac8age as it 1as originally
conceived Fdetailed print /oo8lets Y !e/CA
siteG2 -or instance, no1 options e9ist to "ave a
minimal $tudy uide, 1"ere t"e 1riter "as
1ritten a K1rapL 1"ic" guides students
t"roug" a se:uence o. previously pu/lis"ed
te9t/oo8s, te9t/oo8 e9tracts, journal articles,
and learning activities over t"e period o. t"e
semester2 A"is typically ta8es less time to 1rite
t"an t"e more detailed $tudy uides originally
!$!*"NIN3 TIP
embed alternate strategies for
5hat could have been done differentl#:
)le3$asters evolved in a Rdeadline&drivenI
manner, 1it" solid initial support .rom 8ey
upper&management personnel 0 project
c"ampions, /ut 1it"out articulated upper
management0sta8e"older ac8no1ledgement
o. t"e need .or suita/le sustaina/le systems to
/e in place2 ELearning project management
s8ills and 8no1ledge 1ere assumed to /e
present in t"e personnel appointed to carry
out t"e project, rat"er t"an /eing recogni>ed
and implemented /y t"e institution as a 1"ole2
!"ile )le3$asters certainly re:uired 0
re:uires project managers, it is de/ata/le
1"et"er or not it .alls into t"e traditional
understanding o. a KprojectL, 1it" a .i9ed end
point2 #t is pro/a/ly more li8e an e9periment
t"at is in t"e process o. morp"ing into t"e
mainstream activities o. t"e institution2 !it"
"indsig"t, per"aps t"e project may "ave /een
/etter to "ave /een conceived as one t"at
introduced c"ange2 A"at is, to "ave t1o p"ases
to t"e project: .irstly, t"e introduction o. non&
.ace&to&.ace teac"ing and t"e resultant
necessary up&s8illing o. personnel and
implementation o. ne1 operational units, and
secondly, t"e integration o. t"ese processes
and procedures into mainstream Bniversity
operational activities2 #t "elps to "ave t"e goals
o. t"e project clearly articulated early on, and
.or t"ese to /e re&visited .re:uently2 #t is
essential to ensure t"at everyone understands
1"y t"is 1or8 is important, and t"at it needs
to /e supported2
E. even greater importance is t"at 1it"
signi.icant personnel c"anges in t"e senior
management team o. t"e Bniversity and
related c"anges in organi>ational priorities,
came a loss o. some o. t"e projectIs
c"ampions2 Bot" project managers noted a
negative impact on t"e 1ay t"e project 1as
supported, a/out t1o years a.ter its initiation2
Alt"oug" project managers o.ten .aced a
daunting tas8 as middle managers, it 1as
important to ensure t"at t"ere is an ongoing
revie1 0 evaluation o. t"e status o. suc"
projects 1it"in t"e institutional .rame1or82 #.
t"at "ad /een managed /etter .or t"is project,
it may "ave /een reconceived earlier and
aspects mainstreamed muc" sooner2
So what tips can be shared from this
elearning e(perience:
A projectIs success or .ailure s"ould /e
attri/uted to t"e p"ilosop"y o. management
t"at is carried out during t"e project li.e cycle,
/y t"e strategic managers 1"o "ave
responsi/ility .or t"e continuous oversig"t o.
t"e project and /y t"e project managers 1"o
"ave responsi/ility .or t"e completion o. t"e
projectIs costs, sc"edules and o/jectives
FCleland and #reland, 2002, p2 5')G2 Bsing
project management alone 1ill not guarantee
project success2 #ndeed, Kmany pro.essionals
in t"e education and training communities
"ave gone /eyond t"e e9citement o. elearning
as somet"ing ne1 and no1 regard it as
somet"ing t"at needs to /e managed, along
1it" everyt"ing else in t"eir learning and
training port.oliosL FPasian and !oodill,
200,, pers.corG2
Cleland, ;2 and #reland L, 2002 Pro1ect
Mana!e$ent: (trate!ic Desi!n and
&$ple$entation, %e1 Uor8: 6cra1&7ill2
7er>og, <2 L2 KArust Building on Corporate
Colla/orative Project AeamsL, Pro1ect
Mana!e$ent 7ornal, 6arc" 200*, pp 2)&5,2
Pasian, B2, and 2 !oodill2 200,2 Personal
correspondence 1it" aut"ors: email 5*0*00,2
C"apter ,
Creating t"e #nstructor Aool/elt:
6anaging and Planning eLearning
-aculty ;evelopment at a Aec"nical
Community College
Adrey Willia$s
Pellissippi (tate Tec"nical Co$$nity Colle!e
4no3ville, Tennessee, 2(A
*bstract+ Pellissippi $tate Aec"nical Community College "as steadily increased t"e num/er o. online
courses and 1e/&en"anced courses o..ered to students2 #n addition to selecting a course management
system, t"e college "as also ac:uired several ot"er instructional tec"nology tools over t"e years to to .aculty2 A"ese com/ine to create a K.aculty tool/eltL .or online teac"ing and learning2 A"e
position o. #nstructional Aec"nology $pecialist 1as created to /e t"e project manager .or support
activities and training .or .aculty using t"ese tools2 A"is case study e9amines t"e gro1t" o. t"e
program and loo8s in&dept" at one aspect o. supporting t"e .aculty Ktool/eltL: t"e planning and
development o. a support 1e/ site2 As 1ell, it provides conclusions a/out t"is type o. project
management in a t1o&year college environment2
,e# words+ Community College, Course 6anagement $ystem, -aculty ;evelopment, #nstructional
EEvery contrivance o% $an, every tool, every
instr$ent, every tensil, every article
desi!ned %or se, o% eac" and every *ind,
evolved %ro$ very si$ple be!innin!s.F &
4o/ert Collier
Pellissippi $tate Aec"nical Community College
FP$ACCG is located in =no9ville, Aennessee and
serves almost )000 students across .our
campuses2 A"e sc"ool "as /een a tec"nology
innovator2 #n *''5, it 1as t"e .irst community
college in Aennessee to provide email accounts
.or .aculty and students and it launc"ed its
.irst online course in *''62 ro1t" o. online
and 1e/&en"anced courses "as /een strong as
seen in -igure *, Gro't" o% Online and Web#
En"anced (ections D.BBB#,--:J2
!it" more academic materials o..ered online,
t"e in.ormation needs o. t"e increasing
num/er o. students and .aculty using t"e
tec"nology can /e distilled into t"e .ollo1ing
awareness o. instructional tec"nology
tools availa/le and t"eir appropriate
familiarit# 1it" t"e availa/le support
options and ot"er procedures
user training on t"e tools
knowledge o. tec"nical re:uirements .or
t"e tools
Ene decision made to meet t"ese needs 1as to
develop a .aculty support project2 A"is case
study 1ill .ocus on t"e planning and process
.or providing a .aculty Ktool/eltL o.
instructional tec"nology t"at "as occurred
over a .ive year period as seen in -igure 2:
Creatin! t"e )aclty Toolbelt2 A major
emp"asis o. t"is c"apter 1ill /e on one tas8:
t"e development and creation o. a .aculty
support 1e/ site2
)i!re .: P(TCC, Edcational Tec"nolo!y (ervices ,--,K P(TCC, Edcational Tec"nolo!y
(ervices ,--:
Project Description
A"e sc"oolIs early online classes 1ere /asic
1e/ pages planned and supported on an ad
"oc /asis t"roug" a partners"ip 1it" .aculty
and e9isting educational tec"nology sta..2 A"e
initial timeline .or t"is process 1as rela9ed
and involved a team approac" 1it" t"e .aculty
serving as content e9perts and educational
tec"nology sta.. creating t"e sites2
A.ter several semesters, t"e rapid gro1t" o.
online courses made it o/vious t"at t"ey
needed to /e managed di..erently t"an t"e ad
"oc system2 A"e .aculty Ktool/eltL evolved
.rom t"at need2 -ollo1ing an e9tensive revie1
process, a course management system FC6$G,
!e/CA, 1as adopted in *''' and /ecame t"e
.irst tool to /e added to t"e .aculty tool/elt2
A"is e9panded t"e .aculty role .rom acting
mainly as content e9pert to t"e additional
e9pectation o. /ecoming course designer2
;emand .or ne1 courses also s"ortened t"e
timeline .or preparation and development2
A.ter t"e C6$ selection 1as made, t"e
management and planning process /ecame
comple9 enoug" to justi.y additional sta..2 A"e
ne1 position o. #nstructional Aec"nology
$pecialist 1as c"arged 1it" creating a central
point .or planning and managing user training
1"ile also 1or8ing 1it" tec"nical sta.. to
support t"e course management system2 A
dedicated computer la/, named t"e -aculty
6ultimedia $tudio, 1as added to t"e tool/elt
.or training and development activities and is
managed /y t"e #nstructional Aec"nology
En&ground instructors :uic8ly adopted !e/CA
to complement t"eir classroom 1or8, as t"e
.irst K1e/&en"ancedL courses appeared in
20002 A"is type o. online teac"ing /roug"t in a
group o. ine9perienced instructors 1"o 1anted
to leverage tec"nology :uic8ly .or a variety o.
reasons, including reducing t"e amount o.
class time used .or :ui>>es and s"aring grades
1it" students2 9esponds, Ell$inate and
&$patica %or Po'erPoint "ave all /een added
to address .aculty needs .or tools to assist t"em
in creating online
materials and assessments2
Growth of Online and Web-Enhanced Courses (1999-2005)
Web Course sections
Web-Enhanced Sections
Comparing Instructional Technolog# Tool Demand+
Currentl# in )se and Plan to )se
Impatica Elluminate Streaming Media Camtasia/Snagit Audio None
)i!re I: P(TCC, Edcational Tec"nolo!y (ervices ,--/
All o. t"ese tools are seeing .aculty acceptance
1it" an increase in use e9pected over t"e long
term2 #n an annual survey o. .aculty using
!e/CA, t"e use o. t"e Ktool/eltL 1as
addressed 1it" :uestions a/out t"e current
and anticipated use o. t"e tools2 -igure 5,
Co$parin! &nstrctional Tec"nolo!y Tool
De$and: Crrently in 2se and Plan to 2se,
illustrates t"is increase2
Project Scope and 3oals
6anaging t"is gro1t" re:uired planning not
only .or .aculty development /ut also .or
student orientation, rapid course
development, anticipation o. additional
training needs, tec"nical support, e9ploring
ot"er tools, suc" as podcasting, and creating
or revising college policies and procedures2 All
o. t"is /ecame a part o. t"e scope o. t"is
.aculty support project2
#n t"is project, t"e 1or8 is planned, developed
and deployed 1it" t"e #nstructional
Aec"nology $pecialist as t"e project manager
1or8ing alone on some aspects and 1it"
varying teams at ot"er times2 A"ese teams are
composed o. ot"er Educational Aec"nology
$ervices FEA$G sta.. as 1ell as employees .rom
%et1or8ing S Aec"nical $upport F%A$G,
Li/rary $ervices and t"e ;ean o. #nstructional
Programs, as 1ell as academic department
"eads and interested .aculty mem/ers2 A"e
particular con.iguration o. personnel depends
on 1"ic" aspect o. t"e project is /eing
e9amined or developed at t"e time2
A"e mission o. EA$ is to support t"e use o.
tec"nology in t"e teac"ing0learning process
and t"is is t"e overarc"ing goal o. t"e project
FP$ACC, Educational Aec"nology $ervices
200,G2 Because t"e success o. a computer
system is reliant on its users /eing a/le to
learn "o1 to use it :uic8ly and 1it"out
signi.icant trou/le FPreece et al2 *''+, *,6G, it
is reasona/le to e9trapolate t"at t"e same is
true .or an instructional tec"nology project2
A"is is t"e o/jective .or creating t"e .aculty
Ktool/eltL: planning and maintaining a set o.
tools and support t"at is easy .or .aculty to
access2 A"e project o/jectives are t"en /ased
on success o. .aculty using t"e tools, in /ot"
tec"nological and pedagogical terms2 -or
Educational Aec"nology $ervicesI part o. t"is
project, goals are measured /y gro1t" in t"e
distance learning program including
increasing t"e num/er o. 1e/ and 1e/&
en"anced courses as 1ell as t"e num/ers o.
students and .aculty involved2
A"e Ktool/eltL project involves several
coordinated activities t"at must /e planned as
eac" tec"nology is deployed2 As stated, t"e
central location .or oversig"t is 1it"in EA$,
1it" t"e #nstructional Aec"nology $pecialist as
project manager2 !it" t"e gro1ing amount o.
in.ormation online, in.ormation pro.essionals
are discovering a s"i.t to1ards creating
in.ormation products to simpli.y and assist
access Fuent"er 2000G2 ;ue to .aculty time
constraints, muc" o. t"e support needs to /e
sel.&service2 Creating t"ese 8inds o. products is
a large part o. t"e activities o. t"e project
manager in t"is case2
-ocusing on one tas8 1ill illustrate t"e
planning process used .or suc" an in.ormation
product2 A"e .aculty "elp 1e/ site supports
many o. t"e Ktool/eltL aspects at Pellissippi
$tate and "as its o1n milestones and
delivera/les2 A"is project component re:uires
t"e same type o. project management
approac" as t"e larger support project itsel.:
de.ining t"e target audience S
identi.ying in.ormation needs,
determining scope,
addressing tec"nological issues
developing project o/jectives S timeline
site arc"itecture S creation
site testing S project evaluation
Defining the stakeholders
#t is important .or any project to identi.y 1"o
"as an interest Fsta8e"olderG and 1"o 1ill use
t"e .inal product FcustomerG to determine t"e
user needs and get .eed/ac8 to ensure success
F4ic"man 2002G2 -or t"e overall project o.
supporting online teac"ing and learning, t"e
sta8e"olders include students, .aculty,
"elpdes8 sta.. and ot"ers2 -or t"is particular
tas8, t"e main customers 1ill /e .ull&time and
adjunct .aculty mem/ers at all campuses2 A"e
sta8e"olders include tec"nical support sta..
and early adopter .aculty 1"o act as Estealt"
resorcesF F$tarrett and 4odgers, 2005G2 $ince
t"e site 1ill not /e re:uired to use t"e
Ktool/elt,L t"e customer 1ill /e sel.&selected so
t"e site must capture and "old t"eir attention2
Defining the needs
$peci.ic project o/jectives are t"e result o.
anticipated, .elt and e9pressed in.ormation
needs as de.ined /y =emp, 6orrison and 4oss
F*''+G2 All o. t"ese needs are related to
improving t"e .acultyIs initial e9perience 1it"
!e/CA and t"e instructional tec"nology tools2
Anticipated needs: Anticipated needs
come .rom loo8ing to t"e .uture2 $ince one o.
t"e assumed causes o. .ailure 1it" using
tec"nology in teac"ing is .rustration 1it"
tec"nical issues and lac8 o. in.ormation, it is
anticipated t"at t"e need .or training and
support 1ill continue to gro1 as t"e num/er o.
.irst time online instructors increases eac"
semester2 Additionally, t"e vendor .re:uently
updates t"e course management system2 A"is
usually results in an inter.ace c"ange and can
cause con.usion .or .aculty, even t"ose .amiliar
1it" t"e tool2 Anticipating continued gro1t"
and so.t1are updates esta/lis"es t"e need .or
t"e project to /e :uic8ly responsive to c"ange
and 1idely availa/le .or t"e c"anging num/er
o. users2 Being .le9i/le is crucial, as Kplanning
.or c"ange is as important as planning MaN
c"ange2L F$tarrett and 4odgers, 2005G2
)elt needs: A .elt need, according to
=emp, et al is a KdesireVt"at an individual "as
to improveVper.ormanceVo. MaN target
audienceL F*''+, 25G A"e EA$ sta.. .eels t"e
need to assist .aculty and improve t"eir
success 1it" t"e distance learning since
students and .aculty loo8 to t"is department
.or ans1ers on instructional tec"nology
in.ormation needs2 A"is directly relates to t"e
overall project o/jective o. improving t"e
success.ul use o. tec"nology in teac"ing and
E3pressed needs: E9pressed needs are
.elt needs Kturned into actionL F=emp et al
*''+, 25G2 Providing .aculty a means o.
Kver/ali>ingL .elt needs "elps identi.y t"e
actions to meet t"em2 As part o. t"e planning
process, t"e annual .aculty survey re.erenced
earlier along 1it" users group meetings also
provided input2 By determining 1"at
pro.essors say t"ey 8no1 and do not 8no1 and
comparing it to 1"at tec"nical sta.. identi.y, a
compre"ensive approac" is possi/le 1"en
planning support options2
Defining the scope
As t"e Ktool/eltL project developed, it /ecame
only one part o. a muc" larger online e..ort .or
providing support .or online education at
Pellissippi $tate, including students, .aculty
and tec"nical support sta..2 A"is larger e..ort
1ill provide customi>ed support options /ased
on role and involve t"e use o. previously
developed, /ut underutili>ed, materials2 A"e
1e/ site project /eing descri/ed 1as targeted
to t"e .aculty just starting 1it" online teac"ing
at t"e sc"ool, as 1ell as t"ose 1"o are loo8ing
to e9pand t"eir Ktool/eltL 1it" t"e Klatest and
greatestL or to re.res" t"eir s8ills2
*ddressing technological issues
!"en t"e project 1as .irst initiated, t"e
tec"nological decision 1as to develop a C;&
4E6 .or .aculty mem/ers2 A"e initial plan .or
t"e C;&4E6 included providing so.t1are
installers to "elp .aculty at "ome 1it" slo1er
#nternet connections or less tec"nical savvy on
locating and do1nloading t"e appropriate
.iles2 7o1ever, during preliminary planning
meetings 1it" t"e administration team o. t"e
%et1or8ing S Aec"nical $ervices department,
it 1as determined t"at resources 1ere not in
place .or producing t"e C;&4E6 on a /ul8
scale or .or supporting .aculty "aving tec"nical
:uestions at "ome2 #n addition, 1it" t"e rate
o. updates to so.t1are, it 1as unrealistic to
e9pect t"e C;&4E6 could /e 8ept current in a
cost&e..icient manner F-oust 2002G2 ;ue to
t"ese limitations, t"e project plan evolved into
a 1e/ /ased resource containing t"e tutorials
and ot"er in.ormation as 1ell as lin8s to t"e
installers .or programs provided in t"e
Ktool/elt2L C"oosing t"e 1e/ .or delivery
allo1ed .or easier maintenance, .e1er support
concerns .or t"e 7elp;es8 and less /udget
impact .or t"e sc"ool2
Defining -bjectives and Timeline
-rom t"e .elt, e9pressed and anticipated
needs, and t"e de.ined scope and identi.ied
topics, t"e .ollo1ing goals and o/jectives .or
t"e 1e/ site project 1ere developed2 A"e
project 1ill:
*2 provide a central location .or all !e/CA
related .aculty support materials and
22 .ocus on /ot" novice and e9perienced online
teac"ers and t"eir e9pressed needs2
52 provide in.ormation on ot"er tec"nical
issues a/out teac"ing online as necessary
+2 use .ormative evaluation to determine
.uture gro1t" and improvements as user
needs c"ange2
A"e timeline .or producing t"e site 1as
esta/lis"ed to /e over a t"ree mont" period in
t"e summer 1"en t"e course load and .aculty
training demands are muc" less .or t"e
department2 A"e .irst t1o mont"s 1ere .or site
design and creation and t"e last mont" .or
testing and adjustments2
Site *rchitecture and Design
#n t"is p"ase, in.ormation design comes into
play as topics are prioriti>ed and organi>ed2
A"e in.ormation needs outlined a/ove .it into
.our main modules, identi.ied as:
3etting Started: including system
speci.ications, a -re:uently As8ed
Puestions F-APG document and a means
to test t"e userIs /ro1ser .or compati/ility
)sing 5ebCT: containing multimedia
tutorials and "andouts
0elpful Downloads: lin8s to do1nload
sites .or 1e/ /ro1sers and ot"er so.t1are
used in 1e/ courses
5ebCT Information: a central location
.or !e/CA Bsers roup F!BG minutes
and ot"er .aculty resources
A"e site 1as designed .or linear navigation, as
1ell as .or serendipitous /ro1sing2 4elational
lin8s 1ere esta/lis"ed /et1een t"e sections so
a user could leave one easily and start anot"er2
#n addition, a site map allo1s visitors to
:uic8ly scan t"e topics and .ind t"e page most
relevant to "is or "er need2
$ince t"e .aculty mem/ers "ad to /e a/le to
move t"roug" t"e space 1it"out additional
guidance, it 1as important t"at t"e
arc"itecture re.lect an apparent navigation
and t"e a/ility to s8ip around 1it"out
/ecoming lost or con.used F6o8 *''6, **+G2
A"e .our main user :uestions to ans1er are:
K!"ere am #H !"ere can # goH 7o1 1ill # get
t"ereH 7o1 can # get /ac8 to 1"ere # once
1asHL Planning t"e arc"itecture to provide
easy ans1ers .or t"ese :uestions reduced t"e
time to get .amiliar 1it" t"e site and allo1ed
.or easier access to in.ormation F-leming
*''), ,&*5G2 A"e .inal step in t"e arc"itecture
p"ase 1as to create a site plan and a c"ec8list
o. t"e assets needed .or eac" section2
A"e design stage o. t"e project allo1ed .or t"e
most creativity, as t"e in.ormation needs are
matc"ed 1it" a loo8 and .eel t"at is
aest"etically pleasing and easy to use2 A"e
design .ollo1ed t"e guidelines created /y t"e
Coordinator o. !e/ Aut"oring $ervices at t"e
sc"ool F$mit" 2000G2 Cascading $tyle $"eets
FC$$G 1ere used to provide a .le9i/le means
.or 1"olesale c"anges to t"e site2 Et"er
planning decisions 1ere made considering
standard usa/ility guidelines .or navigation
and 1ay&.inding 1it"in 1e/ sites FPreece et al2
*''+, )'G2 )i!re /, E3a$ple o% )aclty =elp
(ite Pa!e Desi!n, s"o1s a screens"ot to
illustrate t"e design approac"2
)i!re /: E3a$ple o% )aclty =elp (ite Pa!e
A"e tec"nical issues .or t"is project
encompassed 1"ere to "ost t"e site and
decisions a/out t"e multimedia delivery
system and 1ere in.luenced /y t"e previous
stages o. t"e project2
#t 1as decided t"at t"e site s"ould reside on
t"e same server running !e/CA and t"e
online student support site2 A"e location
provides a user&.riendly B4L
Fwebctpstccedu! and esta/lis"es an easy
Kone stop s"opL .or .aculty, sta.. and student
support .or all online teac"ing0learning2
#n a previous project Ft"e student support
siteG, .our di..erent media delivery systems
1ere e9plored 1it" t"e .ollo1ing .actors in
mind: /udget impact, cross&/ro1ser and
cross&plat.orm compati/ility, production time
and di..iculty, compliance 1it" t"e Americans
1it" ;isa/ilities Act FA;AG, user inter.ace and
t"e media delivery system2 At t"e time, a Cava
/ased solution 1as selected2 !it" t"is project,
t"e decision 1as made to c"ange all tutorials
to 6acromedia -las", t"ere/y providing a
common plat.orm .or support and
%ovice computer users to "ave Kc"eat
s"eetsL as t"ey learn ne1 so.t1are to reduce
t"e pressure o. 8no1ing 1"ere to clic8 1"ile
concentrating on t"e su/ject matter
Folds/oroug" *'''G2 Ao "elp alleviate t"is
pro/lem, t"e project 1as planned to contain
printa/le "andouts to create a customi>a/le
tool/elt re.erence manual2 #t 1as decided t"at
Ado/eIs Porta/le ;ocument -ormat FP;-G
1ould /e t"e /est c"oice .or distri/ution .or
t"ese "andouts in order to 8eep image .idelity
and layout .le9i/ility2
Project Testing ; !valuation
As stated /y Preece et al2 F*''+, 60*G,
KM1Nit"out doing some .orm o. evaluation, it is
impossi/le to 8no1 Mi.N t"e designV.ul.ils t"e
needs o. t"e users2L A consideration .or t"is
project is "o1 it 1ill evolve and respond to t"e
c"anging in.ormation needs o. its users2 A"is
re:uired a plan .or t"e s"ort&term assessment
o. t"e project as 1ell a long&range plan o.
evaluation o. /ot" site .unctionality and t"e
projectIs success o. reac"ing t"e departmental
Be.ore t"e site 1ent Klive,L it 1as tested on t"e
6acintos" and !indo1s plat.orms using all o.
t"e supported /ro1sers recommended /y
!e/CA2 Beta testers 1ere volunteer .aculty
teac"ing during $ummer 20022 Based on t"eir
e9periences, adjustments 1ere made /e.ore
o..ering it to all .aculty mem/ers in t"e -all
2002 semester2
Assessing design 1"ile it is in t"e real 1orld is
one purpose .or evaluation o. systems FPreece
et al2 *''+, 60+2G -ormative evaluation 1as
used to capture data on usage, use.ulness and
usa/ility as to continually improve t"e site2
$erver logs provided /asic usage and error
in.ormation2 By discovering any di..iculties
users "ave, t"e site can /e altered as
necessary2 As part o. t"e continuing
departmental evaluation o. its services, t"e
annual .aculty survey 1ill /e c"anged
periodically to study t"e e..ectiveness o. t"e
tutorials2 -eed/ac8 1ill also /e solicited
regarding topics o. interest to instructors to
identi.y ne1 tutorials and re.ine current ones
to ma8e t"e site more use.ul2 -rom t"e 2005
survey, issues o. most interest to .aculty
included creating more online tutorials and
providing support .or adding multimedia to
t"eir classes2 #n 200+, almost "al. o. t"e
respondents speci.ically mentioned one or
more o. t"e more recent Ktool/eltL additions as
needs2 A"e site "as /een e9panded to meet
t"ose re:uests2
Loo8ing at t"e increase o. /ot" online and
1e/&en"anced courses along 1it" t"e num/er
o. students involved illustrates success to1ard
departmental goals .or distance education2
A"e site is one tas8 1it"in t"e larger project o.
.aculty and student support .or instructional
tec"nology and, as a large componentQ it "as
/een deemed a success /y /ot" t"e EA$ sta..
and t"e .aculty 1"o provide .ormal and
in.ormal .eed/ac82
A"e project descri/ed a/ove "as provided
several lessons a/out t"e planning and
deployment o. various tools in t"e .aculty
Ene lesson involves t"e culture o. "ig"er
education and o. community colleges in
particular2 Because more t"an "al. o.
community college .aculty 1or8 part&time, it is
important to include .ull&time and adjunct
.aculty in planning and deployment o. any
tec"nology project FParsons *'')G2 Anot"er
consideration is t"e .act t"at .aculty are /usyZ
Aypical course loads .or .ull&time community
college .aculty include .ive or more Fo.ten
di..erentG classes2 Any support planning must
ta8e t"ese cultural realities into consideration2
!"en t"e project .irst started, plans included
re:uiring training o. .aculty /e.ore t"ey could
use t"e course management system or ot"er
tools2 ;ue to .aculty time constraints, it
/ecame apparent t"at training could not /e
re:uired2 #nstead, sel.&service options too8 t"e
.ore.ront 1it" .ormal training o..ered .or t"ose
1anting more structure2 A"is model does
present a c"allenge o. time management .or
t"e single sta.. mem/er c"arged 1it" planning
t"e project as 1ell as 1or8ing 1it" t"e very
di..erent sc"edules o. .ull&time and adjunct
.aculty 1"o 1is" to participate2
#n addition, a template o. t"e online course
structure 1as created in "opes to streamline
production and provide a common loo8 .or all
online courses2 A"e culture o. "ig"er education
is strongly rooted in academic .reedom,
"o1ever, and a very :uic8 lesson 1as learned
t"at most instructors do not 1ant to "ave
teac"ing decisions "anded to t"em2 #nstead,
multiple course templates 1ere created t"at .it
a variety o. desired uses2 A"ese templates "elp
streamline development /ut provide t"e
.le9i/ility re:uired /y .aculty2
Because o. time pressures, anot"er lesson
learned "as /een to provide multiple avenues
o. in.ormation s"aring2 Bsers group meetings
1ere initially 1ell attended and provided a
great means o. communication2 As attendance
1aned and .aculty at distant campuses started
using t"e tools, ot"er mec"anisms "ad to /e
employed2 %o1, communication 1it" t"e
users is done via email and t"e .aculty 1e/ site
descri/ed a/ove, along 1it" more traditional
met"ods2 A"e project "as also started using
some o. its o1n distance learning tec"nology to
provide training2 A"e continued c"allenge .or
t"e project is 8eeping current .aculty engaged
and 1illing to learn more
a/out t"e tools, 1"ile /ringing ne1 users into
t"e environment smoot"ly and 1it" minimal
Anot"er cultural aspect uni:ue and /ene.icial
to Pellissippi $tate is t"e .act t"at t"e
institutional organi>ation places Educational
Aec"nology $ervices in t"e #n.ormation
$ervices division along 1it" %et1or8ing S
Aec"nical $upport, Li/rary $ervices and
Application Programming $upport2 A"is type
o. organi>ation "as proven to /e a positive .or
planning .aculty support projects /ecause lines
o. communication are clear 1it" all o. t"e
sta8e"olders2 Larger colleges and universities
.re:uently "ave di..erent organi>ational
structures 1"ic" can separate educational
tec"nology .rom t"e more in.rastructure
oriented divisions, suc" as net1or8ing or even
t"e more academically oriented, suc" as
li/rary services2 A"is can cause more di..iculty
in communication or planning 1it" colleagues
and could increase response time to support
issues as 1ell as t"e timeline .or deploying
ne1 tec"nologies2
A"e model used .or managing t"e support .or
online .aculty at Pellissippi $tate is one t"at
maintains a very central .ocus .or Educational
Aec"nology $ervices 1it" essential support
.rom %et1or8ing S Aec"nical $upport and
ot"ers2 Ene sta.. position, t"e #nstructional
Aec"nology $pecialist, acts as t"e project
manager as 1ell as t"e production sta..2 A"is
role re:uires a mi9 o. tec"nical, instructional
and interpersonal s8ills2 #t is muc" li8e Eric
$c"r[edinger?s *'++ W"at &s Li%eL statement
t"at t"e c"romosome contains Karc"itect?s
plan and /uilder?s cra.t in one,L as one "as to
"ave a /irdIs eye vie1 o. t"e entire plan as 1ell
as manage t"e more detail oriented aspects o.
t"e project2 ;espite t"e some1"at daunting
description, it is a model t"at 1or8s2
Any person 1"o ta8es a position similar to t"e
#nstructional Aec"nology $pecialist as
descri/ed in t"is case study 1ill most li8ely
"ave a mi9 o. tec"nical and pedagogical s8ills2
Project management, as a .ormal course o.
study, is not necessarily a part o. t"e training
re:uired o. suc" positions2 #t is, t"oug", an
important s8ill to nurture, as muc" o. t"e
1or8 in t"is .ield is project&driven2 ;eveloping
t"ese a/ilities is a matter o. dra1ing on t"e
s8ills already in place suc" as 1riting goals
and o/jectives or organi>ing media assets .or a
multimedia project2 #n.ormation arc"itecture
or 1e/ development s8ills can also /e recruit&
ed to "elp 1it" project management as t"ey
encourage planning, evaluation and creating
realistic sc"edules and /udgets2 Learning to
as8 t"e rig"t :uestions, 8eep good records o.
events and evaluate as you go along all "elp
provide .or strong project management and, in
return, strong .inal project results F7o//s
All in all, "o1ever, t"e proo. o. success 1ill /e
in t"e data collected as part o. t"e institutional
e..ectiveness plan2 #n t"e past, emp"asis "ad
/een placed on getting courses online :uic8ly2
%o1, 1it" t"e initial rus" o. development
slo1ing, time can /e ta8en to /e more
re.lective on t"e process as 1ell as t"e product
o. online education2 ;eveloping projects li8e
t"is is just one 1ay to steadily improve t"e
s8ills o. our .aculty in online learning and,
t"ere.ore, improve t"e entire student
e9perience at Pellissippi $tate2
Crumpley, %ancy2 200+22 eneral Education
oals2 7A6L2 #nternet
\"ttp:0011 1 2pstcc2 e du0 de partments0c u rri
ed&outcomes2"tml^Last accessed on 2+
Canuary 200,2
-leming, Cenni.er2 *'')2 Web +avi!ation:
Desi!nin! t"e 2ser E3perience2
Cam/ridge: EI4eilly2
-oust, 4andy2 20022 #ntervie1 1it" aut"or2
+ 6arc" 20022
uent"er, =im2 20002 -rom in.ormation
.inders to product designers2 Co$pters in
Libraries 20 no2 5 F6arc"GQ 6*&652
olds/oroug", 4eid2 *'''2 7o1 to teac" t"e
computer novice2 Tec"niMes (+ no2 (
FEcto/erG: *22
=emp, Cerrold E2, ary 42 6orrison and $teven
62 4oss2 *''+2 Desi!nin! E%%ective
&nstrction2 %e1 Uor8: 6errill2
6o8, Clement2 *''62 Desi!nin! Bsiness:
Mltiple Media, Mltiple Disciplines2 $an
Cose, CA: Ado/e Press2
6cAllister, Eileen2 20052 Pellissippi $tate
Aec"nical 6ission $tatement2 7A6L2
#nternet2 \
"ttp:00111 2pstcc2edu0departments0institu
tional]researc"06ission2p"p^ Last
accessed on 2* Canuary 200+2
Parsons, 62 72 F*''), AprilG2 =o' t"e ot"er
,@I live: &nstittional initiatives %or part#
ti$e %aclty assi$ilation in A$erica>s ,#
year colle!es2 7agersto1n, 6;:
7agersto1n Cunior College2 Paper
presented at t"e Annual Convention o. t"e
American Association o. Community
Colleges, 6iami, -L2 FE; +*( ('5G
P$ACC, Educational Aec"nology $ervices2
200,2 Educational Aec"nology $ervices
7ome Page2 7A6L2 #nternet2
Last accessed on 2, Canuary 200,2
P$ACC, Educational Aec"nology $ervices2
20022 Edcational Tec"nolo!y (ervices
(AC( 9eport ,--,2 =no9ville,
A%:Pellissippi $tate Aec"nical Community
P$ACC, Educational Aec"nology $ervices2
200,2 #nternal Course Count Audit2
=no9ville, A%:Pellissippi $tate Aec"nical
Community College2
Preece, Cenny, Uvonne 4ogers, 7elen $"arp,
;avid Benyon, $imon 7olland, and Aom
Carey2 *''+2 =$an#Co$pter
&nteraction2 7arlo1, B=: Addison&!esley2
4ic"man, Larry2 20022 Pro1ect Mana!e$ent
(tep#By#(tep2 %e1 Uor8: American
6anagement Association2
$mit", ;avid2 20002 Pellissippi $tate Aec"nical
Community College #nternet ;evelopment
$tyle uide2 Porta/le ;ocument -ormat2
\"ttp:0011 1 2pstcc2edu01e/master01e/ma
ster0styleguide2pd.^ Last accessed on '
April 200+2
!illiams, Audrey2 200+2 Pellissippi $tate:
Bsing !e/CA2 7A6L2 #nternet2
\"ttp:001e/ct2pstcc2edu0. a culty " elp0using
0inde92"tml^ Last Accessed 5* Canuary
C"apter 6
#nsig"ts .rom 6anaging a 6ulti&
.aceted College eLearning Project
4evin Pitts
4at"y (iedlac5e*
(eneca Colle!e
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
*bstract+ Elearning project management is a relatively ne1 discipline2 #n "ig"er education, many
educators "ave learned t"e s8ills re:uired .or managing an elearning project Kon t"e jo/L 1it" little, i.
any, .ormal /ac8ground in t"e area2 A"is case study descri/es an elearning project involving t"e
development o. an online version o. t"e -oundations o. College 6at"ematics course F6A7*+'G at
$eneca College, in Aoronto, Canada2 A"e goal 1as to develop an online mat" course t"at 1as /ot"
ric" in media and ric" in instructional design to create an active online learning e9perience .or
students2 A"e course 1as success.ully developed, 1it" muc" learning .or t"e development team in t"e
process2 A"is case discusses project management issues related to online course development,
including scope, resources, and milestones, and t"e insig"ts gained t"roug" t"e process2 Part o. t"e
success o. t"e project involved learning .rom t"e development process and applying t"ese Klessons
learnedL to .uture elearning projects and practices at t"e college2
,e# words+ Budget, delivera/les, elearning, institutional culture, instructional design, learning
o/jects, milestones, multimedia, online course development, project management, project team,
resources, scope
A"e mid to late *''0s 1ere interesting times
.or educational institutions 1it" respect to
computer tec"nology2 A num/er o. .actors
1ere at play: *G educational tec"nology 1as
coming into prominence, 2G institutions 1ere
/usy /uilding tec"nical capacity Fnet1or8
in.rastructure, /road/and access, electronic
classrooms, learning la/s, learning commons,
researc" initiatives, support systems, admin&
istrative and academic systemsG, 5G t"e term
KelearningL 1as .inding its 1ay into institu&
tional strategic plans, +G t"e supply and
/readt" o. tec"nologies availa/le to institu&
tions, .uelled /y t"e Kdot comL revolution, 1as
increasing steadily2 A"ere 1as a sense t"at
tec"nology 1as t"e catalyst .or c"ange and
t"at it 1ould spa1n a ne1 teac"ing and
learning paradigm2 Academe 1ould never /e
t"e same2
A"e e9tent to 1"ic" t"e promise o. computer
tec"nology "as come true Fto dateG is up .or
de/ate2 %onet"eless, c"ange spa1ned /y
tec"nology "as "ad a noticea/le impact on
educational institutions2 #nnovations suc" as
online services, course management systems,
portals, content repositories, learning o/jects,
distri/uted learning systems and t"e li8e "ave
all /ecome For are /ecomingG commonplace2
6anaging t"ese innovations "as .orced
educational 1or8ers to develop a ne1 set o.
s8ills2 #t s"ould come as no surprise, t"en, t"at
1e are no1 .ormali>ing a relatively ne1
specialty: elearning project management2
An online version o. t"e -oundations o.
College 6at"ematics course F6A7*+'G at
$eneca College FAoronto, CanadaG 1as
developed in t"e late *''0s2 A"is project "as
provided t"ose involved 1it" valua/le insig"ts
into elearning project management2 6uc" o.
1"at "appened during t"e process "as .iltered
t"roug" into current elearning practice at t"e
college2 A"is c"apter descri/es t"e process
and insig"ts gat"ered .rom t"e management o.
t"is project2
Project -bjectives% Scope ; Process A"e
development o. t"e online version o. 6A7*+'
1as one o. t"e earliest elearning projects at
$eneca College, and it "as "ad an important
impact on "o1 su/se:uent elearning projects
"ave /een approac"ed, managed, and
designed at $eneca2 A"e project goal 1as to
develop a pedagogically sound, media&ric"
online mat" course t"at 1ould /e interactive,
inviting, sel.&paced, .le9i/le, and e..ective2
A"e 6A7*+' course 1as identi.ied /y $enecaIs
-aculty o. Continuing Education and Araining
F-CEAG as a priority .or online development,
as part o. its strategic planning process2 A"e
planning process /egan 1it" an initial
description o. t"e project, .ollo1ed /y t"e
identi.ication o. a su/ject matter e9pert F$6EG
to develop t"e content2 #n t"e case o.
6A7*+', t1o $6Es Feac" "aving e9pressed an
interest in developing an online courseG 1ere
identi.ied and decided to s"are t"e course
development load2
At t"e time o. t"is project, t"e college "ad a
centrally .unded centre, t"e Centre .or %e1
Aec"nologies in Aeac"ing S Learning
FC%AALG, 1"ose role it 1as to 1or8 1it" $6Es
in developing online content2 A"e C%AAL 1as
composed o. instructional designers,
multimedia designers, tec"nical e9perts, and
production people2 A"e project 1as assigned
to one o. t"e instructional designers in t"e
Centre F1"o also acted as t"e project
managerG2 As part o. t"e process, a contract
outlining t"e terms and e9pectations .or t"e
1or8 1as dra1n up2 7aving a contract or
detailed letter o. agreement /et1een t"e
sponsoring department and t"e development
team is strongly recommended to ensure
everyone involved is clear on e9pectations and
responsi/ilities regarding outcomes,
time.rame, and costs FBates, 2000, p2 (5Q
Loc8itt, 2000, p2 *5G2 A"e agreement also
provides t"e project manager 1it" somet"ing
to .all /ac8 on i. aspects o. t"e project /egin to
A"e project /egan 1it" an initial meeting, lead
/y t"e #nstructional ;esigner 0 Project
6anager2 ;iscussion included:
A"e overall project goal
A"e overall time.rame F+ mont"sG and
1"at needed to /e accomplis"ed /y 1"en
A"e learning outcomes, and t"e grading
sc"eme Ft"e learning outcomes 1ould
remain t"e same as t"e in&class version,
/ut t"e grading sc"eme 1ould re.lect t"e
di..erent types o. activities used in t"e
course, 1it" less emp"asis on testingG
6eeting sc"edule Fessentially 1ee8lyG
!"at resources Fe2g2, te9t/oo8sG 1ould
accompany t"e course
Aeam responsi/ilities Fto ensure eac"
personIs role 1as clearG2
7o1 eac" section o. t"e course s"ould /e
E9amples o. media to e9plore Ft"is
involved loo8ing at ot"er 1e/sites and
ot"er courses developed at $eneca, and
discussing 1"at 1as possi/le in terms o.
current multimedia developmentG
!"ile many :uestions remained unans1ered,
t"e .irst meeting set t"e tone .or colla/oration
and provided initial direction2
Instructional Design
Ene o. t"e priorities 1as deciding on a
.rame1or8 .or eac" o. t"e topics in 6A7*+'2
!e started 1it" t"e esta/lis"ed curriculum,
and t"en t"oug"t a/out "o1 to recon.igure it
.or t"e online environment2 !e 1anted to
ensure t"at t"e online environment 1as used
e..ectively and t"at it en"anced t"e learning
process2 =ey elements o. t"e design included:
C"un8ing o. content: t"e curriculum 1as
/ro8en up into modules Fre.erred to as
topicsG2 Eac" moduleIs design 1as
consistent and contained outcomes, an
introduction, a pre and post assessment,
content, discussion and summary sections2
Async"ronous and sync"ronous commun&
ication: eac" module contained an activity
re:uiring participants to apply t"e ne1
mat" concepts to a Kreal li.eL situation and
post t"eir solutions to t"e discussion
/oard2 Autorial assistance 1as availa/le
t"roug" a sync"ronous c"at tool 1it" te9t
c"at and a 1"ite/oard2
#nteractive content: multimedia 1as used
e9tensively t"roug"out t"e content
modules2 A K$"o1 6eL, KLet me Ary #tL
model 1as used2 Participants 1ere s"o1n
animations o. 8ey concepts and t"en as8ed
to Ktry outL t"e concepts t"roug"
interactive tas8s2
$upport: as many o. t"e participants 1ere
adults 1"o "ad eit"er /een a1ay .rom
.ormal mat"ematics training .or some
time or 1"o "ad "ad limited success 1it"
mat"ematics in t"e past For /ot"G, t"e
need to provide clear instruction and
support in an invitational 1ay 1as critical2
A"e e9perience gained in developing t"e
instructional design model descri/ed a/ove
F.rom /ot" a development and delivery
perspectiveG "as in.luenced "o1 current
projects are done at $eneca College2 A"e
K$"o1 6eL, KLet 6e Ary #tL model is used
o.ten in t"e design o. elearning course1are at
$eneca2 A"e e9perience o. t"e amount o. time
needed to develop t"e multimedia&ric" con&
tent o. 6A7*+' "as led to t"e design o. a
t"ree&level scale to determine appropriate
resource allocation .or elearning projects2
Level * projects include strong instructional
design, /ut relatively .e1 media elements, up
to level 5 projects 1it" numerous media ele&
ments2 6A7*+' 1as a level 5 design2 A"e
t"ree&level scale is used e9tensively at $eneca
to determine time.rames and "ence costs
associated 1it" elearning project develop&
#nstructional designers o.ten ta8e on t"e role
o. project manager, 6ay/erry F200+G2 A"is
can /e a / /ecause instructional design
decisions "eavily in.luence elearning project
planning2 An instructional designer 1"o
understands project management Fand vice&
versaG is a valua/le resource .or any elearning
project team2
Ene o. t"e 8ey aspects o. a success.ul project is
its team2 A"e project manager plays a crucial
role in pulling t"e team toget"er, ensuring t"at
eac" o. t"e team mem/ers is in an appropriate
role to contri/ute "is or "er e9pertise to t"e
project, and ensuring t"at t"e team mem/ers
"ave t"e resources t"ey need to complete t"e
project FBates, 2000, p2 6)G2 A"e initial team
consisted o. t1o $6Es, an instructional
designer F1"o 1as also t"e project manager
and $6E .or parts o. t"e courseG, a grap"ic
designer, and student production sta..2
A"e success o. t"e team 1as due in large part
to t"e project managerIs decisions regarding
1"o 1ould /e involved and in 1"at role !"ile
Loc8itt F2000, p2 *2G recommends t"at t"e
.irst tas8 o. any project manager is to assem/le
an e..ective team F/ased on "is 8no1ledge o.
peopleIs s8ills, a/ilities, and proven trac8
recordG, t"is is not al1ays possi/le2 !e 1ere
.ortunate to "ave team mem/ers 1"o 1ere
8een on e9ploring ne1 ideas and committed to
developing a pedagogically and tec"nically
sound online course2
#n order to ma8e t"e most e..ective use o. our
time, 1e divided t"e content 1riting among
t"e $6Es2 Eac" $6E too8 on several o. t"e
modules and developed t"e activities and
ot"er materials .or t"ose modules2 #n t"is
1ay, eac" o. t"e modules essentially /ecame a
su/project, 1it" t"e project manager
managing t"e development o. t"e materials .or
t"at module2 A"is "elped 8eep trac8 o. 1"ic"
pieces "ad /een 1ritten, story/oarded,
developed, and revie1ed2
A"e production 1or8 1as primarily done /y
programming or digital arts students "ired /y
t"e C%AAL2 A"is arrangement /ene.ited /ot"
t"e students Ft"ey 1ere a/le to practice t"eir
e9isting s8ills, learn ne1 ones, s"are ideas
1it" t"eir colleagues, and learn valua/le team
s8illsG and t"e Centre Ft"e 1e/&/ased produc&
tion 1as done /y t"e students, 1"o /roug"t
many ne1 ideas 1it" t"emG2 A"e c"allenge in
depending on student production 1or8 is t"at,
/eing an educational institution, 1e "ave to
promote e9cellence in studies .irst2 A"is
meant t"at t"ere 1ere times 1"en students
"ad to cancel t"eir s"i.t so t"ey could do
assignments or study .or e9ams2 #t also meant
t"at eventually t"ey graduated and so 1e "ad
to continually "ire and train ne1 student
production 1or8ers2
A"e mem/ers o. t"is project team 1ore several
"ats at di..erent times and t"e team mem/ers
c"anged over time2 A"is .luid team
mem/ers"ip "as its /ene.its as 1ell as its
c"allenges2 As /ene.its, it allo1s team
mem/ers to e9plore ot"er roles, and 1"en ne1
team mem/ers join, t"ey o.ten /ring .res"
ideas 1it" t"em2 As c"allenges, t"e continuity
o. t"e project is t"reatened 1"en team
mem/ers leave and ne1 ones "ave to /e
/roug"t up to date and /ecome .amiliar 1it"
t"e project2 -urt"er, inevita/le style c"anges
creep into t"e design o. t"e 1e/&/ased
materials as team mem/ers c"ange2 A"is "as
implications in terms o. time needed to c"ec8
and revise media elements to ensure a
co"esive loo8 and .eel2
A"is project 1as .unded primarily t"roug"
central .unding at t"e college2 A"e C%AAL 1as
provided an annual /udget .or salaries .or its
.ull&time mem/ers and money to "ire part&
time production support2 A"e /udget also
allo1ed .or some "ard1are and so.t1are
upgrades, to 8eep up 1it" t"e ne1est advances
in tec"nology2 A"e sponsoring department
.unded $6E time FX,000G2
#t is di..icult to come up 1it" a total /udget .or
t"e project /ecause o. t"e e9perimental nature
o. t"e course development2 Aime 1as spent
trying ne1 1ays o. creating digital content,
some o. 1"ic" 1e used, some o. 1"ic" 1e
didnIt2 A modest estimate o. t"e /udget 1ould
/e appro9imately X,0,0002
A"e college "ad made a solid commitment to
e9ploring t"e possi/ilities o. 1e/&/ased
materials, and so t"e C%AAL "ad t"e tec"no&
logical resources to do t"at e9ploration2 A"ese
resources included t"e "ard1are Fnet1or8s,
computer stations, digital cameras, scanners,
etc2G and so.t1are F-las" .or animations,
P"otos"op and ot"er so.t1are .or grap"ics,
1e/&page editors, etc2G2
As 1e 1ere e9ploring tec"nology .or t"is
project, 1e 1anted to ma8e sure t"at t"e
tec"nology 1ouldnIt get in t"e 1ay o. learning2
Everyt"ing t"at 1e used in terms o. tec"nol&
ogy 1as readily availa/le to t"e students 1"o
1ere li8ely to ta8e t"e course Fcurrent 1e/
standards, 1e/ .riendly so.t1are, etc2G2
Milestones ; Deliverables
Eur initial completion sc"edule 1as .our
mont"s Fone semesterG2 !e divided t"e course
content into *2 modules, and t"en set up a
sc"edule to complete t"e development2 A"e
.irst module 1ould /e t"e prototype, and
1ould ta8e t"e longest to complete2 Ence t"e
issues in t"at module "ad /een decided, 1e
anticipated t"at t"e remaining modules 1ould
K.all into placeL2 A"e goal 1as t"at t"e
inter.ace0navigation and t"e .irst module
1ould /e completely designed and developed
in t"e .irst mont", t"e .ollo1ing 6 modules
1ould /e 1ritten and su/mitted .or develop&
ment 1it"in t"e second mont", and t"e
remaining modules 1ould /e 1ritten and
su/mitted .or development 1it"in t"e .ourt"
mont", 1it" .ull development o. t"e 1e/&
/ased materials completed s"ortly a.ter t"at2
!e clearly underestimated 1"at 1ould /e
involved in t"e process2 A"e scope o. t"e
project 1as large in terms o. t"e num/er o.
modules t"at 1e 1ere re:uired to develop and
t"e amount o. media t"at 1e c"ose to
incorporate2 Eur time.rame gre1 to multiple
semesters, 1it" t"e .ull online course /eing
completed over si9 semesters rat"er t"an one
Fessentially t1o years on a part&time /asisG2
Eur learning .rom projects li8e t"is "as made
completion dates muc" more predicta/le2
6ost o. t"e progress reporting "appened
in.ormally /et1een t"e project manager and
t"e sponsoring department2 At certain points,
t"e representative o. t"e sponsoring
department 1ould attend a meeting 1it" t"e
$6Es and t"e instructional designer0project
manager2 A"is "elped t"em learn a/out and
understand t"e comple9ity o. some o. t"e
issues involved, and 1"y t"e development
process 1as ta8ing longer t"an initially
anticipated2 A"is process "elped in terms o.
ma8ing t"e e9pectations o. sponsoring
departments more realistic as 1ell2 A"e
e9perience gained .rom t"is project "as led to
a more .ormali>ed approac" to project
4e#ond the Project
!"ile our responsi/ility 1as to develop an
online course, 1e 1anted to ma8e sure t"at
students 1ould "ave all t"e supports t"ey
needed during t"e delivery o. t"e course to
succeed in it2 $ince 1e 1ere at an early stage
o. elearning at t"e college, policies and
procedures 1ere still /eing 1or8ed out to
ma8e sure t"at potential students 1ould .ind
out a/out t"e availa/ility o. t"e online version
o. t"e course, t"at t"ey 1ould /e success.ully
registered, and t"at t"e course 1ould actually
run2 As part o. t"e project, 1e liaised 1it"
ot"er departments to ma8e sure everyt"ing
1as in place .or t"e students2
Ence t"e course /egan, one o. t"e $6Es
taug"t t"e pilot version o. t"e course2 A"e
pilot 1as o..ered 1it" very .e1 students, so
t"at eac" student could get as muc" individual
attention as needed2 #t "elped "aving
someone intimately involved in t"e
development o. t"e materials teac"ing it t"e
.irst time to ma8e sure t"at t"ings 1ould 1or8
correctly, and to learn .irst&"and "o1 students
1ere e9periencing t"e course in t"e ne1
!e came to /elieve t"at an online course is
al1ays a 1or8 in progress2 Every time 1e too8
a loo8 at t"e course, 1e 1ould .ind areas t"at
1ould / .rom anot"er media element to
e9plain a concept /etter2 Ence t"e college
implemented a course management system,
t"e course 1as recon.igured to run in t"at
environment and ma8e it consistent 1it" ot"er
online courses o..ered /y t"e college2 ;uring
t"e cyclical revie1 process .or online courses,
t"e course 1as revie1ed, materials 1ere
updated, and ne1 topics 1ere added2 !e also
too8 a loo8 at "o1 t"e course could /e
improved to /etter meet current accessi/ility
and usa/ility standards2
As t"ere "as /een increasing interest F/ot"
internal and e9ternal to t"e collegeG in t"e
individual Klearning o/jectsL 1it"in t"e course,
1eIve "ad to loo8 at issues regarding intellect&
ual property, copyrig"t, distri/ution, and
licensing2 #ndividual pieces o. t"e course "ave
/een incorporated into ot"er courses at t"e
college to "elp students revie1 speci.ic topics2
A"e college is also e9ploring s"aring t"e
o/jects .rom t"is mat" course 1it" ot"er
learning institutions and ma8ing t"em
availa/le t"roug" learning o/ject repositories2
A"e e9perience gained .rom t"e development
o. t"e online version o. 6A7*+' "as provided
valua/le insig"ts into elearning project
management, particularly as it applies to
institutions o. "ig"er learning2 Ever time t"e
project team "as "ad an opportunity to re.lect
on t"e process2 A"e .ollo1ing represents some
o. t"e learning .rom t"at re.lection2
A"e 1ay an elearning project is conceived,
managed and implemented "as a lot to do 1it"
t"e project teamIs and sponsoring depart&
mentIs p"ilosop"y2 A"e 6A7*+' project 1as a
mi9 o. a true project management approac"
and 1"at Bates F2000, p2 ,'G calls a KLone
4angerL approac"2 Alt"oug" t"e project 1as
initiated t"roug" a .ormal needs analysis and
managed in t"e traditional sense, t"e innova&
tions 1it"in t"e project 1ere a result o. t"e
creative ideas put .ort" /y a .e1 autonomous
individuals Flone rangersG2 #n retrospect, t"e
6A7*+' project used t"e /est o. 1"at /ot"
approac"es "ad to o..er2 A"is mi9ture o. styles
"as /ecome a popular option, particularly .or
ne1, innovative projects2 7o1ever, it "as also
/ecome evident t"at K.ormulaL or KtemplateL
/ased projects Ft"ose t"at copy previous
innovative, success.ul projectsG are /est
"andled t"roug" t"e project managed
Bnderstanding and operating 1it"in
institutional culture is o. prime importance2
Eac" institution "as its o1n culture2
#nstitutions o. "ig"er learning tend to espouse
collegiality, individual autonomy, and
.le9i/ility2 A"e implications .rom a project
management perspective are many2 Arue
project costing can /e di..icult to determine as
many o. t"e resources used /y a given project
are not /udgeted directly Fe2g2, instructional
design time, space allocationG, /ut assumed to
/e availa/le2 Project success is de.ined
di..erently2 A success.ul project is o.ten
considered one t"at "as moved t"e institution
.or1ard Fe2g2, provided 8no1ledge, processes,
s8ills t"at "ave eventually /een integrated into
normal institutional practiceG2 !"et"er t"e
project came in on time and on /udget can /e
a secondary consideration2 Loc8itt F2000, p2
*)G points out t"at Kt"e success o. any
Meducation and trainingN project is usually
measured not in or production, as it
1ould in /usiness and industry, /ut /y
integration o. t"e outcomes into normal
curriculum delivery and t"e .ollo1&up projects
it stimulates2L
Elearning courses are never done2 Alt"oug"
t"is seems antit"etical to good project
management practice, it is a reality2 A"e
ongoing nature o. elearning courses is not a
.unction o. Kscope creepL, /ut a necessary part
o. t"e process2 Eac" course needs to undergo
periodic updates to content2 Emerging
standards Fe2g2, usa/ility, accessi/ilityG re:uire
online materials to /e updated to t"ese ne1
standards2 Emerging tec"nologies re:uire t"e
updating Fand in some cases redevelopmentG
o. media elements2 An elearning project
managerIs role is to reali>e t"e course li.ecycle
F1"ic" includes updatingG and develop a plan
o. rene1al in 1"ic" eac" stage o. t"e process
/ecomes a su/&project2 A"is 1ay some .orm o.
project closure at eac" stage can /e ac"ieved2
Elearning project managers need a solid
grounding in instructional design and
educational tec"nology2 #nstructional design
decisions Fe2g2, learning t"eory to emulateQ
assessment strategy to adoptG and educational
tec"nology decisions Fe2g2, development tools
to useQ delivery plat.orm0media to useG "ave a
pro.ound impact on t"e comple9ity o. a
project Fe2g2, time to completeQ resources to
allocateG2 Elearning projects can easily get out
o. control unless t"e project manager
understands t"e interconnectedness o.
pedagogy and tec"nology2 #nstitutions o.
"ig"er learning emp"asi>e F.or good reasonG
academic needs2 A"e elearning project
manager must determine 1"at tec"nologies
1ill .ul.ill t"ese needs most e..ectively2 A"is
does not necessarily mean t"at elearning
project managers must /e e9perts in instruct&
tional design and educational tec"nology, /ut
t"at t"ey "ave enoug" 8no1ledge to critically
evaluate t"e advice t"ey receive .rom t"eir
project teams2
Elearning project managers need to pay
attention to a set o. concrete practical issues2
Planning, sc"eduling, communicating,
/udgeting, and arc"iving are all necessary
elements o. good project management2 Eac" is
critical .or project continuity2 $uc" t"ings as
8no1ledge /ases and project procedures need
to /e documented so ot"ers 1"o come in and
out o. a given project remain true to t"e initial
plan2 -urt"er, innovation and creativity al1ays
/ring 1it" t"em some level o. uncertainty2 As
suc", elearning project managers must /e
1illing to ta8e ris8s, and t"en manage t"ose
ris8s2 -or e9ample, t"e time needed to develop
t"e 6A7*+' course online 1ell e9ceeded
initial e9pectations2 A"e team could "ave
scaled /ac8 on t"e media, /ut /ot" t"e $6Es
and t"e instructional designer Fall "aving mat"
/ac8groundsG 1ere passionate a/out
developing a really KgoodL online mat" course,
and adding e..ective media elements 1as
important to t"at vision2 6uc" more time 1as
spent on e9ploring t"e possi/ilities Ft"e
tec"nology continued to evolve over t"e li.e o.
t"e projectG, muc" more time 1as spent on t"e
resulting content 1riting to re.lect 1"at 1as
c"osen as a standard media&ric" template .or
t"e module, and muc" more time 1as spent on
developing t"e media elements t"an 1as
initially anticipated2 A"e project manager
determined t"at t"e overall time investment
1as 1ort" t"e ris8 and 1ould pay dividends in
t"e long run2
Bnintended o..s"oots o. a given project are
al1ays a possi/ility2 A"e initial o/jective .or
t"e 6A7*+' project 1as to create an e..ective
online course2 A"is 1as ac"ieved2 7o1ever,
.urt"er developments and trends in elearning
caused t"e 6A7*+' project to c"ange in 1ays
t"at 1ere not initially envisioned2 -or
e9ample, learning o/jects and o/ject
repositories came into prominence during t"e
time 6A7 *+' 1as /eing developed2 As suc",
t"e content 1as repac8aged into learning
o/jects and made availa/le t"roug" a learning
o/ject repository .or use /y ot"er areas
internal and e9ternal to t"e college2 A"is, in
turn, led to an investigation o. licensing and
copyrig"t arrangements, 1"ic", in turn, led to
t"e application o. t"e collegeIs intellectual
property policy2 Elearning project managers
s"ould /e a1are o. current trends and
developments t"at may e..ect .uture iterations
o. a project or may a c"ance to repurpose
project outcomes2
-inally, communication is essential2 Ensuring
t"at all sta8e"olders in a given elearning
project are regularly in.ormed o. progress,
milestones, issues, etc2 is critical2 A"ere s"ould
/e no surprises2 Even i. a project runs into
di..iculty, sta8e"olders need to /e a1are o. t"e
issues2 A"e project manager needs to provide
solutions, communicate conse:uences and
/uild acceptance2
Elearning project management, as a discipline,
is coming into its o1nQ it is a ne1 s8ill2 6uc"
"as /een learned since t"e pioneering days o.
t"e mid to late *''0s 1it" respect to 1e/&
/ased elearning Fand muc" is le.t to learnG2
6ore and more institutions re:uire t"e s8ills
o. an elearning project manager to /ring t"eir
educational tec"nology strategic visions to
ood elearning project managers are leaders
and visionaries2 Bates F2000, p2(,G suggests
t"at KV t"e /est use o. tec"nology occurs 1"en
t"e academic not only "as a deep
understanding o. t"e su/ject /ut also "as t"e
imagination and a vision o. "o1 t"e su/ject
could /e taug"t di..erently 1it" ne1
tec"nologies2L #t is t"e elearning project
managerIs role to "elp academics /ring t"is
vision to reality2
Bates, A2 !2 F2000G2 Mana!in! Tec"nolo!ical
C"an!e. $an -rancisco: Cossey&Bass2
Loc8itt, B2 F2000G2 Practical Pro1ect
Mana!e$ent %or Edcation and Trainin!.
E4#C ;ocument E;++,2,2 at
"ttp:001112eric2ed2g o v0c o ntentdeliver y 0servl
6ay/erry, E2 F200+G2 )ail to Plan 0 Plan to
)ail. 4etrieved 6ay 5, 200, .rom
C"apter (
An Enline -ood $ecurity Certi.icate
at t"e local and international levels
9ic"ard Malins*i
9od Mc9ae
9yerson 2niversity
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
*bstract+ A"is /rie. report descri/es 8ey .eatures o. t"e development o. t"e Certi.icate on -ood
$ecurity at 4yerson Bniversity2 #ncluded "ere is discussion o. t"e main p"ases o. t"is ongoing
development, i2e2 .easi/ility, design, development, and evaluation2 !it"in eac" t"ere are insig"ts on
process and comments a/out t"e results2 E. note are t"e lin8s /et1een su/ject matter e9perts and
initial course .ormulation, /et1een audience and course design elements, /et1een t"e multi&level
team approac" and course completion, and /et1een certi.icate development and mar8eting2 !"ile
t"e .inal results on success.ul completion are not yet in, t"ere are encouraging signs suc" as t"e
gro1ing registration, t"e solid consensus 1it"in t"e team, and t"e continued support .or t"e
Certi.icate 1it"in 4yerson Bniversity2
,e# words+ -ood $ecurity, -easi/ility, ;esign, ;evelopment, Evaluation, Aeams, 6ar8eting
-our units o. 4yerson Bniversity colla/orated
to create a si9&course, post&graduate
Certi.icate in -ood $ecurity & t"e $c"ool o.
%utrition, t"e 2 4aymond C"ang $c"ool o.
Continuing Education, t"e Centre .or $tudies
in -ood $ecurity, and t"e o. #nterna&
tional A..airs2 A"is initiative, and continued
development, is part o. 4yersonIs distance
education programming, an area 4yerson .irst
/egan to develop in t"e early *'(0s 1it"
audio0print courses2 !"ile some #nternet
courses emerged in t"e mid *''0s, t"e
launc"ing o. t"e ;istance Education Bnit in
*''' esta/lis"ed #nternet delivery as t"e
dominant mode .or 4yerson distance courses2
Creating t"e Certi.icate "as /een a relatively
smoot" process /ecause t"ere "as /een
tremendous support 1it"in 4yerson .or its
creation2 A"ere "ave /een some c"allenges
/ecause o. t"e comple9ity o. creating a ne1
certi.icate program, designing a .ull suite o.
ne1 courses t"at didnIt previously e9ist, and
constructing t"e administrative in.rastructure
to properly support and mar8et t"e certi.icate2
Prior to t"e decision to create a certi.icate
program, .e1 o. its no1 central courses e9isted
in ot"er delivery modes2 A"e Certi.icate,
launc"ed in $eptem/er o. 2005, currently "as
all t"e core courses up and running and all /ut
t"ree o. t"e ne1 electives in place, 1it" t"ese
last t"ree to /e completed /y late 200,2
A"e .ollo1ing case study loo8s at t"e
development o. t"is Certi.icate in -ood
$ecurity, .rom a project management point&o.&
vie12 A"e purpose is not to detail 1"at 1as
done /ut to .ocus on 8ey aspects o. t"e project
in order to provide insig"ts into t"is e&learning
project and dra1 some conclusions2 As 1it"
all projects t"ere are .our discerna/le p"ases
1"ic" are o.ten called initiation, planning,
implementation, and closure2 -or t"is project
t"e .our compartments are titled .easi/ility,
design, development, and evaluation2
A"e .ollo1ing illustrate t"e signi.icant
c"allenges or concerns .acing t"e development
and completion o. t"e Certi.icate2 A"ese
issues 1ere:
#denti.ying and initiating project elements
t"at give t"e greatest c"ance o.
success.ully producing c"ange agents .or
.ood security
#denti.ying t"e most e..icient audience Fin
c"ange agent termsG and .iguring out
1"at .ormat and content 1or8s /est .or
t"em & does anyone need and 1ant t"isH
Creating courses 1it" dept" o. content
and /readt" o. activity appropriate to t"e
su/ject and suited to t"e adult audience
Creating a sc"edule o. course development
t"at respects our "uman resources and
cas" .lo1 realities
Creating lin8ages /et1een courses to
reduce duplication and promote .lo1
Clearly identi.ying and developing a
project 1it" a diverse multidisciplinary
E..iciently using t"e team concept
Fdevelopers, instructional liaison,
%avigating an institutional environment in
1"ic" t"is 1or8 F.ood securityG is still
emerging and perip"eral to t"e main 1or8
o. t"e university
6ar8eting on a limited /udget and 1it"
minimal "uman resources and
-iguring out i. 1e?re "aving an impact2
A"e development o. t"e Certi.icate 1as led /y
a group o. content e9perts 1"o "ad /een
1or8ing toget"er .or several years 1it"in t"e
4yerson Centre .or $tudies in -ood $ecurity2
A"e mem/ers o. t"e group "ad /een 1or8ing
in .ood security, domestically and
internationally, .or *0&2, years eac", coming at
it .rom sociology, economics, nutrition,
agricultural policy, and community
development angles2 #t 1as t"is team t"at "ad
t"e jo/ o. enunciating t"e .ounding principles,
assessing t"e pro/a/le audience and laying out
a pat" to success2
A"e team, 1is"ing to move :uic8ly to create a
programme, relied e9tensively on t"eir
e9perience in t"e .ield to assess need, using a
mi9 o. .ormal and in.ormal assessment
measures2 A"e Centre /elieved t"e pro/lems
o. .ood insecurity 1ere so vast and t"e
resources devoted to t"em so meagre relative
to t"e need, t"at a major in.usion o. resources
and capacity /uilding is re:uired to /uild
solutions2 Because t"e solutions to .ood
security involve so many sectors and people
1it" so many di..erent /ac8grounds, t"ere is a
signi.icant need to increase .ood security
KliteracyL across many .ields, institutions and
1or8places2 A"is "ypot"esis 1as not actively
tested /ut 1as rooted in t"e CentreIs
e9perience 1or8ing at t"e "eart o. .ood
security teac"ing, researc" and activism in
Canada and on mem/ersI e9tensive 8no1ledge
o. t"e .ood security literature2
A"e c"oice o. a continuing education approac"
1it" its .ocus on adult, part&time learners 1as
pre.erred2 -ocusing on t"is mar8et o. adult
learners 1or8ing in related .ields 1as an
e9tension o. our /elie. t"at .ood security 1or8
is so multi disciplinary t"at t"e most rapid
capacity /uilding 1ould come .rom
augmenting 8no1ledge among people already
1or8ing on related measures2 A"e collective
e9perience .rom teac"ing .ood security courses
and 1or8ing 1it" community agencies led to a
conclusion t"at many 1"o come to .ood
security start t"eir careers .irst in some1"at
related areas .rom 1"ic" t"ey develop t"eir
interest in .ood security 1or82 #t is less
common to meet people .irst entering
university 1it" t"is as t"eir .ocus, in part
/ecause it is not typically a component o. "ig"
sc"ool or university curricula2 As 1ell, 1e
/elieved t"e courses 1ould appeal to mid&
career pro.essionals 1"o see .ood security
education as part o. t"eir pro.essional
#nternet courses 1ere .avoured /ecause t"ey
.it nicely into /usy 1or8 sc"edules and .ood
insecurity is a glo/al p"enomenon 1it"
potential students coming .rom across t"e
glo/e2 %o .ormal surveys o. potential students
1ere conducted, "o1ever2 Eur e9perience
since starting t"e courses con.irms our
intuition, in t"at t"e adult learners 1e 1anted
to target do very 1ell in t"e courses and .ind
t"em very use.ul2 Uounger students, "o1ever,
especially t"ose engaged in .ull time studies at
t"e Bac"elorIs level, struggle 1it" t"e .ormat
and .re:uently donIt complete t"eir courses2
A"e si>e o. t"e potential audience .or suc"
courses 1as unclear2 Ao our 8no1ledge, no
"uman resource need surveys 1it" a .ocus on
.ood security "ad /een carried out2 7o1ever,
some estimates o. t"e potential audience 1ere
distilled .rom organi>ational data /ases and
!orld 7unger Uear in t"e B$A "ad a data
/ase o. +,00 community organi>ations
1or8ing on .ood security
Based on in.ormation "eld /y t"e 4yerson
Centre .or $tudies in -ood $ecurity and
-ood$"are Aoronto, at least ,00 Canadian
community organi>ations "ave .ood
security as a signi.icant .ocus o. t"eir
A"e searc"a/le data /ase #dealist
F1112ideali st 2orgG listed some 26,000
organi>ations 1orld1ide 1or8ing on social
justice, some o. 1"ic" included .ood
security in t"eir 1or82
An environmental scan 1as conducted /y
per.orming an #nternet searc" in 200* on
e9isting course o..erings2 #t and a course
compendium constructed /y 6y"re et al2
F2000G revealed t"at:
6any universities in %ort" America and
Europe 1ere o..ering one or t1o courses
1it" a .ull .ood security .ocus2 A"ese 1ere
typically o..ered on campus Fsometimes
t"roug" continuing educationG, usually at
an undergraduate level2 #n Aoronto, t"ere
1ere a .e1 .ood security&related courses at
eac" o. 4yerson, t"e Bniversity o.
Aoronto, and Uor8 Bniversity2
%o undergraduate degrees 1it" .ood
security as t"eir central .ocus 1ere
currently /eing o..ered2
raduate programs 1ere o..ered /y Au.ts
Bniversity in Boston, 6assac"usetts and
A"ames <alley Bniversity FA<BG in
London, England2 Au.ts o..ered a
residential 6$c or P"; in -ood,
Agriculture and Environment or -ood
Policy and Applied %utrition2 A<B o..ered
a 6A or graduate diploma in .ood policy
t"at 1as also on campusQ "o1ever, a
distance learning program 1as also under
A post graduate diploma o. up to ** 1ee8s
1as o..ered /y t"e #nternational
Agriculture Centre o. !ageningen
Bniversity in t"e %et"erlands2 A"is
program "ad a num/er o. similarities to
our proposal2 #t 1as o..ered on campus
1it" intensive instruction, and its
orientation 1as primarily related to
$everal civil society organi>ations and
para&pu/lic agencies o..ered s"ort courses2
A"ese .ocussed largely on t"e needs o. t"e
developing 1orld, 1ere o.ten *&2 1ee8s in
lengt", and .ocussed on economic
modelling and policy analysis2 6any
international civil society organi>ations
o..ered .ield level 1or8s"ops .or t"eir sta..
on planning, evaluation, design,
monitoring and assessment2 Ene e9ample
o. suc" a training program is t"e
community .ood assessment s"ort course
o..ered /y t"e Community -ood $ecurity
Coalition in t"e B$2 A"is is usually a *&2
day program t"at trains community
leaders in community .ood assessment so
t"at t"ey can en"ance t"e design and
e..ectiveness o. t"eir community&/ased
#n summary, t"ere 1ere a num/er o. s"ort
courses o..ered .or development 1or8ers,
policy ma8ers and planners 1it"in
international and national agencies2 A"e
training .ocussed on monitoring, assessment
and program planning, and ur/an agriculture2
%o one appeared to /e o..ering primarily
#nternet&/ased programmes, alt"oug" some
organi>ations did "ave training and support
materials on t"e #nternet2
Alt"oug" t"e assessment and scanning
met"ods 1ere limited, our collective analysis
o. t"e audience0participants "as proven to /e
relatively accurate2 $tudents are largely
coming .rom t"e sectors e9pected2 A"e
a/sence o. programmes else1"ere also made
us .eel t"at t"ere must /e pent up demand .or
training in t"is area2
A"e ot"er major component o. t"e .easi/ility
study 1as t"e sc"eduling o. course
development along 1it" a projection o. costs
and revenues .or t"is sc"edule2 Based on t"e
e9perience o. ot"er certi.icate programs, and
to try and ensure a minimum *2&student
enrolment per course, t"e general approac" is
to core courses every second semester in
an overlapping pattern, 1it" electives o..ered
once a year2 A"e e9ception is t"e Concepts
and Principles course, a prere:uisite .or ot"er
courses, 1"ic" is o..ered every semester,
eit"er as a day course Favaila/le to .ull&time
4yerson %utrition studentsG or /y #nternet2
A"e spring session is a particularly important
semester .or t"is course as many students
1ant to ta8e it to complete a degree and
potentially launc" su/se:uent studies in t"e
certi.icate programme2 Eptimi>ing t"is
se:uence is important .rom a .inancial point o.
vie12 #. attendance in #nternet courses
consistently .alls /elo1 t1elve students,
courses end up running a .inancial de.icit2
A"e attendance .or t"e initial courses "as /een
lo1 /ut t"is is not unusual .or a start&up
certi.icate in t"e process o. re.ining its target
mar8eting2 #n addition, t"e amount o. 1ord&
o.&mout" advertising can not /e under&
estimated2 Attendance in t"e .oundation
course, C-%U+05 -ood $ecurity Concepts and
Principles s"o1s encouraging signs2 #t "ad *+
registrants in .all 2005 /ut 2) in .all 200+
Fand an additional 2, in t"e classroom
versionG2 C-%U+0+ -ood Policy and
Programs .or -ood $ecurity "ad a similar
trend 1it" eig"t registrants in spring 200+
and 2+ registrants in 1inter 200,2
A"e #nternet .ormat "as per"aps narro1er
appeal t"an 1e anticipated as many students
indicate t"ey 1ould class courses i. t"ey
"ad an option Fin our situation, only .ull&time
students in %utrition can ta8e classroom
coursesG2 6ore .ormal surveying o. potential
students early on mig"t "ave revealed t"at2
Eur capacity to rapidly /uild enrolment /y
targeting t"e most interested audiences mig"t
"ave /een greater 1it" more o. t"is type o.
in.ormation2 #t may /e t"at t"is .ield attracts
people 1"o value interpersonal
communications, "ence t"eir pre.erence .or a
classroom2 Certainly, t"e discussion areas are
o.ten .illed 1it" messaging t"at in some 1ays
mimics t"e 8ind o. c"atting t"at mig"t go on
/e.ore and a.ter class2 !e conclude t"at at
least some students in #nternet courses are
t"ere /ecause t"ey donIt "ave anot"er option2
A set o. project o/jectives 1ere developed
.rom t"e c"allenges noted a/ove and t"e initial
assessment 1or82 A"ese o/jectives 1ereQ
Create a sel.&sustaining, si9 course post&
graduate certi.icate in .ood security in t"e
ne9t t"ree years to /e delivered via t"e
Esta/lis" a modular approac" to t"e
courses to minimi>e duplication and
promote t"e reusa/ility o. modules .or
Centre course and 1or8s"op activities
Btili>e a team approac" in t"e
development and maintenance o. t"e
#ncrease t"e num/er o. c"ange agents to
1or8 on .ood security issues, /ot"
domestically and internationally2
A"e design stage .lo1s out o. t"e .easi/ility
study, t"e general .indings o. t"e
environmental scan, and t"e speci.ic needs
re.lected and stated /y t"e many sta8e"olders2
A"e purpose in eac" o. t"e .ollo1ing .our
topics is not only to illustrate t"e approac"
ta8en in t"is certi.icate /ut also to criti:ue
1"at 1as done and to comment upon 1"at
mig"t "ave /een done2 #n t"is 1ay, t"e value
o. t"e 1or8 may /e assessed and so prove o.
/ to ot"ers2 A"e topics are learning
o/jectives, team approac", matri9 overvie1,
and course design2
$earning objectives
A"e initial proposal .or t"e -ood $ecurity
Certi.icate outlines several overall learning
o/jectives couc"ed in terms o. 1"at t"e
graduates 1ould /e a/le to do2 A"ese
o/jectives areQ
clearly articulate .ood security, and its
relations"ip to .ood system, .ood policy,
and "ealt" promotion conceptsQ
assess and monitor individuals,
"ouse"olds, communities or nations .or
.ood securityQ
identi.y t"e .orces contri/uting to .ood
security and insecurity at an individual,
"ouse"old, community or national levelQ
identi.y /est practices .or .ood security
.rom 1it"in Canada and ot"er nationsQ
design e..ective and integrated programs,
services or policies at t"e individual,
"ouse"old, community or national level to
contri/ute to .ood securityQ and
evaluate .ood security program or policy
e..ectiveness2 FC$-$ 2002, 'G
!it"in eac" o. t"e courses t"ere are a series o.
more speci.ic content o/jectives /ut not
learning o/jectives .ollo1ing a structured or
.i9ed template approac"2 E9amples o. t"ese
types o. module goals areQ
A"is module revie1s t"e glo/al state o.
.ood insecurity and "ig"lig"ts some o. t"e
limitations on our a/ility to determine
"o1 many people are actually a..ected /y
.ood insecurity2
#n t"is module 1e outline "o1 .ood
insecurity, in its multiple .orms, "as a
negative impact on "ealt"2
A"is is an e9ploratory module 1"ere you,
t"roug" your o1n investigation and
discussion, identi.y some o. t"e major
issues t"at need to /e ta8en into
consideration in community development
and .ood security2
A"is approac" to1ards speci.ying o/jectives
.or t"e certi.icate and course modules "as its
pros and cons2 En t"e one "and, t"e courses
are e9pert&driven 1"ere t"e content is
considered an essential .oundation .or
discussion and practice2 A"e last goal noted
a/ove illustrates t"is concern 1it" practice
and process2 $uc" a sage&on&t"e&stage
approac" is not uncommon especially in a
su/ject area 1it" so .e1 .ore runners2 #t also
recogni>es t"e demograp"ics o. t"e pro/a/le
participants, e2g2, adult learners .rom diverse
regional and cultural /ac8grounds and 1"o
are see8ing an aut"oritative voice providing
relevant content in an interactive learning
environment2 %ot1it"standing t"is e9pert&
driven approac", t"ere is an understanding o.
adult learners and t"eir many traits2 A"e traits
suc" as t"ose mentioned /y Lie/ F200,G are
integral to course development2 E9amples o.
adult learner traits essential "ere and
integrated into t"e courses areQ
needing to .eel sel.&directed accomplis"ed
t"roug" c"oice o. assignment topics,
/eing a/le to connect t"eir li.e e9periences
1it" t"e course content .ostered t"roug"
discussions relating concepts to t"eir
personal e9amples,
maintaining respect .or ot"ers /y valuing
local situations and e9amples in main
discussions and c"at groups, and
/eing goal&oriented, relevancy&oriented,
and practical in approac" t"roug"
clari.ication o. module goals, provision o.
actual scenarios and .ocus on action
researc" assignments2
En t"e ot"er "and, re.raining .rom 1ell
structured and easily measured learning
o/jectives ma8es clear evaluation o. t"e
outcomes more .ragile2 Providing learning
o/jectives 1it" t"e t"ree 8ey elements o.
per.ormance, condition, and criterion 1ould
assist in evaluation not only o. t"e certi.icate
approac"es /ut o. t"e participantsI learning
outcomes and impacts2 $a8s and 7accoun
F200+G descri/e t"e t"ree elements as 1"at
/e"aviours or actions t"e learner s"ould
display or ta8e Fper.ormanceG, t"e tools 1it"
1"ic", timing in 1"ic" and0or situations
under 1"ic" t"e learner mig"t act
FconditionsG, and t"e standard or accepta/le
per.ormance /y 1"ic" "e or s"e is measured
FcriterionG2 Aa8ing t"is approac" 1ould also
rein.orce t"e lin8 1it" adult learner traits
noted in t"e last paragrap" and t"e project
o/jective o. creating c"ange agents noted
!"ile not e9plicitly e9pressed /y t"e group, it
is evident .rom t"e ent"usiastic and passionate
discussions at instructor meetings t"at t"e
certi.icate is one means to develop c"ange
agents and to "ave an impact on t"e state o.
.ood security2 ;eveloping measura/le
learning o/jectives mig"t /e one 1ay o. aiding
assessment o. t"is impact2 $uc" e9plicit
statements 1ould not only prompt more
measura/le o/jectives /ut also entail inclusion
o. "o1 to /e a c"ange agent, "o1 to connect to
t"e %Es and institutional players t"at
needed to /e c"anged, "o1 to /ecome s8illed
at programme design, and "o1 to understand
intimately t"e policy process2 All o. t"ese are
1ort"1"ile actions .or t"e .uture2
Matri( overview
-rom t"e comments a/ove it may seem t"at
everyt"ing runs smoot"ly all t"e time2 A"e
diversity o. t"e team re:uires a great deal o.
communication and clari.ication2 A"e Centre
and t"e coordination in t"e certi.icate provide
direction and /ounds2 At t"is point t"ere is no
.orced ensurance o. consistent treatment o.
t"e comple9 .ood security :uestions across all
courses2 4eliance is placed on eac" instructor
to re.lect t"eir divergent opinions 1it"in t"e
conte9t o. t"e goals o. t"e Centre and t"e
certi.icate2 Ao /ring co"erence and
interconnectedness in t"e material across
certi.icate courses, t"e team "as a matri9 o.
t"e modules o. certi.icate courses to try to
assure t"at material .rom one properly leads
into anot"er, more advanced, course2 A"is
overall certi.icate course planning reduces
overlap and also provides t"e a/ility, 1"en
.inally reali>ed, to mi9 and matc" modules .or
1or8s"ops, presentations, and ne1 course
Team approach
E. signi.icant import to t"e initiation and
development o. t"is certi.icate continues to /e
t"e vital team approac" o. t"e people involved2
A"e team involved in t"e certi.icate are cross&
.unctional, "eterogeneous, dynamic, and tas8&
A"e initiating core comes .rom t"e Centre .or
$tudies in -ood $ecurity 1"ic" dra1s
mem/ers .rom several departments at
4yerson as 1ell as .rom related o..&campus
groups2 FA"e C$-$ 1e/ site is availa/le at
"ttp:001112 r yerson2ca0.o o dsecurity G !"ile
t"ose involved "ave a diversity o. teac"ing and
researc" interests Fsociology, economics,
ecology, policy, nutritionG, o. administrative
and management a/ilities, and o. tec"nical
s8ills, t"ey "ave a similar vision o. 1"at is to
/e ac"ieved2 Bnderstanda/ly, some
intellectual disputes 1it"in t"e team occur,
particularly around t"e role o. /iotec"nology,
and .inding t"e proper mi9 o. mar8et .ailure
and non&mar8et measures to solve .ood
insecurity2 7o1ever, instead o. producing a
stream o. tur/ulence, t"e team mem/ers seem
to .avour Rconstructive con.lictI as a matter o.
E9amining t"e team s"eds lig"t on t"e reasons
.or its co"esion and success2 Especially
relevant "ere are t"e elements o.
organi>ational leaders"ip, team process, and
satis.action o. mem/er needs2 A"e $c"ool o.
%utrition, t"e -aculty o. Arts, and Continuing
Education provide t"e administrative
leaders"ip and process support .or t"e Centre
.or $tudies in -ood $ecurity to .louris" and t"e
certi.icate to succeed2 #n addition t"e Centre
co&leaders"ip comes .rom t"e $c"ool o.
%utrition and t"e ;epartment o. $ociology2
A"e team processes o. .orming, storming,
norming, and per.orming can play out 1it"in
t"is leaders"ip .rame1or8 1it"out .ear o. t"e
removal o. support and team collapse2 #n
addition, t"e multiple roles t"at t"e team
mem/ers play in more t"an one o. t"e a/ove
organi>ational units .acilitate communication,
coordination o. activities, and overall
organi>ational support2 A"e .ul.illment o. t"e
mem/ersI needs .or a..iliation and ac"ieve&
ment can not /e overemp"asi>ed as a large
part o. t"e motivation .or developing t"e
A"e course development structure is anot"er
signi.icant illustration o. t"e team approac" at
1or82 $u/ject matter e9perts do not 1or8
alone in developing courses .or t"e certi.icate2
A"e Centre provides t"e guiding .orce /ut a
team o. su/ject matter e9pert Fusually t"e
.uture instructorG, a learning materials
designer Finstructional designerG, and learning
materials developer Fso.t1are e9pertG 1or8
toget"er to produce learning materials .or
Blac8/oard, t"e learning management system
at 4yerson and E8tron, t"e course content
manager2 A"is team 1or8s toget"er .rom
signing contract to running o. t"e online
course2 #n t"is manner, t"e mem/ers /uild a
relations"ip t"at aids in t"e trans.ormation o.
materials into a via/le course2
A"e most signi.icant pro/lem o. t"is team
diversity is o/taining time .rom team
mem/ers to move t"e various certi.icate
elements .or1ard2 6ultiple o/ligations and
matters "ave resulted in course development
sc"edule s"u..ling2 !e "ave managed to
con.ine t"is to some electives 1"ic"
.ortunately "ave not unduly compromised
student e..orts to advance completion o. t"e
.ull certi.icate2 A"e /readt" o. 4yerson units
involved can also pose c"allenges as
administrative leaders"ip c"anges and
priorities s"i.t, /ut to date, support .or t"e
programme remains solid2
Course design
A"e course development team ta8es t"e course
.rom idea to completion2 !"ile t"e su/ject
content and approac" is t"e purvie1 o. t"e
developer0instructor, t"ere is muc" discussion
a/out t"e loo8 and .eel o. t"e content and t"e
interaction 1it"in t"e course environment2
Ence again t"ere is a clear recognition t"at t"e
adult learner participating in t"e course "as
particular learning styles or "a/its2 A"e course
layout and activities must address t"e
andragogic traits suc" as t"e sel.&direction,
goal&orientation, relevancy orientation, and
practicality outlined /y =no1les F*''0G or
t"ose suc" as concrete e9perience, re.lective
o/servations and active e9perimentation noted
/y =ol/ F*')+G2 All o. t"ese traits are not "eld
/y every participant, as a result t"e courses
must address, as /est as possi/le, t"e .ull
range o. pre.erences in learning styles2
A"e courses utili>e a variety o. content .ormats
and activities in order to address t"e varied
learning styles o. t"e participants2 A"e te9tual
content is complemented and e9tended
t"roug" t"e use o. lin8s to online resources
Fli/rary reserve materials, digital data/asesG,
grap"ics Fstatic and dynamic in natureG, and
t"e insertion o. interactive elements2 A"e
emp"asis is on interactivity among t"e
participants and /et1een t"e participants and
t"e content 1it" t"e use o. automated
assessment tools Fre.lection tas8s, sel.&
assessments, :ui>>esG, colla/oration tools
Fgroup discussion areasG, communication tools
Finternal messaging, c"at .acilities, t"readed
discussionsG, and survey0.eed/ac8
opportunities 1"ic" are summative in nature2
All t"ese are arranged 1it"in t"e 1ee8ly
modular .rame1or8 so t"at t"ere are a variety
o. learning activities availa/le2 A"e
ent"usiasm o. t"e students .or t"is variety is
s"o1n in t"e .ollo1ing speci.ic comments2
A"ese comments are:
T"e content 'as !reat and it>s !reat to
actally interact 'it" ot"er stdents
ContentN & %ond it %ascinatin!. (o $c"
to read especially t"e Oe3trasO '"ic" are
al'ays so te$ptin!.
&t also allo's %or sc" a broad inpt o%
perspectives becase people can re!ister
Overall & t"in* t"e on#line pro!ra$ is
e3cellent, it o%%ers a !reat opportnity %or
'or*in! pro%essionals to 'or* at t"eir
o'n pace and arond ot"er
iven our desire to create c"ange agents, a
signi.icant c"allenge o. internet delivery is
connecting course content to t"e
organi>ational and institutional environments
in 1"ic" .ood security 1or8 occurs2 #n
classroom courses, t"is mig"t /e
accommodated 1it" .ield trips, .ilms and guest
spea8ers2 #n our conte9t, 1e try to assign
major papers t"at re:uire students to interact
1it" community organi>ations in t"e place
t"ey live2 A"is "as so .ar received very positive
.eed/ac8 .rom students 1"o discover ne1
organi>ations and processes at 1or8 in t"eir
communities2 Bn.ortunately, it can /e a
/urden .or community organi>ations,
especially in areas 1"ere one organi>ation is
dominant or 1"ere only a .e1 are active, and
t"is re:uires some long term attention so t"at
students are not cut o.. .rom community
A"e ;esign section a/ove provides an
introduction o. a .e1 aspects 1"ic" underpin
t"e development process2 #n t"e actual
development process it is valua/le "o1ever, to
touc" upon t"ree signi.icant issues2 A"ese
topics are t"e sc"eduling o. course
development and delivery, t"e international
scope o. t"e audience, and t"e lin8age /et1een
development and mar8eting processes2
;eveloping a course in t"e 4yerson system
calls .or all material to /e in place /e.ore t"e
course /egins2 A"ere is an eig"t mont" time
line, .our mont"s to develop t"e content, and
.our mont"s to develop t"e tec"nical elements
to ma8e it appropriate .or #nternet delivery2
At least t"is is t"e initial contract position2
#nvaria/ly t"ere are e9tenuating
circumstances t"at o.ten come into play to
produce tig"ter timelines .rom contract
t"roug" development to .irst running o. a
course2 A"e reason .or .le9ing production
cycles come a/out t"roug" t"e vagaries o. t"e
educational environment2 A"ere is a leniency
to1ards "itting milestones on time and so t"e
su/ject matter e9perts, outside consultants or
4yerson .aculty, can as8 .or and o.ten ta8e
more time as a result o. t"eir more lucrative
ventures or o. signi.icant s"i.ts in t"eir
teac"ing responsi/ilities2 4yerson tends to
accommodate t"eses situations and in most
cases t"ey do not result in long delays2 %o
course "as /een cancelled as a result, /ut some
"ave /een delayed2
A related c"allenge, more to do 1it" t"e
revision cycle t"an t"e development process, is
t"at continuing education courses are
sponsored in part /y academic departments2
-or t"e certi.icate, most courses are sponsored
/y t"e $c"ool o. %utrition2 A"e sc"ool must some o. t"ese courses to day program
students .rom time to time, so constructing
classroom e:uivalents to #nternet courses "ave
re:uired some e..ort2 !e must monitor
c"anges in t"ese courses over time /ecause t"e
di..erent instructors use di..erent teac"ing
approac"es2 A"e reason .or t"is scrutiny is
t"at 1e 1ant to ensure some /asic e:uivalency
in t"e course content and demands2 A"is issue
needs 1atc"ing, especially as 1e move .rom
t"e .irst 1ave o. instructors 1"o "ave all /een
course developers, to t"e second 1ave 1"o 1ill
not "ave /een connected to t"e development
International scope of the audience A"e
disparities /et1een local, national, and
international students are important to course
development2 En t"e tec"nical .ront, t"e
courses are relatively simple in t"at, to date,
neit"er streaming video nor re:uired&c"at
groups are used2 #n addition, t"e grap"ic
elements or do1nload .iles are 8ept to a
minimum si>e2 Aoo comple9 an o..ering 1it"
live c"ats and di..icult grap"ics can create
undue .rustration and even loss o. content
especially 1it" slo1 or intermittent #nternet
connections2 A"e need to provide /ot"
domestic and international content ma8es it
c"allenging to 8eep course modules to suita/le
lengt"s2 A"e solution to date is to give
students options 1it"in modules a/out 1"ic"
streams t"ey 1is" to .ollo12 $o, someone can
pursue readings on di..erent t"emes .rom
di..erent parts o. t"e 1orld to re.lect t"eir local
and speci.ic interests2
6ar8eting is tied less speci.ically to individual
course development and more to certi.icate
success2 6ar8eting resources are relatively
limited and so, understanda/ly, a smaller
programme li8e t"e -ood $ecurity Certi.icate
receives less attention2 As 1ell, internet
delivery suggests electronic mar8eting is a
priority, so developing electronic mar8eting
materials is t"e .ocus2 A"e 1e/ site, noted
a/ove, continues to /e at t"e centre o. t"e
mar8eting2 #n addition, t"ere is e9tensive
reliance on listservs to announce course
o..erings2 A"is latter route is relatively suc&
cess.ul at reac"ing t"e %E mar8et2 A"is
electronic .ocus serves to reduce mar8eting
cost o. sta.. time and o. t"e use o. t"e e9isting
electronic in.rastructure /ut is t"is .ocus 1it"
its reduced costs t"e most appropriate
strategyH An initial indication is t"at since
launc"ing t"e ne1 program 1e/ site in Cune,
t"ere "ave /een signi.icantly more unsolicited
in:uiries .rom prospective students2
Ao complement t"e electronic p"ase and
compare t"e results, t"e ne9t mar8eting p"ase
involves using e9isting 4yerson
communication ve"icles Fe2g2, t"e Alumni
maga>ineG to /etter reac" 4yerson alumni in
degree programs related to .ood security Fe2g2,
nutrition, ur/an planning, retail studies,
political science, pu/lic "ealt"G2 #n addition,
t"is /roader p"ase includes communicating
directly 1it" pro.essors in sc"ools o.
agriculture and nutrition at ot"er universities
in %ort" America and e9ploring opportunities
to include t"e certi.icate programme in t"e
approved pro.essional development listings o.
pro.essional groups suc" as pu/lic "ealt"
A"e =ir8patric8 sc"ema o. evaluation provides
one met"od o. assessment2 %ot1it"standing
t"e criticisms o. t"e =ir8patric8 sc"ema, it
points out several de.iciencies and possi/le
remedial actions2
A"e level * assessment o. reactions to t"e
course is a common occurrence2 A"e -ood
$ecurity Certi.icate online courses "ave online
surveys at t"e end t"e semester2 A"ese
surveys provide a .eed/ac8 mec"anism .or t"e
students and one 1ay to elicit t"eir reaction to
t"e course2 Among t"ose 1"o complete t"e
courses, .eed/ac8 is very positive2 $tudents
really li8e t"e conceptual approac" and t"e
.ullness o. t"e .ood security concepts used, t"e
.ocus on t"e .ood system as a source o. .ood
insecurity and as a solution to pro/lems, and
t"e solutions oriented approac" or t"e concern
1it" "o1 to improve t"e situation2
A"e second level o. assessment, learning or t"e
8no1ledge ac:uired, s8ills improved, or
attitudes c"anged as a result o. participation,
is anot"er standard approac"2 #n t"ese
courses t"e assignments and .inal e9ams or
projects are t"e activities o. import "ere2
A"e last t1o levels, /e"aviour or t"e measures
t"e o. training and results or t"e
measure o. t"e impact o. training on t"e
organi>ation, are not currently e9amined in
any .ormal 1ay2 At t"is point, no students
"ave completed t"e .ull certi.icate2 As a
conse:uence, it is di..icult to 8no1 at t"is
stage 1"at impact t"e courses are "aving on
studentsI career c"oices, 1or8 activities, and
organi>ational realities2 A :uote .rom a
student does provides some indication o. 1"at
mig"t result:
K# registered .or t"e Certi.icate in -ood
$ecurity /ecause # 1anted to .ormali>e
Fand gain accreditation .orG t"e
8no1ledge #?d already gained t"roug"
1or8 e9perience and sel.&directed
learning2 As a .ood security consult&
ant, # use t"e education # am receiving
in my 1or8 1it" one o. Aoronto?s
Business #mprovement Areas2 # also
dra1 on 1"at # learn in my .und&
raising and policy advocacy activities
1it" yout" s"elters in t"e AA2L
7o1ever, not "aving some mec"anism to
assess levels t"ree and .our points is a
signi.icant gap in t"e current approac" t"at
needs attention to 8no1 1"et"er c"ange
agents are /eing created2 A"e Certi.icate team
does not currently "ave t"e capacity to
evaluate in t"e 1or8place 1"et"er t"e
certi.icate programme 1ill "ave impacts on
student employment options and t"eir
e..ectiveness at delivering .ood security
programming and policy2 A"is suggests a 8ey
area .or .urt"er development and assessment,
i2e2, retaining communication 1it" students2
Ene possi/le solution is to create a pass1ord
protected 1e/ site on 1"ic" alumni could
continue to discuss .ood security issues as t"ey
"ave in t"e courses2 $uc" a 1e/ site could
/ecome a .orum .or e9c"ange o. ideas related
to .ormer studentsI current 1or82 #t also
/ecomes a ve"icle .or surveying alumni on
current employment and outcomes o. t"eir
1or8 and provides a possi/le route to
evaluating at levels t"ree and .our2
A"e mem/ers o. t"e Centre .or $tudies in -ood
$ecurity recogni>ed a need .or /roader 8no1&
ledge o. and participation in t"eir area o.
concern2 A"e c"allenges, noted a/ove, set t"e
tone .or t"eir move into online Certi.icate
delivery as one route to satis.ying t"is out&
reac"2 A"e sections on .easi/ility, design,
development, and evaluation provide insig"ts
into t"e process and comments on 8ey issues2
E. t"e many insig"ts and comments .our merit
consideration "ere2
Conversion ta*es ti$e
A"e .easi/ility study suggested gaps in .ood
security coverage as 1ell as a demand .or
in.ormation on t"e su/ject2 A"e su/ject
matter e9perts could put t"e materials
toget"er into courses /ut not also 1or8 at
reac"ing t"e possi/le participants2 !ord&o.&
mout" is an e9cellent route to e9posing t"e
Certi.icate /ut insu..icient in t"e long term
/ecause suc" strategy ta8es time2 !it" t"e
/roader approac" to mar8eting, t"e registra&
tions, one 1ould "ope, 1ould increase more
rapidly2 #n "indsig"t, 1it" concurrent devel&
opment and mar8eting processes, t"e
registrations mig"t "ave risen at a steeper,
steadier rate2
&$portance o% a tea$ approac" and
consenss bildin!
A"e multi&level team approac" seems to 1or8
very 1ell .or certi.icate development2 !"ile
t"is group "as a variety o. /ac8grounds, t"e
mem/ers "old complementary i. not similar
visions o. t"e Certi.icate2 A"is is not to say
t"at t"ere is groupt"in8 "ere2 A"ere is vi/rant
discussion and consensus /uilding 1it"out a
/lin8ered approac" or /ro1 /eating2 A"is
means t"at ne1 comers to t"e team can easily
/ring in t"eir ne1 ideas 1"ic" are integrated
into t"e approac" or used to modi.y t"e overall
vision2 #t also means t"at t"e di..erent s8ills
and a/ilities o. t"e team mem/ers are valued
and are seen as contri/utory2
A $atri3 vie' is strai!"t%or'ard bt di%%iclt
A"e mem/ers recogni>e a modular matri9
approac" as 1ort"1"ile2 At t"e present time
t"ere is an e9pectation t"at ne1 course
developers ta8e t"e prior 1or8 into consid&
eration2 A"ere is no .ormal met"od /y 1"ic"
t"e ne1 course modules are scrutini>ed to see
1"et"er t"ey overlap2 As ne1 courses are
added and old ones revised t"ere needs to /e
some process in place to assure integration
1it"out undue overlap2
Evalation as si$ple as it is ins%%icient
A"ere is a reliance on t"e tried and true
evaluation mec"anisms o. tests and course
end surveys2 !"ile =ir8patric8Is levels mig"t
/e too rigid or too narro1ly .ocussed, t"ey
provide a starting place .or t"e e9pansion o.
evaluation mec"anisms in t"e courses and .or
t"e Certi.icate as a 1"ole2 #. one o. t"e
o/jectives o. t"is project is to develop c"ange
agents, t"e elements o. level t"ree and level
.our evaluation according to =ir8patric8 need
A"e ne9t steps in t"is project .ocus on re&
e9amining t"e current o/jectives and assessing
t"e current success in ac"ieving t"emQ on t"e
assessment o. t"e courses in lig"t o. level one
and t1o evaluation in.ormation, and on t"e
discussion o. 1"et"er t"e team s"ould close
t"is development project and /egin a ne1
project on revision and e9pansion o. t"e
C$-$2 20022 )ood secrity certi%icate
pro!ra$ o%%ered by 9yerson 2niversity2
4yerson $c"ool o. %utrition, 4yerson Centre
.or $tudies in -ood $ecurity2
=ir8patric8, ;2L2 *''+2 Evalatin! trainin!
pro!ra$s: T"e %or levels2 $an -rancisco,
Berret&7oe"ler Pu/lis"ers2
=no1les, 62 *''02 T"e adlt learner2
7ouston, ul. Pu/lis"ing2
=ol/, ;2A2 *')+2 E3periential learnin!2
Engle1ood Cli..s, %C2 Prentice 7all2
Lieb, (. ,--:. Adlts as learners2 4etrieved
Canuary 2(, 200, .rom
"ttp:00"on ol ulu2"a1aii 2e d u0intra n et 0 c o mmitt
ees0-ac ; ev C om0guid e /8 0 teac " tip0adu lts&
6y"re, ;2 et al2 20002 A!ricltre, )ood, and
(ociety (yllabi and corse $aterials
collection, ,--- Edition A-7<$ and A$-$,
$a8s, A2L, and 4242 7accoun2 200+2
Mana!in! per%or$ance t"ro!" trainin! and
develop$ent. A"ird edition2 Aoronto, %elson2
C"apter )
Learning to o t"e ;istance:
planning pro.essional
development in an e&learning
("aron 9ic",
2niversity o% +e' Brns'ic*
)redericton, +e' Brns'ic*, Canada
4at"erine =ibbert
2niversity o% Western Ontario
London, Ontario, Canada
*bstract+ A"e project descri/ed 1as initiated in t"e late nineties and re.lects t"e development o.
a team t"at 1as .ocused on e..ective learning and teac"ing in t"e online environment2 E.
particular interest is t"e 1ay in 1"ic" t"e distance education team came toget"er to capitali>e on
t"e strengt"s o. individual e9pertise in suc" a 1ay t"at t"e team as a 1"ole e9ceeded t"e potential
o. t"e individual mem/ers2 A"e process o. online program development is descri/ed, as are t"e
c"allenges t"at occurred along t"e 1ay2
,e# words+ Learning communities, e&learning, re.lective practice, team approac"
Aeac"ers "ave /egun to demand "ig" :uality
online education programs in order to
maintain pro.essional competencies2 -or
t"ose in remote and rural areas and .or
many 1omen teac"ers t"e dual responsi/&
ility .or .amily and classroom means t"at
accessi/ility to pro.essional development
can /e limited /y /ot" time and distance
constraints2 E&learning programs o/viate t"e
pro/lem and ma8e pro.essional develop&
ment accessi/le2
Uet teac"ers also see8 pro.essional learning
communities F7argreaves, 200*Q -ullan S
7argreaves, *''2G in 1"ic" t"ere are oppor&
tunities to discuss practical pro/lems and
apply t"eory to practice2 #n $c"onIs F*')(G
terms, in a learning community re.lective
practice develops and allo1s practitioners to
re&.rame t"e issues in suc" a 1ay t"at t"ey
are li/erated .rom t"e predominant emp"as&
is on 8no1ledge o. K"o1&to2L A 8ey c"all&
enge .or anyone planning a program o.
pro.essional learning .or teac"ers is "o1 to
s"i.t .rom an emp"asis on tec"nical
8no1ledge to an e9amination o. aut"entic
practice issues and to .oster discussion in a
.orum t"at is sa.e, yet sop"isticated enoug"
to provo8e :uestions and disrupt Rt"e ta8en&
.or&grantedI in order to move t"e practition&
er .rom routini>ation to pro.essional prac&
tice2 A"e pro/lem in most pro.essional
development conte9ts is t"at t"ere is rarely
t"e time, t"e .orum or t"e language to
engage conversations a/out practice2
$o "o1 mig"t one design and deliver pro&
.essional education to meet t"e goals o.
re.lective practice 1"en popular .orms o.
distance education Kare designed to support
only 8no1ledge ac:uisition Mresulting inNV
student outcomes Mt"at areN restricted to
reproductive learningLH FConassen, 2002, p2
(6G2 E.ten, t"ese courses amount to little
more t"an t"e transmission o. tec"nical
8no1ledge2 4educing t"e comple9ities o.
teac"ing to tec"nical 8no1ledge limits
pro.essional development and indeed may
.urt"er e9acer/ate t"e t"eory to practice
A"e c"allenge /ecomes one o. .acilitating a
discourse t"at re&.rames pro.essional issues
in an accessi/le mannerQ one t"at respects
t"e li.e e9periences o. teac"ers and t"e
t"eories on 1"ic" t"eir practices are
esta/lis"ed, in a conte9t in 1"ic" t"e
teac"ers /ecome 8no1ledge producers
pursuing t"eir o1n intellectual develop&
ment F=inc"eloe, 200+G2 At t"e same time,
it is necessary to create a sc"olars"ip o.
online teac"ing and learning so t"at ot"ers
may learn .rom t"e e9periences o. early
adopters and innovators F;u..ey and
=ir8ley, 200+G2 #n ot"er 1ords, "o1 does
one /uild a virtual community o. practiceH
A"e .ollo1ing paper / descri/es an
innovative project t"at /ro8e ne1 ground in
terms o. developing online pro.essional
learning .or teac"ers2
The beginnings
A.ter some discussion a/out re.lective
practice and 1ays to esta/lis" an online
support group F4ic", *'',G, t"e distance
education team e9perimented 1it" course
delivery using t"e #nternet and a commercial
online con.erencing tool2 A"e team consisted
o. a core o. ten .ull&time sta.. and .aculty
1it" overlapping e9pertise in teac"ing and
pedagogy, editing, systems administration
and security, 1e/ administration, data/ase
development, 1e/ content design and
preparation, 1e/ /ased con.erencing
support and project management2 6any
signi.icant tec"nical and pedagogical issues
1ere addressed as team mem/ers .re:uently
/ro8e ne1 ground in terms o. t"eir o1n
e9pertise and 8no1ledge2 Aeam mem/ers
1or8ed colla/oratively 1it" eac" ot"er, as
1ell as 1it" t"e instructors teac"ing t"e on&
line courses in addressing pro/lems as t"ey
arose2 #nstructors 1ere encouraged to
suggestions to ma8e online teac"ing more
e..ective and team mem/ers considered all
re:uests .rom /ot" pedagogical and
tec"nical perspectives
Aensions /et1een t"eory and practice
emerged as t"e .irst t"ree on&line courses
evolved2 ;iscussions revolved around /ot"
t"e content, its organi>ation and :uantity,
and t"e design o. t"e inter.ace2 As :uestions
arose, t"e instructors and team mem/ers
1ere con.ronted 1it" t"eir /elie.s a/out t"e
teac"ing0learning process2 A design t"at
included uploading lecture notes and
:ui>>es to a 1e/ site 1ould /e pedagogically
1ea8, leaving /ot" students and instructors
dissatis.ied2 #nstead, it /ecame essential to
t"in8 a/out 1ays to design so t"at a social
constructivist vie1 o. learning 1ould /e
re.lected2 7o1 mig"t :uestions /e
em/edded 1it"in content to .oster
re.lectionH 7o1 many and 1"at type o.
:uestions 1ere neededH
Ever time, it /ecame apparent t"at
managing and .acilitating t"e online
discussion complemented initial :uestions
a/out design2 !"at con.erence :uestions
1ould "elp develop re.lectionH 7o1 mig"t
students /e encouraged to 1or8 1it" eac"
ot"erH 7o1 could re.lective practice /e
promoted and en"anced at a distanceH
!ould an async"ronous con.erence tool
1or8H !"at 1as t"e place .or real time
c"atH A"e :uestions spa1ned a 1or8ing
.rame1or8 in t"e s"ape o. a triangleQ one
t"at respected t"e /alance and integration o.
t"ree important components: Pedagogy,
Aec"nology and ;ialogic #nteraction2
#nstructors noted t"at 1"en an in.ormal tal8
area 1as esta/lis"ed, learning concepts
related to practice 1as .acilitated2 #n ot"er
1ords, personal support provided t"e
security to discuss and respond to c"allenges
related to comple9 issues o. practice2 -rom
t"is o/servation a researc" project to
e9amine t"e nature o. online interaction
emerged2 A"e researc" indicated t"at
e..ective online conversation 1as an
amalgam o. tal8 and 1riting and "ig"lig"ted
t"e role o. instructor modeling in course
success2 Et"er aspects o. e..ective inter&
action 1ere identi.ied and provided an
emerging met"odology .or online instructors
F4ic" S !ool.e, 200*G2
Design and methodolog#
A"e primary goal 1as to provide a seamless,
positive learning e9perience .or teac"ers
1it" re.lective practice as central2 4e.lective
practice legitimi>ed practice /ut also
provided teac"er candidates permission to
"ig"lig"t critically important practical
issues2 #n courses, learning moved .rom
1"ole class Finstructor to student t"roug"
t"e 1e/ siteG to small group Finteraction
.acilitated onlineG to individual, sel.&directed
learning Fre.lective practice project and
pro.essional port.olioG2 A"roug"out t"e
process, t"e instructor "ad to .acilitate
interaction t"roug" modeling, pro/ing,
synt"esi>ing discussion, c"allenging ideas,
and o..ering immediacy statements as
needed2 Course design .ostered:
4igorous curriculum content standards
A/ility o. students and instructors to co&
construct meaning t"roug" interaction
An understanding o. practical
e9perience t"roug" a re.lective practice
Critical pro.essional dialogue as /asis
.or pro.essional re.lective practice
$peci.ically t"e .ollo1ing items 1ere
determined to /e essential in .ostering
e..ective online pro.essional development:
Courses "ad to /e designed in modules,
eac" 1it" a speci.ic start and end date so
t"at students can .ocus on speci.ic
dimensions o. content2 Eac" module
1as supported t"roug" related 1e/&
/ased readings 1it" relevant :uestions
em/edded in module content2
Eac" module "as a .ocused con.erence
discussion area in 1"ic" students
respond to ot"er studentIs comments as
1ell as t"e instructorIs :uestions in 1ays
t"at con.irm, c"allenge or .urt"er t"e
$tudents are re:uired to attend virtual
class at least every t"ree days per
t1elve&1ee8 term2
Enline interaction is monitored and
guided2 #n.ormal discussion is
encouraged to clari.y and personali>e
learning as 1ell as /uilding relations"ips
t"at .oster community2
Every course "as a re.lective practice
component in 1"ic" t"e student see8s
out a local mentor2 6entors are
ac8no1ledged .ormally .or t"eir
contri/ution to pro.essional
$tudents maintain a pro.essional
port.olio t"at is emailed to t"e instructor
.or evaluation2
A"e design t"at evolved in t"e project
descri/ed re.lects a suggestion o. Ka concern
1it" 1"at t"e tec"nology ena/les, rat"er
t"an t"e tec"nology itsel.2L E/linger S
E/linger F200,, 22*0G2 -urt"er, clarity o.
e9pectations, procedures and timelines is
o.ten cited as one o. t"e /asic re:uirements
o. a success.ul online e9perience Farrett S
-rancis, 200+Q Long, 200+Q !iley S
$c"ooler, 200*G2 A"e design t"at evolved in
t"is pro.essional development project
re.lected a marriage /et1een tec"nology,
pedagogy and dialogic interaction2 A"e same
clarity o. procedures and time e9pectations
present in t"e .ace&to&.ace environment
en"anced learning as t"e tec"nology /ecame
little more t"an a transparent ve"icle
t"roug" 1"ic" course participants could
interact and learn t"roug" and 1it" eac"
A"e project descri/ed a/ove re.lected t"e
e..ectiveness o. a team approac" in
.acilitating learning2 #n t"is project, team
mem/ers respected t"e contri/utions o.
eac" ot"er&t"at respect .or di..erence in
e9pertise 1as re.lected in t"e course design2
A"roug" a discussion o. re.lective practice
and t"e development o. a .ace&to&.ace
community, t"e team mem/ers understood
1"at it 1as to /e re.lective, to colla/orate
and to /e mem/ers o. a learning community2
A"eir personal e9periences as part o. an
e..ective team 1ere re.lected in t"e program
design2 A"e overall integrity and consistency
o. courses "as /een improved /y pedagogic
conditions t"at supported t"e development
o. an online community2
A"e team approac" "as provided e..ective
pro.essional development .or teac"ers in
remote and rural areas2 A"is pro.essional
development is not simply t"e delivery o.
tec"nical rational 8no1ledge /ut rat"er, t"e
.acilitation o. a learning environment 1"ic"
.acilitated t"e .ormation o. a 8no1ledge
community in 1"ic" mem/ers
systematically engaged in re.lective practice2
Enline learning communities do 1or8 /ut
"ave to /e care.ully .acilitated /y instructors
committed to re.lective practice2
-ullan, 62 and 7argreaves, A2 F*''2G2
2nderstandin! teac"er develop$ent2 %e1
Uor8: Aeac"ers College Press2
7argreaves, A2, F200*G2 Learnin! to c"an!e:
Teac"in! beyond sb1ects and standards2
$an -rancisco: Cossey Bass2
7argreaves, A2 F*''+G2 C"an!in! teac"ers,
c"an!in! ti$es: Teac"ersG 'or* and cltre
in t"e post$odern a!e. Aoronto: E#$E
;u..ey, A2 and =ir8ley, C2 F200+G2 Learning
t"eory and pedagogy in distance learning2 #n
A2 ;u..ey S C2 =ir8ley FEdsG2 Learner#
Centered T"eory and Practice in Distance
Edcation2 6a"1a", %C: La1rence
arrett, B2 62, S -rancis, 42 F200+G2 A"e
orientation and disorientation o. e&learners2
#n "aoui FEd2G, E#Edcation Applications:
=$an %actors and innovative approac"es2
Fpp2 2+)&2(+G2 London: #n.ormation $cience
Conassen, ;2 72 F2002G2 Learning to solve
pro/lems online2 #n 2 <2 lass FEd2G,
Distance Edcation and Distribted
Learnin! Fpp2 (,&')G2 reen1ic", CA:
#n.ormation Age Pu/lis"ing2
=inc"eloe, C2 F200+G2 A"e 8no1ledges o.
teac"er education: ;eveloping a critical
comple9 epistemology2 Teac"er Edcation
<arterly, 5*F*G, +'&6(2
Long, 72 B2 F200+G2 e&Learning: An
introduction2 #n 2 62 Pis8uric" FEd2G,
Gettin! t"e Most %ro$ Online Learnin! Fpp2
(&2+G2 $an -rancisco:
E/linger, ;2 2 and E/linger, C2L2 F200,G
Edcatin! t"e +et Generation2 Ed u cau s e,
MEnline /oo8N, Availa/le:
"ttp:001112educause 2edu 0 content2aspHPA
E]#;_, ' ) 'S / "cp_*
4ic", $"aron C2 F*'',G2 Aeac"er support
groups: Conte9ts .or learning2 Edcation
Canada, 5,F5G, *,&2*2
4ic", $"aron and !ool.e, Adele F200*G2
-rom a distance: Creating virtual learning
communities2 Proceedin!s o% t"e Ei!"t"
&nternational Literacy and Edcation
9esearc" +et'or* Con%erence on Learnin!2
6el/ourne: A"e Bniversity Press
$c"on, ;2 F*')5G2 T"e re%lective
practitioner2 %e1 Uor8: Basic Boo8s2
$c"on, ;2 F*')(G2 Edcatin! t"e re%lective
practitioner2 $an -rancisco: Cossey&Bass2
<rasidas, C and C"am/erlain, 42 F200*G2
6anaging distance education: issues /e"ind
online classes2 Proceedin!s o% t"e
(eventeent" &nternational Con%erence on
Distance Teac"in! and Learnin!. 6adison,
!#: Bniversity o. !isconsin Press2
!ool.e, A2 F*''*G2 9eport o% distance
edcation pilot pro1ect. Bnpu/lis"ed
researc" document2 Continuing Aeac"er
Education, -aculty o. Education, Bniversity
o. !estern Entario2
C"apter '
6anaging Large&$cale Customised
eLearning Content ;evelopment
Benson (oon!
Willia$ C"a
eLearnin! Consltants Pte Ltd
+eo 4i$ =ai
De%ence (cience 8 Tec"nolo!y A!ency
*bstract+ 7o1 does one manage an eLearning project involving t"e creation o. more t"an +00 "ours o.
customised eLearning content, to /e completed 1it"in a t"ree&year period and involving more t"an 200
personnelH Eur project management team did it /y .irst starting o.. 1it" a strong project management
.rame1or8, and t"en modi.ying or adding on to t"at .rame1or8 1"en certain issues 1ere identi.ied2
A"is large&scale customised eLearning content development project started in *''' and 1as success.ully
completed in 2002, /ut not 1it"out its .air s"are o. "ig"s and lo1s2 #n t"is c"apter, 1e discuss t"e
original project management .rame1or8 used, t"e modi.ications t"at 1ere made to t"e .rame1or8, our
lessons learned, and 1"at 1e t"in8 are 8ey ta8ea1ays2 Any organisation intending to em/ar8 on a
customised eLearning content development project, especially on a large&scale /asis, s"ould .ind t"is
c"apter presents a use.ul re.erence model2
,e# words+ 6ilitary training, large scale projects, customi>ed elearning, content development process
#n *''', t"e ;e.ence $cience S Aec"nology
Agency F;$AAG, under commission .rom t"e
$ingapore Armed -orces F$A-G, a1arded a
multi&million dollar contract to a local #A vendor
.or t"e design, development and delivery o.
a/out .our "undred F+00G "ours o. customised
eLearning pac8ages .or various training sc"ools
and institutions F"erea.ter collectively re.erred
to as sc"oolsG in t"e $A-2 A"e timeline given to
design, develop and deliver t"e course1are 1as
t"ree F5G years2
A 8ey reason .or em/ar8ing on suc" a large scale
eLearning project 1as t"at manpo1er resource
is scarce in $ingapore, and previous studies Ft"is
project is t"e 5
o. suc" customised eLearning
content development .or t"e $A-G "as proven
t"at eLearning programmes, 1"en properly
identi.ied, designed, and deployed, improves our
soldiersI a/ility to plan and .ig"t2 7ence,
eLearning is used as a 8ey supplementary
instructional medium, providing training to
soldiers on procedures and drills t"at are "ig"ly
-or t"is project, customised eLearning content
1as developed .or 5) training sc"ools in t"e
$A-, constituting a/out +00 "ours o. eLearning
course1are2 6ore t"an 200 personnel 1ere
involved in t"is endeavour, al/eit not all 1ere
involved .or t"e entire t"ree&year duration2 -or
e9ample, some $A- sc"ools 1ere only involved
.or, say, one year, and involvement .or t"em
ceased a.ter t"e success.ul deployment o. t"e
eLearning pac8ages in t"eir sc"ools2 A"is
project is part o. t"e larger $PEA&E% FSel.&
Pace, -n&Time, -n&NeedG Programme in t"e
$A-, a programme aimed at "arnessing t"e
a..ordance o..ered /y #n.ormation Aec"nologyIs
F#AG 2+9( nature t"at allo1s trainees to learn at
t"eir o1n time and pace, as and 1"en needed2
-or t"is c"apter, 1e to t"e entire content
development project as a pro!ra$$e, 1"ile
individal customised eLearning content
development e..orts in eac" o. t"e $A- training
sc"ools as pro1ects2
As can /e e9pected .rom a multi&million dollar
endeavour, t"is programme involved numerous
parties, playing di..erent roles, at di..erent
stages o. t"e programme2 A"ese roles are
/roadly summari>ed in -igure * /elo1:
"igure #$ Programme %verview
9ole Descriptions:
* 9esident (b1ect Matter E3perts
D9(MEsJ 3 4$6Es 1ere t"e su/ject
matter e9pert employed /y t"e #A
vendor, and /ased in t"e #A vendorIs
premises, to provide guidance to t"e
#nstructional ;esigners on t"e accuracy
o. t"e lesson content /ased .or t"eir
e9pert domain2
2 (c"ool Pro1ect Mana!ers D(P7MsJ 3
$PC6s 1ere responsi/le .or t"e
implementation o. t"e Project
6anagement Plan and co&ordination .or
t"e delivery sc"edule2 A $c"ool Project
6anager assigned #nstructional
;esigners, Programmers and rap"ic
;esigners to t"e lessons speci.ied .or
content development2
5 &nstrctional Desi!ners D&DsJ 3 A"e #;s
1ere responsi/le .or 1or8ing 1it" t"e
relevant $6Es to assimilate t"e lesson
content, and designed course1are /ased
on instructional strategies2 A"e #;s
t"en 1or8ed 1it" t"e 6ultimedia Aeam
to produce t"e .inal course1are2
/ Mlti$edia Tea$
` Pro!ra$$ers DPAsJ 3 PAs 1ere
responsi/le .or translating t"e design o.
t"e #nstructional ;esigners into a
course1are using t"e speci.ied
aut"oring tool2 A"ey integrated
grap"ics, animation, video, narration
and ot"er multimedia elements into an
interactive course1are2
` Grap"ic Desi!ners DGDsJ 3 ;s 1ere
responsi/le .or t"e presentation o. t"e
course1are2 A"ey produced animation
and grap"ics /ased on t"e #nstructional
;esignersI re:uirements2
, Pro1ect (ponsor DP(J 3 P$ set t"e "ig"&
level goals, intended outcomes and
dictated t"e e9ecution strategy .or t"e
1"ole programme2
6 Pro!ra$$e Mana!er DPMJ 3 A"e P6
1as responsi/le .or managing t"e 1"ole
programme, and ensured t"at t"e "ig"&
level goals and t"e intended outcomes
1ere ac"ieved2
( (ervice Pro1ect Mana!ers DP7MsJ 3
PC6s 1ere responsi/le .or t"e entire
course1are developmental 1or8 1it"in
t"e 5 services FArmy, Air.orce and
) Corse'are Approval Co$$ittee
DCACJ & CAC C"airman Fusually t"e
sc"oolIs Commanding E..icer or C"ie.
#nstructorG oversa1 all content
development e..orts .or "is0"er sc"ool2
A"e CAC revie1ed and approved t"e
project plan, progress reports and
p"ase&end products2 A"e CAC C"airman
also provided direction to t"e B$6Es
during content development in line 1it"
t"e project sc"edule2
' Pro1ect Co#ordinator DPCJ 3 Project Co&
ordinator 1ere responsi/le .or
coordinating t"e assignment o. t"e
B$6Es to eac" lesson, and assisted t"e
CAC in monitoring t"e progress o. t"e
project sc"edule 1it"in t"eir respective
*0 2ser (b1ect Matter E3pert D2(MEsJ &
B$6Es 1ere t"e main su/ject matter
e9pert /ased at t"e sc"ool, providing
guidance to t"e #nstructional ;esigner
on t"e accuracy and ade:uacy o. t"e
lesson content2
At t"is stage, it mig"t /e interesting to mention
t"at, on t"e onset, t"e $A-Is Coint Eperations S
Planning ;irectorate FCEP;, 1"ic" 1as t"e
project sponsorG, toget"er 1it" ;$AA Fin t"is
programme, ;$AA played t"e role o. t"e
tec"nology arm o. t"e $A-G, set t"e "ig"&level
goals Fe2g2 put content outside t"e traditional
classroom and training s"edG, intended
outcomes Fe2g2 convert repetitive training
curriculum into sel.&study KeL .ormatsG, and
e9ecution strategy Fe2g2 1or8ing 1it" one 8ey
vendor, /ut yet at t"e same time 1or8ing 1it" a
.e1 ot"er smaller vendorsG .or t"e programme,
along 1it" t"e /udgetary and timeline
!"ile t"is detail may /e deemed to /e an
operational issue 3 one not directly related to
t"e actual eLearning Project 6anagement FeP6G
3 in retrospect, 1e t"in8 t"at .rom an eP6
perspective, it is important to "ave a sponsor
1"o not only supports t"e project, /ut "ave a
"and in de.ining t"e:
oals and Fmeasura/leG intended outcomes
o. t"e programme0project
Budgetary and timeline constraints
E9ecution strategy on "o1 to ac"ieve t"ose
goals and intended outcomes
A.ter all, as suggested /y $"ac8el.ord F2002G,
eLearning Project 6anagement o.ten .ail
/ecause it does not get t"e FongoingG support
.rom management Fsponsors are included in t"is
categoryG2 !e 1ould li8e to add t"at support
.rom management s"ould include clearly
de.ining t"e goals and Fmeasura/leG intended
outcomes, along 1it" t"e /udgetary and
timeline constraints, and e9ecution strategy2
Eur e9perience managing ot"er eLearning
projects reveal to us t"at projects t"at "ave
sponsors 1"o do not "ave an active involvement
in t"is .irst step, o.ten end up .ailing .or reasons
suc" as scope&creep, unmanaged e9pectations,
cost overruns, 1ea8 demonstration o. 4E#, and
t"e li8e2
Description of Project
Clearly, .or suc" a large project, a
compre"ensive and unam/iguous Fto t"e e9tent
possi/leG project management .rame1or8 1as
needed to /e put in place2 A"is project
management .rame1or8 needed to t"e
o/jectives o.:
Ensuring t"at t"e $A- training needs 1ere
met /y t"e course1are produced
Ensuring t"at t"e time ta8en to produce t"e
course1are 1as 1it"in reasona/le limits
Ensuring t"at t"e non&monetary resources
spent /y t"e $A- Fe2g2 t"e sc"oolIs su/ject
matter e9pertsI timeG 1"ile "elping to
design0develop t"e course1are 1ere 8ept
1it"in reasona/le limits
Ensuring clear division o. la/our /et1een all
parties involved
=eeping scope&creep in c"ec8
A"e project management .rame1or8 1e used
consisted o. t1o components, namely, t"e:
*2 Content Develop$ent )ra$e'or*: A"e
content development .rame1or8 mainly
dictated "o1 t"e development o. customised
eLearning content .or eac" sc"ool 1as to /e
22 C"an!e Mana!e$ent )ra$e'or*: A"e
c"ange management .rame1or8 mainly
dictated "o1 c"ange re:uests s"ould /e "andled
and resolved2
A"e content development .rame1or8 is depicted
in -igure 2 /elo1:
"igure &$ 'ontent Development "ramewor( )%verall "low!
Let us loo8 at eac" o. t"ese .rame1or8s in turn,
starting 1it" t"e content development
.rame1or82 ;o note, "o1ever, t"at t"is c"apter
does not go into t"e intimate details o. t"e entire
process met"odology t"at 1e use Fit 1ould ta8e
an entire /oo8 to do soG, /ut rat"er, summari>es
our case study and provides a .unctional
overvie1 o. t"e entire project management
e9perience, .ocusing on relevant project
management aspects o. our process
Content Development .ramework
As s"o1n in -igure 2, our content development
.rame1or8 started o.. 1it" a Areatment $tudy
1"ic" produced t"e p"ase&end product o. a
Pro1ect Mana!e$ent Plan FP6PG2 At t"e start,
#nstructional ;esigners F#;sQ supplied /y t"e #A
vendorG and $u/ject 6atter E9perts F$6EsQ
supplied /y /ot" t"e $A- sc"ool and t"e #A
vendorG 1or8ed toget"er to recommend an
e..ective learning system t"roug" a process o.
analysis, carried out during t"e )ront#end
Analysis stage2
Based on t"e results o. t"e analysis, #;s put
.ort" a Proposed Treat$ent Plan, 1"ic" 1as
revie1ed /y ;$AAIs PC6 and t"e CAC
C"airman2 At t"is stage, ;$AA loo8ed at t"e
/udgetary constraints and advised t"e CAC on
tec"nical issues, 1"ile t"e CAC .ocused on
1"et"er t"e proposed plan met t"e sc"oolIs
training needs ade:uately2
Bpon approval /y ;$AAIs PC6 and t"e CAC, a
Pro1ect Mana!e$ent Plan 1as produced /y t"e
$c"ool Project 6anager F$PC6Q supplied /y t"e
#A vendorG, and t"is P6P 1as jointly endorsed
/y ;$AAIs PC6 F1"o ensured t"e timeline
stated 1as reasona/le and t"e division o. la/our
proposed 1as appropriateG, CAC F1"o 1as made
a1are o. 1"at t"e project re:uired o. t"e
sc"oolIs B$6EFsG and any ot"er commitments
re:uired .rom t"e sc"ool, suc" as video s"ootsG
and t"e #A vendor F1"o ensured ade:uate
manpo1er and resources 1ere put in place to
complete t"e project on timeG2
Loo8ing a little deeper into t"e Areatment $tudy
process, during )ront#end Analysis, #;s 1or8ed
1it" B$6Es and i. availa/le, 4$6Es to analysis
t"e sc"oolIs trainin! needs in accordance 1it"
t"e per%or$ance reMire$ents o. a particular
vocation Ftermed per%or$ance analysisG2 Bpon
identi.ication o. t"e per.ormance re:uired, t"e
current course curriculum Fusually consisting o.
strictly .ace&to&.ace lessons and0or 1or8s"opsG
1as revie1ed to identi.y /road portions o. t"e
curriculum t"at 1ould /e suita/le .or eLearning
Ftermed corse crricl$ analysisG2 A.ter
t"at, primary and secondary trainees .or t"e
course 1ere identi.ied and prere:uisites 1ere
dra1n up2 A"e current teac"ing content,
instructional met"ods and training e..ectiveness
evaluation met"ods 1ere also consolidated as
t"ey aid meaning.ul comparisons later on2
A report is 1ritten during t"e Proposed
Treat$ent p"ase, 1"ic" mainly lists t"e:
Principal considerations as to 1"et"er to
convert a lesson into eLearning .ormat or
Learning approac" to /e ta8en, "o1 and
"o1 muc" to /lend approac"es
Broad macro&instructional strategies .or t"e
eLearning lessons identi.ied Fe2g2 provision
o. a control console emulator so as to aid
K.ail&sa.eL learningG
Learning environment o. t"e converted
eLearning lessons Fe2g2 1"et"er itIs *00W
sel.&paced and sel.&/ased, or 1"et"er itIs
A"e ne1 course0su/ject .ormat, given t"e
eLearning lessons
-inally, upon endorsement /y t"e sc"oolIs CAC,
a Pro1ect Mana!e$ent Plan FP6PG 1as dra1n
up /y t"e $c"ool Project 6anager F$PC6G2 Ene
P6P 1as created .or eac" sc"ool, and t"is P6P
dictated t"e:
Pro1ect Or!anisation C"art, 1"ic" dictated
t"e roles and responsi/ilities o. all parties
involved in t"e project
Pro1ect (c"edle, 1"ic" detailed t"e
milestones and timelines
Pro1ect 9esorces, 1"ic" detailed t"e
resources needed Fe2g2 video s"ooting o.
com/at engineers laying out a /ridgeG
Warranty, 1"ic" stipulated t"e terms and
conditions o. t"e de.ect recti.ication
Maintenance, 1"ic" stipulated t"e
maintenance plan o. t"e course1are /uilt
(ecrity, 1"ic" stated "o1 security issues
1ould /e "andled Fe2g2 t"e sign&in and sign&
out o. classi.ied materialsG
<A Plan, 1"ic" stated "o1 t"e course1are
/uilt 1ill /e c"ec8ed .or correctness
!"ile t"e Areatment $tudy recommended /road
courses to /e converted into eLearning .ormat, it
1as t"e Course1are 4e:uirement $peci.ications
FC4$G t"at captured t"e e9act titles, along 1it"
t"e c"apters and topics t"erein, as 1ell as
re:uired Krun&timeL o. eac" course1are t"at 1as
to /e converted into eLearning modules2 A"e
overarc"ing o/jective o. t"e C4$ 1as to
esta/lis" t"e instructional goal, trainee
re:uirements, scope o. 1or8, as 1ell as to
recommend learning o/jectives, interactivity
levels and macro instructional strategies2
A"e C4$ itsel. 1as actually a pre&de.ined .orm
t"at 1as to /e completed /y an #; .or eac"
course1are2 A"e C4$ consisted o. t1o portions,
1"ic" re:uired #;s to ta8e into consideration
Analysis o. Course1are0Aitle
o Contents currently availa/le
o AraineeIs initial state Fe2g2 educational
levels, prior courses attendedG
o #nstructional goalFsG o. t"e course1are
o -inal per.ormance e9pected o. t"e
trainees a.ter completion o. t"e
o Everall project goal and scope o. 1or8
#nstructional 4ecommendations
o Prere:uisites re:uired
o #nstructional o/jectives
o Level o. course1are interactivity
o #nstructional medium re:uired Fe2g2
video, 5; animationsG
o 6acro&instructional strategies to /e
o Critical development issues
o Lesson content .lo1c"art
Bpon sign&o.. o. t"e C4$ Fsigned o.. /y CAC,
B$6E, #;, $PC6Q "erea.ter called t"e si!n#o%%
partyG, t"e Course1are ;esign $peci.ications
FC;$G 1as 1ritten and it detailed instructional
strategies Fdo1n to t"e micro levelG and design
issues2 #. t"e earlier C4$ indicated t"e need to
include t"e development o. a KscenarioL to aid
learning, t"en t"e $cenario ;esign $peci.ic&
ation F$;$G, a document 1"ic" detailed t"e
scenario .lo1, 1as cra.ted2
Cust li8e t"e C4$, t"e C;$ and $;$ 1ere
actually pre&de.ined .orms t"at 1ere to /e
completed /y t"e #; assigned .or t"at
course1are2 #. t"e C4$ 1as deemed to detail
K1"atL 1as to /e taug"t, t"en t"e C;$ and $;$
may /e deemed to detail K"o1L to teac" 1"at
1as to /e taug"t2
Bpon endorsement o. t"e C;$ Fand $;$, i.
appropriateG /y t"e sign&o.. party, t"e
course1are development e..orts moved into t"e
Corse'are (toryboard FC$BG stage2 A"e C$B
1as a /lueprint /uilt /y t"e #;, and it visually
detailed, in a .rame&/y&.rame manner, "o1 t"e
completed course1are 1as to loo8 li8e2 At t"is
stage, t"e Bser #nter.ace, as 1ell as all te9t
o/jects, 1ere inserted into t"e course1are2
rap"ics, videos, and animations and audio
1ere not inserted at t"is stage2 #nstead,
place"olders 1ere used2 Additionally, test items
1it" .eed/ac8, scores, and 1eig"ting 1ere also
included2 An KinstructionsL section 1as
provided /elo1 eac" .rame, and t"is section
provided .or programming instructions, t"e
narrated te9t .or t"at particular .rame,
description o. grap"ics, animations and video
re:uired .or t"at .rame2
Ence t"e sign&o.. party endorses t"e C$B, t"e
course1are moves into t"e Corse'are
Develop$ent FC;EG p"ase, 1"ic" 1as t"e stage
1"en t"e Keye candyL and Karti.icial intelligenceL
1ere added to t"e course1are2 #n ot"er 1ords,
t"e Programmers and rap"ics ;esigners
started 1or8ing2
Aypically, t"e #; 1ould provide t"e approved
C$B to "is0"er grap"ics designer, programmer
and i. necessary, videograp"er F1"o 1as in&
c"arge o. all video and audio 1or8G and
per.ormed a 1al8&t"ru 1it" t"em on 1"at 1as
needed to /e created .or t"at course1are Fsuc" a
1al8&t"ru usually ta8es at least "al. a dayG2 Eac"
team mem/er 1as t"en given a timeline to
complete t"e tas8s given, and once all media
elements "ad /een created, t"e programmer
1eaved everyt"ing toget"er into t"e course1are2
#n a sense, t"e course1are may /e deemed to /e
KcompletedL since everyt"ing dictated in t"e
C$B 1as no1 Klive2L
Be.ore t"e .inal delivery, t"e course1are is sent
t"roug" t"e Corse'are Evalation FCE<G
stage2 A"e o/jective o. t"is stage 1as to ensure
t"at t"e course1are met t"e speci.ications in t"e
C$B, as 1ell as to gat"er .eed/ac8 .rom a small
sample group o. instructors and trainees to .ine&
tune course1are2 A"ese evaluations 1ere called
t"e &nstrctor Try#Ot F#AEG and (tdent
Grop Try#Ot F$AEG collectively2 A"e #;
1or8ed 1it" t"e sc"ool Project Coordinator to
collect t"e responses given during #AE and
$AE2 Appropriate suggestions 1ere
incorporated into a .inal round o. c"anges, and
t"e course1are 1as t"en delivered, installed and
tested at t"e sc"oolsI computer Ft"is is called
En&$ite Acceptance Aesting, or E$AA in s"ortG2
A"at course1are 1as t"en signed&o.. as
completed and delivered, and a project is
completed 1"en all course1are earmar8ed .or a
particular sc"ool "ad /een delivered2
Bpon delivery, t"e course1are 1as placed under
!arranty and 6aintenance, details o. 1"ic" are
provided under t"e section entitled C"an!e
Mana!e$ent )ra$e'or*2
*mendments to the Content
Development .ramework
A"e /uilding /loc8s .or any customised
eLearning content development project are t"e
course1are modules to /e /uilt2 As can /e seen
.rom t"is project, and t"e 8ey personnel
involved 1as t"e #;, since "e0s"e 1as t"e only
person directly involved in all stages o. t"e
Content Develop$ent )ra$e'or*2 7ence, it
appears t"at success For .ailureG o. any o. t"e
customised eLearning content development
projects rested mainly on t"e "ands on t"e #;2
#n t"e .irst year alone, 1e noticed t"at t"e most
glaring issue 1it" t"e programme 1as 1it" t"e
:uality and timeline issues o. some o. t"e #;s2
$imply put, some #;s 1ere producing
course1are eit"er too slo1ly Ft"e .rame1or8
posits t"at an #; could produce at least ( "ours
o. course1are in a yearQ see Anne9 A .or t"e
Corse'are Develop$ent +or$ C"artK see
Anne9 B .or a sample Corse'are Develop$ent
Ti$eline C"artG or o. in.erior :uality Fe2g2 1ea8
instructional design, incorrect lin8agesG2
Eriginally, it 1as assumed t"at #;s, prodded /y
t"eir $PC6s, 1ould ad"ere to t"e timeline set in
t"e P6P and deliver at least ( "ours o.
eLearning course1are a year2 7o1ever, t"e
reality on t"e ground 1as t"at very o.ten,
meetings got postponed, $6Es 1ere sent
overseas, etc, and t"ese .actors reduced t"e
e..iciency rate o. some #;s /y up to ,0W2
En t"e issue o. :uality, it 1as originally t"oug"t
t"at t"e C$B 1al8&t"ru and t"e E$AA 1ould
capture /ot" instructional and tec"nical
mista8es2 7o1ever, t"at 1as not al1ays t"e
case2 6ista8es slipped /y unnoticed, only to /e
pic8ed up later 1"en c"anges 1ere muc" more
e9pensive to ma8e2
As suc", 1e needed a 1ay to ensure t"at :uality
and timeline 1ere ad"ered to2 A"e 7ead #; and
7ead Programmer 1ere ne1 appointments
created to ensure t"at a :uality product 1as
delivered at t"e end o. t"e day2 A"e 7ead #;Is
role 1as to ensure a :uality course1are in t"e
sense o. ac"ieving its intended instructional
goals, 1"ile t"e 7ead ProgrammerIs role 1as to
ensure a :uality course1are in t"e sense o.
tec"nical soundness2 A"e 7ead #; also "ad an
indirect .eed/ac8 loop to t"e $PC6, and 1ould
in.orm t"e $CP6 i. one #; appears to /e
providing t"e C4$, C;$, $;$, C$B, etc muc"
later t"an "is0"er .ollo1 #;s assigned to t"at
sc"ool2 A"is 1ay, t"e $PC6s "ad a 1ay o. ta8ing
a muc" more active role in monitoring t"e
progress o. eac" stage o. a course1are so as to
prevent deadline slippages2
#n t"e amended .rame1or8, all #;s 1ere to
su/mit t"eir C4$, C;$, $;$ and C$B .or a
:uality control FPCG c"ec8 prior to t"e 1al8&t"ru
session 1it" t"e $c"ools2 A.ter revie1 F1"ic"
ta8es .rom * to 2 daysG, eac" C4$, C;$, $;$ and
C$B are given a grading o. KApproved,L
KAmendments 4e:uired,L or K4ejected2L
Also in t"e ne1 .rame1or8, prior to eac" E$AA,
t"e 7ead Programmer c"ec8ed eac" and every
course1are to ensure tec"nical soundness Fsuc"
as no K/ugsL or incorrect lin8ages 1it"in t"e
$ince t"e amendment Fand ad"erenceG to t"e
amended development .rame1or8, t"e :uality o.
t"e course1are improved .rom 22W F2000G to
6)W F2002G Findependently reported /y ;$AAG
and t"e num/er o. course1are delivered
improved .rom 6) in 2000 to *+, in 20022
Change Management .ramework
A"e content development .rame1or8 dealt 1it"
t"e vast majority o. course1are developed2
7o1ever, t"ere 1ere instances 1"ere/y certain
c"ange re:uests 1ere made drin! t"e
development o. t"e course1are2 A"e most
common e9ample is t"e 1anting to add more
content into t"e course1are, a..ecting its
runtime and, "ence, cost2
A 8ey point to note is t"at once t"e C$B "as /een
signed&o.., any c"anges to /e made to t"e
course1are needed to go t"roug" t"e c"ange
management process2 A"is process 1as long
and tedious, and intentionally so2 A.ter all,
muc" time and e..ort "ad /een put into deciding
Fand approvingG t"e course1are up to t"e C$B
stage, and any re:uested c"anges s"ould /e
evaluated seriously2
-or t"is programme, 1e .ind t"at c"ange
management 1as seldom invo8ed, and 1e
"ypot"esis t"at t"e reason .or t"is 1as /ecause
o. t"e strong content development .rame1or8
t"at 1as put in place Fespecially at t"e
Areatment $tudy and Course1are 4e:uirements
$peci.ications p"asesG2 A"roug" t"e years, 1e
.ound t"at i. t"e "ard 1or8 1as done up.ront,
t"en t"e end&p"ases tended to conclude
Conclusions and ,e# Take&*wa#s
A"e content development .rame1or8, as 1ell as
t"e c"ange management .rame1or8 used in t"is
programme, "ad /een instrumental in t"e
success.ul completion o. t"is programme2 A"e
.rame1or8s provided a clear process
met"odology .or 1"at needed to /e done, /y
1"om, and /y 1"enQ it .ormed t"e /ac8/one o.
our entire eP6 .or t"is programme2
A"e amendment o. t"e original content
development .rame1or8 Fe2g2 to include t"e
roles and duties o. t"e 7ead #; and 7ead
ProgrammerG, 1as signi.icant in improving t"e
:uality and timeline issues t"e original content
development .rame1or8 did not ade:uately
address2 A"is rein.orces our /elie. t"at good
project managers s"ould not /e overly dogmatic
in t"eir use o. esta/lis"ed .rame1or8s and
models, /ut rat"er, /e 1illing to amend or add
on to t"e .rame1or8 to deal 1it" issues t"at may
-inally, 1e must mention t"at t"e success o. t"is
project is also due to t"e .act t"at all t"e 8ey
people involved in t"e project understood t"e
intentionality o. eac" p"ase, and sta.. on t"e
ground running t"e project 8ne1 t"at 1"en in
dou/t, t"ey 1ere to .ollo1 t"e spirit and not t"e
letter o. t"e Kla12L A"is mutual trust and
understanding really "elped in moving t"e
programme along t"ose t"ree years2
$"ac8el.ord, Bill2 F2002G Pro1ect Mana!in! E#
Learnin!2 Arlington, <A: A$A;
C"apter *0
Leading eLearning Projects in
Britis" Colum/ia $c"ools
9andy LaBonte
Odyssey Learnin! (yste$s
Aancover, Britis" Col$bia, Canada
*bstract+ $ound leaders"ip and good management practices are critical to success.ul adoption
o. elearning programs2 !"ile leaders"ip, re.orm and project management "ave /een 1ell studied
and documented in t"e literature, little "as /een 1ritten on t"e role leaders play in t"e success or
.ailure o. elearning program implementation2 Araditional project management principles do not
ade:uately descri/e elearning project management2 Emerging leaders"ip and comple9 adaptive
systems t"eories provide ne1 insig"t into .undamental assumptions a/out c"ange, control, order,
organi>ations, people and an overall elearning project leaders"ip2 A study o. a ne1 organi>ation
designed to support elearning in t"e BC =&*2 sc"ool system 1as conducted to determine "o1
project leaders"ip in.luenced c"ange 1it"in t"e BC elearning community2 A"e study rea..irmed
t"e critical role o. a project leader in systemic c"ange and con.irms t"at 1it"out a clear vision,
colla/orative leaders"ip, and a systems approac", organi>ations could commit precious resources
to elearning 1it"out muc" success2
,e# words+ Leaders"ip, =&*2, comple9ity t"eory, strategic planning
Cust as t"e internet "as /ecome integral to
our lives, it "as also /egun to c"ange "o1 1e
t"in8 a/out t"e organi>ation o. learning2
6ost =&*2 sc"ool jurisdictions t"roug"out
%ort" America and Europe "ave already
developed some type o. elearning program,
or virtual sc"ool, ta8ing advantage o. t"e
.le9i/ility elearning provides: students can
arrange sc"edules around ot"er
responsi/ilities suc" as jo/s, medical issues,
or travelQ colla/oration among students in
di..erent geograp"ic locations is ena/ledQ
students can learn .rom e9perts in ot"er
countries or locationsQ and students can
control t"e pace and content o. t"eir o1n
learning and learn .rom "ome2
Bnderstanding "o1 leaders"ip in.luences
organi>ational development and adoption o.
e&learning is clearly a central :uestion in e&
learning project management2 A"e :uality
o. leaders"ip is a primary indicator 1"et"er
tec"nology .unding 1ill /e spent 1isely or
!it" t"e release o. an enrolment cap on =&
*2 distance education programs in 2002, t"e
gro1t" in elearning programs in Britis"
Colum/ia FBCG more t"an dou/led in 200+,
and t"e num/er o. elearning programs is
projected to continue to gro1 F6inistry o.
Education, 200,G2 eLearning programs "ave
.louris"ed in BCIs =&*2 sc"ools largely due
to t"e in.luence and leaders"ip o. a .e1 8ey
individuals leading projects to actively
integrate educational tec"nologies 1it"in
e9isting learning programs, and at t"e same
time, creating ne1 organi>ations and
structures 1it"in a gro1ing elearning
community to support t"ese ne1 programs2
Leaders in t"e Britis" Colum/ia =&*2
elearning community set out to .orm a
provincial organi>ation, BC Ed Enline, 1it"
t"e intention to create a central /ody to:
6anage course development,
Bro8er provincial so.t1are and resource
licence deals,
$"are a structure .or tec"nology
integration and use,
Create standards .or development and
use o. elearning course materials,
$upport pro.essional development .or
teac"ers using elearning tec"nologies,
4epresent collective district needs to
government and ot"er provincial /odies2
$eadership for e$earning Project
Principles o. project management evolved
.rom a need to control large development
projects, and t"e di..iculties o. estimating
and managing t"ese e..orts to relia/ly
deliver results2 6et"odologies dre1 "eavily
on engineering principles applied in
construction management, and stressed
predicta/ility and linear development cycles
3 relying on tas8 /rea8do1n, predicated
re:uirements, analysis and sta/le, rigid
design2 !"ile t"ese met"odologies 1or8 in
some instances, .or elearning projects t"ese
met"odologies add cost and comple9ity,
1"ile providing a .alse sense o. security t"at
management is steering t"e implementation
or c"ange process2 6ore t"an "al. a million
ne1 in.ormation tec"nology F#AG application
development projects 1ere initiated during
200* F$tandis" roup, 200*G, despite t"e
.act #A projects "ave a terri/le trac8 record2
A study in *'', .ound t"at only *622W o. #A
projects 1ere success.ul and over 5*W 1ere
canceled /e.ore completion, costing over
X)* /illion in t"e B2$2 alone F$tandis"
roup, *'',G2 !it"in t"e =&*2 sc"ool
system, sc"ool improvement and re.orm
"ave /een 1ell studied and documented in
t"e literature2 Uet prior to t"e *')0s, t"e
literature 1as silent on t"e role leaders"ip
plays in success or .ailure o. educational
innovation or project management, and
7argraves and -ullan F*'')G analysis o.
sc"ool re.orm literature concluded t"at
re.orm e..orts "ad a dismal record o.
accomplis"ment as 1ell2
Leaders"ip is central to determining and
articulating a vision or p"ilosop"y and goals,
and articulating t"is 1it"in community2
#ndeed, systemic c"ange is inspired /y moral
purpose and t"e con.luence o. t"e
intellectual, political and spiritual in /ot"
personal t"in8ing and action F-ullan, *''5G2
Araditional management t"eory, particularly
project management, is /ased on a scienti.ic
model approac"2 #t assumes predicta/le and
managea/le ris8s, static organi>ations and
"ierarc"ies, and structured control to
manage c"ange2 7o1ever, ne1
management principles, /ased on t"e
principles o. c"aos and comple9ity t"eory
F!"eatley, *''2 S *'''G, "ave led to t"e rise
o. comple9 adaptive systems t"in8ing2
Comple9ity, according to eorge Co1an,
re.ers to Ksystems 1it" many di..erent parts
1"ic", /y a rat"er mysterious process o.
sel.&organi>ation, /ecome more ordered and
more in.ormedL FCo1an, *''+, p2*G2 #n some
cases, an intended outcome can /e created,
/ut t"e person does not control t"e c"ange,
merely in.luences t"e system to initiate a
c"ange2 A"is comple9ity e9ists 1it"in t"e
BC elearning community, and is re.lected in
t"e processes t"at "ave in.luenced t"e
creation o. BC Ed Enline2 C"ange, and
elearning adoption 1it"in t"e BC elearning
community, can /e descri/ed as a 8ind o.
sel.&organi>ation 1it"in a comple9 system
resulting .rom en"anced interconnectedness
and connectivity to t"e surrounding
elearning community2
#n t"e case o. t"e development o. BC Ed
Enline, traditional leaders"ip and project
management principles could not .ully
e9plain t"e conditions and events leading to
its .ormation2 A"ere is a lac8 o. alignment
/et1een planning .or elearning adoption
and traditional project management
principles, symptomatic o. di..erences in
assumptions a/out c"ange, order, and t"e
development o. organi>ations2 Araditional
project management vie1s manager as
Ktas8mastersL, developing, monitoring, and
controlling a master plan t"at documents in
detail t"e tas8s, dependencies, and resources
re:uired to deliver an end product2 !it"in
t"is approac", individuals are vie1ed as
interc"angea/le, controlla/le commodities 3
not dynamic, interdependent agents 1it"in a
community2 Araditional Kcommand&and&
controlL project management is not easily
imposed on teams o. 8no1ledge 1or8ers,
particularly in t"e academic sector or
elearning community2 Project leaders"ip is
re:uired2 Project leaders are more t"an just
managers 3 t"ey com/ine vision,
communication, good management and
tec"nical s8ills 1it" t"e a/ility to plan,
coordinate, and e9ecute2 A"ey 8eep t"e
.ocus on t"e vision, inspire teams, promote
colla/oration, c"ampion t"e project and
remove o/stacles to progress2
Araditional vie1s o. project management
emp"asi>e varia/le identi.ication, planning
and control 3 not leaders"ip2 #. t"e goal o.
elearning project leaders"ip is to engage t"e
community, inviting o1ners"ip o. pro/lems
and inviting community constituents to
/ecome agents o. c"ange t"emselves, t"en
leaders"ip is a/out creating t"e conditions
and processes to support t"e li8eli"ood o.
t"is to "appen F-ullan, 2005G2 A"is starts
1it" moral purpose and a compelling idea
t"at captures attention and interest,
/ecomes a s"ared vision t"at is clearly
communicated, advocated and supported2
#ndeed, several studies cite top management
commitment as one o. t"e 8ey .actors
associated 1it" project success F$tandis"
roup, *'',G2 By creating t"e conditions .or
c"ange, not controlling t"em, adoption o.
elearning ta8es on ne1 approac"es2 A"oug"
not predicta/le, t"e conditions t"at support
elearning adoption can /e in.luenced and
encouraged, ensuring success, al/eit 1it" an
outcome t"at is not al1ays easily articulated
at t"e /eginning o. t"e process2
Project leaders"ip activity in t"e Britis"
Colum/ia =&*2 elearning community /egan
out o. necessity2 A"e num/er o. sc"ools
providing elearning programs 1as
increasing, as t"e 6inistry o. Education "ad
removed t"e limit on t"e num/er o.
programs allo1ed in t"e province, and eac"
district encountered similar c"allenges in
developing t"eir o1n program2 A"ere 1as a
gro1ing demand .or online learning, and
suita/le materials .or t"e ne1ly developing
programs did not e9ist2 Commercial
vendors and e9isting content developers
1ere not meeting t"e needs .or t"ose
1or8ing 1it" students online in t"e non&
;istance Education sc"ools2
A"e leaders o. BC Ed Enline "ad a clear
vision, 1ere "ig"ly motivated and "ard
1or8ing 3 .inding it di..icult to say RnoI2
A"ey 1ere .ocused on learning, 1ere clear
and consistent communicators, "ad a clear
.ocus on strategic goals, and 1ere passionate
a/out 1"at t"ey did2 A"ey 1ere driven /y
t"e collective vision descri/ed at t"e 2005
;E <isioning $ession, and "o1 t"at vision
1as articulated and communicated /y t"em
1idely in meetings 1it" elearning advocates
and sta8e"olders t"roug"out t"e
development o. BC Ed EnlineIs .irst strategic
plan2 A"at plan captured t"e vision,
mission, and goals o. t"e initial visioning
session FBC Ed Enline, 200+G, and 1as a 8ey
component .or t"ese leaders in t"e BC
elearning community2
A"e study o. BC Ed Enline and adoption o.
elearning in t"e BC elearning community
rea..irmed t"e critical role o. a project leader
in systemic c"ange and con.irms t"at,
1it"out a clear vision, colla/orative
leaders"ip, and a systems approac",
organi>ations could commit precious
resources to elearning 1it"out muc"
success2 A"e study .ound t"at leaders 1it"in
t"e BC e&learning community /elieved
educational tec"nologies 1ere a catalyst .or
c"anging "o1 learning is organi>ed and
supported, and t"at policy is o. 8ey in.luence
in education, and in some instances
precedes c"ange and re.orm2 ;espite a
critical lac8 o. resources to support ne1 and
emerging structures, a s"ared vision,
collective goals, and a passionate /elie. in
t"e a/ility o. educational tec"nology to
support c"ange 1as compelling enoug" to
sustain t"e leaders in BC Ed Enline .or t1o
years a.ter t"e organi>ation .irst .ormed2 #t
is "oped t"at t"e study provides t"e reader
1it" an insig"t into "o1 leaders"ip is
e9pressed 1it"in a community o. practice 3
BCIs =&*2 elearning community 3 and an
understanding o. t"e need .or a /roader
de.inition .or project management in
elearning adoption2
BCEd Enline2 F200+G2 BCEd Online ,--I #
,--: (trate!ic Plan.
Co1an, 2 F*''+G2 Con.erence opening
remar8s2 #n Co1an, 2, Pines, ;2, S 6elt>er,
;2 FEds2G2 Co$ple3ity: Metap"ors, $odels,
and reality2 4eading, 6assac"usetts:
Addison&!esley Pu/lis"ing2
-ullan, 62 F*''5G2 C"an!e %orces: Probin!
t"e dept"s o% edcational re%or$2 Bristol,
PA: -almer Press2
-ullan, 62 F2005G2 C"an!e %orces 'it" a
ven!eance2 %e1 Uor8: 4outledge&-almer
7argraves, A2 and -ullan, 62 F*'')G2 W"at>s
'ort" %i!"tin! %or ot t"ereL %e1 Uor8:
Aeac"ers College Press2
6inistry o. Education2 F200,G2 Plan:
Ministry o% Edcation # Movin! learnin! to
anyti$e, any'"ere. $ummary version.
$tandis" roup #nternational2 F*'',G2
2n%inis"ed voya!es2 Enline document
retrieved .rom:
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earc"0un. ini s "ed]voya g es]*2p"p2 4etr ieved
.rom source 0,00*05 0 2
$tandis" roup #nternational2 F200*G2
E3tre$e c"aos2 Enline document retrieved
"ttp:001112 s tandis " group2com0sample]res
earc"0P;-p a ges0e9treme ] c"aos2pd.2
4etrieved .r o m source 0,00*05 0 2
!"eatley, 6argaret C2 F*''2G2 Leaders"ip
and t"e ne' science: Learnin! abot
or!ani5ation %ro$ an orderly niverse. $an
-rancisco: Berrett&=oe"ler Pu/lis"ers2
!"eatley, 6argaret C2 F*'''G2 Leaders"ip
and t"e ne' science: Discoverin! order in a
c"aotic 'orld. $an -rancisco: Berrett&
=oe"ler Pu/lis"ers2
C"apter **
A"e Communications C"allenge:
6igrating K-2-L to e&Learning 3 A
tre story
Colleen 4a'alila*
9od Corbett
2niversity o% Cal!ary
Cal!ary, Alberta, Canada
*bstract+ A"is c"apter .ocuses on t"e migration c"allenges o. a 1ell&esta/lis"ed .ace to .ace
F-2-G 3 university certi.icate program to an e&Learning environment2 A"e Certi.icate in Adult
Learning FCALG 1as developed in t"e early '0s2 #nstructor0.acilitators, many o. 1"om 1ere
involved 1it" CAL .rom t"e onset, 1ere 8ey sta8e"olders in t"is project2 A"ese creative0 /road&
minded individuals 1ere a Rcommunity o. li8e&minded soulsI, deeply committed to CAL2 $ome
e9pressed concern t"at t"e program integrity and essence o. t"e CAL RcultureI 1ould /e seriously
compromised, i. migrated online2 Eperating /udgets 1ere d1indling, "o1ever, and ot"er
sta8e"olders Finternal and e9ternalG .elt t"at migration 1as critical i. CAL 1as to survive and
t"rive2 A"is is a story o. c"allenges .aced 1"en attempting to respond to con.licting sta8e"older
needs2 A"is story emp"asi>es an aut"entic and strategic response to t"e R"uman dimensionsI o.
project management2
,e# words+ Project management, 6igration, e&Learning, Aec"nology, -2-, Enline community,
Ao $ana!e conjures up many images,
namely, to direct, to control, to supervise2 Ao
manage is a /road topic and applies to any
num/er o. situations and conte9ts2 Even
t"oug" it may not /e stated in a jo/
description Fit is o.ten notG, an e..ective
manager o. projects is also someone 1"o
understands t"e needs o% t"e people
involved in t"e project, needs t"at tend to
sur.ace in times o. c"ange and transition2
!"ile speci.ic strategies and tools Fe2g2
developing a project plan0roadmap,
visioning and trac8ing 1it" antt c"arts,
project management so.t1areG all contri/ute
to project management success, t"e
e..ectiveness o. t"ese strategies and tools
1ill /e signi.icantly determined /y t"e
attitudes, /elie.s and a/ilities o. t"ose 1"o
apply t"em and all o. t"ose 1"o are
impacted /y t"em2
#n addition to "aving a solid understanding
o. all t"at project management entails,
project managers 1"o ac"ieve e9cellence are
people 1"o: can see t"e /ig pictureQ "ave
.oresig"tQ are strategic t"in8ersQ "ave strong
analytic and pro/lem&solving s8illsQ 1elcome
t"e une9pectedQ adapt to t"e unanticipatedQ
communicate con.idence in t"emselves and
ot"ersQ understand and address motiva&
tional issuesQ and are aut"entic, inclusive
communicators2 A"is is a tall order /ut an
ideal t"at 1e all need to aspire to i. 1e 1is"
to ac"ieve e9cellence in t"e 1or8 t"at 1e do2
An e..ective project manager must "ave
multi&.aceted s8ills as managing a project is
a multi&.aceted process2 A"is is 1"y 1e "ave
c"osen to .ocus speci.ically on t"e
importance o. RpeopleI in t"e project
management process2 $peci.ically, 1e 1ill
"ig"lig"t communication and inclusion
processes t"at, i. designed and "andled 'it"
care, "ave t"e potential to signi.icantly
impact t"e ultimate success o. any project2
7aving aut"entic, strategic and inclusive
communication practices t"at 1elcome a
diversity o. perspectives, .rom all 1"o "ave
a vested interest in t"e project, i2e2, t"e
sta*e"olders, ma8es a 1ise project manager
indeed2 $uc" an individual recogni>es t"at
di..erences o. opinion and perspective,
alt"oug" c"allenging to manage, are o.ten
1"at distinguis"es project management
e9cellence .rom mediocrity2 -rom our o1n
e9perience, 1e "ave come to appreciate t"e
potential ric"ness o. a .inal project 1"en
diversity in sta8e"oldersI perspectives and
approac" is sincerely 1elcomed and valued2
#n t"is c"apter, 1e e9plore t"e migration o.
a -2- F.ace&to&.aceG university certi.icate
program to t"e elearning environment2 As
1e re.lect on t"e images o. managing
s"o1ing a need Kto direct, to control, to
supervise,L 1e are particularly attracted to
t"e deeper, more c"allenging aspect o.
s8il.ul and success.ul project management,
t"at /eing, to ac"ieve oneIs purpose 1"ile
treating everyone involved 'it" care2 A"e
term 'it" is central to t"e message in t"is
c"apter, as 'it" communicates colla/or&
ation, cooperation and community2
A"is, t"en, is a story a/out treatin! 'it"
care2 Colla/oration, cooperation and t"e
recognition o. t"e critical importance o.
RcommunityI, all central to project success,
are t"e necessary tools i. one "opes to
ac"ieve t"is ideal2 A"e migration o. a -2-,
course&/ased, university certi.icate pro&
gram, to t"e e&Learning environment, is t"is
story2 A"is is a project in processQ t"e ending
is yet to /e 1ritten2
Task&at& 0and < %bjectives
Aimes 1ere Pa c"an!in!G and t"e Bniversity
o. Calgary 1as no e9ception2 #t 1as 2002
and delivery o. selected courses and
programs, via online delivery, 1as moving at
1arp speed2 6any program areas "ad
already em/raced t"e c"allenge and "ad
done so success.ully2 !e 1ere all learning a
great deal and Rmista8es madeI in one
project, evolved into Rpotential discoveriesI
.or t"e ne9t2 A"ese discoveries, i. reali>ed,
1ould serve to contri/ute to a /etter pro&
duct t"e ne9t time around2 $ig"ts 1ere no1
set on developing strategies to sup&port t"e
migration o. a continuing education, -2-
certi.icate program to an e&Learning
environment2 A"e CAL FCerti.icate in Adult
LearningG program /ecame our .ocus2
Planning t"e migration o. CAL to t"e
eLearning environment 1as a major
initiativeQ CAL "ad a solid reputation in t"e
community and "ad /een success.ully
.unctioning .or over *0 years as a -2-
program2 6any instructor&.acilitators and
adult learners FparticipantsG 1ere strong
advocates .or preserving CAL in its original
-2- .orm2 A"ese 1ere individuals deeply
committed to t"e p"ilosop"y and guiding
principles o. CAL and t"ere 1as .ear t"at
t"ese principles 1ould /e compromised i.
t"e courses 1ere moved online2 $ome
instructor&.acilitators and participants in
CAL 1ere pu/lic 1it" t"eir :uestions and
ECAL is based on t"e pre$ise t"at
*no'led!e and learnin! is !reatly
assisted t"ro!" interpersonal
co$$nication and %eedbac*.
Wold not t"e ric"ness o% t"is
opportnity be lost onlineLF
EAs deep learnin! is si!ni%icantly
i$pacted by process and by t"e
dyna$ics t"at %or$ in !rops, "o'
cold & e%%ectively address and
%acilitate t"ese dyna$ics in an
online environ$entL Does not t"is
$edi$ %ocs $ainly on te3t#based
learnin!L =o' 'old & create t"e
space online to allo' %or t"e
i$portant ele$ents o% !rop
%ot all sta8e"olders voiced t"ese same
concerns, "o1ever2 -eed/ac8 .rom industry
communicated strong support .or moving
CAL online2 Courses 1ould t"en /e more
readily availa/le to t"e pri$ary sta*e"older,
industry employees, regardless o.
geograp"ical distance2 A"ese 1ere t"e
people 1"o 1ould ultimately determine t"e
success and longevity o. CAL2 Clearly, t"ere
1ere tensions to /e resolved i. t"is migration
initiative 1as to succeed2
;ecreasing operating /udgets also
motivated t"is s"i.t in t"in8ing as it 1as
/elieved t"at, /y putting CAL online, t"e
university "oped to get Rmore /ang .or t"e
dollarI2 A"e need to /ecome cost#e%%ective, in
lig"t o. decreasing /udgets, 1as anot"er
strong motivator2 A"ere 1as caution,
"o1ever, in t"e minds o. some, as t"e jury
1as still out on t"e cost&e..ectiveness de/ate2
A"e literature suggests t"at t"is is still t"e
caseZ Clearly, t"ere 1ere many tensions to /e
$peci.ically, project o/jectives included:
;etermine .easi/ility o. delivering CAL
Educate sta8e"oldersQ
$ecure sta8e"oldersI commitmentQ
;esign strategies and a plan .or
migrating an esta/lis"ed -2- program
to an e&Learning environment2
A"e intended outcome 1as to success.ully
migrate CAL to an e&Learning environment,
1"ilst preserving program RintegrityI and
-ur "ole and Challenges
C"ange /rings 1it" it many c"allenges2 A"is
1as certainly t"e case in t"is migration
project2 A"e 1ords o. Tao Te C"in! are a
strong reminder t"at c"ange /roug"t a/out
success.ully, un.olds one step at a time:
6et a tree broader t"an a $an can e$brace
is born o% a tiny s"ootK
A da$ !reater t"an a river can over%lo'
starts 'it" a clod o% eart"K
A 1orney o% a t"osand $iles be!ins at t"e
spot nder or %eet. ..
Eur .irst step 1as to engage and gain t"e
trust o. individuals 1"o "ad /een t"e
original pioneers o. CAL2 #. t"is project 1as
to succeed, instructor&.acilitator and
RlearnerI trepidation 1as clearly a c"allenge
needing to /e addressed2 A"ese 1ere
individuals 1"o 1ere passionate a/out
preserving t"e p"ilosop"y and purpose as
originally spelled out in t"e CAL program
documents o. *0 years past2 #t 1as critical to
recogni>e t"e concerns o. t"ese individuals
and, at t"e same time, remain open to Rne1I
sta8e"older needs, sta8e"olders 1"o 1ould
come on /oard in support o. t"is migration
project2 Balancing 1"at appeared to /e
con.licting tensions 1as no easy tas8Z #t is
too o%ten t"e case t"at in t"e interests o.
progress, voices o. individuals .rom t"e past
are not recogni>ed or valued2 !e 1ere
deeply committed to creating spaces .or all
sta8e"olders, past and present and to
gaining /uy&in .rom CAL instructors 1"o, in
essence, "ad nurtured t"e development o.
CAL .rom t"e grass&roots to t"e present2
A"e university "ad /een "eavily su/sidi>ing
CAL .rom its inception, 1it" /ase&/udget
.unds2 ;ue to decreasing operating /udgets,
CAL needed to s"i.t to a cost&recovery mode
i. it 1as to survive2 A"is 1ould also
signi.icantly impact "o1 instructor&
.acilitators 1ere remunerated .or teac"ing2
A"e RoldI CAL model provided .unds so t"at
instructor&.acilitators 1ere paid per corse,
regardless o. class si>e2 #n addition, t"ere
1ere .unds set aside .or course development2
Alt"oug" t"ese .unds 1ere limited, t"ey
provided some support .or ongoing course
evaluation and development2 !it" t"is
model, courses developed /y instructors
remained t"e property o. t"e Bniversity o.
A"e need to signi.icantly restructure t"is
met"od o. payment .or teac"ing and
development coincided 1it" plans to
migrate CAL to t"e e&Learning environ&
ment2 A"e ne1 plan 1as to pay instructor&
.acilitators per participant rat"er t"an per
course2 #nstructors 1ould receive an agreed
upon dollar amount .or eac" participant
1"o completed t"e course t"at t"ey 1ere
teac"ing2 A"is amount represented a
revenue&s"aring model, in t"at ,0W o. t"e
tuition .or eac" participant 1as t"en paid to
an instructor2 -or e9ample, i. t"e instructor
1as to receive X200200 .or eac" participant
completing t"eir course Ftuition per course _
X+00200G and i. *) participants completed
t"e course, t"e instructor 1ould /e paid
X5600200 .or teac"ing a +0 "our course2
7o1ever, i. t"e instructor Rne9t doorI "ad
only ) participants 1"o "ad paid t"e same
tuition, .or a course t"at entailed t"e same
lengt" o. course time, t"ey 1ould only /e
paid X*6002002
A"e concern e9pressed /y some instructors
1as t"at alt"oug" grading assignments
1ould li8ely /e more la/our&intensive .or a
larger class, t"e e..ort and planning needed
to teac" eit"er course 1ould /e more&or&less
t"e same .or /ot" instructors2 Et"ers .elt
t"at smaller class si>e re:uired less 1or8 on
t"e part o. t"e instructor2 -or e9ample, i.
t"ere 1ere ) participants in an online
course, t"is 1ould re:uire signi.icantly less
time .or t"e instructor as t"ey 1ould /e
responding to postings .rom ) participants
rat"er t"an *)2 A"is argument 1ea8ened,
"o1ever, .rom a -2- perspective, in t"at
instructors 1ould need to /e in attendance
.or t"e same num/er o. "ours 1"et"er it 1as
.or a class o. *) or a class o. )2 !it" regards
to -2- delivery, t"is perception o. potential
ine:uity among instructors 1as a signi.icant
A"is also /roug"t a/out an additional /ut
related c"allenge2 Alt"oug" it 1as /ecoming
increasingly more di..icult to accommodate
losses incurred /y running courses 1it" lo1
num/ers, under t"e old model o. instructor
reim/ursement, participants in CAL courses
sometimes ranged any1"ere .rom ( or )
participants to 202 4egardless o. class si>e,
instructors received t"e same pay2 $taying
1it" t"e -2- model, /ut under t"e ne1
system o. instructor reim/ursement, t"ere is
less monetary incentive to teac" a -2-
Anot"er s"i.t 1as t"at monies 1ere no
longer availa/le .or course development2 #n
lig"t o. t"is, courses developed /y an
instructor 1ould no1 /e t"e property o. t"at
instructor2 $ome supported t"is s"i.tQ ot"ers
considered it to /e a detriment 1it" regards
to running t"e ris8 o. jeopardi>ing t"e
continuity and .lo1 visi/le in t"e content
.rom one course to t"e ne9t2
Critical to t"e success o. t"is project
management initiative 1as t"e navigation
and delicate /alance o. s8ill re:uired to
maintain instructor involvement, 1"ilst
preserving t"e commitment o. t"ose
instructors 1"o "ad contri/uted so
signi.icantly to CALIs success over t"e years2
At t"e same time, instructors needed to /e
a1are o. t"e potential advantages o. s"i.ting
to a ne1 model2 Alt"oug" decreasing
/udgets played a major role in motivating a
ne1 1ay o. t"in8ing, t"ere 1ere ot"er
potential advantages to t"is ne1 model t"at
1ent /eyond cost e..ectiveness2
The Technological Challenge
A"e guiding principle in all CAL courses is
t"at learning e9tends .ar /eyond traditional
classroom settings and te9t /oo8s2 !ideman
F2000G distinguis"es /et1een principles and
practices /y stating t"at principles to
'"y 1e are doing somet"ingQ practices
to '"at 1e are actually doing2 CAL
addresses /ot" o. t"ese concepts2 Alt"oug"
most instructors agreed t"at online could /e
an e..ective learning medium, many
:uestioned "o1 t"e practice o. meaning.ul
dialogue, a critical component o. CAL, could
/e e..ectively transitioned to t"e online
environment2 #n addition, instructors and
participants also varied greatly in t"eir
tec"nological savvy2 $ome 1ere very
com.orta/le 1it" tec"nology and "ad
previous elearning e9perienceQ many "ad no
e9perience 1it" all t"at tec"nology could do,
/eyond e&mailing capa/ility2 ;etermining
t"e type o. initial training and ongoing
support needed to ensure a success.ul
transition, .rom -2- to elearning delivery,
/ecame a *ey consideration2
The Stakeholder Challenge
#n t"e 1ords o. !ideman F2000G, KProject
success is muc" more t"an just doing 1"at
you set out to do2 #t is also a/out 1"et"er
1"at you are doing is, in .act, t"e rig"t t"ing
to do2 !e /elieve t"at t"e ultimate goal o. a
project, and t"ere.ore its measure o.
RsuccessI, s"ould /e satis.action 1it" t"e
product on t"e part o. Mall sta8e"oldersNL Fp2
)G2 A"ere 1ere many sta8e"olders t"at "ad a
vested interest in t"e migration o. CAL to
t"e e&Learning environment2 Assessing t"e
needs o. eac" sta8e"older group and
communicating 1"at motivated t"e
transition .rom -2- to online 1ere o. critical
importance2 A"e success o. t"is project 1as
dependent upon t"e development o. a
climate o. trust and support amongst all
"isk Management
#n any ne1 initiative, one must anticipate
t"e ris8MsN involved2 -ailing to do so may, in
.act, jeopardi>e or compromise t"e entire
project2 !"at t"en 1ere t"e potential ris8s
in transitioning CAL .rom -2- to t"e e&
Learning environmentH
CAL is dependent upon internal FuniversityG
and e9ternal FcommunityG support2 A"is
initiative needed to appeal to t"ose currently
involved in CAL, t"ose 1"o 1ould ta8e CAL
in t"e .uture, and t"e /usinesses and
organi>ations t"at 1ould support t"eir
employees and volunteers in t"e completion
o. a CAL certi.icate in t"e interests o.
personal and pro.essional development2
According to %ormington F200,G, it is
critical, 1"en assessing ris8, to decide on t"e
re:uired mitigation action, to put it in place,
and t"en do it2 Alt"oug" 1e could 1rite an
entire /oo8 on t"e ris8s involvement 1"en
migrating a -2- program to an e&Learning
environment, t"e critical :uestions t"at
.ollo1 address some o. our 8ey
communications management concerns2
=o' cold 'e !ain by#in %ro$ CAL
instrctors '"o, in essence, "ad nrtred
t"e develop$ent o% CAL %ro$ t"e !rassroots
to t"e presentL
E. course, not all sta8e"olders 1ere in
support o. t"is migration and t"is 1as clear
regarding some instructor&.acilitators 1"o
"ad /een 1it" CAL since it conception2
A"ese 1ere deeply committed individuals,
involved at t"e onset in t"e development and
instruction o. CAL, individuals 1"o "ad
committed a great deal o. time and energy
developing t"e CAL p"ilosop"y and guiding
Communications management is critical and
individuals 1"o can FpotentiallyG impact t"e
success or de$ise o. a project are o.ten
t"ose 1"o "ave /een intimately involved in
its design and development in t"e earlier
stages2 !e cannot overstate t"e signi.icance
o. gaining t"e trust and t"e R/uy&inI o.
individuals 1"o "ave developed and
nurtured a project .rom t"e grassroots to its
Ao gain trust and R/uy&inI, 1e:
aG #nvited 8ey individuals to dialogue in a
larger group .orumQ
/G Provided up&to&date communication on
t"e "istory and purpose o. t"is initiativeQ
cG !or8ed closely 1it" t"ose instructors
1"o remained open to t"is c"angeQ
dG Engaged t"ese individuals in t"e day&to&
day communications and decision&
ma8ing processQ
eG $olicited diverse opinions and
.G 4espected t"at perceived RlossesI o. t"e
RoldI deserved grieving space, be%ore
space could /e created .or t"e ne1IQ
gG $earc"ed .or all t"e documents t"at
provided in.ormation on t"e
development o. CAL2
$incerely 1elcoming t"e involvement o.
individuals 1"o "ave signi.icantly
contri/uted to t"e developmental "istory
and delivery o. a program, in its original
.orm, contri/utes to a climate o. trust and
provides valua/le opportunity .or t"ese
individuals to commit to a plan t"at t"ey can
ultimately call Kt"eir o1n2L
=o' do 'e $aintain t"e involve$ent and
preserve t"e co$$it$ent o% t"ose
instrctors '"o contribted so si!ni%icantly
to CALGs sccess over t"e yearsL
aining trust and commitment, at t"e onset,
is critical2 6aintaining t"is trust and
commitment, "o1ever, re:uires additional
insig"t and strategies2
Ao maintain trust and commitment, 1e:
aG Provided ongoing opportunities to voice
opinions and ideasQ
/G ;esigned open, easy access to t"e
project manager ultimately responsi/le
.or t"e management o. communications
and all ot"er aspects o. t"is migration
cG Bpdated in.ormation on a 1ee8ly and
mont"ly /asisQ
dG Provided instructors 1it" detailed
in.ormation regarding t"e adjustment o.
pay .or courses taug"t Fe2g2 ,0W o.
tuition paid .or eac" participant
completing t"eir course versus a .lat
course rate instructional .eeG2
eG Provided detailed scenarios as to "o1
t"is could actually /e an instructorIs
advantage2 #n e..ect, instructors 1ould
no1 /e entrepreneurs, promoting t"eir
o1n courseMsN 1it" t"e "opes o.
attracting additional participantsQ
.G ;etailed "o1 instructors 1ould also /e
t"e ultimate decision&ma8er i. t"ey
c"ose to run a course in spite o. lo1
gG Educated instructors on "o1 online
teac"ing and learning encouraged a
more student&centered approac"2
6a8ing communication a priority allo1s .or
ric" dialogue amongst all sta8e"olders
during times o. great c"ange2 A"is /ecame
particularly evident in t"e dealings 1it"
RpioneerI instructor 3 .acilitators2 Alt"oug"
t"ere 1ill al1ays /e t"ose 1"o c"oose to
disengage .rom a project Fdue to "aving Rtoo
muc" "istoryI 1it" t"e RoldI to /e a/le to
support t"e Rne1IG, t"is is a c"oice t"at needs
to /e respected /y t"e project manager and
/y all t"ose 1"o remain on a project2
Attending to t"is type o. communication and
process conveys sincere respect and support
.or t"ose 1"o may c"oose to sever t"eir
involvement, in t"at t"ey 1ill /e a/le to
ma8e an in.ormed c"oice as to 1"et"er to
support t"e c"ange or not2 A"is set o. /elie.s
and process are critical i. 1e "ope to succeed
1"en managing a project initiative2
Creating space .or valua/le 8no1ledge to /e
s"ared /y and amongst instructors, easy
access to t"e project manager, "onest and
updated communication as to t"e status and
details o. t"e project, and educating
instructors as to t"e potential advantages o.
t"is migration initiative, signi.icantly
contri/uted to gaining t"e ongoing trust and
commitment o. instructors 1"o "ad
pioneered t"e development and delivery o.
CAL in its -2- .orm2
W"at type o% initial trainin! a n d on!oin!
spport %or instrctors and participants
'ere needed, to ensre a sccess%l
transition %ro$ ),) to e#Learnin! deliveryL
-or t"ose 1"o "ave e9perienced a 1ell
constructed and inclusive e&Learning
environment, t"ere is a sense o. e9citement
1"en involved in t"e migration process .rom
t"e -2- medium2 CAL "ad t"e reputation o.
/eing a stimulating, creative, learning&.illed
program, "o1ever, a program t"at
encouraged "ig" interaction and
involvement .rom participants2 6any 1"o
"ad ta8en CAL courses spo8e to t"e value o.
t"e -2- nature o. t"e program, stating t"at
t"is 1ould /e di..icult i. not impossi/le to
replicate in an e&Learning environment2
$pencer F200+G addresses t"is concern 1"en
re.erring to t"e social component potential
o. virtual classrooms and maintains t"at:
W"en stdents are lin*ed in a co$$nity
or environ$ent !rop, DE Din co$$on 'it"
ot"er edcation %or adltsJ can beco$e
social edcation. Tryin! to recreate
co$$nity in t"e electronic classroo$
beco$es easier i% t"e stdents t"e$selves
are co$$itted to a real co$$nity or
s"ared social prpose. T"ey can t"en se
t"eir PindividalisedG stdies and t"eir
re$ote classroo$ as a basis %or t"eir
co$$nity#based social action. Dp. .BCJ
Bates F*')6G cautions providers and
managers o. online delivery /y emp"asi>ing
t"e value o. t"e online medium:
Qt"e co$pter as $erely a c"annel o%
co$$nication bet'een learners and
teac"ers. &n ot"er 'ords, t"e co$pter is
part o% a net'or*, allo'in! learners and
teac"ers to co$$nicate directly 'it" one
anot"er, on#line bt async"ronosly and at
a distance. T"e strctrin! o% t"e teac"in!
is not contained in or restricted by t"e
arc"itectre o% t"e co$pter, bt developed
and ne!otiated bet'een learners and
teac"ers. DR IJ
Ao educate instructors and participants on
t"e potential ric"ness o. inclusion and
interactivity in e&Learning environments,
aG Provided opportunities .or individuals
to vie1 and sample online coursesQ
/G Encouraged individuals to participate in
online R;iscussion BoardsI .or t"e
purpose o. e9periencing interactivity
1it" t"ose t"ey could not Fp"ysicallyG
cG ;eveloped training materials so t"at
instructors "ad templates and structures
.or moving course content to t"e online
dG ;esigned numerous Pro%essional
Develop$ent sessions .or instructors to
receive training in developing online
courses and .acilitating online
eG #denti.ied numerous tec"ni:ues .or
stimulating online activityQ
.G Provided .inancial support .or
instructors to participate in additional
gG Communicated regularly 1it" course
participants and provided opportunities
1"ere CAL courses 1ould incorporate
an e&Learning component 1it"in t"e
-2- course o..eringQ
"G Communicated and provided "ands&on
e9amples t"at demonstrated t"at online
content could still /e provided and
taug"t /ut it 1ould not /e designed and
developed in t"e same 1ay as 1"en
delivered -2-2
4esistance to c"ange is o.ten determined /y
t"e degree o. con.idence t"at ot"ers "ave in
t"e ne1 vision2 A"is con.idence is
signi.icantly impacted /y "o1 muc"
in.ormation and understanding t"ere is
around 1"at t"is Rne1 productI 1ill loo8
li8e2 People need to /e a/le to RseeI 1"ere
t"ey are going and 1ill resist i. t"ey .eel
/linded /y a lac8 o. process or a lac8 o.
design .or a .inal product2 Addressing t"is
need is critical i. 1e "ope t"at 8ey players
1ill .ollo1 our lead2 Paramount is t"at 1e
ac8no1ledge t"at a c"ange 1ill in .act /e
ta8ing place, and t"is c"ange 1ill impact
1"at t"e .inal product loo8s li8e2 #t 'ill not
and cannot loo8 t"e same as 1"at currently
e9ists2 E&learning is a very di..erent medium
.rom -2- and t"e end result 1ill /e di..erent
as 1ell2 A"is does not $ean t"at t"e
integrity, p"ilosop"y and guiding principles
o. a program 1ill lose it2 #t does $ean,
"o1ever, t"at t"e design o. t"e program 1ill
"ave a signi.icantly di..erent loo82 #t serves
no purpose to pretend t"at everyt"ing 1ill
/e RalmostI t"e same2 #n spite o. t"e /est o.
intentions, employing t"is strategy is sure to
/ring a/out project demise2
=o' 'old 'e %oster a cli$ate o% trst and
spport a$on!st a ll sta*e"olders as 'e
nderstood t"e sccess o% t"is pro1ect 'as
dependent on t"isL W"at co$$nication
$ana!e$ent strate!ies 'old 'e seL
#nstructors and participants 1ere 8ey
sta8e"olders /ut t"ere 1ere needs o. ot"er
sta8e"olders needing consideration2
6igrating CAL .rom a -2- to t"e e&Learning
environment meant t"at 1e 1anted to
mar8et t"is program .ar /eyond t"e
geograp"ical /oundaries o. Calgary, Al/erta2
#t 1as our "ope to interest ne1 individuals
to enrol in CAL and to entice organi>ations,
not yet involved 1it" CAL, to support t"e
participation o. t"eir employees as a
pro.essional development activity2
$ta8e"olders 1ere 1ide ranging and as
uni:ue as t"e program itsel.2 A"ey came
.rom industry, academia, municipal,
provincial and .ederal governments, small
non&pro.its and social action organi>ations2
;iversity 1as also re.lected in t"ose 1"o
developed and taug"t CAL courses2
#nstructors, anot"er 8ey sta8e"older group,
included adult educators, /usiness
consultants, community organi>ers and
teac"er&trained individuals, all committed to
t"e p"ilosop"y and principles o. adult
education and li.elong learning2
A"e commitment to 8eep all sta8e"olders in
t"e loop as to t"e ongoing development and
migration o. CAL .rom -2- to e&Learning,
1as a priority2 6any avenues o.
communication 1ere utili>ed so t"at
sta8e"olders 1ould not only receive
in.ormation, /ut 1ould "ave t"e oppor&
tunity to provide ongoing .eed/ac8 on t"e
impact t"at t"is migration2 6any meetings
1ere "eld, providing sta8e"olders 1it"
opportunities to voice t"eir t"oug"ts,
concerns and ideas in a -2- medium2
!e/ con.erencing so.t1are Falso 8no1n as
co$pter con%erencin! tec"nolo!yG 1as
utili>ed to provide sta8e"olders 1it" t"e
opportunity to meet online in Rreal timeI, to
s"are ideas and to give ongoing .eed&/ac82
!e/ con.erencing proved invalua/le as it
allo1ed individuals to participate actively,
.rom a variety o. locations2 A"e CAL
program 1as migrating to t"e online
medium and it 1as critical to demonstrate
t"at inclusion o. individuals, regardless o.
geograp"ical distance, 1as an asset, not a
lia/ility2 Camm F2002G reminds us t"at, KV
learning communities are colla/orative and
supportive, 1"ic" .oster team1or8 t"roug"
trust, openness, "onesty, and respect among
mem/ersL Fp2 *G2
!e 1ere convinced t"at i. onsite
sta8e"olders and t"ose .rom a distance .elt
aut"entically engaged and valued in t"e role
o. supporting t"e migration o. CAL .rom
-2- to e&Learning, t"ey 1ould /e more li8ely
to promote CAL to ot"ers as a via/le option
to education and li.elong learning2 !e 1ere
clearly addressing t"e needs o. sta8e"olders
1"o 1ere already involved 1it" CAL
Finstructors, course participants, and
community organi>ationsGQ it 1as not time
to .ocus on individuals and organi>ations
not yet a1are o. CAL and its value to
personal and pro.essional gro1t"2
Ao .oster a climate o. trust and support
amongst a ll sta8e"olders, 1e:
aG ;eveloped an e9tensive mar8eting
strategy t"at 1ould reac" current and
.uture sta8e"olders t"roug" traditional
mar8eting c"annelsQ
/G Encouraged current and potential
sta8e"olders to participate in -2- and
!e/ con.erencing dialogues to s"are
needs, opinions and resourcesQ
cG =ept communication c"annels open and
easy to accessQ
dG Engaged advocates o. CAL to spread t"e
!e continue to learn many lessonsQ t"e
learning curve in communications man&
agement is steep indeedZ Alt"oug" 1e "ave
al1ays /een committed to recogni>ing t"e
critical importance o. t"e R"uman .actorI, t"e
.ollo1ing lessons serve to /e a strong
reminder t"at t"ere is al'ays muc" to
strengt"en and improve upon:
Alt"oug" t"e commitment to .ree&
.lo1ing communication, 1it" and
amongst sta8e"olders, provided a strong
.orum .or e9pression o. concerns, it did
not dispel t"e concerns o. some 1"o "ad
/een t"e early pioneers in t"e
development o. CALQ
Ao move a -2- program to t"e e&
Learning environment, in our
e9perience, is not as di..icult as is t"e
c"allenge o. preserving t"e integrity and
culture o. t"e program t"at is /eing
!it" t"is in mind, 1e need to revisit
original plans to migrate a program to
ensure t"at t"e decision to transition t"e
program remains in t"e /est interests o.
t"e program and t"e sta8e"oldersQ
Alt"oug" imposed time&lines are not
al1ays sensitive to t"is, c"ange ta8es
place one step at a time2 Ao rus"
transition could jeopardi>e a project t"at
ot"er1ise, may "ave survived i. a
reasona/le time&.rame 1as availa/leQ
A solid in.rastructure is needed to
success.ully support and resource a
migration project suc" as t"is2
!"en CAL received /ase .unding .rom t"e
university, t"e program 1as mainly
controlled and directed by t"e university2
A"is is t"e case 1"en any project is
dependent upon one main .unding agent as
t"e 8ey sta8e"older2 !it" t"e migration to
t"e e&Learning environment, coupled 1it"
CAL transitioning to a cost&recovery model,
t"ere is a stronger need .or a Rcommunity o.
ot"ersI to direct and trans.orm CAL to its
ne1 .orm2 A"is need continues to serve as a
catalyst .or a "ig" level o. involvement and
interactivity amongst all sta8e"olders2 !it"
increased involvement and interactivity, 1e
are e9periencing a strengt"ening o.
commitment to CALIs success in t"e e&
Learning environment2
A"is story continues to un.old2 At present,
$ost o. t"e CAL courses "ave /een
transitioned to t"e e&Learning environment2
Core courses, "o1ever, t"ose t"at all
participants are re:uired to ta8e Fin addition
to t"e optional courses t"at t"ey selectG,
continue to /e o..ered in /ot" .ormats, -2-
and via t"e e&Learning medium2 $ome
sta8e"olders "ave identi.ied t"e need to
"ave core courses made availa/le in /ot"
plat.ormsQ 1e continue to respect t"is need2
A"is allo1s .or participants to complete all
courses entirely .rom a distance, -2- or in a
.as"ion t"at provides access to /ot"
mediums2 !e /elieve t"at t"is "onours t"e
integrity and culture o. CAL2
!e encourage organi>ations and project
managers to recogni>e t"at, alt"oug"
management tools and strategies greatly
increase t"e c"ances o. project success, t"e
a/ility to recogni>e t"e importance o. a 1ell
developed communications plan and to
implement t"is plan 1it" insig"t,
aut"enticity and integrity, is paramount2
Project maps t"at clearly outline direction
and goals 1ill prove invalua/le2 ;ata /ases
to store narrative and statistical in.ormation
are necessary2 Consulting t"e literature to
8eep in.ormed o. Best Practices in project
management strategies and tec"ni:ues is
indisputa/le2 P6BE= F200+G is an e9cellent
and reputa/le resource and emp"asi>es an
increased clarity and .ocus on processes2
A"e process o. inclsion, in order to
overcome psyc"ological .earsFsG and mental
/arriers, Kis as important as solving lac8 o.
access to net1or8s and related e:uipment2
A"e digital divide is not only tec"nological
MitN is also mentalL FBarcelona, 200+G2
!it"out an inclusive and integral
communications plan, one t"at sincerely
invites and values diversity o. perspective,
1e are le.t 1it" R"al.&/a8edI mediocre
projects, projects t"at lac8 support and
commitment, projects t"at .all signi.icantly
s"ort o. 1"at 1e all aspire to 3 and t"at is 3
e3cellence in project management2
Barcelona F200+G2 KE#learnin! To'ards
(ocial &nclsion.F Availa/le at
"ttp:001112el+ei2net0.irst 0 c"arterW20&
W2 0 ca r ta0c " a r te r ]E&
learn ing]to 1 ards]social] inclus ion2pd.
Bates, A2 F*')6G2 KComputer Assisted
Learning or Communications: !"ic" !ay
.or #n.ormation Aec"nology in ;istance
EducationHL 7ornal o% Distance Edcation.
Availa/le at
"ttp:00cad e 2a t"a / asc a u2c a 0vol*2* 0 / a t es 2"tml
Camm, E2 F2002G2 ET"e 4ey )actors o%
Online Co$$nity Bildin! and
)acilitation.F Availa/le at
"ttp:00111 21"oleli.eed2com0p"ases2"tml
arrison, ;2 42 F*'')G2 K;istance Education
.or Araditional Bniversities: Part&Aime
Pro.essional Learning2L 7ornal o% Distance
Edcation. Availa/le at:
"ttp:00cad e 2a t"a / asc a u2c a 0vol*5220 ga rr ison2
6eyer, A2 ;2, Loc", C2 72 S Pic", 62 A2
F!inter 2002G2 K6anaging Project
Bncertainty,L (loan Mana!e$ent 9evie',
6assac"usetts #nstitute o. Aec"nology, pp2
60&6(2 Availa/le at
"ttp:001112 s loanrevie12 m it2edu0smr0issue
%ormington, ;2 F200,G2 E: >+on#+e!otiable>
Ele$ents.F Availa/le at
"ttp:00111 2d.es2gov2u80 p pm0inde9
eact ion_c o ntent2vie 1 SC a tegory#;_50SCon
tent#;_*' ' S8illcac"e_*S$ite#;_*
Project 6anagement #nstitute F200+G2
KGide to t"e Pro1ect Mana!e$ent Body o%
4no'led!e, A DPMBO4 GideJ, paperbac*,
T"ird Edition.F Project 6anagement
#nstitute2 Availa/le at
"ttp:00111 2pmi/oo8sto r e2org0P6#Bo o8 $to
re0product;etails2asp9Hitem#;_5, ) S var#;
$pencer, B2 F200+G2 KEn&line adult learning,L
Di$ensions o% Adlt Learnin!, ri.. -oley
Fed2G Australia: Allen S Bn1in, pp2 *)'&2002
!ideman, 42 62 F2000G2 K)irst Principles o%
Pro1ect Mana!e$ent.F <ancouver, Britis"
Colum/ia, Canada: AE! $ervices2
C"apter *2
6oving t"e 4esidency
4e:uirements to <irtual <ermont
Lorraine Willia$s
2nion &nstitte 8 2niversity
Montpelier, Aer$ont, 2(A
*bstract+ A"is c"apter presents preliminary results o. a case study to determine t"e 8ey elements in
t"e creation o. a @virtual residency@ option .or a .orty year old distance undergraduate program .or
adults2 ;uring t"e .ace&to&.ace version o. t"e residency, learners /ecome oriented to t"e program,
learn "o1 to access student services, learn to use t"e course management system, and engage in t"e
study planning process to create a .i.teen credit academic plan .or t"e term2 At t"e mid&point in t"e
project, 8ey indicators o. success are reported as *G e9citement and creativity, F2G pressure to /oost
enrollment, F5G attitudinal s"i.t to accept an online option, F+G preservation o. t"e residential model,
F,G early and .ull involvement o. 8ey individuals and departments, and F6G adapta/ility to ot"er areas
o. t"e university2 A"e relations"ip /et1een t"ese 8ey indicators and t"e non&"ierarc"ical nature o.
t"e project management process is e9plored2
,e# words+ ;istance education, adult education, residency, student services, course
management system
7o1 does an adult, distance education
institution t"at de.ines itsel. as progressive
and learner&centered em/race online teac"ing
and learning 1it"out c"anging t"e pedagogical
models t"at it "as come to rely on .or more
t"an t1enty yearsH !"ile .or& compet&
itors move rapidly to capture t"e online adult
"ig"er education mar8et, t"e .aculty mem/ers
1"o participated in creating t"e Ke9perimentL
in individuali>ed degrees .or adults in t"e early
*'60s are only no1 /eginning to reconsider
t"eir .ormer stance2
$teeped in t"e tradition o. Co"n ;e1ey,
<ermont College o. Bnion #nstitute S
Bniversity "as /een o..ering individuali>ed
learning .or adults since *')* 1"en oddard
CollegeIs Adult ;egree Program 1as /oug"t /y
<ermont College o. %or1ic" Bniversity2 A"is
c"apter o..ers results o. case study o/serva&
tions and intervie1s 1it" individuals .rom
academic and service departments 1or8ing
colla/oratively to create an online option .or
t"e <ermont College Bndergraduate program
F.ormerly 8no1n as t"e Adult ;egree Program
or A;PG2 $ee8ing to 1or8 democratically, in
muc" t"e same 1ay individual .aculty
mem/ers 1or8 1it" learners at <ermont
College to negotiate learning contracts,
instructional tec"nologists, li/rarians and
1riting support sta.. 1or8ed 1it" .aculty and
administrators to lay t"e ground1or8 .or an
online residency e9perience2 A"is uni:ue
project management process, in 1"ic"
o1ners"ip and responsi/ility are s"ared, is
e9plored .or its strengt"s and 1ea8nesses2
A"is .irst online residency too8 place in
-e/ruary 200, 1it" all o. t"e :uality and
uni:ueness o. t"e .ace&to&.ace residencies t"at
ta8e place on our campus in 6ontpelier,
Project -bjectives
A"e .ollo1ing o/jectives 1ere developed
t"roug" mont"s o. 1ee8ly meetings in 1"ic"
democratic decision ma8ing led to a ne1 pro&
gram option plan2 A"is option is .or learners
1"o c"oose not to participate in a .ace&to&.ace
ten day residency, yet 1ant t"e same e9peri&
ence2 All o. t"e o/jectives /elo1 "ave /een
met, 1it" t"e e9ception o. t"e .inal one, 1"ic"
re:uires more time to ade:uately measure2
4eplicate t"e .ace&to&.ace residential
Ade:uately communicate program
Provide orientations to learner services:
1riting la/, time management, li/rary,
and tec"nology services
E9plain t"e study planning process
6atc" learners 1it" mentors 1it"
appropriate e9pertise to .acilitate learning
in individual learner study areas
;evelop curriculum in colla/oration 1it"
mentors .or one *,&credit term o.
interdisciplinary study
Aransmit organi>ational and program
Project Stakeholders
A"e <irtual 4esidency ProjectIs sta8e"olders
include upper level management FPresident,
Provost, and PresidentIs CouncilG, middle
management F;eans and ;irectorsG, .aculty
and learners2 A"e President and Council
mem/ers 1ere concerned a/out /oosting
enrollment, success.ul tec"nology use, and
academic :uality, .or a ne1 program option2
#n addition to s"ared concerns a/out
enrollment and academic :uality, t"e ;ean o.
t"e <ermont College Bndergraduate program
F<CBG 1as "ope.ul t"at "e could 1in over
.aculty s8eptical a/out online learning2 A"e
;irector o. Li.elong Learning, in c"arge o. t"e
institutionIs continuing education department,
is c"arged 1it" promoting and supporting
online learning e..orts2 Admissions sta.. 1ere
interested in t"e uni:ueness o. t"is ne1
option, "o1 it di..ers .rom t"e residential
options, "o1 to mar8et it, and "o1 to .acilitate
implementation /y t"e target date2 A"ey 1ere
especially e9cited to respond to t"e majority o.
in:uiries 1"o 1ant a non&residential option2
A"e directors o. t"e learner services
departments 1ere concerned 1it" "o1 to
create async"ronous orientations &
/i/liograp"ic instruction and in.ormation
literacy as 1ell as orientation to t"e online
1riting la/, resources .or time management,
use o. t"e course management system, etc2
$imilarly, t"e administrative o..ices 1anted
assurance t"at t"eir services 1ere accurately
represented, suc" t"at learners could avail
t"emselves o. 1"at t"ey needed at t"e rig"t
time2 A"e director o. t"e administrative
computing department 1as responsi/le .or
ne1 "ard1are and so.t1are .or t"e <irtual
<ermont .aculty, and c"anges to <CB
department 1e/ pages2
A"e <CB .aculty and sta.. s"ared concerns
a/out t"e preservation o. t"e program and its
model in t"e .ace o. competition .rom ot"er
.ully online adult programs, and jo/
preservation2 A"ey 1ere also concerned a/out
/eing understa..ed 1"ile ta8ing on a ne1
program & 1it" t"e e9ception o. one position,
seven out o. nine sta.. positions c"anged due
to layo..s, resignations or moves to ot"er
positions 1it"in t"e university 1it"in one
A"is aut"or, t"e ;irector o. #nstructional
Aec"nology, s"ared concern .or promoting and
supporting online learning e..orts 1it" t"e
;irector o. Li.elong Learning 1it" more .ocus
on direct tec"nical t"an administrative
support2 #nstructional Aec"nology 1as also
responsi/le .or .aculty development, learner
tec"nical support, and t"e course management
system /udget2 A"e Assistant ;irector o.
Li.elong Learning 1as trained to coordinate
enrollment .or t"e <irtual 4esidency and t"e
online course spaces .or independent study
t"erea.ter2 # also supervised t"e #nstructional
Aec"nologist 1"o 1or8ed directly 1it" .aculty
to train t"em in t"ree primary uses o.
tec"nology: Ell$inate Fdes8top con.erencing
programG .or recorded .aculty presentations
1it" audio, t"e course management system .or
/ot" t"e virtual residency space as 1ell as
t"eir o1n individual spaces .or 1or8 1it"
learners on t"eir individuali>ed study plans,
and development o. personal .aculty 1e/
pages2 # also assisted .aculty in consistent
instructional design decision&ma8ing2
Li8e1ise, .aculty personal 1e/ pages 1ere
developed according to a template in 1"ic" all
1ould include t"e same minimal elements2
=irtual "esidenc# Project *ctivit#
Case study results identi.ied t"e 8ey elements
in t"e <CB <irtual 4esidency option project
management e9perience t"at made it possi/le
.or t"is academic program to produce an
online option2 A secondary purpose is to
determine "o1 t"ese results mig"t /e applied
to t"e ot"er nine undergraduate, masters and
doctoral programs at Bnion #nstitute S
Bniversity or at ot"er adult education
Case study o/servations /y t"is participant
o/server 1ere ta8en during planning
meetings, email e9c"anges and t"roug"
intervie1s 1it" administrators, .aculty and
administrative sta..2 -ull participant
o/servation, as ;en>in de.ines it,
Ksimultaneously com/ines document analysis,
intervie1ing o. respondents and in.ormants,
direct participation and o/servation, and
introspection F;en>in *'(), *)5G2L
6y intention 1as to e9perience t"e project as
/ot" insider and outsider to /est understand
and descri/e t"e setting and events to an
outside audience2 As Patton e9plains,
KE9periencing t"e setting or program as an
insider accentuates t"e participant part o.
participant o/servation2 At t"e same time, t"e
in:uirer remains a1are o. /eing an outsider2
A"e c"allenge is to com/ine participation and
o/servation so as to /ecome capa/le o. under&
standing t"e setting as an insider 1"ile
descri/ing it to and .or outsiders FPatton
2002, 26)G2L
# o/tained permission .rom all .aculty,
administrators and sta.. involved in t"e
<irtual 4esidency Eption to use intervie1
notes, email messages and .ace&to&.ace
meeting notes and o/servations as part o. t"e
study2 4esponses to an in.ormal survey 1it"
open&ended :uestions sent in an email mess&
age 1ere also solicited2 A"ose :uestions
*2 !"at do you t"in8 are t"e primary
reasons 1e 1ere success.ul in moving
.or1ard on t"e <irtual 4esidencyH
22 !"y do you t"in8 t"at t"e sta.. and .aculty
1ere so receptive and supportive during
t"e demonstration o. t"e <irtual
4esidency eventH
=irtual "esidenc# Project *ctivit#
;uring eac" p"ase, management 1as s"ared
amongst t"e ;irector o. Li.elong Learning, t"e
;irector o. #nstructional Aec"nology and t"e
;ean o. <CB2 A"roug" 1ee8ly meetings and
email, a s"ared vision and goals 1ere
developed colla/oratively, including
involvement o. learner services departments
and admissions2 ;esigning t"e scope o. t"e
project, identi.ying 8ey tas8s, sc"eduling and
/udget preparation 1ere all s"ared amongst
t"e t"ree main departments involved2 Even
implementation and monitoring c"anges to
t"e program /ecame s"ared responsi/ilities2
A"ese t"ree individuals /roug"t toget"er
additional departments to 1or8 on t"e project
/y inviting individuals to 1ee8ly
/rainstorming meetings /eginning in 6arc",
200+2 At .irst only .aculty mem/ers and t"e
dean 1ere invited to participate, /ut :uic8ly
admissions and ot"er learner services
departments /esides #nstructional Aec"nology
1ere added2 Because t"e project "ad not yet
/een granted more t"an in.ormal support and
approval o. t"e <ice President .or Academic
A..airs, t"e President, and t"e Board o.
Arustees, t"e group and meetings 1ere called,
varia/ly Kt"e non&committee,L Kt"e Enline
A;P $ort&o.&/ut&not&really&a&roup,L Knon&
groupL and Kour ne9t non&meeting2L An
e9citing, nearly conspiratorial tone 1as set
.rom t"e /eginning 1it" t"is tongue&in&c"ee8
1ord c"oice2 Later 1"en t"e project 1as
o..icially sanctioned and supported, it came to
/e 8no1n as t"e K<irtual <ermont 4esidency
%ot all o. t"e participants joined at t"e
/eginning, so 1"en t"ey did come to meetings,
t"ey 1ere advised to revie1 previous meeting
notes ta8en mostly /y one .aculty mem/er and
alternatively /y one o. t"e t"ree primary
initiators o. t"e project: t"e ;ean o. <ermont
College Bndergraduate, t"e ;irector o.
#nstructional Aec"nology, and t"e ;irector o.
Li.elong Learning2 ;iscussions a/out "o1 to
resolve pro/lems and issues 1it" trans.erence
o. t"e residency components to t"e online
environment 1ere discussed and sometimes
re&visited as ne1 mem/ers o. t"e group 1ere
added or only sporadically attended meetings2
6uc" discussion also too8 place over email
since .aculty mem/ers 1or8 .rom "ome at a
distanceQ several participated in 1ee8ly
meetings via con.erence call2 By t"e summer o.
200+ online met"ods .or .ul.illing eac"
residency component 1ere developed as part
o. a truly democratic process in 1"ic" all t"ose
1"o participated 1ere a..orded a voice and
1or8ed to1ard consensus&/uilding2 Engoing
1or8 continued on t"is project as .aculty
mem/ers 1ere selected to teac" in t"e online
option and t"e <irtual 4esidency space 1as
A pivotal event t"at too8 place in $eptem/er,
200+ 1as a demonstration o. t"e <irtual
4esidency itsel. in eCollege, a course
management system, as 1ell as t"roug"
Elluminate, a des8top con.erencing program2
A"is event 1as sc"eduled as part o. t"e
mont"ly, day&long .aculty and sta.. meeting
.or <CB2 -aculty and sta.., most o. 1"o "ad
not participated in t"e 1ee8ly planning
meetings and email e9c"anges, 1ere invited to
divide into groups and visit computer stations
at 1"ic" t"ey 1ere o..ered a guided tour o.
"o1 eCollege and Elluminate 1ould /e used to
.ul.ill speci.ic o/jectives and components o.
t"e .amiliar .ace&to&.ace residency in t"e
online environment2 #n t"e discussion t"at
.ollo1ed t"e demonstrations individuals
commented over and over "o1 impressed t"ey
1ere 1it" t"e 1or8 and design o. t"e project2
$essons $earned
A"e primary t"emes t"at emerged .rom t"e
.ield notes, meeting minutes, intervie1 notes
and o/servations 1ere F*G e9citement and
creativity, F2G pressure to /oost enrollment,
F5G attitudinal s"i.t to accept an online option,
F+G preservation o. t"e residential model, F,G
early and .ull involvement o. 8ey individuals
and departments, and F6G adapta/ility to ot"er
areas o. t"e university2 A"e .irst t"ree t"emes
1ere t"e most o.ten cited as 8ey success
Pointing to t"e e9citement and creativity o. t"e
project, participants variously descri/ed t"ese
ideas2 Ene .aculty mem/er said t"at t"e Kine..&
a/le component in all t"is is t"e part #?m la/el&
ing optimism, creativity, e9citementL and t"at
K1or8ing on t"is tas8 .orce For 1"atever 1e
1ereG 1as really .un & e9"ilarating, creative,
c"allenging & all t"e t"ings you 1ant your 1or8
to /e2 A"e group, as a 1"ole, "ad a very
optimistic outloo8, 1"ic" 1as really re.res"&
ingVL A"e dean said t"at t"e most important
success .actor 1as t"at Keac" virtual option
tas8 .orce mem/er "as /een tal8ing it up
ent"usiastically at every opportunity,L 1"ic"
underscored t"e e9citement and creativity
involved in t"e process2 $imilarly, t"e ;irector
o. Li.elong Learning said t"at t"e project is
Kt"e most e9citing t"ing #Ive 1or8ed on "ere in
t"e past t"ree years2L $"e .ound t"e project to
/e great .un /ecause it 1as colla/orative,
intellectually stimulating and engaging2
A"e pressure to /oost enrollment 1as an
unspo8en mandate .rom t"e administration
t"at permeated nearly all conversations and
served as a pivotal .orce underlying and
s"aping t"e ot"er success .actors2 A"is pres&
sure 1as not only due to e9ternal competition
.rom ot"er online programs, /ut also .rom
internal competition .rom anot"er undergrad&
uate program2 As one senior .aculty mem/er
said, K1e 8ne1 1e "ad to do it2L Anot"er
consideration 1as t"at t"is ne1 option not
Kcanni/ali>eL enrollment in ot"er options2
Admissions counselors 1ere :uic8 to point out
t"at t"ey 1ere turning a1ay many prospects
/ecause o. t"e residency re:uirement2
Enrollment pressure is related to t"e
attitudinal s"i.t to accept an online option in
t"at t"is 1as one o. several .orces in play
pus"ing .aculty, sta.. and administrators to
t"in8 di..erently a/out "o1 to /est serve
learners at a distance2 A"e ;irector o. Li.elong
Learning, a .ormer .aculty mem/er and <CB
director, said t"at t"e ground1or8 .or t"is
s"i.t in t"in8ing actually too8 place over ten
years in 1"ic" t"e program struggled to de.ine
itsel. in relation to adult and distance "ig"er
education and still retain its progressive
identity2 A"e conversation "ad /een going on
over years o. .aculty meetings and personal
dialogues culminating in a -e/ruary, 200+
.aculty meeting 1"en t"e online option 1as
discussed .or t"e .irst time 1it"out 1idespread
A"e attitudinal s"i.t also too8 place amid
evidence t"at online learning can /e
academically success.ul2 Ene .aculty mem/er
said t"is a/out "er understanding o. t"is s"i.t,
K# .eel li8e #?ve /een one o. a very .e1 voices in
A;P .or a long time saying t"at online
interactions can /e deep and meaning.ul and
satis.ying, /ut may/e as more and more
people actually da//le in t"e online
environment, t"at reality F/ecause # do /elieve
t"at online learning does not "ave to /e
second&rateG is easier to understand and
accept2L Li8e1ise, t"e ;irector o. #nstructional
Aec"nology reiterated t"at Kdistance
educationL is understood in t"e popular
consciousness as online education, and so
.aculty could no longer ignore t"e disconnect
/et1een t"eir perceptions and 1"at
prospective learners desire and e9pect2 -inally,
one .aculty mem/er suggested t"at t"e c"arge
o. Kun1illingness to c"angeL 1as Kleveled at
<ermont College generallyL and to counter t"is
indictment .aculty came to em/race ne1 ideas
a/out t"eir program2
A"e preservation o. t"e <CB residency
structure 1as a 8ey .actor in 1inning over
many o. t"e .aculty mem/ers and sta.. 1"o
1ere not directly involved in planning and
project management2 A"is success .actor 1as
suggested multiple times in 1ee8ly meetings,
in email messages and .ollo1ing t"e
$eptem/er, 200+ demonstration2 A"is .actor
1as cited primarily /ecause many initially
resistant 1ere concerned t"at t"e integrity o.
t"e model 1ould /e t"reatened to t"e
detriment o. t"e program2 A"ey 1ere
pleasantly surprised at t"e respect 1it" 1"ic"
planners treated t"e need to include all
elements o. t"e .ace&to&.ace residency2 As t"e
dean said, Kt"ere seemed to /e a great sig" o.
relie. t"at @t"eir@ program process is not going
to /e c"anged2 A"ere is also a /elie. t"at t"e
Program may /e .orced to c"ange in 1ays t"ey
1ould not condone, and t"e @virtual option@
and t"e enrollment increase it promises mig"t
allo1 t"e Program to .end o.. suc" pressure to
A"e preservation o. t"e residency structure
1as also mentioned .or at least t1o ot"er
reasons, unrelated to .aculty .ears a/out t"e
model c"anging2 Ene 1as t"at t"e tried&and&
true aspects o. t"e program served as t"e
/ac8/one to 8eep project participants on tas8
as t"ey recreated t"e residency in a virtual
.orm2 A .aculty mem/er said t"at t"e K1ell&
t"oug"t&out and tested&t"roug"&practice
.eatures o. t"e A;P residencies served as a
sort o. melody, and 1e could ri.. o.. o. it .rom
an online perspective, ma8ing it a very creative
venture 1it"out c"anging t"e essential
.eatures o. t"e program2 Creativity is e9citing,
and e9citement is catc"ing2L #n most corporate
project management, ne1 system creation is
recogni>ed as especially di..icultQ project
participants in <irtual <ermont 1ere a/le to
avoid t"is di..icult 1or8 since t"e uni:ue
academic program FsystemG itsel. 1as not
c"anged 3 only t"e manner o. delivery2
Anot"er stated reason /y t"e dean .or
preservation o. t"e residency structure 1as
t"at t"is is t"e 8ey to academic :uality2 K#
t"in8 t"e demonstration "as made it more
1idely 8no1n t"at <ermont College Bnder&
grad does indeed "ave a very regimented
planning and evaluation process t"at is 8ey to
academic :uality2L
An additional .actor 1as early and .ull involve&
ment o. 8ey departments and individuals2 %ot
only 1ere all .aculty invited to participate
t"roug" 1ee8ly meetings and email
conversation, /ut directors and sta.. partici&
pated as 1ell2 As one sta.. mem/er said o. t"e
projectIs process, K#tIs important to .eel li8e a
valued partner in t"e process 3 t"at all voices
1ere valued2L Bringing in all sta8e"olders into
t"e process is also necessary to creating t"e
/uy&in needed to support t"e project, i2e2,
administrative computing, mar8eting,
admissions, .inancial aid, /usiness, and
A"e .inal success .actor 1as t"e optionIs
adapta/ility to ot"er university programs2 A"e
/roader implications .or t"e rest o. t"e
institution, not only in terms o. increased
revenue, /ut .or online options .or t"e ot"er
nine programs 1ere especially important to
t"e administration2 A"is .actor 1as per"aps
cited /y t"e dean and directors more o.ten
t"an .aculty mem/ers /ecause t"eir roles allo1
t"em to vie1 t"eir 1or8 in t"e larger conte9t
o. t"e institution2
%ot all o. t"e lessons learned "ad to do 1it"
success .actors, "o1ever2 -or e9ample,
/ecause a .easi/ility study 1as not done as one
o. t"e .irst project management steps,
pro/lems t"at sur.aced later 1ere not
identi.ied early on2 Ene suc" pro/lem 1as t"at
.aculty teac"ing in t"e online option did not
"ave t"eir promised ne1 laptops and so.t1are
until s"ortly /e.ore t"e program start date2 All
development 1or8 "ad to /e done 1it"
e9isting Fo.ten in.eriorG e:uipment2 7ad a
.easi/ility study /een done 1it" Computer
$ervices participating as a .ull partner,
per"aps t"is 1ould not "ave /een a pro/lem2
-aculty made t"e /est o. t"e situation and
drove to campus to complete development
1or82 All lived 1it"in a .orty&.ive minute drive
to campus, 1it" t"e e9ception o. one 1"o lives
nearly t"ree "ours a1ay2
$imilarly, issues 1it" Admissions led to
pro/lems meeting project enrollment .igures2
7ad a .easi/ility study /een conducted early
on, 1it" .ull participation o. Admissions, t"ese
issues mig"t "ave /een avoided2 $everal
mont"s into t"e project, a consulting .irm
"ired /y t"e institution to assist in enrollment
management /ecame involved in planning2 #n
part due to t"e restructuring recommended /y
t"is consulting .irm, Admissions under1ent a
complete over"aul and 1as not prepared in
t"e s"ort time needed to "andle t"e necessary
ramp&up to :uic8ly convert in:uiries to
enrollments2 Because o. sta.. turnover t"at led
to si9 ne1 sta.. out o. ten positions, as 1ell as
training in ne1 procedures, and integration o.
ne1 lead generation companies, and despite
evidence t"at a majority o. in:uiries said t"ey
1ant a non&residential option, still sta..
needed more e9perience to "andle getting t"e
enrollment needed to start t"e ne1 option2
Bltimately t"e dean decided to /egin t"e
<irtual 4esidency option 1it" .e1er t"an t"e
optimal num/er o. learners2
As Co"n ;e1ey said in De$ocracy and
Edcation: An &ntrodction to t"e P"ilosop"y
o% Edcation F*'*6G, KA progressive society
counts individual variations as precious since
it .inds in t"em t"e means o. its o1n gro1t"2
7ence a democratic society must, in
consistency 1it" its ideal, allo1 .or intellectual
.reedom and t"e play o. diverse gi.ts and
interests in its educational measures2L <CB
"as /een committed to t"e values o.
progressive education voiced /y Co"n ;e1ey
since its inception at oddard College
Foddard College, 2005G2 A"is case study
.ound t"at t"e integrity o. t"e model and its
commitment to t"e ;e1eyan values o.
progressive education & 1"ic" include
democracy, .reedom, individuali>ed learning,
and recognition o. t"e uni:ue needs o. adult
learners 3 1as retained /ecause o. t"e 8ey
success .actors identi.ied in creating a <irtual
4esidency option2
Project participants /elieve t"at most o. t"ese
success .actors can replicated 1it"in t"e ot"er
programs at Bnion #nstitute S Bniversity2 A"e
pressure to /oost enrollment e9ists across all
programs as does t"e attitudinal s"i.t to accept
an online option2 Per"aps i. t"ese departments
can learn .rom t"e <CB e9perience, t1o ot"er
.actors 1ill /e considered: preservation o. t"e
components o. t"e residential model and early
and .ull involvement o. 8ey individuals and
departments Fsta8e"oldersG2 A"e most elusive
and di..icult to re&create o. t"ese .actors,
"o1ever, is t"e e9citement and creativity2
6uc" o. t"e e9citement came .rom t"e
ent"usiasm o. 8ey individuals 1"o /uilt trust
and commitment to t"e project over mont"s o.
1or8 and in some cases years o. 1or8ing
toget"er2 # can only "ope t"at t"e ent"usiasm
is contagious2
%orman =2 ;en>in, T"e 9esearc" Act: A
T"eoretical &ntrodction to
(ociolo!ical Met"ods, 2
2 ed2 F%e1
Uor8: 6cra1&7ill, *'()G, *)52
oddard College2 F2005G2 K7istory o. oddard
College, A Brie. 7istory: !"ere !e
Came -rom, !"at !e !ere, 7o1 !e
ot !"ere !e Are,L 20 Ecto/er 2005,
\ "ttp:0011 1 2goddard2edu0a/out0"i s t
oryo.goddar d col lege2 " tm l ^ F2 6ay
6ic"ael P2 Patton, <alitative 9esearc" 8
Evalation Met"ods, 5
FA"ousand Ea8s, CA: $age, 2002G,
Note+ A"e .ollo1ing individuals and many
ot"ers 1"o participated in t"e testing p"ase,
provided invalua/le e9pertise and gave
countless "ours to t"e project management o.
t"e <irtual 4esidency Project: Alice Eic""ol>,
<ictor E"ly, Ce.. =re/s, Cody !ageman,
C"ristine Esta/roo8, Anne Connor, =yle
Cus"man, 6att Pappat"an, $tacey =nig"t,
reg -rye, Cames -oster, $ue Co//, 6art"a
<ander1ol8, Ann $tanton, Cat"y $tanton,
4"oda Carroll, C"arlotte 7astings, Ann
Cardinal, $usan Bradt, and Carol Beatty2
C"apter *5
An #nstructional ;esign 6odel .or
Program 6anagement: a case study
o. t"e implementation o. an online
post&degree certi.icate in special
David My*ota Deirdre
Bonneycastle 2niversity o%
(as*atoon, (as*atc"e'an, Canada
*bstract+ A relia/le repertoire o. e..ective practices .or project management in ne1ly developed e&
learning courses and programs is increasingly in demand /y project managers, content developers,
instructional designers, program directors and policy decision ma8ers2 Ao address t"e need .or
replica/le e&learning project management practices, t"e present case study e9amines t"e
implementation o. a post graduate certi.icate program in special education underta8en at t"e
Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1an, and .unded t"roug" t"e provincial governmentIs Aec"nology En"anced
Learning FAELG initiative, a pan&institution partners"ip2 A"e case study e9amines some o. t"e issues
t"at arose in t"e colla/orative development o. t"e o. t"e certi.icate and presents an integrated model
.or t"e implementation o. e&learning programs adapted .rom reerIs F*''2G project management
model .or instructional development2 A"e case study, .rom a project management perspective,
presents lessons learned .rom t"e programIs implementation providing in.ormation .or re.lection on
"o1 adaptations and modi.ications a..ected program development and "o1 t"ese s"ort&cycle
decisions provide a model o. e..ective practices .or .uture e&learning project management initiatives2
,e# words+ $pecial education, tec"nology en"anced learning, teac"er preparation, program
Ever t"e past .e1 years t"ere "as /een a
mar8ed increase in enrollment among stud&
ents in online courses, 1it" t"e gro1t" rate o.
online learning outpacing traditional .ace&to&
.ace instruction or ot"er tec"nology&en"anced
modes o. learning FAllan S $eaman, 200+G2
A"e increased demand .or online learning "as
/een .acilitated /y its a/ility to provide access&
i/le, a..orda/le, and .le9i/le learning environ&
ments2 Enline learning allo1s t"e student t"e
opportunity to access t"eir course at any time
and any place, providing t"ose 1"o live in
rural and remote areas 1it" t"e opportunity to
advance t"eir education t"at ot"er1ise mig"t
/e encum/ered /y a lac8 o. post&secondary
institutional resources to .acilitate traditional
.ace&to&.ace learning F;o1nes, 2002G2 Aoday,
many post&secondary institutions /elieve t"at
t"eir continued success to attract and graduate
students 1ill "inge on t"eir a/ility to provide
:uality online learning environments FAllan S
$eaman, 200+G2
Coupled 1it" t"e demand .or online learning,
t"en, is t"e need to develop :uality tec"nology
en"anced learning environments2 #n t"e past,
criticisms o. online learning "ave /een levied
/ecause o. its ina/ility to en"ance learning
outcomes as /ased on student satis.action,
1"en compared to traditional .ace&to&.ace
instruction FCo"nson, Aragon, $"ai8, Palma&
4ivas, 2000G2 Puestions pertaining to t"e
:uality o. access, t"e a/ility o. students to use
and em/race t"e ne1 tec"nology, t"e need .or
tec"nical support, and "o1 /est to provide
async"ronous communication, "ave dogged
early online instructional e..orts FP"ipps S
6erisotis, *'''G2 Alt"oug" t"is trend appears
to /e in decline, 1it" increasing rates o.
student satis.action reported .or online
learning FAllan S $eaman, 200+G, some o. t"e
criticisms still linger2 Conse:uently, t"ere is a
"eig"tened sense o. urgency among project
managers, content developers, instructional
designers, program directors, and policy
decision ma8ers .or t"e development o. :uality
online learning courses2
Previous attempts to articulate /est practices
.or online development dre1 .rom traditional
instructional design, distance education, and
adult education models FCervo S !ilson,
*''+G2 7o1ever, t"ese models are lac8ing as
t"ey neglect to incorporate t"e nuances uni:ue
to online instructional design and project
management2 As t"e development o. online
programs involves a num/er o. interdiscip&
linary partners"ips, a relia/le repertoire o.
e..ective practices .or project management in
ne1ly developed online courses and programs
is re:uired2 Ao address t"e need .or replica/le
online project management practices, t"e
present case study e9amines t"e implement&
ation o. an online t"irty&credit unit, nine
course post graduate certi.icate program in
special education underta8en at t"e Bniversity
o. $as8atc"e1an and .unded t"roug" t"e
provincial governmentIs Aec"nology En"anced
Learning FAELG initiative, a pan&institutional
All courses .unded t"roug" AEL 1ere re:uired
to use a team made up o. representatives .rom
t"e ;epartment o. Educational Psyc"ology
and $pecial Education, t"e #nstructional
;esign roup o. t"e E9tension ;ivision, t"e
;epartment o. 6edia and Aec"nology, and
#n.ormation Aec"nology $ervices2 A"e case
study e9amines some o. t"e issues t"at arose
in t"e colla/orative development o. t"e certi.&
icate and presents an integrated model .or t"e
implementation o. online programs adapted
.rom reerIs F*''2G project management
model .or instructional development2 A"e case
study, .rom a project management perspect&
ive, presents lessons learned .rom t"e pro&
gramIs implementation providing in.orm&
ation .or re.lection on "o1 adaptations and
modi.ications "ave a..ected program develop&
ment, and "o1 t"ese s"ort&cycle decisions
provide a model o. e..ective practices .or
.uture online learning project management
Prior to t"e esta/lis"ment o. t"e Post ;egree
Certi.icate in $pecial Education, a t"irty credit
"our .ace&to&.ace Postgraduate ;iploma in
$pecial Education "ad /een o..ered /y t"e
;epartment o. Educational Psyc"ology and
$pecial Education at t"e Bniversity o. $as8at&
c"e1an2 A"e vast majority o. practising
teac"ers enrolling in t"e Postgraduate ;ip&
loma in $pecial Education "ad done so on a
part&time /asis2 Concerns 1it" t"e lac8 o.
researc" intensiveness o. t"e postgraduate
diploma led to a recommendation /y e9ternal
revie1ers o. t"e graduate program t"at t"e
department p"ase out t"e Postgraduate
;iploma in $pecial Education in .avour o. a
.i.t" year o. undergraduate speciali>ation2 A"is
move 1as strongly supported /y $as8atc"e1an
Learning, 1"o noted t"at t"e Bniversity o.
$as8atc"e1an graduate re:uirement .or
certi.ication limited enrolment in t"e program
at a time 1"en t"ere is increasing demand .or
special education teac"ers in $as8atc"e1an2
A"e preparation o. teac"ers .or students 1"o
re:uire special education support is mandated
in $as8atc"e1an?s Edcation Act. A"e ;epart&
ment o. Educational Psyc"ology and $pecial
Education "as t"e tas8 o. providing $as8at&
c"e1an 1it" a su..icient supply o. teac"ers
trained in special education2 A"e Post ;egree
Certi.icate in $pecial Education 1as developed
in response to re:uests /y t"e Bniversity and
sta8e"olders t"at special education teac"er
preparation /ecome more accessi/le t"roug"
remote and distance o..erings2 Accessi/ility to
t"e program "as /een greatly en"anced 1it"
t"e ;epartment o. Educational Psyc"ology
and $pecial Education receiving Aec"nology
En"anced Learning .unding .or online devel&
opment o. t"e program using t"e !e/CA
plat.orm2 As a result, t"e ;epartment o. Edu&
cational Psyc"ology and $pecial Education
o..ers t"e only online Post&;egree Certi.icate
in $pecial Education in t"e province o. $as8at&
c"e1an and produces most o. t"e pro.ess&
ionals in special education 1"o .ul.ill $as8at&
c"e1an LearningIs :uali.ication re:uirements2
-urt"ermore, t"e certi.icate is 1ell situated
1it"in a national and regional conte9t, as one
o. t"e .e1 online distance education programs
in special education /eing o..ered in Canada2
Need for the Program
;emograp"ics o. mem/ers o. t"e $as8at&
c"e1an Aeac"ers -ederation suggest t"at
t"ere is an ageing teac"ing .orce in t"e
Province o. $as8atc"e1an2 #t "as /een
predicted t"at /et1een t1enty .ive and t"irty
percent o. teac"ers 1ill retire over t"e ne9t
.our to .ive years2 A"is statistic, coupled 1it"
$as8atc"e1an Learning data s"o1ing a cur&
rent s"ortage o. credentialed special education
teac"ers F$as8atc"e1an Learning, 200*G2 A"is
"as led $as8atc"e1an Learning and t"e $as8&
atc"e1an Aeac"ers -ederation to argue .or
greater accessi/ility to and .le9i/ility 1it"in
programs leading to special education teac"er
certi.ication2 Bot" organi>ations "ave articu&
lated strong support .or t"e esta/lis"ment o. a
Post ;egree Certi.icate in $pecial Education2
By locating t"e program 1it"in an online
undergraduate .rame1or8, it is anticipated
t"at more students 1ill meet program eligi/il&
ity re:uirements2 #n addition, improved online
accessi/ility 1ill more readily accommodate
part&time students 1"o are 1or8ing2
Demand for the Program
A"e $as8atc"e1an Learning F200*G report,
Edcator (pply and De$and in (as*at#
c"e'an to t"e 6ear ,--;, "ig"lig"ted di..i&
culties in t"e recruitment and retention o.
special education teac"ers, among ot"er
pro/lem areas2 A"is report led $as8atc"e1an
Learning to esta/lis" Aeac"er 4ecruitment
and 4etention #nitiatives, 1"ere #ndividual
Program Bursaries, -ull&time and Part&time,
Pre&service Bursaries, and Aeac"er Education0
Co"ort Programs "ave /een .unded to encour&
age teac"ers to /ecome trained in targeted
areas suc" as special education2 As individuals
and sc"ool /oards respond to t"is initiative,
increasing demand .or t"e proposed Post&
;egree Certi.icate in $pecial Education is
e9pected2 As 1ell, an ageing teac"ing popula&
tion .urt"er suggests an ongoing "eavy
demand .or credentialed special education
6ore speci.ic data to support t"e demand .or
t"is program stems .rom a recent Educational
Psyc"ology and $pecial Education depart&
mental survey 1"ere employer perceptions
regarding .uture needs o. t"eir organi>ation
.or special education teac"ers 1ere evaluated2
4esponses /y employers indicated a "ig"
continuing need .or special education person&
nel in t"e .uture2 #n a .ollo1&up telep"one
intervie1, employers commented on t"e
ongoing di..iculty o. attracting and 8eeping
graduates in t"e largely rural areas o. t"e
province2 #n addition, .indings .rom a depart&
mental survey o. .ormer students s"o1ed t"at
t"e vast majority are employed 1it"in a sc"ool
division2 A su/se:uent revie1 o. students
e9iting t"e program over t"e past .ive years
.ound a *00 percent employment level .or
.ormer students2 A"us, graduates appear to /e
.ully employed and 1or8ing directly in t"e
.ield o. program preparation2 A"ese data
suggest a "ig" and continuing demand .or
graduates meeting provincial special
education certi.ication2
Program Description
#nternational standards .or t"e preparation o.
pro.essional practices .or special education
teac"ers "as /een esta/lis"ed /y t"e Council
.or E9ceptional C"ildren FCECG, t"e largest
international pro.essional organi>ation
dedicated to improving educational outcomes
.or individuals 1it" e9ceptionalities2 A"e
8no1ledge and s8ill standards set .or pro.ess&
ional practice /y t"e CEC 1ere used as
/enc"mar8s .or t"e content structure o. t"e
certi.icate t"at "as /een organi>ed around t"e
.our levels o. 8no1ledge /ase, application,
integration, and e9tension2
A"e .irst .ive t"ree&credit unit courses
comprise t"e 8no1ledge /ase level and include
content pertaining to t"e "istory and p"ilos&
op"y o. special education, and t"e "ig"
incidence e9ceptionalities relating to speec"
and language, learning disa/ilities, and
/e"aviour2 A"e .i.t" course in t"is area
pertains to colla/orative interdisciplinary
team1or8 as a common .eature and evolving
practice in special education2
A"e application level prescri/es t"e designing
and provision o. supports to students 1it"
e9ceptionalities2 A"e pairing o. assessment
1it" instruction in a .ull si9&credit unit course
t"at is integrated 1it" t"e practicum course
comprises t"e application component2 A"e
.irst "al. o. t"e assessment and instruction
course ena/les students to learn and practice
t"eir assessment and instructional planning
s8ills t"at prepare t"em .or t"e practicum t"at
t"ey ta8e concurrently during t"e second "al.
o. t"e academic year2 A"is alignment o.
courses at t"e application level ena/les
students to practice t"eir assessment s8ills
1"ile designing individual student programs
in a sc"ool /ased guided practicum2
A"e .inal course in t"e certi.icate serves as an
opportunity .or students to synt"esi>e content
and e9periences o/tained in t"e ot"er
certi.icate courses2 As t"e .inal class in t"e
certi.icate, t"e central goal o. t"e individual
project course is to prepare t"e student as a
Kre.lective practitionerL F$c"on, *')'G2
$tudents, 1it" t"e support o. t"e instructor,
are guided in investigating a topic o. personal
interest in t"e .ield o. special education2 A"e
aim is to prepare students to conduct a revie1
o. t"e literature, develop a set o. e..ective
practices related to t"eir topic, and prepare an
online presentation o. t"eir topic2 By doing
t"is, an online repository o. e..ective practices
.or special education teac"ers is created t"at
can t"en /e accessed /y special education
pro.essionals to en"ance t"e learning
outcomes o. students 1it" e9ceptionalities2
Program Content Development
#n t"e spring o. 200*, $as8atc"e1an Learning,
in conjunction 1it" $as8atc"e1anIs post&
secondary institutions and t"e Campus $as8&
atc"e1an partners"ip, initiated t"e .irst round
o. AEL development .unding to en"ance t"e
:uality o. and e9tend access to learning oppor&
tunities in rural, ur/an, and -irst %ation com&
munities across t"e province t"roug" e..ective
use o. net1or8ed computer tec"nology2
Content development o. t"e certi.icate
.ollo1ed a .our&p"ase implementation plan
Fsee -igure *G2 A"is plan 1as set in action /y
t"e Bniversity CouncilIs approval o. t"e Post
;egree Certi.icate in $pecial Education as an
academic program in t"e spring o. 20052 Ao
ensure a seamless mode o. delivery to pro.ess&
ionals 1is"ing to /e trained in special educa&
tion and to up"old :uality standards in
program development, an implementation
plan 1as created t"at sa1 initial content
development and instruction occur in a
traditional .ace&to&.ace setting2 A"e online
development o. t"e certi.icate 1as .acilitated
/y AEL development .unding .or t"e 2005&0+,
200+&0,, and 200,&06 .iscal years,
A .aculty mem/er 1"o 1as program director
and principal content developer .or t"e
certi.icate 1as responsi/le .or procuring and
administrating multi&year .unding .or t"e
project and oversa1 t"e content development2
$u/ject matter e9perts F$6EsG 1ere recruited
/y t"e program director and "ad t"e oppor&
tunity to develop content .or t"e certi.icate
courses using traditional .ace&to&.ace delivery
met"ods2 A"is type o. approac" 1as /ene.icial
to t"e $6Es as it allo1ed t"em t"e opport&
unity to pilot and re.ine content applica/le to
t"e course t"at t"ey 1ere developing2 ;uring
t"e period t"at .ace&to&.ace delivery o. t"e
courses occurred, $6Es met 1it" t"e project
management team to tailor t"e content t"ey
1ere delivering to an online .ormat2
A"e second p"ase sa1 t"e /eginnings o. t"e
instructional design process2 At t"is juncture
AEL development .unding 1as received .or t"e
.irst .ive courses o. t"e certi.icate2 As a result,
a t1elve&mont" developmental timeline 1as
created 1"ere/y content, /ased on t"e .ace&to&
.ace teac"ing o. t"e courses, 1as adapted .or
t"e online .ormat2 A"e t"ird p"ase coincided
1it" t"e second round o. AEL development
.unding, 1"ic" sa1 revisions .or t"e .irst .ive
courses developed along 1it" online content
development .or t"e remaining .our courses2
A"e .ourt" p"ase o. development sa1
revisions to remaining courses, t"e
esta/lis"ment o. pro/lem&/ased learning
e9ercise across courses, and t"e online
development o. t"e t1o prere:uisite courses
t"at "ad /een delivered .ace&to .ace previously
prior to t"e launc"ing o. t"e certi.icate2
Program Development Management
All courses .unded t"roug" t"e o.
Aec"nology En"anced Learning 1ere re:uired
to use a decentrali>ed project management
approac" FBates, 2000G 1it" representatives
.rom t"e ;epartment o. Educational
Psyc"ology and $pecial Education, t"e
#nstructional ;esign roup o. t"e E9tension
;ivision, t"e ;epartment o. 6edia and
Aec"nology, and #n.ormation Aec"nology
$ervices2 Eac" unit received .unding .or t"eir
participation in t"e project up.ront2 #n order to
improve t"e development process .or t"ese
courses, several project management steps
1ere implemented at t"e university level,
including a course development process t"at
outlined roles and responsi/ilities .or project
design and development2
Because t"e $pecial Education Certi.icate 1as
uni:ue in t"at an entire program 1as /eing
developed, t"e ;epartment o. Educational
Psyc"ology and $pecial Education appointed a
tenure trac8 pro.essor to oversee development
and delivery2 $u/se:uently, t"e instructional
designer acted as project manager 1"ile t"e
.aculty mem/er acted as program director
overseeing content development2 A"e result
1as a team approac" to managing t"e project
/ased on eac" individualIs area o. e9pertise2
Phase One Phase Two Phase Three Phase Four
2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006
Face to Face Online Development Revisions & Maintenance
Content Development .
ED!E 500"510"
520" 530" & 540. Face-to-Face Online Development Revisions & Maintenance
Content Development
ED!E 550.6 Online Development
560" & 5#0. e$%&isites 'pen(in)*
ED!E 3+0 & 414
-igure *2 ;evelopment Aimeline
-igure 22 AEL Course Aemplate
*nstructional Design Phase
#nstructional design too8 place at t"e
.ollo1ing t"ree levels during t"e development
o. t"e program: F*G university standardsQ F2G
programQ and F5G course2
2niversity standards
A !e/CA course template, print&/ased
materials templates, and accessi/ility
standards .or students 1it" disa/ilities 1ere
created .or all university online courses2 A"is
standardi>ation o. 8ey elements served as a
starting point .or t"e instructional design o.
t"e $pecial Education Certi.icate2 Bsing t"e
AEL template ensured t"at all students 1ould
encounter a similar structure 1"en using
!e/CA and reduced t"e need .or students to
relearn "o1 to use material and navigation in
eac" course Fsee -igure 2G2
Pro!ra$ instrctional desi!n
Early in t"e development o. t"e program, t"e
;epartment o. Educational Psyc"ology and
$pecial Education decided t"at all courses
1ould /e similar in loo8 and .eel, /e "ig"ly
colla/orative, and provide an opportunity .or
t"e development o. comple9 t"in8ing s8ills2
Ene o. t"e .irst design decisions t"at needed to
/e made 1as "o1 content 1ould /e presented
1it"in t"e !e/CA environment2
Conversations /et1een t"e program director,
project manager Finstructional designerG and
su/ject matter e9perts led to t"e decision t"at
content 1ould /e organi>ed into t"emes2 Eac"
t"eme 1ould contain outcomes&/ased
o/jectivesQ an image t"at represented t"e
overall tone o. t"e t"emeQ and a list o. learning
activities and assessment tools students mig"t
use to learn a/out t"at t"eme2 All o. t"is
in.ormation 1ould /e contained on one 1e/
page 1it" lin8s to readings, audiovisual
resources, and B4LIs t"at opened as popup
pages Fsee -igure 5G2 A"is ensured t"at
students al1ays returned to t"e activity page
t"at outlined 1"at t"ey needed to 8no1 .or
t"at t"eme2 A"e students 1ere t"en a/le to
advance to t"e .ollo1ing t"eme /y clic8ing on
t"e %e9t /utton in !e/CA2
-igure 52 Course A"eme Page
A"e needs analysis conducted /y t"e
;epartment o. Educational Psyc"ology and
$pecial Education identi.ied t"e a/ility to
colla/orate 1it" peers, parents, and outside
agencies as a core s8ill o. special education
teac"ers2 All courses 1ould t"ere.ore re:uire
students to colla/orate in t"e 1riting o. a
mar8ed assignment2 A"e nature o. t"e
assignment 1ould vary .rom course to course,
1it" some courses re:uiring more t"an one
colla/orative assignment2 $tudents in eac"
course 1ould t"en /e assigned to private
!e/CA discussion groups 1"ere t"ey could
1or8 on t"eir individual group projects2
$tudents 1ere also encouraged to use t"e c"at
area to discuss generic issues relevant to t"e
completion o. t"e assignments, t"emes, and
A"e a/ility to use comple9 t"in8ing Fde.ined
/y Conassen F2000G as integrating creative,
critical and in.ormation&/ased t"in8ingG
1it"in an online environment 1as anot"er
s8ill re:uired /y special education teac"ers2
A"is s8ill 1as important .or t"e application
and integration p"ases o. certi.icate course
content2 $tudents needed to /e a/le to apply
t"ese s8ills /ot" colla/oratively and
individually in t"e management o. comple9
learning environments2
Ao .acilitate t"e development o. t"is s8ill,
pro/lem&/ased scenarios 1ere included in
certi.icate courses 1it" t"e scenarios
/ecoming increasingly di..icult 1it" eac"
course2 A sc"ool&/ased practicum e9perience
as t"e ne9t to last course 1ould provide a
.urt"er concrete opportunity to improve
studentsI s8ills in t"is area2 A"is component o.
online content development mirrored t"e
application and integration p"ases o. t"e
certi.icate, as delineated /y t"e ;epartment o.
Educational Psyc"ology and $pecial Education
in t"e certi.icate proposal and originally
implemented in t"e .ace&to&.ace o..erings2
Corse#level instrctional desi!n
Eig"t t"ree&credit Fone semesterG and one si9&
credit Ft1o semesterG courses ma8e up t"e
certi.icate program2 Enline design and
development too8 place in t"ree sections: .ive
courses completed in t"e .irst year F2005&
200+G, .our in t"e second F200+&200,G, and
t"e t1o prere:uisites in t"e t"ird year F200,&
2006G2 Courses 1ere to /e delivered in t"e
ne9t academic term immediately a.ter online
development 1as completed2 As a result,
online content development timelines "ad to
/e rigorously ad"ered to i. commitments .or
delivery 1ere to /e .ul.illed2
Allotted time .or course development varied
/et1een t"ree to si9 mont"s2 ;elays in t"e
development o. one course 1ould seriously
a..ect t"e development o. later courses2 A"e
program director, in t"e role o. principal
content developer .or t"e certi.icate, 1as
responsi/le .or t"e recruitment o. $6Es2
Care.ul consideration 1as given to selection o.
t"e $6Es .rom pro.essional /odies in t"e
province involved in t"e delivery o. special
education services2 E9perts .rom special
education sta8e"older groups, including
$as8atc"e1an Learning, t"e pu/lic and
Cat"olic sc"ool divisions, and t"e Council .or
E9ceptional C"ildren, 1ere approac"ed to
insure :uality development and en"ance
credi/ility among t"ose involved in provision
o. services to students 1it" e9ceptionalities2
Ao .acilitate t"e e9peditious development o.
t"e certi.icate, t"e project manager and
program director met 1it" eac" $6E and
created a contract t"at delineated t"ree
content development milestones2 A"e content
development milestones included: *G an initial
design p"aseQ 2G "al. t"e course contentQ and
5G complete course development, including
revisions2 Bpon conclusion o. eac" milestone,
t"e $6E 1as paid a t"ird o. t"eir contracted
.ee .or development o. t"e program2 By
esta/lis"ing a contractual arrangement 1it"
t"e $6Es, a .ormali>ed process .or content
delivery 1as esta/lis"ed2 Print and audiovisual
resources .or content development 1ere
provided /y t"e program director and $6Es
met on an in.ormal /asis 1it" t"e program
director to o/tain .eed/ac8 on t"e content
/eing developed2 A"is in turn .acilitated t"e
timely delivery o. content .or online
development o. t"e courses in t"e certi.icate2
A"e instructional design planning document
incorporated t"e 8ey .eatures o. t"e AEL
development template .or online courses2 A"e
planning document included a list o. team
mem/ers and contact in.ormationQ an outline
o. t"e course organi>ationQ resources to /e
used Fincluding te9t/oo8s, multimedia,
!e/CAGQ a course assessment planQ dates .or
completion and delivery to studentsQ and a
/udget2 #n addition, t"e planning document
incorporated course o/jectives and learning
activities into t"e template items t"at 1ere not
part o. t"e original AEL template2 A"e
instructional design planning document 1as
completed 1it"in t"e .irst mont" o. course
design /y t"e $6E and instructional
designer0project manager and .or1arded to
t"e program director .or content approval2
Completing t"is document usually re:uired *
to 5 .ace&to&.ace meetings, depending on "o1
.amiliar t"e $6E 1as 1it" t"e design o. online
learning2 A"e instructional designer 1as
responsi/le .or ensuring t"at learning
activities and assessment matc"ed /ot" t"e
course o/jectives and t"e learning needs o.
online students2 A"e instructional design
p"ase 1as revisited several times during t"e
development o. course materials to ensure a
goodness o. .it 1it" online development and
course o/jectives .rom t"e ;epartment o.
Educational Psyc"ology and $pecial
Ene o. t"e c"allenges t"at arose during t"is
process 1as t"e lac8 o. .amiliarity 1it" online
learning among $6Es2 A"e universityIs
#n.ormation Aec"nology $ervices provided
regular training on use o. !e/CA tools to
develop online courses, /ut $6Es 1ere una/le
to enroll in t"e training /ecause courses
typically occurred during t"e day 1"en t"e
$6E 1as o.ten 1or8ing2 Courses on teac"ing
in an online environment 1ere rarely o..ered
and 1ere al1ays .ace&to&.ace2 Araining t"e
$6Es in t"e development and instruction o.
online learning using !e/CA /ecame t"e
responsi/ility o. t"e instructional designer,
1"ic" used up design time and revolved
around speci.ic design pro/lems2 A"e
university is currently addressing t"is issue
and "as /egun to develop training modules .or
online learning using !e/CA2
Corse develop$ent
Bpon completion o. t"e initial instructional
design, t"e development team met to discuss
content development2 A"e .easi/ility o.
timelines and /udget 1ere closely scrutini>ed
at t"is stage2 Course development .or t"e
certi.icate 1as divided along t"e .ollo1ing
lines, .ollo1ing organi>ational structures at
t"e university:
$6Es 1rote mini lectures and
descriptions o. assessments .or course
t"emes2 A"ey identi.ied course&reading
materials t"at 1ould /e included as eit"er
online resources or in printed readings
#nstructional ;esign roup cleared
1ritten copyrig"t, pro.essionally edited
content, created readings pac8ages,
created 7A6L pages and uploaded
content into !e/CA2
;ivision o. 6edia and Aec"nology created
audiovisual resources suc" as audio&/ased
1e/ pages, images, video, cleared
copyrig"t on audiovisual material created
outside t"e university and reproduced
C;Is, video and ;<; re:uired /y t"e
#n.ormation Aec"nology $ervices created
t"e data/ases used .or online courses2
Program Deliver#
!it" t"e completion o. t"e online
development o. t"e .irst .ive courses in t"e
certi.icate, a pilot online o..ering 1as provided
to students2 A"e .irst online pilot course 1as
delivered in $eptem/er o. 2005, t"e second in
Canuary 200+, and t"e t"ird, .ourt" and .i.t"
1ere delivered during spring and summer
sessions o. 200+2 Ao date, 200 students "ave
enrolled in t"e certi.icate courses o..ered
online, 1it" .ourteen 1it"dra1ing .or a
ninety&.our percent retention rate Fsee Aa/le
*G2 !it" t"e development o. t"e remaining
courses in t"e certi.icate .or t"e 200,006
regular session, enrollment projections are
e9pected to dou/le, i. not triple in upcoming
years2 A"us, online courses in special
education continue to provide accessi/le,
a..orda/le, and .le9i/le learning environments
.or distance education students as evidenced
/y t"e increasing enrollment statistics2
Aa/le *
Aerm Class $tudents
A* 2005 E;P$E ,00 2+ * 0
A2 200+ E;P$E ,*0 22 * 0
A5 200+ E;P$E ,20 2* 2 0
A5 200+ E;P$E ,50 2+ 2 0
A5 200+ E;P$E ,+0 *, 0 0
A* 200+ E;P$E ,00 2) 2 0
A2 200, E;P$E ,00 *6 2 0
A2 200, E;P$E ,*0 2) 0 0
A2 200, E;P$E ,20 22 2 0
Aotal 200 *2 0
;uring t"e course pilot, t"e instructional
designer acted as a support person .or /ot" t"e
instructor and t"e students in order to identi.y
ongoing issues t"at instructors and students
1ould "ave2 #n.ormation Aec"nology $ervices
provided courses .or t"e instructors on "o1 to
use !e/CA course delivery tools and provided
a "elpdes8 system .or tec"nical :uestions2 As
$6Es are special education pro.essionals
employed outside o. a university setting,
accessi/ility to t"e daytime course delivery
1or8s"ops proved pro/lematic2
$tudents enrolled in t"e program come 1it"
varying computer literacy s8ills2 Beginning
teac"ers 1it" less t"an .ive years e9perience
and t"ose 1it" several years e9perience
comprise t"e major demograp"ic o. t"e
learners in t"e program2 $urprisingly, not all
enrolled in t"e program "ad t"e re:uisite
computer literacy s8ills re:uired .or most
1ord processing programs2 6oreover, some
"ad a steeper learning curve 1"en it came to
adapting and .unctioning 1it"in an online
learning environment2 Conse:uently, a mini
orientation on !e/CA 1as created online t"at
1ould s"o1 up one mont" /e.ore t"e course
start date2 A"e regular content 1ould replace
t"is mini course on t"e o..icial start date2
$tudent responses to t"is mini course "ave
/een :uite .avora/le and students seem to
"ave .e1er tec"nical pro/lems2 Alt"oug" 1e
"ave not "ad time to .ormally assess i. t"is
o/servation is accurate, it is our contention
t"at some students 1"o lac8 /asic computer
literacy s8ills 1ould still / .rom a more
intensive .ace&to&.ace orientation2 7o1ever,
"o1 to suc" orientation in an accessi/le
manner 1"en many o. t"e students enrolled
reside in rural or remote areas, as is common
.or distance education, still needs to /e
!ffective Practices for Implementation
and Project Management
Ao "elp conceptuali>e e..ective practices
relevant to t"e development, implementation,
and instructional design o. a post&secondary
online program, a visual model is depicted
/elo12 A"e model is /ased on reerIs F*''2G
project management .or instructional design,
/ut also /lends structural components relating
to t"e process o. implementation .or online
!"at di..erentiates t"e present model .rom
reerIs 1or8 are nuances speci.ic to t"e
implementation process o. a ne1ly developed
program t"at are integrated 1it"in an
instructional design project management
.rame1or82 As illustrated in -igure +, t"e
seven&p"ase process .or program
implementation includes: program
implementation planningQ program content
developmentQ program development
management structureQ program instructional
designQ program implementationQ program
revisions and maintenanceQ and program
sta/ili>ation2 !it"in eac" p"ase are actions .or
e..ective practices and t"e resulting impact o.
suc" actions on t"e program2 -rom an
implementation perspective, t"e practices
articulated are /ased on 1"at 1e deemed most
important to t"e development o. an online
,ase 1
$o)$am -mplementation lannin)
,ase 2
$o)$am Content Development
,ase 3
$o)$am Development
Mana)ement !t$&ct&$e
,ase 4
$o)$am -nst$&ctional Desi)n
,ase 5
$o)$am -mplementation
,ase 6
Revisions an( Maintenance
,ase #
$o)$am !ta.ili/ation
-igure +2 An #nstructional ;esign 6odel .or Program #mplementation and Program
A"e .irst p"ase o. t"e model pertains to
program implementation planning2 $alient
.eatures o. t"is p"ase relate to t"e underta8ing
o. a needs assessment and t"e .ormal
involvement o. sta8e"olders in t"e
implementation planning process2 A"e
purpose /e"ind a needs assessment is to
identi.y sta8e"older re:uirements and "o1
t"ose needs can /e met2 $ta8e"olders in t"is
instance to t"ose pro.essionals or
organi>ations .rom 1"ic" community /ased
support is derived and input re:uested
surrounding t"e content and purpose o. a
speci.ic program2
As t"e .irst p"ase o. online program
implementation, t"e identi.ication o.
sta8e"olders and t"eir .ormal involvement in
t"e governance structure o. a ne1ly planned
program t"roug" an advisory council is vie1ed
as essential i. partners"ips are to /e
esta/lis"ed2 -rom a program management
perspective t"is is important /ecause it /egins
to .ormali>e some o. t"e e9isting in.ormal
lin8ages t"at mig"t "ave already developed to
accommodate service delivery2 A"is p"ase is
c"aracteri>ed /y pu/lic relations initiatives
t"at in.orm community mem/ers and
pro.essionals ali8e regarding t"e e..icacy o. a
particular program2 Program directors
promoting online learning need to "ave "ig"ly
developed communication s8ills as pu/lic
education seminars and cultivation o.
sta8e"older allies 1"o 1ould advocate .or t"e
programIs implementation are vie1ed as
essential and necessary to creating community
readiness .or a ne1ly developed online
program2 $"ea&$c"ult> and -ogarty F2002G
argue t"at sta8e"older involvement is 8ey to
ac"ieving /uy&in .or ne1ly developed online
learning initiatives2 6a8ing t"e /usiness case
.or online learning re:uires outlining t"e
/ene.its to 8ey sta8e"olders t"at includes t"e
need, cost e..ectiveness, accessi/ility, and
.le9i/ility o. online learning environments2
6oreover, /y actively involving sta8e"olders
in t"e governance structure t"roug" an
advisory council ensures t"at t"ey 1ill "ave a
voice in t"e creation o. a ne1ly developed
online learning environment and /e
supportive o. its implementation2
A"e second p"ase o. t"e model relates to
program content development2 #n t"is p"ase
t"e initial content model is developed2
Program content development is derived .rom
input provided /y t"e needs assessment and
sta8e"olders2 #n turn, as content is developed
.eed/ac8 to sta8e"olders can /e provided,
t"ere/y ensuring t"eir involvement in t"e
process2 Eur e9periences led us to /elieve t"at
content .irst delivered in a .ace&to&.ace .ormat
is more easily developed .or online learning2
A"is is in part /ecause t"e $6Es recruited to
develop t"e online content "ad t"e opportun&
ity to develop and e9periment 1it" t"e content
in a more traditional manner o. delivery2
Conse:uently, some o. t"e issues pertaining to
t"e structure and .lo1 o. content delivery are
addressed and revisions to t"e original content
model are more easily .acilitated /y t"e $6Es,
1"o no1 "ave e9perience in its delivery2
A"e program content development p"ase
s"ould see t"e initial .ormation o. t"e content
development team t"at includes all $6Es
involved in content development, t"e program
director, and project manager2 Aeam meetings
.acilitated /y t"e program director and project
manager are "eld 1"ere/y a timeline .or .ace&
to&.ace delivery and online development are
presented2 Colla/orative consultation s"ould
c"aracteri>e t"e team meetings 1it" topical
discussion surrounding t"e se:uencing o.
delivera/les, t"ere/y ensuring a more even
and in.ormed approac" surrounding content
development o. t"e program2
A"e t"ird p"ase o. t"e model involves t"e
esta/lis"ment o. t"e program development
management structure2 #n t"is p"ase, t"e real
jo/ o. t"e project manager /egins2 A project
management team is esta/lis"ed /ased on
re:uired resources .or t"e program in
:uestion2 #n our case, t"e project management
team included representatives .rom t"e
#nstructional ;esign group, #n.ormation
Aec"nology $ervices, and t"e ;ivision o.
6edia and Aec"nology2 A"e project manager
and program director outline t"e scope,
se:uence, roles, responsi/ilities, and /udget
allocations .or t"e project management team2
A timeline .or development is discussed, as are
t"e means to en"ance /ot" vertical and
"ori>ontal communication t"roug" regular
meetings o. t"e project management team2 At
t"ese meetings status reports pertaining to
program development are presented2
P"ase .our o. t"e model is concerned 1it"
program instructional design2 A"is p"ase o.
t"e model is c"aracteri>ed /y team meetings
1it" t"e $6Es regarding online content
development2 #. $6Es "ave "ad t"e oppor&
tunity to deliver t"e program to /e developed
.or online learning in a .ace&to&.ace .ormat
t"en t"e transition to online content
development is easily .acilitated2
;uring t"is p"ase, a .ormat .or online content
development is esta/lis"ed2 A"is provides a
consistent loo8 and .eel .or t"e online plat.orm
/eing used Fin our case !e/CAG across courses
in t"e program2 Critical to t"is p"ase is t"e
need .or training o. t"e $6Es in online
content development2 #t is advisa/le t"at in
large post&secondary learning organi>ations
t"at an accessi/le training session on t"e use
o. tools and instructional met"ods common to
t"e online plat.orm /e provided2 ;epending
on 1or8load t"is can /e accomplis"ed /y t"e
instructional designer2 7o1ever, in most cases
t"e instructional designer is involved in t"e
development o. ot"er online courses and
programs, so it is recommended t"at a
training centre /e esta/lis"ed t"at 1ould
provide t"is training to t"e $6Es2
Ence t"is "as occurred, t"e $6Es can t"en
meet on an individual /asis 1it" t"e program
director and project manager to dra.t a
contract and esta/lis" milestones .or t"e
delivera/les o. all content2 A"e $6Es are
responsi/le .or t"e development o. content
t"emes, in consultation 1it" t"e program
director, 1"o s"ould t"en provide academic
advice and resources .or t"eir use2 By
contracting t"e $6Es, and esta/lis"ing
milestones .or delivera/les tied into a payment
sc"edule, t"e timely delivery o. t"ematic
content is ensured2 A"e project manager
1ould t"en dra.t t"e instructional design
document t"at outlines speci.ics relating to
course description, pre and co&re:uisites,
credit "ours, student assessment, project team
mem/ers, learning resources, and t"emes2 A"e
project manager Finstructional designerG t"en
1or8s individually 1it" t"e $6Es to1ards t"e
online development o. t"e t"emes .or a
speci.ic course2 ;epending on t"e resources
re:uired to develop t"e course, t"e project
manager0instructional designer 1ill consult
1it" ot"er mem/ers o. t"e project
management team .or purposes o. integrating
audio, visual, or print resources2
Program implementation c"aracteri>es t"e
.i.t" p"ase o. t"e model and involves t"e
piloting o. a particular course or program2 At
t"e implementation p"ase, it is imperative t"at
all $6Es 1"o "ave delivered t"e course .ace&
to&.ace and "ave developed online content no1
"ave t"e opportunity to pilot t"e online
version2 7aving received training in t"e use o.
t"e online plat.orm, t"e $6Es no1 "ave t"e
opportunity to 1or8 t"roug" t"e
implementation o. t"e course2 A"is is
imperative .or t"e revisions and maintenance
p"ase, as t"e 8no1ledge and e9periences
garnered 1ill aid in .urt"er development o. t"e
course or program2
-or students enrolled in online courses,
opportunities are made availa/le .or eit"er
.ace&to&.ace or online training in t"e use o. t"e
online learning plat.orm2 $tudents s"ould also
"ave re:uisite 8no1ledge o. relevant computer
tec"nologies2 A"e a/ility to use t"e #nternet,
navigate 1e/ pages, send email, send
attac"ments, and understand t"e rudiments o.
1ord processing programs is essential i. t"e
individual is to succeed in online learning2 Eur
e9periences .ound t"at t"ose enrolling in t"e
certi.icate came to t"e program 1it" a 1ide
variety o. degrees o. competence in t"e use o.
computer tec"nologies2 Conse:uently, not
only is training in t"e use o. t"e !e/CA
plat.orm necessary, /ut also an introductory
primer to /asic 1ord processing s8ills is
re:uired in some cases2
6oreover, researc" surrounding 1e/&/ased
instruction "as demonstrated t"at students
1"o lac8ed con.idence in t"eir #nternet s8ills,
and t"ose 1"o did not "ave t"e proper tools or
access to t"e appropriate computer tec"nol&
ogies, tended to disli8e online learning
FA"ompson S Lync", 2005G2 A"is 1as
supported /y t"e in.ormal .eed/ac8 1e
received .rom /ot" instructors and students2
Ao address t"is issue, researc" surrounding
t"e psyc"ological processes underlying 1e/&
/ased instruction is /eing .ormulated, using
students enrolled in .uture certi.icate courses
as su/jects2
A"e esta/lis"ment o. .eed/ac8 lin8ages to t"e
.unding agency and ot"er sta8e"olders also
c"aracteri>es t"e program implementation
p"ase2 Every e..ort is made to monitor
program implementation, so t"at c"allenges to
t"e process o. implementation are addressed2
A"e .idelity o. t"e program to t"e model and
c"aracteristics o. t"e implementation process
1ill t"en guide .urt"er evaluation e..orts2
$peci.ically, results .rom departmental course
and instructor evaluations o. t"e online
courses lead to decisions regarding t"e
revision and maintenance o. particular courses
in t"e certi.icate as delineated in P"ase 6 o.
t"e model, revisions and maintenance2 Ao
.acilitate t"e revision and maintenance o.
online courses, a portion o. revenue generated
.rom t"e course o..erings is set aside .or t"e
revising and maintaining o. course content2
Eptimally, t"is 1ould lead to s"ort cycle
decisions t"at 1ould /etter in.orm program
implementation and lead to program
sta/ili>ation, P"ase (2 iven t"e model
presented, a .eed/ac8 loop /et1een P"ase 6,
revisions and maintenance, and P"ase (,
program sta/ili>ation, is depicted indicative o.
t"e necessity .or t"e revising and maintaining
o. online program content t"at ultimately
leads to program sta/ili>ation2
A"e colla/orative design and implementation
o. online courses is a multi.aceted process2
A"is is especially true i. a 1"ole program is to
/e launc"ed, as opposed to an individual
course2 A"e model presented .or replica/le
online learning practices is /ased on our
e9periences in developing t"e Post ;egree
Certi.icate in $pecial Education as illustrated
in t"e present case study2 !e /elieve t"e
model developed represents /est practices .or
ne1ly developed online learning programs at
t"e post&secondary level2 Alt"oug" researc"
pertaining to e..ective practices .or program
management .or online courses "as /een
pu/lis"ed, t"e present model is uni:ue
/ecause it captures nuances speci.ic to t"e
implementation process2 #t "as /een our
e9perience t"at colla/orative consultation and
t"e esta/lis"ment o. interdisciplinary
partners"ips re:uire a clear delineation o. t"e
scope and se:uence o. a project and t"e
ensuing roles and responsi/ilities .ormulated
.or t"e project design team2
A"e uni:ue .unding arrangement, provided /y
t"e Aec"nology En"anced Learning initiative
and managed t"roug" Campus $as8atc"e1an
and t"e various partner institutions, /elies t"e
need .or a team approac" to online develop&
ment2 Because o. t"is, it is important t"at /ot"
vertical and "ori>ontal c"annels .or commun&
ication and .eed/ac8 /e esta/lis"ed and a
mec"anism .or resolving con.licts is esta/&
lis"ed2 -ortuitously, many o. t"e issues t"at
arose in t"e development o. t"e certi.icate
1ere mainly logistical in nature and easily
resolved t"roug" team meetings2 As a result, a
:uality product 1as delivered on /udget and
on time, .acilitating a seamless mode o. service
delivery .or t"e training o. special education
personal2 %o1 t"at t"e certi.icate "as /een
developed, t"e current tas8 is to e9plore
avenues o. .uture researc" t"at 1ill .urt"er
contri/ute to an understanding o. "o1 online
learning contri/utes to li.elong learning,
empo1ered pro.essionals, and t"e 1ell&/eing
o. individuals 1it" e9ceptionalities2
Allan, Elaine #2, and Ce.. $eaman2 200+2
Enterin! t"e Mainstrea$: T"e <ality and
E3tent o% Online Edcation in t"e 2nited
(tates, ,--I and ,--/. %eed"am and
!ellesley, 6A2: P2 $loan -oundation2
Bates, Aony2 20002 Mana!in! Tec"nolo!ical
C"an!e: (trate!ies %or Colle!es and
2niversity Leaders. $an -rancisco, CA2:
Cossey Bass2
Cervo, 42 62, and A2L2 !ilson2 *''+2 A t"eory
o. program planning .or adult education2
Adlt Edcation <arterly +,F*G:2+'&26)2
;o1nes, $tep"en2 20022 A"e learning o/ject
economy2 Paper presented at symposium2
%A!e/ 2002:A"e !e/&Based Learning
Con.erence, *'&22 Ecto/er, at A"e Bniversity
o. %e1 Bruns1ic8, -redericton, %e1
reer, 6ic"ael2 *''22 &D Pro1ect
Mana!e$ent: Tools and Tec"niMes %or
&nstrctional Desi!ners and Developers.
Engle1ood Cli..s, %C2: Educational
Aec"nology Pu/lications2
Co"nson, $cott ;2, $teven 42 Aragon,
%ajmuddin, $"ail, and %ilda, Palma&4ivas2
20002 Comparative analysis o. learner
satis.action and outcomes in online and .ace&
to&.ace learning environments2 T"e 7ornal o%
&nteractive Learnin! 9esearc" **:2'&+'2
Conassen, ;avid 72 20002 Co$pters as
Mindtools %or (c"ools: En!a!in! Critical
T"in*in!. 2d ed2 Bpper $addle 4iver, %C:
Prentice 7all2
P"ipps, 4onald, and Camie 6erisotis2 *'''2
W"atGs t"e Di%%erence: A 9evie' o%
Conte$porary 9esearc" on t"e E%%ectiveness
o% Distance Learnin! in =i!"er Edcation.
!as"ington, ;C2: A"e #nstitute .or 7ig"er
$as8atc"e1an Learning2 200*2 Edcator
(pply and De$and in (as*atc"e'an to t"e
6ear ,--;. 4egina, $L2: overnment o.
$c"on, ;onald A2 *')'2 Edcatin! t"e
9e%lective Practitioner: To'ard a +e'
Desi!n %or Teac"in! and Learnin!. $an
-rancisco, CA: Cossey Bass Pu/lis"ers2
$"ea&$c"ult>, 7eat"er, and Co"n -ogarty2
20022 Online Learnin! Today: (trate!ies
T"at Wor*. $an -rancisco, CA2: Berrett&
A"ompson, Lori -2, and Brian C2 Lync"2 20052
!e/&/ased instruction: !"o is inclined to
resist it and 1"yH 7ornal o% Edcational
Co$ptin! 9esearc" 2'F5G:5(,&5),2
C"apter *+
6anaging online learning projects
at a distance: A case o. 1or8place
Marti Cleveland#&nnes
Mo"a$ed Ally
At"abasca 2niversity
At"abasca, Alberta, Canada
*bstract+ Project management is a .eature o. all comple9 multi&.aceted "uman activities2 #t can /e
done in pro.essional, .ormal 1ays 1it" plans and timelines, or it can proceed Fand all too o.ten doesG
in a more ad "oc, in.ormal 1ay2 As education increases in comple9ity 1it" t"e integration o.
in.ormation and communication tec"nologies F#CAsG, and improved accessi/ility t"roug" education
RprojectsI Fe2g2, ne1 programs, colla/orative implementations, large scale entities li8e competency&
/ased curricula no1 need sound project management practices in order to /e success.ul2
6anagement o. projects 1"ere team mem/ers interact .ace&to&.ace is c"allengingQ "o1ever,
management o. projects 1"ere team mem/ers are located in di..erent geograp"ic locations is muc"
more c"allenging2 A"is c"apter outlines a large&scale elearning project involving t1elve organi>ations
in a si9 mont" implementation o. an innovative program .or 1or8place training2 $tarting out as an
in.ormal, loosely structured set o. activities, over1"elming interest in t"e project caused it to gro1 to
a si>e t"at re:uired more serious planning and organi>ation2
,e# words: online learning projects, project management, 1or8place learning
Creation o. ne1 curricula .or 1or8place
training o.ten proceeds directly .rom design to
classroom, 1it"out alp"a and /eta testing and
care.ul evaluation2 #n t"e case o. elearning,
de.ined as t"e use o. tec"nological intervent&
tion to provide .le9i/ility .or, and ma9imum
accessi/ility to, educational e9periences,
online delivery is still ne1 enoug" t"at testing
/ecomes even more important2 Aesting 1as a
major issue .or t"e project outlined in t"is
c"apter, as it 1as /rea8ing ne1 ground on
anot"er .rontQ t"e content .or t"e training 1as
customer service in distance or tec"nologically
mediated service environments2 #n t"is
conte9t, customers are contacted and served
via telep"one and 1e/&/ased support2 $ales
processes, disseminating product 8no1ledge,
trou/le s"ooting customer complaints and
responding to any 8ind o. customer en:uiry
must occur 1it"out t"e / o. .ace&to&.ace
interaction2 Appropriate communication
processes t"at are strictly voice and te9t /ased
"ave to developed and taug"t 3 in t"is case at
a distance2
#n addition to t"e innovative side o. t"e
project & .acing t"e c"allenges o. /eing in
unc"arted 1aters 1it"out models to .ollo1,
t"e administration o. t"e project 1as carried
out at a distance, re:uiring t"e use o. t"e same
processes and communication s8ills 1e 1ere
preparing to teac"2 !e needed t"e s8ills o. a
project manager, .or e9ample, to provide
e9emplary listening s8ills, give validating
.eed/ac8, .ollo1&up appropriately and on time
1it" t"ose involved, and deliver 1"at 1e said
1e 1ould do2 A"is provided .or a uni:ue
opportunity to manage a project, 1it" approp&
riate and 8no1n project management tools,
1it"out t"e re:uirement, or t"e opportunity,
.or .ace&to&.ace engagement2 All project
management processes occurred t"roug" t"e
support o. #n.ormation and Computer
Aec"nologies F#CAG 3 at a distance2
A"e inception o. t"e project 1as spar8ed /y a
demonstrated need in t"e Canadian
1or8place2 -indings .rom 7uman 4esources
and $8ills ;evelopment Canada F74$;CG
identi.ied t"at call center employees must /e
a/le to "andle t"e tec"nological aspects o.
t"eir jo/ as 1ell as customer service
re:uirements in an appropriate manner, using
good Kso.t s8illsL2 According to 6acLeod
F2000G, so.t s8ills are identi.ied /y sel.&
a1areness, analytical t"in8ing, leaders"ip
s8ills, team&/uilding s8ills, .le9i/ility, t"e
a/ility to communicate e..ectively, creativity,
pro/lem&solving s8ills, listening s8ills,
diplomacy and c"ange&readiness2
Learning in t"is content area includes /ot" t"e
cognitive and a..ective domains F=rat"1o"l,
Bloom S 6asia, *'6+G 2 A"ere is evidence o.
t"e e..ectiveness o. elearning relative to
cognitive outcomes Farrison S Anderson,
200*G, /ut little regarding a..ective outcomes2
Employees lac8ing so.t s8ills need training,
/ut, most so.t s8ills training uses traditional,
classroom /ased delivery 1"ere employees
must /e in t"e same location at t"e same time2
A"is delivery is inconvenient and not very
e..icient .or most organi>ations2 A"e project
descri/ed in t"is case study ultimately
contri/uted to organi>ational e..ectiveness /y
investigating "o1 so.t s8ills training can /e
delivered to t"e 1or8place using /road/and
tec"nology2 Employees accessed t"e training
materials and o/tained virtual support using a
/road/and net1or82
Elearning uses sync"ronous and async"ronous
communication tec"nologies to deliver
content FCon.erence Board o. Canada, 200*G
and create support .or learners t"roug"
computer&mediated con.erencing2 A"is
project used elearning strategies to deliver
training on so.t s8ills to "elpdes8 sta.. so t"at
t"ey could .unction more e..ectively in t"eir
roles2 $o.t s8ills are critical .or "elpdes8 sta..
as t"ey 1or8 e9clusively 1it" customers in a
tec"nologically mediated environment2
According to oleman F*'',G, employees 1it"
appropriate so.t s8ills demonstrate increased
productivity2 Providing so.t s8ills training to
employees in t"e 1or8place o.ten results in
more satis.ied employees and customers,
leading to "ig"er productivity and, ultimately,
competitive advantage2
E..ective project management created t"e
opportunity to design and test an appropriate
elearning intervention2 !"ile t"e project did
not start 1it" .ormal documented planning,
t"e rapid gro1t" o. t"e project re:uired t"at
t"e most import aspects o. project
management /e implemented2 A"e project
management process 1e used, and "o1
success.ul t"e process 1as is outlined in t"is
Project -bjectives
Project o/jectives spanned .ive sta8e"older
groups, 1it" some o/jectives s"ared 1it"
multiple groups and some o/jectives uni:ue to
a single group2 A"e .irst group 1as t"e
researc"ers, 1"o also acted as t"e training
.acilitators and project managers2 A"e second
group 1as t"e pro.essional associations acting
as advocates .or t"e project in support o.
mem/ers"ip training2 A"ird 1ere t"e senior
e9ecutives .rom mem/er organi>ations, acting
as 8ey decision ma8ers in allo1ing sta.. to
participate in t"e project2 A"e .ourt" group
1as t"e middle managersQ t"ose managing t"e
day&to&day operations o. t"e call centers2 A"e
.i.t" group 1as t"e .ront line 1or8ers,
recipients o. t"e training and t"e "olders o.
t"e ultimate delivera/le: improved service as
reported /y customers2
Pro1ect Mana!ers
)ront Line
Engage enoug"
organi>ations to get
valid researc"
ain cooperation
and support .rom
all organi>ations
$tay 1it"in
availa/le resources
Ensure e..icient
and e..ective
project roll&out
e9emplary training
enerate valid
and valua/le
researc" .indings
access to
Be involved
1it" a valua/le
6onitor .or
delivery o.
service to
training .or
4eali>e as
little cost in
terms o. time
and energy as
training .or
service to
4eali>e as
little cost in
terms o. time
and energy as
e..iciencies in
service to
Chart 2 $ta8e"older o/jectives
Managing the Project
Elearning material development in
organi>ations re:uires instructional
development and project management, /ot"
"ig"ly tec"nical s8ill sets2 Bot" activities re:uire
development plans t"at are comple9, e9pensive,
and 1"ic" o.ten ta8e a long time to complete2
6ost elearning projects are underta8en to
develop learning materialsQ "o1ever, some
projects may /e initiated to esta/lis" support
systems .or learners or to prepare .or t"e
delivery o. learning materials2 $ome projects
may involve colla/oration /et1een
organi>ations, 1"ic" calls .or good project
management to ensure success.ul completion o.
t"e projects2 #n t"e current case, all t"e a/ove
1ere re:uired2
A"is type o. project is di..icult to manage
/ecause o. t"e num/er o. team mem/ers
involved and t"e multidisciplinary /ac8ground
o. t"e team2 Projects o. t"is genre normally
involve several team mem/ers per.orming
interrelated activities, coordinated /y a project
manager to ma8e sure t"ere is e..ective use o.
resources to complete t"e project in an e..icient
and timely manner2 A typical elearning
development team includes a project manager,
instructional designer, content e9perts, editor,
tec"nical e9perts and a steering committee2 #n
projects li8e t"is one, mem/ers o. t"e
development team are o.ten in di..erent
locations and time >ones2 A"e c"allenge .or t"e
project manager is "o1 to manage using a
virtual team 1it" mem/ers at a distance2
A"e .ollo1ing activities guided our elearning
project, assisted t"e identi.ication o.
delivera/les, and 1ere used to guide t"e project
management .unction:
(ta*e"older ob1ectives are identi%ied, clari%ied
and a!reed pon, %or t"e dration o% t"e pro1ect
!e approac"ed pro.essional associations and
re:uested t"eir cooperation recruiting
organi>ations 1it" call centers and "elp des8s2
A"is created t"e .irst layer o. sta8e"olders &
pro.essional organi>ations in t"e call
center0"elpdes8 industry2 A"eir re:uirements
1ere a polis"ed, non&intrusive approac" to
mem/er organi>ations, an e..ective and e..icient
project and t"e reali>ation o. stated delivera/les2
An advertisement regarding t"e project 1as sent
t"roug" pro.essional association e&mail lists and
ne1sletters2 A"e advertisement stated t"e scope
and nature o. t"e elearning project, participant
o/ligations at t"e organi>ation level and t"e level
o. t"e individual learners2 #nterested
organi>ations 1ere invited to contact t"e project
manager .or more in.ormation2
A"e response 1as over1"elming2 6any
organi>ations jumped at t"e opportunity .or
ine9pensive training in t"e area o. so.t s8ill
development2 Li8e t"e pro.essional associations,
t"ey e9pected t"e least amount o. disruption as
possi/le, an e..ective and e..icient project, and
t"e reali>ation o. stated delivera/les2 Learning
o/jectives identi.ied .or t"e training as .ollo1s2
A"e learners 1ill engage in and0or /e a/le to:
4evie1 t"e scope and nature o. s"ort&
term customer0call center consultant
personal relations"ips
-acilitate t"e identi.ication o. customer
e9pectations and desired outcomes
Present a customer service model t"at
supports t"e call center consultant call
;ocument t"e essential components o.
t"e call process in t"e call center
Learn and apply /asic s8ills o. "uman
interaction at a "ig" level o. competence
$trengt"en customer0call center
consultant personal relations"ips and
customer satis.action 1it" t"e services
$trengt"en relations"ips among call
center sta..
#denti.y t"e meaning o. values0/elie.
systems and t"eir e..ect on "uman
Bnderstand t"e need .or a1areness and
sensitivity to "uman diversity
#ntegrate "uman relations"ip s8ills
1it"in t"e call process
4evie1 t"e pro/lem solving process and
learn to apply t"e colla/orative process
t"at ma8es t"is 1or8
4evie1 t"e nature o. con.lict and t"e
role o. call center personnel in a con.lict
!e agreed t"at training o/jectives 1ould /e
delivered at t"e learnersI sites via computer&
mediated courses over t"e #nternet, 1it" "ig"
levels o. .le9i/ility .or, and engagement 1it", t"e
participants2 At t"e end o. t"e training program,
participants 1ould receive certi.icates o.
completion .or t"is customer service program2
Ergani>ations 1ere re:uired to agree to t"e
projectIs terms o. re.erence2 Letters o.
understanding 1ere signed, 1it" agreed upon
re:uirements .or /ot" sides2 Ergani>ations "ad
to provide participants and give su..icient
support so t"at participants could complete t"e
course2 A"is included 1or8 time to train and
study2 Because t1o distinct types o. so.t1are
.or suc" courses 1ere to /e tested across groups
.or training e..ectiveness, organi>ations "ad to
agree to provide t"e computing po1er and t"e
time to learn t"e so.t1are applications,
sc"eduled at agreed upon times2 Participants
1ere re:uired to complete :uestionnaires as
t"eir contri/ution to t"e researc"2
-inally, participants 1ere re:uired to sign
agreements to engage .airly and consistently in
t"e program, and consent to /e respondents in
t"e researc" component2 A"ey 1ere made a1are
o. project learning o/jectives and "ad to ma8e a
commitment to learn t"e so.t1are2
Co$$it$ent %ro$ all *ey sta*e"olders
needs to be "i!" and endrin!
!ritten project agreements 1it" all 8ey
sta8e"olders, /e.ore project commencement,
1ere signed to ma9imi>e t"e pro/a/ility o.
enduring commitment2
All *ey sta*e"olders $st be involved in t"e
develop$ent o% learnin! process
A"ere 1as a veri.ication process 1"ere stated
learning o/jectives 1ere revie1ed and agreed to
prior to t"e training2 %o adjustments in t"e
learning process 1ere made during t"e course2
At t"e end o. t"e course, call center sta..
participants made recommendations .or
adjustments to t"e learning o/jectives .or .uture
9esorce allocation $st be adeMate to carry
t"e pro1ect to co$pletion
4esources to support a project involves time,
personnel support and .unding2 -unding to
support t"e project 1as provided /y our "ome
institution, allo1ing .or t"e "iring o. an
instructional designer0researc" assistant2
Project management time, .acilitation o. courses
and researc" time 1as coordinated /y t"e t1o
researc"ers Ft"e c"apter aut"orsG, 1"o provided
t"ese resources on a voluntary, unpaid /asis2
All pro1ect sta%% s"old "old t"e positions %or
'"ic" t"ey are $ost co$petent
4oles and responsi/ilities 1ere outlined and
discussed among t"e core project team 3 t"e t1o
researc"ers, 1"o 1ere also t"e instructors and
instructional designers, and t"e instructional
designer0researc" assistant2 A"roug" care.ully
designed communication plans and
/enc"mar8s, direct support 1as o/tained .rom
participant organi>ations2 A"is came in t"e .orm
o. disseminating in.ormation, getting support
.rom local computer tec"nicians, and "aving
participants support one anot"er in gat"ering
consent .orms, assignments, researc"
instruments, etc2 All 1"o contri/uted to t"e
project 1ere competent .or t"e jo/s t"ey 1ere
re:uired to do 3 even t"ose providing t"e
smallest amount o. support, suc" as re:uested
participant peer support2 A"e a/ility o.
contri/utors to e..ectively do t"eir jo/s 1as a 8ey
.actor in t"e smoot" running o. t"is e..icient
Co$$nication plans $st be appropriately
desi!ned, a!reed pon and sccess%lly
A"e core project team, t"e project sta.. and
middle managers .rom t"e organi>ations
involved "eld regular meetings2 #nstructors
1ere present in virtual learning sites .or t"e
participants and availa/le via p"one and e&mail2
#ncidental communication processes 1ere
implemented as neededQ e2g2 memos, .a9ed
in.ormation, call outs via telep"one2
=i!" standards o% prodction, in t"is case
instrctional desi!n in online@elearnin!
instrction, s"old be sed
$tandard instructional design practices 1ere
employed and veri.ied in eac" step o. t"e design
p"ase2 A curriculum template 1as developed
/ased on t"e "ig"est standards and .inest detail
possi/le and 8ey adult learning principles 1ere
employed2 6odules 1ere pre&tested 1it" moc8
participants 1it" similar c"aracteristics to target
learners /e.ore implementation2 Continuous
.eed/ac8 .rom participants allo1ed .or
adjustment 1"ere possi/le2
All learnin! $aterial $st be pro%essionally
created and presented
Learning management so.t1are 1as c"osen .or
its trac8 record & "aving /een e9tensively used
and tested2 6aterials 1ere created 1it" care and
pro.essional design2 A"e digital li/rary in t"e
"osting institution provided material support .or
A"e elearning project management process must
involve t"e same program development process
.ound in education2 Principles o. project
management are re:uired 1"en program
development /ecomes large and comple9, suc"
as projects to develop distance education
materials F!"itten et al2, 200*G2
Project Stages
Pro1ect plannin!
-easi/ility is t"e .irst p"ase in project planningQ
deciding 1"et"er t"e project s"ould /e
implemented2 Ence t"ere is approval and
agreement to complete t"e project, it is scoped
out in terms o. t"e /oundaries, major project
outcomes, 8ey sta8e"olders, completion date,
and an overall /udget .igure2 A"e in.ormation
.rom t"e overall plan is summari>ed in t"e .orm
o. a c"arter and eac" o. t"e sta8e"olders must
sign t"e c"arter to s"o1 t"eir commitment to
t"e project2
A"e organi>ation t"at sponsored t"e elearning
project solicited proposals .rom .aculty and sta..
.or innovative researc" projects2 A committee
consisting o. a cross&section o. sta.. .rom t"e
organi>ation evaluated t"e proposed projects
using 1ell&esta/lis"ed internal criteria2 -or t"e
elearning project, a proposal 1as developed and
su/mitted .or .unding .rom an internal researc"
.und2 A"e proposal su/mitted .or .unding
included t"e major project outcomes, t"e
sta8e"olders in t"e project, t"e /udget .or t"e
project and t"e project completion time2 A"e
researc"ers agreed on t"e project plan and
su/mitted t"e proposal .or possi/le .unding o.
t"e project, and t"e proposal 1as accepted and
#t is critical to analy>e t"e c"aracteristics o. t"e
user o. t"e proposed elearning materials so t"at
t"ey can /e e..ective2 Anot"er tec"ni:ue is to
involve t"e user in determining t"e
re:uirements o. an elearning system Fsometimes
re.erred to as Kuse&case analysisLG2 ;uring t"e
analysis p"ase, detailed learner and content
analyses are conducted2 LearnersI education
levels must /e determined so t"at t"e developer
can decide at 1"at level to 1rite t"e materials
and to identi.y pre&re:uisites .or t"e learning2
#n addition, t"e capa/ility o. learners to access
t"e materials must also /e assessed2 A"is "as
impact on 1"ic" tec"nology to use .or t"e
delivery2 -or e9ample, i. learners do not "ave
video capa/ilities on t"eir computers, designers
s"ould avoid using interactive or streaming
video, as learners 1ill not /e a/le to access suc"
Proper analyses must /e conducted to identi.y
1"at students s"ould learn and to allo1
designers to c"un8 t"e materials into
managea/le units .or development and .or use
/y learners2 ;eveloping instruction in small
units can result in ma9imum re&usa/ility o. t"e
materials and .le9i/ility in development and
delivery Fsometimes re.erred to as t"e Klearning
o/jects modelLG2 -or e9ample, rat"er t"an
develop materials .or a .orty&eig"t "our course,
t"e course could /e /ro8en do1n into si9 to
eig"t modules o. instruction2 #nstruction is t"en
designed around t"e modules, 1"ic" ma8es it
easier .or testing and implementation2 6odular
development allo1s eac" module to /e piloted
1it" learners and implemented separately2
A"e major activity in t"e design p"ase is to
identi.y t"e speci.ications .or t"e distance
education materials /ased on learnersI
c"aracteristics and t"e re:uirements identi.ied
in t"e analysis p"ase2 A"e design p"ase
identi.ies strategies to use to ac"ieve t"e
learning outcomes2 A"e instructional designer
1or8s closely 1it" t"e content e9perts to identi.y
t"e instructional and learning strategies2 ;uring
t"e design p"ase, prototypes are developed and
provided to t"e users .or .eed/ac8 on t"e
prototypes2 A"e project team uses t"e .eed/ac8
to revise t"e design2 A"e design p"ase is
iterative 1"ere t"ere is on&going revision o. t"e
prototypes /ase on .eed/ac8 .rom t"e user2
Eventually, t"e prototype 1ill /ecome t"e real
product a.ter suggestions /y t"e users2
;uring t"e development p"ase team mem/ers
use t"e speci.ications .rom t"e design p"ase to
develop t"e learning materials2 As t"e learning
materials are developed, t"ey are .ormatively
evaluated /y as8ing e9perts to revie1 t"em, and
pilot tested 1it" a small group o. learners .rom
t"e target audience2 -or t"is project, t"e .aculty
mem/ers prepared t"e learning materials and
gave t"e materials to an instructional designer to
program and /uild eac" elearning lesson2 A"e
.aculty mem/ers revie1ed t"e elearning
materials as t"ey 1ere /eing developed2 As 1ell,
a small group o. learners 1as allo1ed to revie1
and try t"e elearning materials as t"ey 1ere
/eing developed2 -eed/ac8 o/tained .rom t"e
pilot testing 1as used to develop t"e .inal dra.t
o. t"e materials2
A.ter t"e learning materials are t"oroug"ly
tested, t"ey are implemented 1it" t"e target
audience2 ;uring t"e .irst implementation, t"e
delivery is closely monitored to ma8e sure it goes
as planned2 Also, summative evaluation is
conducted to determine t"e e..ectiveness o. t"e
learning materials and t"e delivery2
;uring t"e implementation o. an elearning
project, students and sta.. 1"o participated in
t"e delivery o. t"e elearning materials are
trained on "o1 to use t"e tec"nology and "o1 to
interact 1it" t"e materials2
;uring t"e .irst and su/se:uent
implementations, proper support must /e
availa/le .or learners to success.ully complete
t"e lessons2 $upport activities include .i9ing any
tec"nical pro/lems, "elping learners 1it"
content :uestions, and motivating students2 A"e
instructors assigned to t"e project provided
support to students2 A"e instructor ans1ered e&
mails, mar8ed assignments, moderated
computer con.erences, and diagnosed simple
tec"nical pro/lems2 At t"e same time, a
tec"nical e9pert 1as availa/le to solve any
"ard1are or so.t1are pro/lems students and t"e
instructor may "ave "ad during t"e course2
=ey sta8e"olders provide detailed .eed/ac8 on
project processes and outcomes2 A"is critical
in.ormation is t"e 8eystone to /ot" project and
program improvement2 #n t"is project,
evaluation data 1as analy>ed and t"e results
communicated to all sta8e"olders2
Planning and Delimitations
T"e initial p"ase
Li8e muc" serious 1or8, t"e idea .or t"e project
emerged out o. a conversationQ one :uite
casually started on a road trip to t"e campus
situated in t"e geograp"ic center o. our
province, several "undred miles a1ay .rom our
respective residences2 A"e t1o aut"ors 1ere
discussing t"e need .or greater understanding
a/out t"e generation o. a..ective learning
outcomes in distance education, particularly in
online learning2 #n less .ormal learning settings,
c"aracteristics li8e attitudes, values, motivation,
discipline, t"in8ing and communication s8ills
are e..ectively learned t"roug" a process called
sociali5ation2 A"e sociali>ation process occurs
1"en agents o. sociali>ation Fparents, teac"ers,
peers, signi.icant ot"ers, mass mediaJ provide
models, e9amples, suggestions and conte9t .or
appropriate social development S
4ic"ardson, *''*G2 A"is provision is made
t"roug" social interaction, de.ined as mutual or
reciprocal action 1it" Rot"ersI in a social
Ao .acilitate learning in t"e a..ective domain, 1e
suggest t"at education must loo8 more care.ully
at processes o. interaction to .oster learning
outcomes2 A"ere is muc" evidence o. t"e impact
o. academic and social interaction on learning
outcomes FPascarella S Aeren>ini, *''*, *'')G,
particularly on values development2 Cust li8e
more in.ormal sociali>ation processes, a..ective
learning is dependent upon interaction,
re.lection and .eed/ac8 .rom ot"ers2
A"e "uman e9perience o. Ra..ectI is an area o.ten
ignored in "uman social interaction and rarely
addressed in education F<inson, 2002G2 At t"e
same time, a..ect is a central part o. living and
learning2 #t is de.ined as emotion, .eeling, desire
leading to actionQ t"e conscious su/jective aspect
o. an emotion and em/edded in a comple9 o.
e9periences including cognition and conte9t2
A..ective learning is related to, /ut e9ists outside
o., cognitive processing2 Learning outcomes in
t"e a..ective domain relate to e9ternal
e9pression o. internali>ed emotion t"roug"
attitudes and values F=rat"1o"l, Bloom S
6asia, *'6+Q agne, Briggs S !agner, *''2G2
Because o. t"e very personal and intrinsic nature
o. a..ect, outcomes can /e di..icult to measure2
#n .ormal education, attri/utes t"at represent
/e"avioral outcomes are .ostered over a..ective
outcomes2 According to =rat"1o"l, et al2 F*'6+G,
t"e a..ective domain represents e9ternal
e9pression o. a..ect t"roug" t"e .ollo1ing
activities: receiving Fdemonstrating t"e
1illingness to listenG, responding
Fdemonstrating active involvementG, valuing
Fdemonstrating c"oice in involvementG,
organi>ing Fdemonstrating 1illingness to
advocateG, and c"aracteri>ation Fdemonstrating
1illingness to c"ange oneIs /e"avior, li.estyle, or
1ay o. li.eG2
#n 1or8place training, a..ective learning emerges
as so&called Rso.t s8illI development2 %o
consensus "as /een reac"ed on t"e de.inition o.
so.t s8ills, /ut t"ey are identi.ied /y 6acLeod
F2000G as t"e .ollo1ing: a/ility to communicate
e..ectively, creativity, t"e process o. analytical
t"in8ing, pro/lem&solving processes, leaders"ip
s8ills, team&/uilding s8ills, listening s8ills,
diplomacy, .le9i/ility, c"ange&readiness and sel.&
a1areness2 A"ese s8ills are deemed to /e critical
to e..ective per.ormance in t"e 1or8.orceQ it is
also suggested t"at t"ey are in s"ort supply /y
t"e same aut"or2
A num/er o. conte9tual .eatures and learning
activities need to come toget"er to .acilitate
a..ective learning Fronlund, *'''G2 =ey
.acilitation strategies are identi.ied as: t"e
presence o. emotional and psyc"ological sa.ety,
opportunity .or interaction, t"e o/servation o.
demonstration o. ne1 and appropriate models o.
/e"avior, activities t"at promote sel.&a1areness,
activities t"at promote sel.&re.lection and t"e
opportunity .or application o. ne1 /e"avior2
6oving t"ese .acilitation strategies to online
learning environments re:uires care.ul
attention2 Because success.ul Rsociali>ationI is
part o. re:uired learning outcomes, interaction
opportunities are paramount in t"e online
setting2 Enline interaction can /e sync"ronous
or async"ronous 1it" ot"er participants in an
online learning activity2
Creatin! t"e plan
Aen :uali.ied organi>ations 1ere c"osen to
participate in t"e study2 Ao :uali.y, an
organi>ation "ad to "ave t"e computing
sop"istication to support t"e re:uired so.t1are,
"ave a "elp des8 or call center o. at least ten
people, and t"e resources to allo1 participants
t"e time to engage in t"e training2 A"e sample o.
respondents 1as comprised o. "elp des8
analysts and call center sta.. mem/ers 1"o
eit"er volunteered or 1ere mandated to ta8e t"e
program2 -rom t"is convenience sample o.
.orty&.our, participants 1ere randomly assigned
to one o. t1o groups: ElluminateLive re:uired
sc"eduled participation at a speci.ic time, on a
speci.ic day, 1"ile mem/ers o. an async"ronous
group participated on t"eir o1n individual
sc"edules, using !e/CA learning management
so.t1are2 $everal participants 1ere moved
/et1een groups to accommodate t"is sc"edule2
#n t"e end, t"ere 1ere 25 participants in t"e
async"ronous group and 2* participants in t"e
vClass sync"ronous group2
Estimates o. so.t s8ills competency 1ere
identi.ied in a sel.&test /e.ore training, to
esta/lis" an initial /aseline2 A"is sel.&
assessment, also in t"e pilot stage, 1as
completed t"e 1ee8 prior to training via an e&
mail re:uest2 %ine so.t s8ill concepts, as
identi.ied /y 74$;C, 1ere eac" given t1o items2
Eac" item o..ers a statement regarding /e"avior,
to 1"ic" participants responded on a Li8ert
scale a/out t"e .re:uency o. "is0"er o1n
A"e course 1as designed 1it" a .ocus on t"e
generation o. a..ective outcomes .or learners in
online environments2 -our learning modules,
eac" 1it" t"ree topics, structured t"e course2
Eac" topic .ollo1ed t"e same instructional
process: introduction, o/jectives, personal
o/jectives, content presentation, demonstration,
application, and personal re.lection2
-acilitation .or a..ective learning 1as ma9imi>ed
in t"e .ollo1ing 1ays2 A R"ig"&touc"I learning
environment 1as created in /ot" !e/CA and
vClass2 7ig"&touc" learning environments
include .acilitation t"at is learner&centered, 1it"
demonstra/le validation and, 1"erever possi/le,
accommodation o. student needs and o/jectives2
-acilitator immediacy in re.erence to re:uests
and .eed/ac8 1as a priority2 A"is 1as
accomplis"ed online t"roug" timely responses
to postings, e&mails, telep"one calls and
:uestions as8ed in sync"ronous discussions2
E9plicit identi.ication o. standards,
re:uirements, customer service models and
e9emplary customer service models provided
e9ternal re.erence .or individual actions2 $el.&
a1areness e9ercises, re.lection opportunities,
practice re:uirements and application e9ercises
1ere designed to encourage "ig" levels o.
A"e !e/CA so.t1are o..ered continuous access
and speci.ic instructional components .or t"e
mem/ers in t"at section o. t"e course2
Async"ronous t"readed discussions 1ere part o.
eac" module, eac" con.erence /eing availa/le .or
one 1ee82
$ync"ronous c"at 1as availa/le /ut not
structured in any part o. t"e course2 Content
presentation included te9t, audio clips and video
clips2 E9ercise s"eets and 1or8s"op directions
1ere availa/le in t"e same virtual location2
$eparate discussion areas and 1"ite/oards
provided support .or group projects and t"eir
presentation2 A"e site 1as availa/le at all times,
every day2
-or t"e ot"er group, vClass 1as availa/le once
per 1ee8, .or one "our2 A"is plat.orm o..ers
sync"ronous online presentations, 1it" audio
interaction among participants and /et1een
participants and t"e instructor2 $ync"ronous
te9t c"at is availa/le .or t"ose in t"e vClass
session during t"e online session only2 roup
1or8 and application s"aring is availa/le 1it"in
t"e plat.orm2 Colla/orative assignments
provided t"e opportunity .or students to 1or8
toget"er outside o. class time2
A"e 8ey treatment varia/le in t"is researc" is
type o. interaction2 7ig" levels o. interaction
/et1een students and student&.acilitator 1ere
.ostered2 #nteraction 1as directed to1ard
.ostering re.lection, t"oug"t.ul consideration,
and e9amination o. personal responses to events
around relating to ot"ers2
Project 4esources
4esources .all into t"ree main categories: time
allocation, "uman e..orts and .unding2 A"e
project managersI "ome institution .unded t"e
project2 A"is allo1ed .or coverage o. material
costs and t"e salary o. t"e researc" assistant2
Et"er resources 1ere allocated t"roug" regular
1or8 time o. t"e project managers and all ot"ers
involved in t"e project2
!e identi.ied t"e needs o. t"e project care.ully
and t"en "ired according to unmet needsQ t"is
ensured competency re:uirements 1ere covered2
Ergani>ations participating in t"e project "ad to
"ave certain minimal capacities so t"at t"eir
resources 1erenIt tapped unreasona/ly and
organi>ation sta.. could assist 1it" t"e
administration o. t"e project2
(c"edlin! and Esti$atin!
Activities and timelines are central pillars in a
comple9 project2 A"ese components must /e
estimated Fin terms o. c"aracter, monetary costs
and time costsG and sc"eduled according to "o1
muc" time is needed and t"e /enc"mar8s .or t"e
project2 A"e project plan "ad to /e constantly
monitored, adjusted and communicated2
;eadlines 1ere identi.ied and adjusted 1"en
necessary2 $ome deadlines 1ere more critical
t"an ot"ersQ communication 1it" all project
participants, particularly on t"e deadlines t"at
canIt /e moved, 1as 8ey2
Ene project manager 1as in c"arge o.
monitoring activities and timelines, 1it" support
.rom t"e rest o. t"e core team2 At times,
re:uired activities emerged as t"e project
un.olded, re:uirements t"at couldnIt /e
identi.ied a"ead o. time2 #n several
organi>ations, tec"nical sta.. 1ere una/le to
open t"e organi>ationIs .ire1all to allo1
participants access to t"e course site2 A"is
Rtrou/le s"ootingI re:uired additional pro/lem&
solving and a c"ange in start times .or activities
t"at .ollo1ed2
Communications plans outline types o.
communication processes and .re:uency o.
communication2 -or t"is project, a
communications plan identi.ied all participants
and t"e "ierarc"y o. Rneed to 8no1I and R.or
in.ormation onlyI messages2 %ormally a
communications plan includes a roster o.
communication opportunities suc" as: group vs2
individual in.ormation dissemination, general
in.ormation presentation vs2 individual
in.ormation e9c"ange, meetings, mail&outs, e&
mail, 1e/&/ased in.ormation, .a9 and telep"one
calls2 Communication, eit"er one&1ay or t1o&
1ay, 1as re:uired .or project orientation,
presentation o. re:uired activity, project
updates, project adjustments, pro/lem or
c"allenges encountered and project results2
-ace&to&.ace meetings 1ere not possi/le or
desired in t"is project2 #t 1ould "ave /een
possi/le to "ave audio&telecon.erence meetings,
/ut t"ey 1ere deemed to /e too time consuming
and unnecessary2 Broadcast messages 1ent via
e&mail, and speci.ic individual discussions 1ere
"eld /y p"one, 1it" e&mail .ollo1&up2 Ence
courses 1ere up and running, in.ormation to
participants 1as disseminated via course sites2
#n all cases o. critical communication, e2g2
c"anges in important dates, t1o&1ay
communication 1as re:uested2
Trac*in! and Control
Arac8ing and control means just 1"at it says 3
staying on trac8 "appens t"roug" detailed
monitoring and control o. project activities2
;ocumentation o. re:uired activities provides a
system o. project data /y 1"ic" to trac8 project
progress2 A"is approac" can /e more or less
detailed, /ut is especially valua/le .or 1"en a
project includes multiple organi>ations t"at are
geograp"ically distri/uted2 Arac8ing o. activity
and visi/le delivera/les is an e..ective and
accurate 1ay to assess progress compared to
roug", su/jective reports li8e K1e?re a/out ,0W
complete on t"is tas8222L
A"e project employed some detailed
documentation o. progress, /ut .ocused very
muc" on course commencement and course
completion2 Ence t"e course commenced, t"e
detailed structure o. module progression 8ept all
participants on trac8, or least very a1are o.
1"ere t"ey s"ould /e2 Preparation /e.ore t"e
course 1as some1"at rus"ed as t"e course
commencement date 1as relatively .i9ed2
Course 1rap&up Fa.ter last module 1as
completeG, "o1ever, could "ave /een complete
muc" .aster t"an it too8 place2 $ending and
trac8ing return o. evaluations, sending
certi.icates out and contacting all sta8e"olders
1it" .inal reports 1as more open ended and
spread over several mont"s2
Project 1rap&up
Project completion is o.ten overloo8ed as a
stage, even t"oug" it is one o. t"e 8ey p"ases o.
managing any project2 !rap&up time provides
an opportunity to capitali>e on important t"ings
t"at can /e present during a project?s .inal
p"ase: revisiting o/jectives 1it" all 8ey
sta8e"olders, identi.ying e9amples o. criteria to
determine projectIs level o. success and creating
adjustments in project plan to prepare .or t"e
ne9t project roll&out2 A"e success o. t"e ne9t
project can /e improved t"roug" due diligence
in 1rapping up t"e current project2
A"is project 1as 1ea8est in t"e 1rap&up process,
as many t"ings /egan to impose on t"e time o.
t"e core team, creating constraints on 1"at
could /e accomplis"ed2 A"e original 1rap&up
process 1as designed to include evaluation .rom
all 8ey sta8e"olders, .eed/ac8 to all course
participants, course certi.icates, .inal reports to
associations and organi>ations involved, and a
re:uest to indicate 1illingness to participate in
.uture projects2 Enly a portion o. t"ese activities
1as completed2
Project "esults
All 8ey sta8e"olders reported "ig" levels o.
satis.action 1it" t"e project processes and
outcomes2 A"e most speci.ic .eed/ac8 .or
c"anges to t"e project came .rom t"ose most
involved in t"e training 3 t"e sta.. t"emselves2
Learning o/jectives 1ere met as measured /y
e9am scoresQ "o1ever, participants provided
suggestions regarding additional o/jectives and
improvement o. t"e interaction 1it" t"e
tec"nology2 Because sound communication and
ongoing evaluation procedures 1ere in place, t"e
project 1as massaged and adjusted during t"e
process to meet all re:uired o/jectives as .ully as
!e 1ere unprepared .or t"e time e9pended to
manage t"e dynamic, c"anging nature o. t"e
project2 Communication clarity and e..iciency
Fincoming and outgoingG 1as in constant need o.
adjustment2 Communication did not .lo1 out
uni.ormly in terms o. time and, at times, in
su/stance2 A tig"ter communication plan 1it"
appointed communication senders and receivers
is critical2 Async"ronous communication
re:uires t"at receivers ac8no1ledge receipt o.
in.ormation, rat"er t"an "aving t"e sender
assume in.ormation "as /een received2
Communicating in a virtual environment 1"ere
t"ere is no .ace&to&.ace interaction led to
ine..iciencies2 #t 1as di..icult to determine t"e
.rustration level o. students 1"o 1ere "aving
pro/lems 1it" t"e elearning materials2
#nstructors "ad to 1atc" .or and support slo1er
students to determine i. t"ey 1ere "aving
Aec"nology c"allenges e9isted on t1o .ronts2
!"ile organi>ations validated levels o.
computing po1er, ot"er issues regarding
security arose2 Aec"nicians in support o. t"e
computer system 1ill /e consulted in t"e ne9t
running o. t"e project2 Participants needed
more support and more time t"an originally
allocated to /ecome oriented to t"e so.t1are2
A"is e9tra activity and time 1ill /e /uilt into
ne9t project plan2
Bloom, 62 F2005G2 Elearnin! in Canada. A"e
Con.erence Board o. Canada2 4etrieved
Canuary 200, .rom
"ttp:001112con.erence/o ar d2ca0ed u cati
on0reports0 p d.s0AopLine]report2pd.
agne, 42 62, Briggs, C2C2 and !agner, !2!2
F*''2G2 Principles o% instrctional
desi!n2 -ort !ort", AT2: 7arcourt
Brace Covanovic" College Pu/lis"ers2
oleman, ;2 F*'',G E$otional intelli!ence:
W"y it can $atter $ore t"an &.<2
London2 Bantam Boo8s2, A2 S 4ic"ardson, C2C2 F*''*G
(ociolo!y %or Canadians2 Aoronto:
6cra1&7ill 4yerson2
=rat"1o"l , ;242, Bloom, B2$2, and 6asia, B2B2
F*'6+G2 Ta3ono$y o% edcational
ob1ectives: =andboo* &&: A%%ective
do$ain2 %e1 Uor8: ;avid 6c=ay Co2
6acLeod, A2 F2000G2 T"e i$portance o% so%t
s*ills in t"e crrent Canadian labor
$ar*et2 $ectoral and Eccupational
$tudies, 74;C2 4etrieved on August *,,
2005 .rom
"ttp:001112/i>1ise2ca 0 P ; -ile074;C2p
Pascarella, E2 S Aeren>ini, P2 F*''*G2 =o'
colle!e e%%ects stdents2 $an -rancisco:
Pascarella, E2 A2, S Aeren>ini, P2 A2 F*'')G2
$tudying college students in t"e 2*st
century: 6eeting ne1 c"allenges2
9evie' o% =i!"er Edcation, ,., *,*&
Project 6anagement #nstitute FP6#G $tandards
Committee2 F2000G2 A Gide to t"e Pro1ect
Mana!e$ent Body o% 4no'led!e DPMBO4J.
F "ttp:00111 2pmi2org G
<inson, C2 F2002G2 Learnin! do$ains and
delivery o% instrction2 4etrieved on
August 5*, 2002 .rom
"ttp:00pi9el2 ."da2edu0id0learning]dom
ain2"t m l
!"itten, C2L2, Bentley, ;2, S ;ittman, =2C2
F200*G2 (yste$s analysis and
desi!n $et"ods2 Burr 4idge, #L:
C"apter *,
7o1 can elearning contri/ute to
education .or more sustaina/le
developmentH Lessons in project
Mairi ( 4ers"a'
Dorset Edcation %or (stainability +et'or*
Dorset, En!land, 24
*bstract+ A"is c"apter presents learning e9tracted .rom a case study relating to t"e ;orset Education .or
$ustaina/ility net1or8 FE.$%G F=ers"a1, 200+G, an education net1or8 managed primarily as an e&
learning project, 1it" t"e aim o. /ringing Re9pertI de/ates into t"e pu/lic domain2 A"e learning .ocussed
on issues around in.ormation across organisational /oundaries and on mec"anisms used to
promote participation, as 1ell as on t"e relations"ip /et1een e&learning and social inclusion2 #t e9plores
t"e purpose o. net1or8ing in relation to in.ormation e9c"ange, and postulates t"e e9istence o. t"ree levels
o. in.ormation e9c"ange, ac"ieva/le electronically2 A"e c"apter concludes /y summarising a met"odology
.or assessing attitudes to education .or sustaina/le development, using an on&line :uestionnaire, tested
t"roug" a pilot study and suita/le .or larger scale researc"2 A"e project presents real&li.e researc" into a
case in 1"ic" e&learning "elped to de.ine an emerging education agenda and it raises a series o. issues
regarding t"e management o. e&learning projects, including possi/ilities, pit.alls and et"ical dilemmas2
A"e researc" re.erred to is .ully 1ritten up else1"ere, t"is c"apter see8s to e9tract learning points relevant
to project managers and to e9plore t"em in an easily accessi/le .ormat2 F*))G
,e# words+ E&learning, gate8eeper, participation, social inclusion, sustaina/ility, sustaina/le
A"is project, t"e ;orset Education .or $ustain&
a/ility net1or8 FE.$%G F=ers"a1, 200+G,
/roug"t current social de/ate around educa&
tion?s role in promoting more sustaina/le
development into t"e pu/lic domain, t"roug" a
net1or8 comprising a dispersed interest
community F!ilmott, *')6G arising .rom an
electronically lin8ed community o. interest
2 #t
e9empli.ies "o1 practice can in.orm t"eory,
/o1ing to R$out"ern 1isdomI in stressing t"e
importance o. grassroots movements, .inding
t"at ecology, "ealt" and economic development
can no longer /e le.t to t"e e9perts /ut must /e a
part o. Kpeople?s organised concernsLF!ignajara,
*''5G2 As an e&learning project it /roug"t
Re9pertI de/ates into t"e pu/lic domain, 1it" t"e
!ee0 "ttp:001112dorset&
lea2org2u80e. s n0pages0e.snet2"tm
aim o. ena/ling c"ange, .or K#t is 1"en ne1
8no1ledge meets old institutions t"at social
c"ange startsL Fold/latt, 2000: *,(G2
A"is pat".inding project e9empli.ied an evolving
approac" to t"e management o. an online
learning project 1it" no agreed aims at t"e
outset, rat"er a /elie. t"at electronic
communication 1ould ena/le participants to
communicate e..ectively /y engendering
in.ormation across organisational
/oundaries2 A"is com/ined 1it" t"e project
managerIs /elie. t"at t"e 1e/&/ased plat.orm
1ould provide a medium /y 1"ic" /ot" t"e
content and t"e process o. e..ective E$; could
/e e9plored2
A 8ey issue .or t"e project 1as participation, and
t"e project tested met"ods .or getting people
involved, including an on&line audit and a
/ulletin /oard2 4ecent B= government advice
states t"at e..ective E$; s"ould /e targeted,
re:uiring an understanding o. individual
starting places FE2A2C2, 2005G and t"at putting
in.ormation on&line is not, in itsel., trans.orm&
ational2 A"e indirect contri/ution played /y e&
learning to t"e development o. sustaina/le
communities may /e more important t"an E$;
itsel., and t"e initial regional sustaina/le
development .rame1or8 .or t"e $out" !est o.
England F$ustaina/ility $out"1est, 2000G
identi.ied t1o 8ey concerns:
*2 !"at role do learning and s8ills play in
improving sustaina/ilityH
22 !"at role does sustaina/ility play in
improving learning and s8illsH
A"e .irst is a 1ic8ed issue2 $ocial inclusion is a
comple9 p"enomenon, c"aracterised /y t"e
interdependency and in.luence o. many .actors,
.or e9ample "ousing, "ealt" and educational
opportunity F$cottis" 6useums Council, 200*G2
A"e role o. e&learning is similarly comple9,
including relatively linear relations"ips suc" as
increasing t"e num/er o. active learners
F$ustaina/ility $out"1est22002G t"roug" to
contri/uting to comple9 societal trends2 A 8ey
learning point .or ot"er e&learning project
managers is t"e .acilitation and ena/lement o.
secondary projects, commensurate 1it" comple9
o/jectives, in t"is project # "ave summarised
researc" into people?s attitudes to E$; across
t"e parallel education systems o. museums,
li/raries and arts and t"e trialling F5G an on&
line audit o. E$; competencies2
$essons learned
E%%ectin! in%or$ation e3c"an!e
A"e net1or8 1as an e:ual partners"ip 1it"
overt agreement t"at an up to date contact list,
availa/le electronically, 1ould /e t"e /ac8/one
o. t"e project2 A"is gave rise to t1o main lessons
.or project managers2 -irstly, a certain critical
mass must /e ac"ieved in t"e level o. co&
operation and e9c"ange o. in.ormation /e.ore
online interactions can really /e called a
Knet1or8L FA"orelli, *')6G and security o.
in.ormation 1as very important in encouraging
participants to .reely e9c"ange data and
in.ormation2 6y su/se:uent researc" regarding
net1or8 activity de.ined t"ree levels o.
in.ormation s"aring, *G, interactive, or t1o 1ay
de/ate suc" as .ace to .ace conversations or
telep"one calls, 2G active s"aring including t"e
passing o. documents /et1een and among
organisations, and 5G passive s"aring 1"en
organisations only ma8e in.ormation availa/le
remotely or t"roug" display F=ers"a1, 200+G2 #
.acilitated all t"ree types o. in.ormation
e9c"ange t"roug" a set o. meetings, supported
/y a 1e/site2 A .uture goal in managing t"is type
o. project 1ould /e to implement all t"ree levels
o. in.ormation e9c"ange solely /y electronic
Evalatin! t"e bene%its o% partners"ip
A second learning point concerns t"e value o.
on&going .ormative evaluation o. suc" projects
including measuring t"e e..ectiveness o.
in.ormation trans.er2 As an e:ual partners"ip,
participating organisations needed to identi.y
e9c"ange o. in.ormation as a goal and my role as
project manager included setting up inter.aces
/et1een organisations /ot" electronically and
.ace to .ace, 1"ic" ena/led synergy and
e9c"ange o. in.ormation to occur2 etting ot"ers
to participate 1as relatively simple, ensuring
longevity o. t"e relations"ip 1as more comple9
and .ormative evaluation may "ave legitimised
involvement o. certain organisations /y
:uanti.ying costs and /ene.its2 4esearc" "as
.ound t"at many evaluation e9ercises
concentrate on measura/le outputs li8e .inancial
data, rat"er t"an on t"e impacts or e..ects o. t"e
partners"ip itsel. Food1in, *'') and $to8er,
*''6G2 # 1ent on to :uanti.y a met"od .or
measuring t"e e..ectiveness o. in.ormation /et1een organisations 1"ic" may prove
use.ul .or considering joint agency 1or8ing over
cross cutting issues F=ers"a1
, 200+G: ot"er
project managers 1ill determine t"eir o1n
priorities .or evaluation2
Using e-learning to define both content and
A"e net1or8 started 1it" t"e principles o. e:ual
partners"ips, mirroring t"e Capanese concept o.
?8eiretso? FA"orelli, *')6G, re.lected 1it"in t"e
1e/site design and layout 1"ere "ands
supporting a glo/e 1ere used to illustrate inputs
to and outputs .rom e..ective E$;2
A"e "ome page illustrated t"e contri/utions
played /y t"e di..erent sectors o. education to
sustaina/le development, 1it" strands o.
learning including t"ose identi.ied /y Bar/er
F*''(G matc"ing t"e project sta8e"olders and
illustrating t"e local vision and /readt" o.
sectorial involvement2 As /ot" project manager
and 1e/&designer # used t"e "ome page to de.ine
content, 1"ile developing su/se:uent pages to
e9plore process 1it"in eac" sector /y lin8ing
inputs and outputs into a series o. 1e/ pages
1"ic" provided in.ormation, strategy documents
and numerous lin8s to ot"er site2 A"e 1e/ page
1as designed around my visualisation o. content
and process, rat"er t"an t"e needs o. people
accessing t"e site, 1"o later re:uested t"at a
summary o. all contacts and lin8s /e grouped
toget"er on a separate 1e/ page, rat"er t"an
/eing spread t"roug"out t"e site2 A learning
point .or ot"er project managers concerns
minimising t"e comple9ity o. design and
surveying user need as a .irst step2
.I3 2 0ome page of !SD network
Pro1ect $ana!er as P!ate#*eeperG
Esta/lis"ing a 1e/site represents a positive
decision /y participating organisations to utilise
representational media and to move into t"e
sp"ere o. mass communication2 As t"e project
manager and controller o. t"e 1e/site # 1as
a1are o. /eing responsi/le .or selecting a su/&set
o. t"e total in.ormation availa/le and o.
compressing certain areas 1"ile ela/orating
ot"ers2 A use.ul learning point .rom t"e project
1as t"e importance o. not raising e9pectations
among ot"er educators regarding any
possi/ilities .or .inancial or ot"er re1ard e2g2 #
1as approac"ed /y an A.rican c"arity 1or8er
needing .inancial assistance in order to purc"ase
necessities suc" as /icycles .or "er project2
Eventually t"e re:uest 1as dealt 1it" /y an B=
/ased religious c"arity /ut initial
communication 1as di..icultQ 1"at in.ormation
1ere 1e entitled to ma8e availa/le a/out social
justice and glo/al responsi/ility i. 1e 1ere not
prepared to assist a small /ut essential practical
project in t"e developing 1orldH #n addition, t"e
1e/site used many images to portray messages
a/out sustaina/le development, re:uiring
consideration o. t"e potential cultures o.
understanding, or 1orldvie1s o. site users
FLongman and Lacey, *''5G2 -or 1ealt"y
nations, sustaina/le development o.ten means
policies concerning issues suc" as recycling,
energy e..iciency and conservation 1"ile .or
poorer nations it may mean policies .or e:uality,
.airness, respect o. t"e la1, redistri/ution o.
1ealt" and 1ealt" creation2 A"e images 1ere
care.ully c"osen to satis.y inclusivity principles,
paying attention to researc" proving t"at
p"otograp"s o. people 1it" eye&to eye contact
"ave more impact t"an t"ose t"at are more
detac"ed F<an der aag and %as", *')(G2 As
project manager # 1as 1ary o. relying too
"eavily on images as t"e computer generation o.
images o. a very "ig" :uality can ma8e suc"
images almost indistinguis"a/le .rom real
images2 Any .uture 1e/site development 1ould
"ave t"e source o. all images accredited and
t"eir aut"enticity annotated on t"e screen2
A"e 1e/site 1as used as a resource .or
educators, at a 1or8s"op devised .or t"e
lo/al Citi>ens"ip con.erence F2000G stressing
t"e similarities /et1een s8ills o. lo/al
Citi>ens"ip and t"ose o. o/taining in.ormation
.rom t"e #nternet, including discerning
in.ormation, and selecting and prioritising
1it"out discrimination2 6y learning included
t"at t"e use o. media allo1s control o. t"e trut"
and t"at t"e 1e/site designer acts as a
gate8eeper /y controlling 1"ic" in.ormation and
images are used2 Ao :uote C"oms8y F*''*G
?!"at is use.ul is true?2
Participation in e#learnin!: possibilities and
$ustaina/le development is not a /an8 o.
in.ormation, /ut rat"er, a set o. values, s8ills
and understanding o. 8no1ledge FC"errett,
*'''G2 A"e site included an on&line audit o. 8ey
competencies .or E$;, and a /ulletin /oard .or
t"e s"aring o. good practice2 A"e latter 1as an
attempt to ena/le positive engagement in t"e
comple9 issues o. sustaina/le development,
de.ined /y t"e Bnited %ations as, Kt"e /iggest
c"allenge t"is centuryL FAnan, 200*G2 A"e
project included an audit o. 8ey competencies
relating to sustaina/le development and
education, 1it" organisations /eing re:uired to
audit t"eir o1n per.ormance and to "ig"lig"t
areas .or attention2 # decided to use t"e /road,
su/jective terms: ?started,? ?in progress? and ?E=?
deli/erately, rat"er t"an to use any
:uanti.ication o. progress as not all
representational measurement involves
num/ers F;a1es and $mit", *'('G and my
intention 1as to develop a tool 1"ic" 1ould
encourage increased participation in t"e process2
As t"e project manager, # .ound t"at assessment
1as t"e most controversial area o. t"e 1or8 and
"ave distilled t"e .indings into a series o. project
management learning points:
Esta/lis"ments noted t"e need to allo1 .or
negative or neutral association F$c"uman
and Presser, *')*G t"ere is a di..erence
/et1een not yet engaging 1it" a process and
not intending to engage 1it" a process2
$alience o. t"e issues 1as vital to engender
participation in t"e process and one
c"allenge in project management is to allo1
suc" an audit to act as a catalyst .or
engagement rat"er t"an as a constraint on
possi/le responses2 -or e9ample: a /an on
smo8ing 1ould serve to alienate many o. t"e
young people served /y t"e Uout" and
Community $ervice and alt"oug" ultimately
desira/le it 1ould in"i/it t"e $ervice .rom
.ul.illing its primary o/jective o. engaging
1it" disa..ected and o.ten e9cluded
A"e c"oice o. sym/ols a..ected participation
levels, e2g2 t"e signal, ?E=? accompanied /y a
circle /et1een t"um/ and .ore.inger as used
/y an under1ater diver 1as used to
represent t"at all 1as 1ell2 Consultation
1it" sc"ools indicated t"at alt"oug" t"e
audit "ad raised t"e issues and encouraged
organisational c"ange /ut t"at t"e sym/ol
1as considered more appropriate in some
sectors t"an ot"ers2 Et"er project managers
could learn .rom t"is, developing a range o.
logos and units o. measurement appropriate
to eac" sector2
A .urt"er participatory mec"anism 1as
devised t"roug" t"e development o. an on&
line /ulletin /oard used to su/mit details o.
projects, 1"ic" 1ould t"en /e displayed on
t"e 1e/site2 As project manager, # 1as
1or8ing closely 1it" !!-&B= and
attention 1as /eing paid nationally to 1"at
good E$; 1ould loo8, /ut later national
1or8ing groups agreed t"at t"e term
Ks"aring e..ective practiceL, 1ould /e less
contentious2 A"e /ulletin /oard proved
ine..ective in practice as a.ter t"e site 1as
launc"ed t"e e&mail address 1as regularly
inundated 1it" o..ensive e&mails2 $alient
project management learning included t"e
need to determine suc" assessment criteria
at t"e outset, as 1ell as t"e need to
sa.eguard t"e site2
(pple$entary researc": attitdes to c"annels
%or learnin!, an online srvey.
# "ave re.erred to t"e relations"ip /et1een
inclusive access to educational opportunity and
t"e development o. sustaina/le communities2
Project researc" concludes t"at, R1"ile /asic
education "as independent value, it is t"e
.ocussing o. t"at /asic education on t"e s"aring
o. 8no1ledge s8ills and values 1"ic" is
importantI FB%E$CE, 2005G2 An important
project management role involved .acilitating
supplementary researc"2 6y analysis o. t"e
relations"ip /et1een education and sustaina/le
development led me to devise an audit o. E$;
c"annels, 1it" re.erence to t"e B= government?s
Environmental Audit Committee report FEAC,
2002&2005G, developing a Li8ert scale to
consider /ot" attitude and strengt" o. response
F4o/son, *''5G2
A"e survey contained t"irty randomly mi9ed
positive and negative statements .rom relia/le
sources relating to E$; c"annels, c"osen
according to t"eir a/ility to identi.y 1it" or
contradict a c"osen aspect o. t"e $;E agenda,
.or e9ample inclusive access to educational
opportunity or glo/al citi>ens"ip2 A"e aim 1as to
assess "o1 strongly people .elt a/out t"e E$;
opportunities a..orded /y eac" sector, 1it" t"e
survey /eing designed to eliminate sectors 1"ic"
did not ena/le discrimination /et1een positive
and negative responses2 A"is 1as one o. a 1ide
range o. supplementary researc" and projects
spa1ned /y t"e initial e&learning project2
E..ective on&going evaluation 1ould "ave
re.erred to t"e impact o. t"ese Ro..s"oots
projectsI, many o. 1"ic" may "ave greater
longevity t"an t"e original e&learning project,
illustrating an e..ective evolution o. projects2 A"e
results o. my attitudinal researc" are given
else1"ere F=ers"a1, 6, 200,G, /ut t"e
met"odology uses on&line positive and negative
statements to di..erentiate /et1een attitudes to
education sectors or c"annels o. learning as
/elo12 F-#22G2
.I3 /
) New information technologies offer
news and information from all over
the world which can help the poor to
be heard
Depart$ent %or &nternational
Develop$ent D,---J, PMa*in! !lobalisation
'or* %or t"e 'orldsG poor.G Dec. ,---
2 / > ?
strongly disagree& disagree& agree&strongly agree
A"e on&line survey 1as e..ective as a researc"
tool, /ut learning points included:
A re:uirement .or need pictures and simple
language, 1it" a range o. .ormats .or
di..erent organisations, as on&line audits
1ere not universally accessi/le2
A"e attitudinal c"oice s"ould /e increased to
, to include a donIt 8no1 section as researc"
demonstrates t"at su/stantive responses
may /e c"osen in error 1"en a ?donIt 8no1?
option is not availa/le F$c"ulman and
Presser *')*, in =ers"a1 , 200+G
E&learning presents a real opportunity /ot" .or
s"aring practice in educating .or more
sustaina/le development, and to connect 1it"
t"e social inclusion agenda t"roug" contri/uting
to t"e 8no1ledge economy and increasing access
to educational opportunity2 A"is project presents
real 1orld researc" into t"e e..ectiveness o. early
practice, connecting t"e :uality o. li.e agenda
1it" di..erent sectors o. education2 Particular
re.erence is made to t"e .ollo1ing .our e&
learning agendas:
#n.ormation e9c"ange
Process and content
Potential c"annels .or E$;
Local priorities concerning lin8s /et1een social
inclusion and education are part o. t"e /igger
glo/al picture 1"ere inclusive access to
education is not availa/le2 Even 1"ere access is
availa/le t"e :uality is suspect as Kmost poor
c"ildren 1"o attend primary sc"ool in t"e
developing 1orld, learn s"oc8ingly littleL F$ac"s,
200,G2 E&learning o..ers many opportunities .or
participation in education .or sustaina/le
development t"roug" trans.erring in.ormation
and e9c"anging e9amples o. e..ective practice, in
/ot" local and glo/al communities, as 1ell as
.acilitating learning a/out sustaina/le
development t"roug" providing access to
in.ormation and 8no1ledge2 Project managers in
e&learning s"ould /e .ully a1are o. t"eir impact
on glo/al access to in.ormation and t"e potential
value t"ey may add to /ringing a/out more
sustaina/le development2
Anan, =2 F200*G, Bnited %ations press release:
Bar/er, 62 F*''(G, T"e Learnin! Ga$e #
Ar!$ents %or an Edcation 9evoltion,
#ndigo2 London2
Bromley, ;2B2 F*'66G T"e Case (tdy Met"od in
Psyc"olo!y and 9elated Disciplines2 Co"n !iley
and $ons2
C"errett, A2 F*'''G A 9esearc" A!enda %or
Partners"ips, C"elten"am and loucester
College o. 7ig"er Education ,B=
C"oms8y, %2 F*''*G Ad1ncts o% !overn$ent2
C"+ in +ecessary &llsions: T"o!"t Control in
De$ocratic (ocieties, 6acmillan F*')(G
;.E$0PCA F*'')G >Edcation %or (stainable
develop$ent in t"e sc"ools sector ?A report to
;.EE0PCA2 A"e Panel .or Education .or
$ustaina/le ;evelopment2
Environmental Audit Committee, tent" report
F2002&2005G, Learnin! t"e sstainability
lesson, 1 1 1 2parliament2t " e&stati o nery&
old/latt ;2 F2000G, 4no'led!e and t"e social
sciences2 T"eory, Met"od and Practice2
4outledge2 Epen Bniversity Press2
ood1in, 62 F*'')G $to8er 2 F*''6G, A
9esearc" A!enda %or Partners"ips, Arevor
C"errett, C"elten"am and loucester College o.
72 Ed2
=ers"a1, $te1art, 62 F200+G, A Case stdy o%
Edcation %or (stainable Develop$ent in
Dorset. )ro$ net'or* to strate!y2 ;issertation,
$out" Ban8 Bniversity2 London2
=ers"a1, $te1art, 62 F200,G, W"ere do 'e
LearnL E3a$inin! attitdes to learnin! %or
sstainable develop$ent and t"e potential o% e#
learnin! to add vale 2su/mitted to Cournal o.
;istance Education
Longman, ;2 and Lacey C2 F*''5G T"e Press as
Pblic Edcator, Cltres o% 2nderstandin!,
Cltres o% &!norance.Bniversity Luton Press,
Learning and $8ills Council F200+G, )ro$ "ere
to sstainability $trategy .or sustaina/le
development & .or consultation, L$C, 4e.
Lu8e, 42 F2002G Accessibility: Enablin!
Tec"nolo!y %or Li%elon! Learnin! &nclsion in
an Electronic Classroo$ &2000,Educational
Aec"nology and $ociety ,F*G 20022 #$$% *+56&
$ac"s, C2;2 F200,G, &nvestin! in develop$ent, a
practical plan to ac"ieve t"e $illenni$
develop$ent !oals, B% 6illennium
;evelopment Project, %e1 Uor82
$c"uman and Presser, F*')*G, in $c"ulman, 72
and =alton, 2 F*'),G, T"e =andboo* o% (ocial
$cottis" 6useums Council F200*G, >Mse$s
and social 1stice: =o' $se$s and !alleries
can 'or* %or t"eir '"ole co$$nities>.
$myt", C2 F2002G, #BC% Commission, Edcation
%or All and Beyond. A s"ort paper2
$ustaina/ility $out"1est F2000G >A sstainable
%tre %or t"e (ot" West # A re!ional
develop$ent %ra$e'or* %or t"e (ot" West o%
En!land>2 P"ase 2&consultation dra.t2
$ustaina/le ;evelopment Education Panel F-e/
2005G, Learnin! to Last. A"e government?s
sustaina/le development education strategy .or
$!6LAC F6ay 200+G, >Ma*in! a Di%%erence.>
T"e i$pact o% $se$s, libraries and arc"ives
in t"e (oit" West2 A report prepared .or t"e
$out" !est 6useums, Li/raries and Arc"ives
Council /y Colin 6ercer2
B%E$CE F2005G, ;E$; Bnited %ations ;ecade
o. Education .or $ustaina/le ;evelopment FCan
200,&;ec 20*+G )ra$e'or* %or a dra%t
international i$ple$entation sc"e$e.
A"orelli, 7B F*')6G, +et'or*s bet'een $ar*ets
and "ierarc"ies, $trategic management journal
<an der aag < and %as" C F*')(G &$a!es o%
A%rica: A"e B= report2
!ilmott P F*')6G (ocietal net'or*s, in%or$al
care and pblic policy2 P$# Policy $tudies
#nstitute2 4esearc" report2
C"apter *6
#mplementation o. e&learning in t"e
Australian Customs $ervice
David =ill
Astralian Csto$s (ervice
Canberra, Astralia
*bstract+ 6anaging an e&learning project is similar to any project process, .or e9ample /uilding a "ouse2
Uou need to identi.y 1"at t"e product 1ill loo8 li8e 1"en it is completed, t"en develop a plan t"at ena/les
all t"e components to /ecome t"e anticipated 1"ole2 #n determining t"e suita/ility o. e&learning as a
delivery met"od, t"e Australian Customs $ervice identi.ied e9pected outcomesQ developed and
implemented a project plan and project structure to ac"ieve t"e e9pected outcomesQ and t"en evaluated
t"e real outcomes against t"e anticipated outcomes2
,e# words+ customs service, e&learning, project management
A"e Australian Customs $ervice FKCustomsLG
manages t"e security and integrity o. Australia?s
/orders2 A"e agency is a national organisation
employing more t"an +,'00 people in Australia
and overseas, 1it" its central in Can/erra2
6any sta.. in Customs 1or8 on s"i.t at /order
entry points, including air and sea ports2 #t also
operates a .leet o. ocean&going patrol vessels and
contracts aerial surveillance providers .or civil
maritime surveillance and response2
A"e aim o. t"is case study is to provide readers
1it" insig"t into t"e project management
processes t"at 1ere .ollo1ed 1"en
implementing e&learning as a via/le learning
delivery met"od .or Customs2 A"is includes
e9posure to t"e tension a project manager
e9periences 1"en matc"ing e9pectations 1it"
real and practical considerations2
Project -bjectives
A 8ey o/jective o. t"is project 1as to determine
1"et"er e&learning 1as via/le 1it"in Customs2
A"is included investigating t"e .ollo1ing issues:
Potential return on investment F4E#GQ
Learning e..ectiveness o. on&line learningQ
Aype0s o. tec"nology t"at can /e usedQ
Courses suita/le .or e&learningQ
$8ills needed to manage, deliver and
implement e&learning 1it"in Customs2
A"e .ollo1ing issues 1ere considered at t"e start
o. t"e project:
Business case 3 purpose o. project
Project structure 3 "o1 t"e project 1ould /e
Project plan 3 1"at t"e project 1ould do2
A /usiness case 1as developed t"at clearly
outlined t"e purpose and outcomes o. t"e
project, and .unds needed2 A"e project purpose
1as to determine t"e .easi/ility o. e&learning
1it"in Customs, and 1"et"er t"e .ollo1ing
anticipated project outcomes 1ere ac"ieva/le:
Learnin! delivery cost savin!s, and
increased learnin! delivery e%%ectiveness.
A t1o&level structure t"at included a $teering
Committee Fsenior managersG and a !or8ing
roup Fmiddle managersG 1as developed to
encourage /road o1ners"ip2 A"e $teering
Committee provided overall direction and
management, and de.ined t"e operating
.rame1or8 .or t"e !or8ing roup and t"e
project manager2 A"e !or8ing roup supported
t"e project manager to ensure t"e success.ul
completion o. t"e project2
A"is type o. project structure suited Customs
matri9&/ased2 organisational structure and 1as
critical to t"e success o. t"is project2 Ence t"e
structure 1as put into place a project plan 1as
developed t"at identi.ied t"e project activities
and "o1 t"ey related to t"e outcomes identi.ied
in t"e /usiness case2
Project Implementation
A"e implementation o. t"is project 1as /ro8en
into t"e .ollo1ing t1o p"ases:
P"ase *: ;evelopment o. Customs e&learning
capa/ilityQ and
P"ase 2 : E&learning pilots2
Phase #$ Development of 'ustoms
e-learning capability
At t"e start o. t"is p"ase a /aseline o. Customs
current capa/ilities 1as identi.ied t"roug" a
$!EA F$trengt"s, !ea8nesses, Epportunities
and A"reatsG analysis2 An e9amination o. t"e
$!EA analysis identi.ied t"e .ollo1ing:
%eed .or a mature learning system
1it"in Customs t"at 1or8ed .or /ot"
.ace&to&.ace F-2-G and e&learningQ and
4esistance to sel.&paced learning,
1"et"er paper or electronic /ased2
#n developing a mature learning system t"at
1or8ed .or all types o. learning, Customs used
t"e .ollo1ing t"ree&pronged approac":
Comparison /et1een t"e components o.
e&learning and -2- learning systems to
identi.y di..erences and similaritiesQ
$ite visits to learn .rom ot"er
organisations implementing e&learning,
#n&"ouse 1or8s"ops /y leading t"in8ers,
e9ploring di..erent aspects o. e&learning2
A"e comparison identi.ied t"at t"e components
o. /ot" .ace&to&.ace and e&learning systems 1ere
/asically t"e same2 A 8ey di..erence 1as t"at e&
learning allo1ed some o. t"e components to /e
A"e 8ey components o. a learning system
identi.ied t"roug" t"is comparison 1ere:
1it,in C&stoms t,e mat$i2 .ase( o$)ani/ational
st$&ct&$e allo3s a ve$tical an( ,o$i/ontal 4&nctional
4lo3 o4 $esponsi.ilit5 ac$oss $e)ional an( cent$al
o44ice components o4 t,e o$)ani/ation.
Learning Administration
Learning $tandards
#t 1as noted t"at 1it" introduction o. e&learning,
t"e process o. learning "ad not c"anged, only
t"e num/er o. delivery met"ods availa/le "ad
increased2 A"is comparative process "elped t"e
1or8ing group discover t"at e&learning 1as not
an end in itsel., /ut just anot"er delivery met"od
a/le to /e used .or t"e delivery o. learning2
#n conjunction 1it" t"e a/ove process site visits
to a num/er o. organi>ations occurred, and
Customs speci.ic e&learning 1or8s"ops 1ere
conducted2 A"e .ollo1ing lessons 1ere learned
.rom /ot" t"ese activities:
#mportance o. including 8ey
sta8e"olders in t"e e&learning strategy
development processQ
Learning to /e conte9tualised to ena/le
t"e easy trans.erence o. learning into t"e
A"e importance o. senior e9ecutive
sponsors"ip at as "ig" a level as
possi/le, as 1ell as /uy&in .rom senior
management Ft"is reduces t"e impact
on t"e project 1"en a sponsor leaves or
is moved to anot"er positionGQ
6ar8eting o. e&learning 1as as
important as t"e e&learning material
itsel.2 A"e early e9periences t"at an
organisation "as in using e&learning
need to /e positive Ft"e initial courses
c"osen need to /e important .rom an
organisational perspective, and t"e
selected pilot participants need to /e
a/le to ent"use ot"ersG, and
E&learning needs to /e seamless,
ena/ling participants to concentrate on
t"e learning process, rat"er t"an /e
impacted /y #A issues2
)i!re .: Co$ponents o% a Learnin! (yste$
A"e level o. resistance to sel.&paced learning 1as
measured t"roug" a series o. .ocus groups t"at
1ere conducted2 A"ese .ocus groups con.irmed
a negative reaction to previous sel.&paced
learning2 A"ere 1ere a num/er o. reasons .or
t"is negativity2 Ene o. t"ese is t"at sel.&paced
learning materials 1ere not al1ays /een easy to
use /ecause t"e medium 1as not streamlined
and tended to impede t"e learning process /y
providing too muc" in.ormation .or t"e learner
to access2 Also, sel. paced learning /y its very
nature .ocuses on t"e content and not t"e
relations"ips /et1een learners and course
.acilitators2 !it"in t"e e&learning system t"ere
needs to /e a .ocus on t"e colla/orative
component o. t"e learning process 1"ile still
ensuring t"e e..ective o. relevant
Anot"er 8ey issue 1as t"e need .or sel.&paced
learning to /e valued /y supervisors and
managers in t"e same 1ay t"at .ace&to&.ace
learning is valued2 A"is value can /e
demonstrated a num/er o. 1ays2 Ene 1ay is to
ensure t"at su..icient time is provided at 1or8 to
complete t"e e&learning2 !"ere t"is does not
occur e&learning is devalued, as sta.. are
normally provided time during 1or8 to complete
.ace&to&.ace learning2 Anot"er 1ay to
demonstrate value is .or t"e supervisor to
participate in t"e learning as a mentor0coac"
t"roug"out t"e learning activity2
!or8s"ops 1ere conducted to e9pose senior and
middle managers to di..erent aspects o. e&
learning2 A"e .ollo1ing areas 1ere e9plored
t"roug" t"ese 1or8s"ops:
Colla/orative use o. e&learningQ
#nstructional ;esign aspects to /e
considered 1"en developing and
delivering e&learningQ and
$trategic implementation o. e&learning2
Phase &$ E-learning pilots
E&learning pilots 1ere conducted during t"e
second p"ase o. t"is project2 A"e aim o. t"ese
pilots 1as to identi.y 1"et"er t"e .ollo1ing e&
learning advantages could occur 1it"in t"e
Customs environment:
Better learning results t"roug"
increased content retention and o. learningQ
Consistency o. learning deliveryQ
A/ility to individuali>e learning to suit
t"e participantsI needsQ
6inimisation o. time a1ay .rom 1or8Q
Learning time reduced 1it"out loss o.
learning e..ectiveness, and
#ncreased cost e..ectiveness2


A"e ;etention and $earc" /lended learning
program 1as used to pilot 1"et"er e&learning
1ould increase, or at a minimum, "ave a neutral
impact on 8no1ledge retention, and also
1"et"er it 1ould decrease t"e time ta8en to
complete t"e program2 As part o. t"e evaluation
strategy .ace&to&.ace F-2-G and /lended learning
courses 1ere conducted at t"e same time, .or
sta.. see8ing to ac:uire ;etentiuon and $earc"
s8ills A comparison o. 8no'led!e retention and
learner satis%action /et1een t"ese t1o groups
1as evaluated2
4no'led!e retention 1as evaluated t"roug" a
comparision o. t"e 8no1ledge tests at t"e end o.
t"e training and spot :ui> results conducted
during t"e .ocus groups Fappro9imately .our
1ee8s laterG2 A"e .ollo1ing grap" s"o1s a
comparison o. t"e averaged results /et1een t"e
-2- and t"e /lended learning groups2
91% 90%
End o# course
Spot $ui% &esults
-igure 2: Comparison o. Average Assessment 4esults
-igure 2 s"o1s t"at t"ere 1as very little
di..erence /et1een t"e average results o. t"e t1o
groups at t"e end o. t"e course2 7o1ever a
mont" later t"e spot :ui> results s"o1 a *026W
di..erence /et1een t"e t1o groups, 1it" a
marginal increase in t"e /lended learning group
average and appro9imately *0W reduction in t"e
-2- group average2
-igure 5 F/elo1G s"o1s a comparision /et1een
participants in t"e t1o groups 1"o ac"ieved t"e
minimum pass mar8 o. '0W or greater during
eac" o. t"e assessments2 A"ere 1as little
di..erence at t"e end o. t"e courseQ "o1ever, t"e
spot :ui> results s"o1 a dramatic di..erence
/et1een t"e t1o groups2 -rom t"e spot :ui>
results only )W o. t"e -2- group ac"ieved '0W
or more, 1"ereas )0W o. t"e /lended learning
group ac"ieved '0W or more2








End o# cours e
&es ults
Spot $ui% &es ults
)i!re I: Co$parison o% Participants ac"ievin! scores above B-S.
$imilar evaluation strategies to t"e initial pilot
process 1ere repeated during t"e re&certi.ication
process2 Even t"oug" t"e results .rom t"e re&
certi.ication pilot 1ere not as dramatic as t"e
results .rom t"e initial pilot, /ot" pilots indicate
greater 8no1ledge retention 1"ere t"e
8no1ledge component o. learning is delivered
on&line 1"en compared 1it" -2- delivery2
Learner satis%action 1as assessed t"roug"
completion o. surveys and discussions during
.ocus groups2 A"e participants o. /ot" t"e -2-
and /lended learning groups 1ere as8ed to rate
t"e learning program out o. *0, 1it" *0 _
e9cellent and * _ unsatis.actory2 A"e .ollo1ing
grap" F-igure +G summari>es t"e results o. t"is
rating2 A"e /lended learning group 1as
marginally less satis.ied 1it" t"e learning
program t"an t"e -2- group2
A+erage &ating
out o# ten
!2! "lended
-igure +: Comparison o. Learner $atis.action
4esults .rom t"e .ocus groups indicated t"at
overall t"e /lended learning group participants
generally li8ed t"e approac" and considered
t"at, .or t"e su/ject matter, t"is approac" to
learning 1as more accepta/le to t"em t"an .ace
to .ace2 Enly one out o. t"e si9teen /lended
learning group participants 1"o attended t"e
.ocus groups 1ould "ave pre.erred to complete
t"e training using t"e traditional approac"2
A"e conclusions t"at could /e dra1n .rom t"e e&
learning pilot evaluation results, include:
!"ere t"e on&line learning process uses
a Mastery Learnin! approac", t"ere is a
greater li8eli"ood t"at on&line learning
1ill "ave "ig"er 8no1ledge retention
t"an -2- learning2 A"is is due to t"e
.ocus o. Mastery Learnin! on
improvements in learning /y only
allo1ing movement out o. t"e lesson
once t"ey "ave ac"ieved a "ig" level o.
pro.iciency in t"e learning material Fat
least )0W correctG2
En&line learning increases learning
retention as it allo1s participants to
revisit t"e materials
En&line delivery o. <er/al #n.ormation
and #ntellectual $8ills content provides
"ig"er 8no1ledge retention t"an t"e
Ktal8ing "eadL approac", and is a more
e..ective 1ay to deliver t"is content2 #n
t"e past teac"ers "ave used /ot"
Ktal8ing "eadL and K.acilitativeL
approac"es in t"e -2- environment2 En
t"e /asis o. t"ese results Customs see8s
to deliver Ktal8ing "eadL content on&line,
and use t"e -2- environment to deliver
t"e s8ills and attitude component o. t"e
learning process2
Project management lessons learned
A"is 1as an e9tensive project conducted over an
*) mont" period2 !"en managing suc" a
comple9 project, you 1onIt al1ays get it rig"t2
#t is important is to continually learn t"roug"out
t"e project, and use 1"at is learned to increase
t"e e..ectiveness o. t"e current project and .or
.uture projects2 $ome o. t"e 8ey lessons learned
during t"is project, include:
Ensuring t"at t"e project management
process is in place at t"e start o. t"e
project, and includes:
-ocus on 1"at is ac"ieva/le, not
1"at 1ould /e great to doQ
;evelop an evaluation strategy early
in t"e projectQ and
Pilot t"e process2
#nvolving #A early in t"e process2
6aintaining a good relations"ip 1it"
your sta8e"olders and providers2
Projects are dynamic and learning occurs
t"roug"out its duration2 All o. t"e ans1ers are
not 8no1n at t"e start o. t"e project /ut are
learned iteratively2 7o1ever, it is important t"at
project purpose and prime outcomes are clearly
de.ined at t"e start o. t"e process2
At t"e start o. t"is project t"ere 1as a
considera/le amount o. time spent on
determining t"e project outcomes and t"e
structure used to manage t"e project2 A"is
included consultations 1it" 8ey internal
sta8e"olders at /ot" senior and middle
management levels2 A"e purpose o. t"is
consultation 1as to identi.y 1"at outcomes 1ere
e9pected .rom t"is project2 !it"out t"e
.oundation o. t"e consultation and planning
processes underta8en at t"e start o. t"is project,
it 1ould "ave /een di..icult to ac"ieve t"e
projectIs stated outcomes2
Ene o. t"e strengt"s o. t"is project 1as t"e
project structure used2 At t"e macro level t"e
steering committee provided direction, advice
and resources .or t"e project and at t"e micro
level t"e 1or8ing group conducted t"e project
activities2 An important value t"at t"e steering
committee gave to t"e project 1as t"eir direction
and advice 1"ic" ensured t"e project activities
1ere conte9tualised to CustomsI needs2
A"is approac" may not /e suita/le .or all
projects2 #n t"e same 1ay t"at one s"oe si>e
doesnIt .it everyone, t"ere is no one project
structure approac" t"at .its all projects2 A"e
project structure used is dependent on t"e
/readt" and time span o. t"e project2 Ene 1ould
e9pect t"at a project t"at "as a small /udget and
is anticipated to last only a .e1 mont"s 1ould
.ind t"e structure used .or t"is project
cum/ersome and an imposition2 !"at is
important is t"at t"e project structure used
needs to /e considered and agreed upon at t"e
start o. t"e planning process2
"ocus on what is achievable. not what
would be great to do
#t is important to recognise t"at .or any one
project, you 1ill not /e a/le to ac"ieve all
desired activities due to .inancial and p"ysical
resource constraints2 Enly t"e activities t"at are
ac"ieva/le and align to t"e project outcomes
s"ould /e included2
#t is important to clearly identi.y t"ose activities
t"at 1ill support t"e agreed goals and outcomes2
#. t"is is not done, t"ere is t"e potential .or
inclusion o. activities t"at are not resourced2
#nclusion o. activities t"at are not directed at
meeting t"e agreed outcomes "ave t"e potential
to impact on t"e overall success or .ailure o. t"e
Develop an evaluation strategy early in
the project
#t is important t"at a .ully structured evaluation
strategy is developed early on in t"e project2
A"is evaluation must go muc" .urt"er t"at t"e
K"appy s"eetsL used .or many learning
programs2 A"ese K"appy s"eetsL only provide an
indication o. "o1 t"e participant "as reacted to
t"is learning and does not include t"e .ull
impact o. t"e program on t"e organisation2
#n my e9perience, t"is is one area t"at is not
usually completed e..ectively2 Ene o. t"e 8ey
reasons .or t"is is t"at t"e goals and purposes o.
t"e project are not clearly de.ined2 !it"out t"is
it is impossi/le to 8no1 1"at outcomes you
1ould e9pect to ac"ieve at t"e end o. t"e project2
Pilot the on-line learning processes
#t is important t"at e&learning projects /e piloted
/e.ore t"ey are .ully implemented2 A"e only
e9ception to t"is rule 1ould /e i. t"e e&learning
program impacts a small audience2
!it"out piloting e&learning programs it is
di..icult to .ully anticipate t"e impact t"ey 1ill
"ave on learners2 As part o. t"e pilot process, it
is crucial to involve t"e pilot participants in t"e
redevelopment and revie1 o. t"e e&learning
program /e.ore it is .ully implemented2 By
doing t"is t"ey .eel o1ners"ip o. t"e process and
t"en usually /ecome grassroots am/assadors2
*nvolving *T early in the process
A"e success o. any e&learning project is
dependent on a close partners"ip /et1een /ot"
74; and #A groups 1it"in t"e organisation2 #t
is recognised t"at t"e learning component o. an
e&learning project needs to /e scoped and
designed /y 74; sta..2 A"is ensures t"at t"e
learning outcomes are ma9imised2 7o1ever it
also needs to /e recognised t"at .or e&learning to
/e e..ective it needs to /e success.ully delivered
across t"e organisationIs #A plat.orm2 A good
understanding o. t"e capa/ilities and limitations
o. t"e #A plat.orm need to /e considered early
on2 A"ese .actors alone can "ave a dramatic
impact on 1"ic" project outcomes are
ac"ieva/le, and 1"ic" are not2
Maintaining a good relationship with
your sta(eholders and providers
At t"e start o. a project, t"ere is usually a
considera/le amount o. optimism and good1ill
/et1een all sta8e"olders2 -or t"is optimism and
good1ill to continue, relations"ips need to /e
nurtured and maintained /y ensuring t"at t"ere
are no surprises, especially in terms o.
e9pectations2 A"is needs to /e done early and
1ritten do1n as part o. t"e scoping process2
A"is document needs to clearly identi.y:
Uour e9pectationsQ and
!"at is e9pected o. you2
Ao success.ully manage an e&learning project,
remem/er t"e .ollo1ing:
=no1 1"at outcomes you need to
ac"ieve and 1ill /e accounta/le .orQ and
Aec"nology is only a tool, not an end o.
#t is important to .ully understand t"e outcomes
.or 1"ic" you 1ill /e "eld accounta/le2 A"is
means t"at 1"en you are as8ed to ma8e
compromises and c"anges, you 8no1 1"at you
"ave to .ig"t .or, and 1"at you can concede2
;onIt .ig"t every c"ange, only t"e important
A"e 8ey .or success in managing an e&learning
project is to al1ays measure every activity
against t"e project outcomes2 By doing t"is you
1ill .ind t"at some o. t"e activities are essential,
ot"ers nice to do and ot"ers t"at are do1nrig"t
dangerous to t"e success o. t"e project2
-inally, donIt /e seduced /y tec"nology, no
matter "o1 e9citing2 4emem/er t"at t"e .ocus
o. e&learning s"ould /e on t"e learning, not t"e
Bloom, Benjamin2 et al2 *',62 Ta3ono$y o%
Edcational Ob1ectives: =andboo* &, Co!nitive
Do$ain2 %e1 Uor8: Longmans reen
Boulton, Peter2 circa 200*2 Evalation &sses:
($$ary o% Data. Academic paper /y Peter
Boulton, supervised /y 6s Aui 6c=eo1n2
6onas" Bniversity: Australia
Cooper, ra"am2 *'')2 9esearc" into Co!nitive
Load T"eory and &nstrctional Desi!n at
2+(W. $ydney: Bniversity o. %e1 $out" !ales2
"ttp:001112 ar ts2uns1 2edu 2au0educ a ti on 0CLA27
Cooper, ra"am2 %ovem/er 200*2 (i$ple (teps
to E%%ective &nstrctional Desi!n2 Can/erra:
7andout .or t"e #nstructional ;esign 1or8s"op2
Cross, Co"n2 20022 Bloo$Gs Ta3ono$y o%
Edcational Ob1ectives in t"e Co!nitive
"ttp:001112cosc2iup2edu0jacross0+'' 0 /looms2"
agne, 4 6, and Briggs , L C2 Principles o%
&nstrctional Desi!n D,
ed.J. 7olt, 4ine"art,
and !inston2
7ill, ;avid2 200*2 &s t"ere anyt"in! ne' nder
t"e (nL ACA: Learnscope Projects2
"ttp:00learn s cope2.le9 i/ le learni n g2 n et2 a u0learns
cope0project s 2aspHCatego r y_55S;oc u ment#d_5
=rat"1o"l, ;, Bloom, B and 6asia, B2 *'6+2
Ta3ono$y o% Edcational Ob1ectives:
=andboo* &&, A%%ective Do$ain. %e1 Uor8:
;avid 6c=ay and Company #nc2
6ayes, C A, 6c=endree, C, Lee, C, $tenning, =,
Co9, 4, =ilgour, C and Ao/in, 42 *''62 T"e
Aicarios Learner: 9et"in*in! t"e se o%
dialo!e in teac"in! and learnin!. lasgo1:
A"e <icar roup, lago1 Caledonian Bniversity2
"ttp:00111 2"crc2ed2u80g a l0vicar0<ica r Papers0<
icarLearn2 "t ml
6iles, ;avid2 20052 Evalation:T"e )or Levels
and 9O&, T"e I-#(econd Encyclopedia o%
Learnin! and Per%or$ance. %e1 Uor8:
4omis>o1s8i, A2 C2 *')+2 Desi!nin!
instrctional syste$s: Decision#$a*in! in
corse plannin! and crricl$ desi!n. East
Bruns1ic8, %C: %ic"ols2
A7#%P?s 4esearc" ;epartment2 Circa 200* =o'
E#Learnin! Can &ncrease 9O& %or Trainin!.
"ttp:001112e&novalia 2co m 0materiales 0 4E#2pd .2
$c"utte, Cerald 2 circa *''(2 Airtal Tea"in! in
=i!"er Edcation: T"e ne' intellectal
sper"i!"'ay or 1st anot"er tra%%ic 1a$L
%ort"ridge: Cali.ornia $tate Bniversity
"ttp:001112csun2edu0sociology0vire9p 2"tm
$pencer, =en2 *''' Edcational Tec"nolo!y: An
2nstoppable )orce: a selective revie' o%
researc" into t"e e%%ectiveness o% edcational
$edia. Educational Aec"nology and $ociety 2
"ttp:00i.ets 2ieee2org0perio d ical0vol&+&
''0sp e n c e r 2" tml
-le9i/le ;elivery $teering Committee2 Papers
%ro$ April ,--. to Dece$ber ,--.. Can/erra:
Australian Customs $ervice2
Aec"nology Based Learning !or8ing roup2
Papers %ro$ 7ly ,--. to +ove$ber ,--,.
Can/erra: Australian Customs $ervice
A"e main sources o. in.ormation .or t"is case
study 1ere project documents 1ritten /y t"e
project manager F;avid 7illG, /ased on input
.rom /ot" t"e Aec"nology Based Learning
!or8ing roup and t"e -le9i/le ;elivery
$teering Committee2
C"apter *(
Puality management approac" to
reduce ris8s in an eLearning
Giseppe C"ia55ese
Lciano (eta
&nstitte %or Edcational Tec"nolo!ies
&talian +ational 9esearc" Concil
Genova, &taly
*bstract+ A"e paper presents a project carried out /y t"e -aculty o. $cience o. Palermo Bniversity and
t"e #nstitute .or Educational Aec"nologies o. t"e #talian %ational 4esearc" Council regarding t"e
reali>ation o. an eLearning B$c degree course @$cience and Aec"nologies .or t"e Environment and
Aourism@2 A"is one o. t"e .irst on line university degree courses in 1"ic" 1e "ave applied a project
management approac" and :uality assurance t"eory in order to guarantee a planned and systematic
control o. t"e processes involved in t"e production o. an eLearning solution2
#n particular 1e 1ill present t"e p"ases o. t"e project .rom its conception to its implementation
descri/ing t"e structure o. t"e B$c degree course, identi.ying t"e di..erent processes involved,
"ig"lig"ting t"e roles o. teac"ing, tec"nical and administrative sta..Q 1e e9plain "o1 1e "ave /ro8en
do1n eac" p"ase into di..erent activities and "o1 .or eac" activity 1e "ave identi.ied teams, roles and
responsi/ilities in order to produce e..ective management o. t"e project2
!e 1ill s"o1 some process description sc"emas .or monitoring and improving t"e :uality o. decision
ma8ing and t"e management o. t"e comple9 organi>ational, tec"nological, and met"odological aspects
involved in t"e eLearning project2
,e# words+ eLearning, project management approac", Aotal Puality 6anagement, eLearning process
management, Puality o. eLearning, 4is8 management, ;istance Learning at Bniversity2
A"e rapid development o. distance learning "as
encouraged an internationali>ation process o.
distance learning programs .or an international
audience o. learners and .aculties FC"almers
200+, *G2 #n Europe t"e Bologna Process
FEuropean 6inistry o. Education *''', *G calls
.or a European 7ig"er Education Area /y 20*0
in 1"ic" sta.. and students can move 1it" ease,
1"ile enjoying recognition o. t"eir :uali.ications
t"roug"out Europe2 6uc" remains to /e done in
order to reac" t"is goal, and .aculties,
departments and "ig"er education institutions
must /e ready to provide "ig" :uality distance
learning programmes2
4esearc" regarding policies and procedures .or
:uality assurance s"ould provide ans1ers to
:uestions suc" as: 7o1 to guarantee t"e success
o. distance learning programsH 7o1 do 1e
guarantee to potential employers t"e value o. t"e
s8ills, competencies, and :uali.ications
.acilitated /y eLearning programsH !"at is t"e
level o. trans.era/ility o. ac:uired credits .rom
one eLearning program to anot"er Fonline or
traditionalGH !"ic" .actors promote t"e :uality
o. a distance learning degreeH !"ic" .actors
contri/ute to client satis.action For .rustrationG
1it" 1e/ supported learningH Can an eLearning
program provide an e..ective and 1ort"1"ile
educational e9perience t"at can /e recogni>ed in
t"e European 7ig"er Education AreaH A"us, a
set o. standards, procedures and guidelines are
needed to guarantee :uality assurance o.
eLearning development initiatives
!e /elieve t"at t"e success o. distance learning
programs starts .rom good planning and contin&
uous monitoring o. all p"ases o. a project2 Levy
identi.ies si9 .actors to consider in planning an
online distance programme FLevy 2005G 1"ile
ot"er researc" suggests applying a project man&
agement approac" as t"e met"odology .or
planning an educational and training project
FLoc8itt 2000G2 A"e organi>ation o. a distance
learning degree /ased on t"e rigorous applica&
tion o. project management met"odologies and
:uality assurance is a real c"allenge and it is
di..icult to give simple solutions2 !e /elieve t"at
t"e general principles o. project management
remain valid /ut it is necessary to trans.orm
t"em, /earing in mind t"e .eatures t"at distin&
guis" educational or training projects .rom ot"er
types o. projects:
T"e role o% society as a sta*e"older.
A distance learning program must
provide instruction o. a "ig" pro.ess&
ional level so t"at a graduate is a/le to
play a use.ul role and employ "is s8ills
1it"in society2 #nstitutions o.ten
neglect t"ese needs, and simply
students t"e opportunity to o/tain a
degree as :uic8ly, as possi/le 1it"out
guaranteeing t"e pro.essional :uality o.
t"e :uali.ication2
)ndin! o% eLearnin! pro!ra$s.
-rom an administrative point o. vie1,
direct income resulting .rom enrolment
.ees usually doesnIt cover t"e actual
costs o. developing and delivering an
eLearning program2 E.ten, it is
essential to .ind ot"er .unding in order
to guarantee t"e success.ul
implementation o. an eLearning
Overco$in! instittional resistance.
A distance learning degree program
o.ten "as its roots in an organi>ation
1it" lots o. e9perience in t"e manage&
ment o. traditional degree programs2
A"ere is o.ten strong resistance on t"e
part o. t"e institution to adopt ne1
met"ods and tec"nologies t"at may
upset traditional educational .ormats2
!"en an academic institution is
creating and planning a ne1 eLearning
program, it s"ould consider its
e9periences and values in order to
overcome suc" resistance and to
trans.orm it into support .or t"e
9eco!ni5in! t"e possible li$its o% t"e
standardi5ation process o% edcation.
A"e move to standardi>ation o. on&line
learning is driven /y t"e need .or
in.rastructures t"at support t"e
interopera/ility o. di..erent learning
plat.orms and di..erent 1ays o.
communicating /et1een di..erent
systems2 #t is important .or an
organi>ation to recogni>e t"e
constraints t"at suc" a standardi>ation
process could introduce2 Because t"e
tec"nology is only a means o. ac"ieving
a goal, not a goal in itsel., tec"nological
in.rastructures s"ould not /e designed
and /uilt 1it"out considering t"eir
e..ects on teac"ing and learning
$tarting .rom t"ese considerations, 1e present a
case study 1"ere 1e "ave applied a project
management approac" as a tool .or :uality
assurance t"roug" a set o. planned and
systematic procedures .or t"e development o. an
eLearning B$c degree&level program2 A"is
approac" plays a 8ey role in assuring :uality
development o. distance education programs
1"ere t"e :uality and t"e success o. distance
learning degrees are managed and controlled
during all t"e p"ases o. a project2
The e$earning 4Sc degree project
A"e on line B$c degree program @(cience and
Tec"nolo!ies %or t"e Environ$ent and
Toris$@ F$AAAG, t"e .irst completely !e/
/ased degree program organi>ed /y a pu/lic
university in #taly, /egan in 200*2 Currently t"e
program is in its .ourt" year2 A"e program "as
involved 60 students, +0 teac"ers and 20 sta..
mem/ers 1it" di..erent competencies:
educational researc"ers in tec"nologies and
met"odologies, mem/ers o. t"e academic sta..,
e9perts in in.ormation and communication
tec"nologies F$eta 2005G2
A"e curriculum .or t"e program 1as designed to
address a num/er o. economic and social needs
o. t"e $icilian region, in particular, protecting
t"e environment and developing tourism2 A"e
curriculum .ocused particularly on t"e use o.
in.ormation and computer tec"nology F#CAG in
t"is conte9t2 A"e students are introduced to t"e
application o. #CA to support "uman decision
ma8ing processes to sustain t"e environment2
A"is .rame1or8 emp"asi>es t"e need to
introduce #CA into t"e teac"ing process and to
deliver t"e entire program via t"e #nternet2
A"e online degree provides a distance learning
environment 1"ere students can use interactive
and simulation tools to carry out t"eir activities2
7o1ever, t"e students also "ave t"e opportunity
to .ollo1 .ace&to&.ace modules, especially .or t"e
la/oratory activities2 $tudents only "ave to go to
t"e university in Palermo to ta8e t"eir e9ams, in
order to con.irm t"eir identities2
$tudents enrolled in t"e program are principally
.ull&time 1or8ers, mainly men, 1it" an average
age o. 502
A"e team adopted a project management
approac", and its traditional /rea8do1n into
.our principal p"ases: conception, development,
implementation and closure p"ases2 #n all t"ese
p"ases, attention 1as paid to t"e :uality
management de.ining tools and procedures .or
measuring :uality2 !e .elt t"e need to monitor
t"e entire program using di..erent control rules
and measures, to evaluate t"e students? results
and conse:uent employment, to measure
student and teac"er satis.action to control t"e
:uality and to improve it2 !e also considered t"e
reactions o. t"e academic organi>ation 1it"
regard to a /etter integration o. traditional
degree programs and eLearning programs2 E.
course in many respects t"e project management
o. an educational program is di..erent .rom
project management in a production process2
The concept phase
;uring t"e concept p"ase, t"e principal .eatures
o. t"e project "ad to /e de.ined2 A preliminary
ris8 evaluation 1as conducted to esta/lis"
1"et"er t"e project 1as .easi/le and as a result
it 1as decided to continue 1it" t"e project
su/mitting a preliminary action plan to t"e
-aculty /oard2 A"e ris8 .actors revealed 1ere as
- A"ere 1as no distinction /et1een
consumer and supplier since t"e
academic organi>ation pre.erred to
manage t"e entire project and to entrust
internal committees 1it" an evaluation
o. t"e .easi/ility o. a ne1 educational
- A"e proposal to start an online project
came .rom a small group o. .aculty
mem/ers 1"o t"en "ad t"e role o.
sponsors2 A"ese sponsors 1ere /iased
to1ards t"e /ene.icial aspects o. t"e
initiative and t"ey tended to
underestimate ris8s and di..iculties2
A realistic evaluation o. t"e project 1as very
di..icult and t"e decision to start t"e project
re:uired a t"oroug" needs analysis2 #t 1as
necessary to consider not only t"e needs o. t"e
organi>ation /ut t"e real, costs and t"e impact o.
t"e ne1 educational project on t"e economic and
social conte9t2
Ao reduce t"e ris8s .ound 1e carried out a needs
analysis, com/ined 1it" a Aotal Puality
6anagement approac"2
!e distinguis" /et1een t1o aspects o. t"e needs
assessment process:
Analysis o% t"e e3ternal needs,
addressing :uestions a/out t"e social
conditions t"e program is intended to
improve2 A"e principal steps in t"is
analysis are F4ossi et al2 200+G:
o description o. t"e target
population and service
o needs identi.ication o. t"e target
o needs assessment to produce
recommendations .or actionQ
o communication o. t"e results2
Analysis o% t"e internal needs, 1"ere
pro/lems and /ene.its .or t"e academic
organi>ation, and issues .or teac"ing
processes, "ave to /e e9amined2 A"e
principal steps are:
o description o. t"e various parts
o. t"e academic organi>ation
involved in t"e programQ
o identi.ication o. t"e
tec"nological and teac"ing
o preparation o. documents .or
;i..erent actions and tools can /e used to tac8le
t"ese t1o 8inds o. needs2 -or t"e e9ternal needs
analysis in t"e conte9t o. our academic
eLearning program, 1e considered:
*2 $elected statistical data and social
indicators to identi.y target populations
and social needs in t"e university
learning .ield Fe2g2, demograp"ic
c"aracteristics, geograp"ical dispersion,
university and sc"olastic drop out and
readmission rates, social, cultural and
economic indicators .or t"e geograp"ical
area o. interestG2
22 $ample surveys using :uestionnaires to
evaluate t"e need .or ne1 on&line
services in t"e university student
52 Contacts 1it" local agencies, local
aut"orities and secondary sc"ool
personnel to identi.y speci.ic needs in
t"e learning .ield2
A"e aim o. t"ese activities 1as to identi.y t"e
social pro/lems to /e addressed and to estimate
t"e si>e o. t"e potential target population2 A"ese
results 1ere in a report 1as t"e /asis .or
developing a @vision@, and t"e curriculum FLevy
2005G o. t"is ne1 on&line B$c degree program,
and to de.ine some c"aracteristics o. t"e services
needed in t"e area2
A"e analysis o. internal needs 1as per.ormed
using in.ormation c" .rom academic
personnel, and students currently enrolled in
traditional programs2 A"e results 1ere
summari>ed in a document in 1"ic" t"e /ene.its
.or t"e university in starting t"is eLearning
project 1ere indicated, as 1ell as some potential
di..iculties2 A"is document 1as su/mitted to t"e
university .or approval2 Aa/le * summari>es t"e
principal steps, tools and outputs o. t"e needs
Aa/le *2 %eeds analysis2
E9ternal needs #nternal needs
Aarget population2
%eed identi.ication2
%eed assessment2
Academic organi>ation description2
Aec"nological and didactic needs2
$tatistical data2
$ample survey2
Consultation o. pu/lic agencies, political and
local aut"orities2
=ey in.ormants intervie1s2
-ocus group2
Pualitative descriptions o. t"e principal
processes ta8ing place2
4eport descri/ing t"e social needs, target
population and program curriculum in
relation to t"e social conte9t2
;ocument descri/ing t"e vision and t"e
structure o. t"e program to su/mit to
academic decision ma8ers2
A"e needs analysis related to t"e setting up o.
our eLearning pro!ra$ led to t"e .ollo1ing
A"e proposed eLearning B$c degree
program "ad to /e accredited as a
traditional degree program /y t"e
national accrediting /ody2 A"is issue
re:uired some restrictions o. t"e
curriculum and program structure in
order to pass t"e accrediting procedure2
A"e online program 1as a pilot program
aimed at a restricted group o. students
living principally in $icily2 A"e purpose
1as to test t"e .easi/ility o. setting up
online programs in t"e conte9t o. an
#talian university /e.ore e9tending it to a
larger population2
A"e pro9imal outcomes loo8ed at t"e
academic organi>ation o. t"e university
and its capacity to manage an online
program and t"e setting up o. ne1
A"e distal outcomes loo8ed not only at
students /ut also pu/lic and private
organi>ations interested in t"e program
#ssues o. :uality "ad to /e considered
during all p"ases o. t"e project
management process2 $peci.ic processes
and procedures "ad to /e planned to
monitor and measure t"e :uality issues
o. t"e project and improve on t"em2
A"e principal o/jectives o. t"e project
o to set up an eLearning
environment 1"ere
tec"nological and
met"odological aspects are
integrated using an approac"
.or processesQ
o to create a .avoura/le
atmosp"ere 1it"in t"e academic
organi>ation .or t"e transition
.rom a lecture "ours0contact
"ours teac"ing allocation and
evaluation sc"ema Ftimeta/le
oriented organi>ationG, to1ards
a student centred0:uality
oriented visionQ
o to select :ualitative and
:uantitative tools .or assessing
t"e various processesQ to
develop online teac"ing
practices 1it"in t"e .aculty2
A"e concept p"ase ended 1it" t"e production o.
t1o documents Fsee Aa/le *G: one descri/ing t"e
results o. t"e needs analysis and t"e ot"er to
su/mit to t"e -aculty Board2 #n t"e latter
document t"e general educational o/jectives o.
t"e eLearning program 1ere summari>ed and
t"e re:uest to proceed 1as .ormulated2
The development phase
A"e development p"ase "ad t"ree particular
Ao prepare a document to present to t"e
national accreditation /oard2
Ao de.ine a map o. services in order to
prepare t"e !or8 Brea8do1n $tructure
Ao esta/lis" t"e principal processes and
procedures .or a :uality assurance plan2
;uring t"is p"ase a project team 1as created to
e9amine some critical points in t"e project2 A"e
team 1or8ed on t"e .ollo1ing issues, using t"e
results o. t"e needs analysis:
;e.inition o. t"e B$c degree curriculum,
in vie1 also o. t"e regulations o. t"e
#talian 6inistry o. Education, Bniversity
and 4esearc" F6#B4G regarding t"e
introduction o. ne1 /ac"elor degree
#denti.ication o. online services needed
in order to produce a "ig" :uality
;e.inition o. t"e tec"nological
arc"itecture .or delivering t"e program2
;e.inition o. some met"odological
c"aracteristics o. t"e online teac"ing
A"e team prepared t"e proposal to su/mit to t"e
national committee2 A"is document summari>ed
t"e social and teac"ing aspects t"at t"e online
degree program 1ould address, and t"e
proposed curriculum2 But, t"e team also 1or8ed
on ot"er aspects o. t"e projectQ in particular, it
de.ined t"e necessary steps, processes and
procedures, in order to con.orm to project
management and total :uality management
A"ree 1or8groups 1ere set up and a deadline
1as .i9ed .or t"e completion o. t"is p"ase o.
A"e tec"nologies 1or8group: 1or8ed on
de.ining t"e online services to design
and implement t"e eLearning
environmentQ t"e group also e9amined
t"e principal distance learning
A"e met"odologies 1or8group: 1or8ed
on t"e instructional aspects, 1it"
particular attention to t"e :uality o.
/ot" t"e interactions /et1een t"e
program participants and t"e content2
A"e organi>ational 1or8group:
considered "o1 t"e current academic
organi>ation could satis.y t"e needs o.
t"e ne1 program2
A"e structure o. t"e di..erent 1or8groups 1as
not very rigid and t"ere 1as an e9c"ange o.
e9periences and opinions among t"e groups2
6eetings 1ere "eld to discuss particular aspects
o. t"e project 1it" t"e sta8e"olders and to study
various Kuse casesL2
A"is 1or8 too8 t"ree mont"s and produced t"e
.ollo1ing documents:
;escription o. Bsc degree
!B$ to manage project
services and processes mapQ
$ervice Level AgreementQ
educational contractQ
communications plan to
pu/lici>e t"e eLearning program
1it"in t"e university2
-igure * summari>es t"e principal documents
produced during t"is p"ase: t"e rectangular
/o9es represent t"e documents, on t"e top o. t"e
/o9es are 1ritten t"e producersQ t"e ovals
represent t"e decision ma8ers in c"arge o.
approving t"e documentQ t"e la/el @Ao /e
approved@ indicates t"at t"e documents must /e
.igure 2 Development phase documents
-igure 2 s"o1s t"e map o. t"e principal services
and corresponding processes: some processes
appear more comple9 and involve di..erent
groups, li8e .or e9ample t"e content manage&
ment, t"e sync"ronous interactions and t"e
sca..olding o. instruction2 A"ese processes need
to /e descri/ed in detail since t"ey appear
particularly critical in determining t"e :uality o.
t"e entire program2
.igure / * simplified version of the processes map
A"e various 1or8groups 1ere invited to use a
process approac" to descri/e t"eir activitiesQ t"is
also permitted a project management plan /ased
on :uality improvement2 A"e :uality assurance
approac" re:uired a description o. t"e various
processes using a common sc"eme, so 1e
decided to adopt t"e sc"eme s"o1n in Aa/le 22
As an e9ample 1e s"o1 t"e description o. t"e
process 1"ic" led to content preparation2 #n t"is
e9ample, 1e "ave identi.ied t1o su/&processes:
@Content creation@ and @Content c"ec8ing@2 A"e
person responsi/le .or t"e entire process is t"e
@teac"er@, and t"is role can /e distinguis"ed
.rom t"e @aut"or@, 1"o is responsi/le only .or
t"e content creation2
Table / Scheme to describe a process
+ame: Content preparation *D: C* Person in charge:
+ame: Content creation *D: C*0* Person in charge: Aut"or
+ame: Content c"ec8ing *D: C*02 Person in charge:
*nputs Learning materials Flearning
"rom process: $tandardi>ation o. t"e learning
Assessment results "rom process: Evaluation o. assessments
$ca..olding results "rom process: #nstructional sca..olding
%utputs Content To process: Contents delivery
Content To process: $tandardi>ation o. t"e learning
Measures Aec"nological con.ormity: lin8s .unctionalityQ multimedia contents .unctionality Fsee
Manal on content deliveryG2
#nstructional con.ormity: clear learning o/jectivesQ clear organi>ation o. t"e contentQ
presence o. sel.&evaluation assessments Fsee edcational contractG2
Ris(s Bad tec"nological .unctionalityQ no clear instructional organi>ation2
,ta(eholders $tudentsQ aut"orQ teac"erQ tutorsQ all teac"ers involved in similar activitiesQ
tec"nological sta..2
/eight <ery "ig"2
A"e inputs s"o1n in t"e sc"eme are t"e outputs
o. ot"er processes2 A"e outputs o. a process are
sent, as inputs, to ot"er processes2 A"e measures
esta/lis" t"e :uality o. t"e outputs and t"ey can
/e /ot" :ualitative or :uantitativeQ re.erence
may /e made to some speci.ic document 1"ere
t"e :uality standards "ave /een de.ined2 A"e
ris8s indicate t"e most critical .actors t"at may
a..ect t"e results o. t"e process2 A"e sta8e"old&
ers are all t"e people 1"o "ave an interest in t"e
outputs o. t"is process2 -inally, t"e 1eig"t is a
measure o. t"e total impact o. t"is process on
t"e :uality o. t"e eLearning program2
#n Aa/le 5 1e s"o1 t"e sc"eme .or t"e t1o su/&
processes involved2 %ote "o1 t"ese t1o su/&
processes are in line, one a.ter anot"er, so t"e
output o. t"e .irst process is t"e input o. t"e
A"is is an e9ceptionQ in .act, generally 1e "ave
di..erent processes in parallel and t"e results o.
t"e entire process can depend on t"e e9ecution
o. all t"ese su/&processes2 A"is usually "as a
"uge impact on t"e time management o. t"e
principal process2
Table > Schema to describe the sub&process @Content creation@
+ame: Content creation *D: C*0* Person in charge: Aut"or
*nputs Learning materials Flearning
"rom process: $tandardi>ation o. t"e learning
Assessment results "rom process: Evaluation o. assessments
$ca..olding results "rom process: ;idactic sca..olding
%utputs Content To process: Contents c"ec8ing
Ris(s #ncorrect use o. t"e aut"oring tool2
,ta(eholders Aut"orQ teac"er2
/eight 7ig"2
Table ? Schema to describe the sub&process @Content checking@
+ame: Content c"ec8ing *D: C*02 Person in charge:
*nputs Content "rom process: Content creation
%utputs Content To process: Contents delivery
Content To process: $tandardi>ation o. t"e learning
Measures Aec"nological con.ormity: lin8s .unctionalityQ multimedia contents .unctionality Fsee
Manal on Content deliveryG2
;idactic con.ormity: clear didactic o/jectivesQ clear organi>ation o. t"e contentQ
presence o. sel.&evaluation assessments Fsee Didactic contractG2
Ris(s Bad tec"nological .unctionalityQ no clear didactic organi>ation2
,ta(eholders $tudentsQ aut"orQ teac"erQ tutorsQ all teac"ers involved in similar activitiesQ
tec"nological sta..2
/eight <ery "ig"2
#n Aa/le + it is easy to see "o1 t"e su/&process
KContent c"ec8ingL can "ave a /ig impact on t"e
:uality o. t"e 1"ole eLearning program2 A"is
su/&process must /e monitored very care.ully2
A"e sc"eme presented "ere is general enoug" to
descri/e all t"e processes involved in an
eLearning program2 6oreover, in an eLearning
program, :uality control cannot /e e9clusively
/ased on a simple process approac" and cannot
/e guaranteed only /y good project
management2 A.ter t"e planning p"ase it is
important to de.ine some :uality indicators
1"ic" must /e monitored during t"e entire
delivery p"ase2 #t can also /e use.ul to per.orm
periodic sample surveys to test t"e satis.action
o. all t"e sta8e"olders: students, teac"ers,
private and pu/lic entities, and academic
An eLearning program can /e assessed only over
a period o. time and t"e project management
s"ould not /e terminated a.ter t"e testing o. t"e
eLearning in.rastructure2 A"ere.ore, 1e decided
to set up a speci.ic structure devoted to :uality
improvement2 A"e .unction o. t"is structure is to
control all t"e :uality indicators .rom t"e
di..erent processes and to suggest interventions
to t"e people responsi/le .or t"e processes2
Automatic c"ec8ing and alerting tools can also
/e used2
#n t"e :uality control process, only measura/le
varia/les 1ere considered, t"roug" t"e
uninterrupted e9amination o. t"e outputs o. t"e
ot"er processes2 -or e9ample, in regards to
instructional processes, 1e invited t"e teac"ers
to descri/e t"e main steps o. t"eir activities in a
pu/lic document2 #n t"is document t"ey "ad to
esta/lis", .or e9ample, t"e type, num/er and
timeta/ling o. t"e assessment tests to /e
administered during t"e program2 A"e :uality
control group 1ould t"en c"ec8 1"et"er t"ese
tests 1ere administered to t"e students as
agreed, and i. not, t"e team 1ould remind t"e
teac"er to act according to t"e plan2 #n t"is
procedure t"e teac"er is solely responsi/le .or
t"e instructional process, /ut t"e process can
also /e c"ec8ed /y t"e :uality control group2
The implementation and project
completion phases
A"e .inal part o. t"e project consisted o.
implementation and project completion2 A"e
implementation p"ase 1as primarily a
tec"nological tas8, so 1e "ave not analy>ed it .or
t"is c"apter2 #nstead, 1ant to say a .e1 1ords
a/out t"e completion p"ase o. t"e project2
;eciding 1"en an eLearning project is complete
is not as simple as it mig"t appear2 A"is pro/lem
is common in all projects dedicated to setting up
a service, rat"er t"an a product2 #n many cases,
and in learning services in particular, "aving t"e
rig"t tec"nological .unctionality is not su..icient
to declare t"e project closed2 ;uring t"e delivery
o. a service, or eLearning program, ne1
pro/lems can une9pectedly arise and
unpredicted /e"aviours can compromise t"e
e..icacy and e..iciency o. t"e entire program2
enerally t"ese occurrences do not stop t"e
programQ it continues to 1or8 /ut its :uality may
deteriorate2 A"e conse:uences o. t"is situation
are particularly serious in a university program
/ecause it lasts .or t"ree years and poor results
in any particular program can a..ect t"e results
in related programs, and, t"ere.ore, t"e .inal
A university degree is essential .or entering
many pro.essions and per.orming speciali>ed
jo/s: a university program o. poor :uality can
introduce inade:uately prepared graduates into
society, /e t"ey doctors, teac"ers, or engineers2
!e t"ere.ore decided to e9tend t"e project
/eyond t"e testing p"ase o. t"e in.rastructure
and consider also t"e .irst t"ree years in 1"ic"
t"e degree program 1as e..ective2 -urt"er
actions 1ere ta8en in t"is period to improve t"e
:uality o. t"e various processes, procedures and
services2 !e "ad to develop ne1 tools to support
t"e evaluation o. t"e program2 !e prepared
:uestionnaires and su/mitted t"em to t"e
students, teac"ers and ot"er sta8e"olders .or
#n t"is c"apter 1e "ave e9amined t"e .irst t"ree
years o. an eLearning B$c degree program
carried out /y t"e -aculty o. $cience o. Palermo
Bniversity, an #talian state university2
!e 1ould li8e to summari>e some lessons
learned .rom t"is e9perience2 -irst, to ensure t"e
:uality o. an eLearning program it is use.ul to
plan 1ell de.ined procedures and to descri/e
t"em in detail2 #t is important to esta/lis" 1"o is
in c"arge o. t"e various processes, to esta/lis"
measures and assessment procedures .or t"ese
processes, and to .oresee t"e most li8ely ris8s in
eac" o. t"em2
But, un.ortunately t"is is not al1ays possi/le2
A"is may /e t"e case, .or e9ample, in very
comple9 tas8s in 1"ic" di..erent competencies
are involved2 A typical case is t"e 1e/ contents
development process 1"ere tec"nicians and
instructional designers approac" pro/lems in
very di..erent 1ays and t"e interaction /et1een
t"eir di..erent perspectives can give rise to
serious di..iculties2
!e decided to adopt a colla/orative approac" to
avoid t"ese pro/lems2 !e selected a small group
o. teac"ers 1"o "ad e9pertise in !e/
tec"nologies, and invited t"em to colla/orate
1it" e9pert tec"nologists .or designing some
pilot courses on speci.ic topics needed .or t"e
curriculum2 A"e 1or8 o. t"ese KpioneersL 1as
t"en used /y ot"er teac"ers as a re.erence point
.or preparing t"eir material, and t"e more e9pert
colleagues 1ere as8ed to give advice and "elp2
A"is approac" "ad t1o ot"er advantages: it
permitted some courses to /e prepared very
:uic8ly and it resulted in a degree o. consistency
among t"e di..erent course designs so t"at
instructional design 1as not restricted to eac"
course aut"or2
#nteractions 1it" t"e administration o.
traditional academic organi>ations is anot"er
potential source o. .riction2 enerally, t"e
/ureaucratic academic structure is not prepared
to support an eLearning program in an e..icient
manner2 eLearning o.ten re:uires c"anges in t"e
e9isting 1ays o. operating and evaluating
instructional processes and organi>ations are
o.ten not ready to accept suc" c"anges2
A"e complete re&organi>ation o. university
structures is a very comple9 tas8 t"at re:uires
muc" time and e9pense2 Because o. t"is, 1e
planned and set up a parallel administrative
structure to manage t"ese services
independently o. t"e academic structure2
-inally, t"ere is t"e issue o. costs2 A"e
tec"nological costs needed to set up t"e learning
plat.orm are not particularly "ig"2 6any open
source plat.orms are no1 availa/le and t"e /asic
tec"nological in.rastructures and competencies
are already present in t"e academic
organi>ation2 Content management and teac"er
training may involve some e9pense /ut, in our
case, 1e encountered great ent"usiasm .rom t"e
.aculty in participating in t"e online degree2
-urt"er costs t"at need to /e ta8en into account
include setting up a sca..olding structure
composed o. tec"nological sta.. and instructors,
and .or maintaining t"e tec"nological
in.rastructure2 A"ese costs vary according to t"e
num/er o. students enrolled on t"e program2
Ao declare t"e project .inis"ed it 1as necessary
to c"ec8 o.. t"e .ollo1ing:
all t"e principal processes "ave /een
descri/ed and t"e .unctionality "as /een
tested during t"e delivery p"aseQ
all t"e programs "ave /een prepared,
loaded on t"e learning plat.orm and
distri/uted onlineQ
timeta/les are /eing respected and t"e
students are .ollo1ing t"e programs
regularly, ta8ing e9ams 1it"
satis.actory resultsQ
a system .or controlling t"e :uality
re:uirements "as /een set up and is
t"e /udget "as /een .ollo1edQ
t"e evaluation procedures .or t"e
various processes are 1or8ing regularly,
data is collected, e9amined and assessed
t"e levels o. student satis.action, success
and drop&out rates are measuredQ
t"e academic organi>ation is evolving
to1ards ne1 standards and more
positive attitudes to eLearning
A"e project 1as completed 1"en t"e team 1as
satis.ied 1it" all t"e a/ove items2
A"is is a /eginning2 A"e c"allenge o. setting up
eLearning canIt 1ait .or ne1 co"orts o. students2
A"e ne1 generation is di..erent .rom traditional
students, and demands t"at suc" educational
innovations /e in place2 #n t"e near .uture
universities 1ill /e measured not only on t"eir
classroom /ased programs /ut also on t"e
:uality o. t"eir eLearning o..erings2
Aslanian, Carol B22 200*2 Adlt (tdents Today2
%e1 Uor8: A"e College Board2
C"almers L2, ;2 ;i/iase, =2 ;onert, $2 7ard1ic8
and 62 $olem2 200+2 &nternationali5in! Online
Pro!ra$s and De!ree Pro!ra$s in Geo!rap"y.
Availa/le .rom !orld !ide !e/:
F"ttp:00111 2gees2ac 2u80pigupapc2rt.G2
European 6inistry o. Education2 *'''2 T"e
Bolo!na Declaration o% .B 7ne .BBB MonlineN2
Availa/le .rom !orld !ide !e/:
F"ttp:00111 2/olo g na&/er g en200,2no0 ; ocs000&
7o1ell, $2L2, P2B2 !illiams and %2=2 Lindsay2
20052 T"irty#t'o Trends A%%ectin! Distance
Edcation: An &n%or$ed )ondation %or
(trate!ic Plannin!2 Enline Cournal o. ;istance
Learning Administration 6: 52 Availa/le .rom
!orld !ide !e/:
F"ttp:00111 21estga 2edu0 a distance0 o jdla0.all65
Levy, $u>anne2 20052 (i3 %actors to consider
'"en plannin! online distance learnin!
pro!ra$ in "i!"er edcation2 Enline Cournal o.
;istance Learning Administration, 6:*2 Availa/le
.rom !orld !ide !e/:
F"ttp:00111 21estga 2edu 0 W (Edist a nce 0 ojdla0spr
Loc8itt, Bill2 *'''2 Practical Pro1ect
Mana!e$ent %or Edcational and Trainin!2
London, B=: -urt"er Education ;evelopment
Agency Pu/lications2 Availa/le .rom !orld !ide
F"ttp:00111 2eric2ed2gov0contentdelive r y0servlet
E/linger, ;22, C2A2 Barone and B2L2 7a18ins2
200*2 Distribted edcation and its c"allen!es:
An overvie'2 !as"ington ;2C2: American
Council on Education2
Pennsylvania $tate Bniversity2 -aculty #nitiative2
#;E: #nnovations in ;istance Education2 *'')2
An e$er!in! set o% !idin! principles and
practices %or t"e desi!n and develop$ent o%
distance edcation2 Availa/le .rom !orld !ide
F"ttp:00111 21orldcampu s 2psu2edu0ide 0 docs0gu
4eeve, A2 4oss and Pamela $2 Perlic"2 20022 T"e
Co$in! Boo$ in 2ta"Gs (c"ool A!e and Colle!e
A!e Poplations: (tate and Conty (cenarios2
Bta" Economic and Business 4evie1 62 F' S
*0G: *&*62
4ossi, P272, 62!2 Lipsey and 72E2 -reeman2
200+2 Evalation. A syste$atic Approac"2
A"ousand Ea8s, CA: $AE Pu/lications2
$eta, Luciano2 20052 A Case $tudy: A"e
Bniversity on&line Program in @$ciences and
Aec"nologies .or Environment and Aourism@:
Advanced in Tec"nolo!y#Based Edcation:
To'ard a 4no'led!e#Based (ociety2 6bnde>
<ilas, A2, C2A2 6esa on>cle> and C2 6esa
on>cle>, eds2 Badajo>, $P: Cunta de
Bniversity Continuing Education Association2
20022 Li%elon! Learnin! Trends: A Pro%ile o%
Continin! =i!"er Edcation. (t"2
!"oley, Cosep" $22 *'('2 Evalation: Pro$ise
and Per%or$ance2 !as"ington ;2C2: Br/an
!"oley, Cosep" $22 *''+2 Assessing t"e
.easi/ility and li8ely use.ulness o. evaluation:
=andboo* o% Practical Pro!ra$ Evalation2
%e1comer, =2E2, 72P2 7atry and C2$2 !"oley,
eds2 $an -rancisco, CA: Cosey&Bass Pu/lis"ers2
C"apter *)
A success.ul vendor relations"ip .or a
large&scale laptop program at
4yerson Bniversity
Debora" )els
)ran*lyn &. Prescod
7a$es L. +orrie
9yerson 2niversity
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
*bstract+ A"e aut"ors o. t"is c"apter descri/e t"e process o. initiating and implementing a large scale
laptop program at a Canadian university2 A"e process included .inding an appropriate and supportive
vendor, and 1or8ing out an arrangement t"at 1or8ed .or all sta8e"olders2 #mplementation issues and
lessons learned .rom t"is project are also presented2
,e# words+ Laptops, Learning management systems, procurement process, vendor relations
A"e .ast pace o. tec"nology development "as "ad
a large and important in.luence on t"e
development o. innovative approac"es to
educational delivery systems2 According to Al
7as"im et al2 F2005G, tec"nology use in t"e
classroom "as progressed over t"e years .rom
.lip c"art and easel to t"e use o. sop"isticated
audio visual tec"nologies and tec"ni:ues2
Aec"nology use in t"e classroom .or teac"ing
and learning /egan in earnest 1it" t"e advent o.
t"e microcomputer and more usa/le so.t1are
applications suc" as 6icroso.t Po1erPoint and
1e/&/ased learning content management
systems suc" as AAutor, !e/CAd and
Considera/le researc" "as /een carried out on
t"e in.luences o. "ard1are resources in t"e
teac"ing and learning environment F;em/ et al2,
200+Q Landry, 2000Q A1igg, 2000G2 A"e design
o. personal computers FPCsG, perip"erals and
net1or8ing environments t"at support comple9
educational systems are important ena/lers o.
t"e tec"nology c"ange process FAl 7as"im et al2,
2005G2 Cars1ell and <en8ates" F2002G argue
t"at .aster and more economical computing
po1er, "ig"&speed communications net1or8s,
and t"e standardi>ed, interopera/le so.t1are
and communications tec"nologies mani.ested /y
t"e !orld !ide !e/ provide 1ays to lin8
diverse locations to produce po1er.ul virtual
learning environments2 #n addition, t"e
development o. po1er.ul and relatively
ine9pensive laptop computer "ard1are and
1ireless communication net1or8s "ave made
student&o1ned and porta/le "ard1are .or
individuali>ed tec"nology&ena/led learning and
approac"es .easi/le2
A vital aspect o. t"e laptop approac" to
tec"nology&ena/led learning is to understand
"o1 t"e "ard1are is deployed and used, and t"e
advantages and disadvantages o. t"ese models2
Landry et al2, F2000G identi.y t"ree main models
o. laptop deployment at t"e university or college
level: *G concentrated Fstudents provide o1n
laptopGQ 2G /orro1ed .rom universityQ and 5G
leased Fstudent pays .or university speci.ied
leased laptop2
Eac" model "as potential implications .or
instructional /ene.its, ease o. implementation,
cost savings and impact on t"e project
management .or procuring and implementing an
e&learning program2 -or many sc"ools, t"e
primary advantages o. laptops over des8tops
commonly reported in t"e literature is in
creating opportunities .or all students and
instructors to "ave constant access to computing
resources due to t"e porta/ility o. t"e "ard1are
and a 1ireless net1or8 in.rastructure FLandry et
al2, 2000Q #B6, n2d2Q Aarca, 200+G2 6any
universities and colleges are em/ar8ing on
initiatives to include laptop computers in t"eir
program in order to address competitive .orces
in t"e mar8etplace2
A"e process o. laptop ac:uisition and
deployment in education settings is uni:ue in
many 1ays, including t"e si>e o. t"e projects, t"e
1ay in 1"ic" laptops are used and t"e
o1ners"ip models t"at can /e considered2
Project management tec"ni:ues can in.orm and
assist t"ese underta8ings, particularly in
speci.ication and deployment processes2
#n t"is area o. procurement, academia may
deviate .rom traditional private sector practices2
A"ere is, in almost all cases in t"e pu/lic sector,
a very "ig" premium on transparency in
purc"asing transactions and, a .ocus on process
compliance over speed or e..ectiveness2 !"ile
muc" "as /een 1ritten on sustaina/le private&
pu/lic sector partners"ips Fe2g2 7odge, 200+G
and project partnering strategies F7ampson,
Peters S !al8er, 2002G as possi/le met"ods to
address some o. t"ese issues, very little in t"e
current literature seemed a/le to guide us on
/est practices in t"e educational sector to meet
our project and purc"asing needs2 A"ere.ore, t"e
project team set out 1it" an o/jective to develop
a ne1 model o. partners"ip 1it" #B6, t"e
success.ul vendor .or 4yersonIs $c"ool o.
#n.ormation Aec"nology 6anagement F#A6G
Learnin! Ed!e laptop program2
!e 1ill present a detailed description o. t"is
partners"ip model t"at "as evolved /et1een
#A6 and #B6 as a t1o p"ase process in t"e #A6
laptop deployment at 4yerson Bniversity2
Particular emp"asis 1ill /e placed on t"e role
and contri/ution o. t"e vendor to t"e successes
and lessons learned in t"e project2 !e also
suggest t"at it could /e used as a model .or
laptop program0project management in ot"er
institutions regardless o. "ard1are vendor2
*TM 0earning Edge Project
#n 200*, 4yerson Bniversity and #A6 undertoo8
t"e planning process to initiate t"e #A6
Learnin! Ed!e program2 #n t"is program Fsee
"ttp:001112 r yerson2ca0adle0 G, students use a
leased laptop and t"e Blac8/oard course
management so.t1are .or muc" o. t"eir
classroom learning and computing activities2 All
mandatory course so.t1are suc" as
productivity, statistics pac8ages, compilers,
data/ase development tools, and multimedia
so.t1are are supplied 1it" t"e laptops2
#nstructors also use t"e same environment to
deliver t"e curriculum2
#n t"is program, t"e procurement and
deployment activities 1ere divided in t1o p"ases
o. one project: *G procurement including initial
delivery and supportQ and 2G rene1al o.
"ard1are and so.t1are a.ter t1o years o. leasing2
A"e .irst p"ase consisted o. t"e initial
speci.ication, procurement, deployment and
support o. 5,0 laptops and so.t1are, one .or
eac" student entering #A6 in t"eir .irst year, .or
$eptem/er 20022 A"is process constituted t"e
model .or deployment o. laptops .or all .irst year
students entering t"e program in .ollo1ing
years2 A"e process o. vendor selection is
descri/ed in t"e Analysis section o. t"is c"apter2
A"e second p"ase o. t"e project consisted o.
developing and e9ecuting a model .or replacing
t"e laptops every t1o years2 A"e .irst
replacement e9ercise occurred in $eptem/er
200+ 1"ere 5,0 original laptops 1ere replaced
1it" ne1 models .or t"ird year students, and
+(2 ne1 laptops 1ere delivered to incoming
.irst&year students2
$even individuals, constituting most o. t"e
procurement and implementation teams o. t"e
#A6 Learnin! Ed!e program, participated in
intervie1s2 A"ese individuals consisted o.: t"e
c"air o. t"e procurement committee and t"e
c"air o. t"e $c"ool o. #A6 at t"e time, t"e
associate c"air o. #A6 F/ot" representing t"e
university administrationG, t"e project
consultant, t"e student representative, t"e
manager o. t"e tec"nical sta.. and lead tec"nical
liaison /et1een t"e university and t"e vendor .or
t"e project, t"e "elp des8 manager and a
representative spo8esperson .rom t"e vendor2
Eac" individual 1as as8ed to comment on a
speci.ic set o. :uestions regarding "is0"er role in
t"e project, t"e process .or /ot" p"ases o. t"e
project .rom "is or "er point o. vie1, successes
and 1ea8nesses, and "is0"er e9pectations o. t"e
vendor .or /ot" p"ases o. t"e project and
1"et"er t"ose e9pectations 1ere met2
Analysis o. t"e intervie1 responses revealed
seven main categories o. commentary2 A"ese
included statements a/out: goals and vision, t"e
selection process itsel., vendor /e"aviour and
attitudes, team /e"aviour and attitudes,
1ea8nesses, strengt"s, and di..erences /et1een
/usiness and education environments2 !e
present a summary o. t"is commentary and
attempt to provide some practical outcomes and
suggestions in using t"is approac" .or project
Phase I+ Procurement process
#nitially student participation 1as limited, /ut
a.ter considera/le pu/lic display o. discontent
and a .ormal re:uest /y t"e academic governing
/ody o. t"e university, one student
representative 1as elected to t"e procurement
committee and a .ormal study o. student
opinions and needs 1as carried out2
All o. t"e participants .rom t"e university
including t"e consultant and t"e student
representative outlined t"e goals o. t"e project
and t"e vision t"ey "ad .or t"e Learning Edge
program2 A"e main goal or vision t"at provided
a .rame1or8 .or p"ase one o. t"e project 1as
t"at #A6 re:uired a program t"at 1as
tec"nically superior to any ot"er, particularly
since it 1as an #A sc"ool2 As one person stated
K1e "ad to "ave t"e /est computer at t"e lo1est
price2L Also, people agreed t"at t"e goals o.
improving and supporting e..ective teac"ing and
learning 1ere important and t"at t"e program
must /e pedagogically justi.ied, ot"er1ise it 1as
not 1ort"1"ile2
A"e procurement process at 4yerson involved a
com/ination o. private and pu/lic sector
practices2 #nitially a very detailed set o.
speci.ications 1as designed /y 4yerson 1it" no
input .rom potential vendors2 A"ese
speci.ications and t"e process o. pu/lis"ing
t"em .or vendors re:uired approval .rom many
di..erent levels o. administration2
A"is stringent protocol and approval process
1as implemented so t"at t"e process 1as seen to
/e impartial, o/jective and transparent & a pu/lic
sector approac" to procurement2 All vendors and
team mem/ers "ad access to t"e speci.ication
documents delivered simultaneously as a
4e:uest .or Proposal F4-PG2 A"e success.ul
vendor commented t"at o.ten t"ey are engaged
to assist in determining t"e speci.ications .or
/usiness /ut in t"is case t"e speci.ication
process 1as carried out 1it"out vendor
Eac" vendor su/mitted a response to t"e 4-P
and t"ese responses 1ere opened
simultaneously /y t"e committee, similar to t"e
4-P process in t"e pu/lic and private sectors2
Eac" vendor 1as t"en invited to deliver a
presentation on t"eir su/missions2 -ollo1ing
t"ese presentations, a s"ort list 1as generated2
At t"is point, t"e process deviated signi.icantly
.rom t"e pu/lic sector process /ecause a ne1 set
o. speci.ications 1as generated /ased on a
collection o. /est options o..ered /y eac" vendor
in t"eir .irst su/mission2 $"ort&listed vendors
1ere t"en as8ed to re&su/mit t"eir proposals
/ased on t"is ne1 speci.ication2 At t"is time,
4yerson team mem/ers entered into discussions
1it" vendors regarding t"eir optimal
con.igurations and support o..erings2 A"e
success.ul vendor and most o. t"e team
mem/ers mentioned t"at t"e "ard1are
con.iguration derived .or t"is second stage 1as
uni:ue and not o..ered /y any one vendor at t"e
time2 -or t"e success.ul vendor, t"is "ard1are
con.iguration /ecame t"eir standard university
A response to t"e ne1 speci.ication 1as
presented /y eac" s"ort&listed vendor and one
vendor, #B6, 1as a1arded t"e contract2 A"is
selection process .ollo1ed a typical 1eig"ted
criteria approac" used in t"e pu/lic and private
sector procurement process2 A"e vendor and
seasoned team e9perts in t"e procurement
process Fc"air o. t"e committee and t"e
consultantG o/served t"at t"is t1o stage process
su/stantially en"anced t"e vendor relations"ip2
A"e success.ul vendor /ecame muc" more
involved in t"e speci.ic negotiation process, even
assisting t"e 4yerson team in cra.ting purc"ase
orders so t"at t"ey 1ere accurate and complete2
#n .act, t"e vendor mentioned t"at t"is part o.
t"e process 1as very uni:ue to t"em, and it 1as
as i. Kone mem/er o. t"e 4yerson team Rmoved&
inI 1it" t"e vendor .or t1o 1ee8sL to .inali>e t"e
project2 A"e vendor and t"e 4yerson team t"en
pac8aged and distri/uted 5,0 computers in t"e
.irst p"ase o. t"e project2 A"e vendor also
ensured t"at personnel at 4yerson 1ere
.amiliari>ed 1it" all entities o. t"eir supply
c"ain management system /e.ore /eginning t"e
receiving and distri/ution activities2 A"is
strategy ensured t"at 4yerson personnel could
trou/le&s"oot di..iculties 1it" any supply c"ain
component directly 1it"out 1aiting .or t"e
vendorIs intervention2
Implementation Issues
Ene o. t"e most stri8ing set o. comments made
a/out t"is project 1as t"e di..erence in
approac"es /et1een educational and /usiness
projects2 All participants including t"e student
mem/er and t"e vendor suggested t"at an
educational environment is very di..erent .rom a
/usiness environment2 #n /usiness
environments, t"e computer "ard1are is t"e
.ocus o. t"e procurement process2 A"e /usiness
Ko1nsL t"e "ard1are and is responsi/le .or
managing t"eir resources2 A"e KcompanyL
computing resources are used /y employees to
carry out 1or8 tas8s assigned /y and .or t"e
company2 #. an employee loses a system, t"ey are
not usually responsi/le .or replacing it2
#n contrast, at 4yerson, students lease t"eir
laptop computer /ut are still responsi/le .or its
up8eep and 1ell&/eing2 #. a student loses or
incurs damage to "er laptop, s"e is responsi/le
.or replacing it2 $eparate insurance is availa/le
.or situations 1"ere t"e "ard1are /ecomes
damaged or stolen2 An important consideration
is t"e model t"at can /e o..ered in t"is situation2
A"e initial model used at 4yerson 1as a vendor&
supplied insurance program2 7o1ever, over time
t"is "as evolved to a 4yerson&insurance
$tudents use t"eir laptops .or many di..erent
purposes, ranging .rom 1or8 t"at is assigned /y
di..erent instructors to tas8s t"at are only
indirectly related to t"eir learning suc" as
sociali>ing, and carrying out part&time 1or8
suc" as 1e/ design2 Assignments given /y course
instructors can /e very general in nature and t"e
student must de.ine speci.ic tas8s in order to
ac"ieve t"e generic assignment o/jectives2 A"is
may involve using a 1ide variety o. di..erent
computing resources over s"ort periods o. time2
-or e9ample, students may /e re:uired to use
"ig" end multimedia so.t1are suc" as Ado/e
Premiere in t"e same t"irteen 1ee8 period as
t"ey use <isual Basic2%et to learn programming2
Ever s"ort periods o. time, use patterns and
student needs .or computing resources c"ange
dramatically2 A"e laptop computing resources
must /e current and support structures must
c"ange 1it" t"ese varying and sometimes
unpredicta/le demands2
6ost student 1or8 "as a time&critical
component to it2 Assignments, e9ams and tests,
and projects "ave de.inite and unmova/le
timelines2 Computing resources must /e
e9traordinarily relia/le and .unction 1it"out
.ail2 -ailure to .unction properly at critical times
suc" as during e9ams or 1"en major
assignments are due can result in un.air and
stress.ul situations .or students causing
.rustration and potential .or .inancial "ards"ip2
#. "ard1are constantly .ails and tec"nical
supports are inade:uate, students cannot rely on
t"eir computing resources and 1ill not trust t"e
vendor regardless o. 1"ere t"e .ault lies2
A"is "as serious implications .or .uture
ac:uisitions2 -or instance, education institutions
may /e "esitant to engage t"e ongoing use o.
laptops2 Also, students entering t"e mar8etplace
as an #n.ormation Aec"nology advisor or
purc"aser 1ill /e less inclined to support t"e
product /ased on past e9periences2
As a result o. t"ese di..erences, vendor
involvement in t"e procurement process is not
solely to supply "ard1are2 $upport systems must
/e put in place /y vendors and t"e educational
institution must recogni>e t"ese uni:ue
situations and "ave strategies to manage t"em2
At 4yerson, no student is penali>ed .or "ard1are
.ailures and /ac8up computer inventories are
maintained so t"at students can e9c"ange a
dys.unctional computer .or a 1or8ing one 1it"in
a very s"ort turn&around time2 7o1ever, t"at
still does not alleviate t"e stress and "ards"ip
caused /y computer .ailures during important
times suc" as e9ams2
Et"er important vendor contri/utions to t"e
implementation process 1ere to streamline t"e
"ard1are preparation and distri/ution logistics2
$o.t1are images 1ere tested /y #B6 .or
relia/ility and completeness2 Ence all parties
1ere satis.ied 1it" t"e image, #B6 carried out a
/ul8 image at t"eir .acility .or all student
laptops2 A"ey also 1ere provided 1it" incoming
student in.ormation t"at 1as assigned to eac"
computer at #B6 prior to distri/ution to
4yerson students at t"e university2 A"e secure
data/ase t"ey esta/lis"ed 1as s"ared 1it" t"e
university and /ecame a common document
1it" 1"ic" to provide support services /et1een
4yerson and #B62 A"e vendor also participated
in t"e laptop distri/ution and orientation
sessions at t"e university 1"ere students 1ere
in.ormed o. t"eir responsi/ilities .or t"e
e:uipment and t"en issued 1it" t"eir
Anot"er interesting component o. t"e
distri/ution logistics 1as t"at #B6 1or8ed 1it"
t"e 4yerson team to implement more
environmentally .riendly pac8aging2 Computers
1ere delivered to t"e university on s8ids, s"rin8&
1rapped in a styro.oam 1rapper, eliminating
e9cess protective pac8aging2
-inally, t"e vendor provided inventory
management2 -e1 replacement computers 1ere
stored at t"e 4yerson 7elpdes8 .acility2 ;uring
t"e e9c"ange o. old computers .or replacements
a.ter t"e second year o. t"e lease, computers are
immediately delivered to #B62
Phase / < Transition
#n t"e second p"ase o. t"e project, t"e laptops
1ere to /e replaced 1it" ne1er ones a.ter t1o
years2 #n t"is p"ase, t"e vendor participated in
generating t"e speci.ications .or t"e "ard1are2
A"ey also as8ed t"at 4yerson provide input into
any emergent e9pectations prior to t"e
speci.ication stage o. t"e transition process2
As in t"e initial p"ase, distri/ution logistics 1ere
managed /y t"e vendor and t"e 4yerson team
colla/oratively similar to t"e process in t"e .irst
p"ase o. t"e project2 Enly t"is time, t"ere 1ere
(,0 computers in&coming F+00 ne1 ones going
to .irst year students and 5,0 replacements .or
t"ird year studentsG and 5,0 outgoing to trac8
and manage increasing t"e potential .or error2
A"e pac8aging 1as re&used .or t"e outgoing
A"e 4yerson support manager and t"e #B6
representative reported t"at on&going telep"one
and email support "as provided 4yerson 1it" a
smoot" transition process and .e1 di..iculties
t"at could not /e resolved at 4yerson2 A"e
vendor 1as instrumental in ensuring t"at
4yerson "ad t"e resources and 8no1ledge to
manage t"is transition e..ectively2
5eaknesses of project
A1o major 1ea8nesses 1ere identi.ied in p"ase
one o. t"e project2 A"e .irst 1ea8ness 1as t"e
lac8 o. support .or t"e .aculty and instructors2
%eit"er t"e vendor nor t"e university "ad plans
on "o1 to assist instructors in designing t"eir
course plans, materials and management to
migrate to t"e ne1 teac"ing and learning
environment2 E9pertise in t"is area 1as
de.initely lac8ing alt"oug" t"e university 1as
e:uipped to assist 1it" class management issues
and some general instructional design pointers2
As #A6 1as t"e .irst sc"ool at t"e university to
/egin using laptops, t"e university "ad no
e9perience 1it" t"is element o. teac"ing2 #t
s"ould /e incum/ent on vendors to .aculty
training assistance .or ne1 implementations2
$u/ject matter e9perts, instructional designers
or instructors 1it" e9perience in success.ul
planning and delivering o. laptop courses,
s"ould /e made availa/le to education
institutions during transition periods2
A"e second 1ea8ness 1as t"e vendorIs ina/ility
to manage e9pectations and .ollo1 t"roug" on
t"e added value commitments made during t"e
procurement p"ase, particularly .or students2
Commitments regarding student co&op
placements and employment, support .or
researc", and ot"er educationally related
commitments did not materiali>e2 Again, t"is
may /e a .unction o. t"e lac8 o. e9perience 1it"
educational settings and understanding "o1 t"e
needs o. educational organi>ations are di..erent
.rom t"ose o. a /usiness environment2 7o1ever,
it caused some disappointment and
disgruntlement even t"oug" t"e "ard1are
deployment and distri/ution logistics 1ere 1ell
managed and supported /y t"e vendor2 <endor
per.ormance must /e trac8ed and t"ey must /e
"eld to account .ormally .or added value
commitments made during t"e procurement
A"irteen 4yerson sta.. and students and si9 #B6
sta.. 1ere involved in t"e deployment part o. t"e
.irst p"ase o. t"e project Fduration o.
appro9imately t1o mont"sG2 Project costs in t"e
.irst p"ase o. t"e project 1ere: X)5',6(( .or
"ard1are, X*5,+00 .or "uman resources, and
X6,',,00 .or /uilding, net1or8 and services
upgrades2 -or t"e second p"ase, nine 4yerson
sta.. and .ive #B6 sta.. 1ere involved2 A"e
/udget .or t"e second p"ase 1as X*25)6 .or
"ard1are and X(,',6 .or "uman resources .or
t"e t1o mont" planning and turn&around
Ene o. t"e uni:ue aspects o. t"e 4yerson model
1as student employment in t"e support service
and t"e distri/ution o. computers2 A"is resulted
in relatively lo1 "uman resources costs 1"ile
allo1ing students to gain e9perience and
e9pertise 1it" providing computer support
services2 7o1ever, student turnover may result
in di..iculties 1it" providing consistent and
continuous support over time2 A .ull time
tec"nical lead and "uman resource management
is re:uired to provide continuity, training and
$essons $earned < * summar#
4yerson administration and t"e Learning Edge
team :uic8ly reali>ed t"at in order .or t"e
project to /e success.ul, all procurement and
support systems must /e transparent, open, and
.air2 All sta8e"olders including students must /e
invited to participate2 #n a ris8 adverse
environment suc" as 4yerson Bniversity and
according to t"e literature, t"is meant a very
strict process o. speci.ication dra.ting /y t"e
university, and a .ormal 4-P, /id and selection
process F!al8er, 7apson, S Peters, 2002G2
7o1ever, t"e procurement team also recogni>ed
t"e need to enter into negotiations i. t"ey 1ere
to ac"ieve t"e goal o. ac:uiring t"e K/est
computer .or t"e lo1est price2L
Com/ining a stringent pu/lic sector process 1it"
a more .le9i/le private sector process resulted in
a ne1 "y/rid model as illustrated in -igure * and
allo1ed t"e team to ac"ieve t"is goal2 A"is model
capitali>ed on t"e /est /argaining .eatures o. t"e
pu/lic and private sector processes in a manner
t"at addresses t"e c"allenges, needs and
e9pectations o. a ris8&averse educational
organi>ation2 !e suggest t"en t"at t"is laptop
procurement model is one t"at could /e
considered /y ot"er educational institutions2
A laptop program is a long term investment /y a
university t"at involves a large scale "ard1are
ac:uisition along 1it" all o. t"e associated
so.t1are and support issues2 #t also involves
in.rastructure upgrades, and a re&e9amination o.
t"e teac"ing approac" in classes2 <endor
commitment to and participation in t"is process
is very important particularly .or institutions
1it" little or no e9perience in large scale and
long term procurement and deployment projects
and programs2 !e /elieve t"at #B6 is especially
s8illed and e9perienced 1it" negotiating
"ard1are con.igurations and appropriate pricing
structures, assisting in esta/lis"ing support
services and distri/ution protocols, and supply
management2 Bniversities must ensure t"at all
o. t"ese advantages are part o. t"e negotiation
<endors suc" as #B6 are less e9perienced and
a/le to support t"e pedagogical and teac"ing
needs t"at are also part o. t"e laptop project
suc" as t"e Learning Edge2 -or e9ample,
vendors s"ould /e a/le to provide educationally
appropriate elements suc" as student
employment, researc" .unding and special
appearances in classes2 <endors s"ould also
provide assistance to .aculty in learning ne1
tec"ni:ues .or managing and teac"ing classes in
laptop environments2 Care must /e ta8en and
e9tensive researc" carried out /y negotiating
teams to truly understand t"e e9tent to 1"ic"
vendors can provide t"is type o. support, and
t"en manage e9pectations appropriately2
<endor commitments to value&added elements
o. t"e project must /e .ormally trac8ed t"roug"
reports and progress meetings2 <endors must /e
accounta/le .or t"ese elements and s"ould /e
actively engaged in t"em2
-inally, student assistance Fparticularly #A
studentsG in t"e implementation and transition
p"ases o. a laptop ac:uisition project is a "ig"ly
e..icient and e..ective met"od2 $tudents are
provided 1it" e9cellent opportunities to learn
t"e various tas8s involved Fe2g2, distri/ution,
training, "elp des8 supportG2 A"e university is
a/le to maintain a relia/le and cost e..ective
Al 7as"im, ;2, $an8aran, $2, S !eiss, E2 C2
F2005G2 A"e "ig" tec" glo/al accounting
classroom in t"e 2*st century2 T"e 7ornal o%
A$erican Acade$y
Briner, !2, 7astings, C2, S eddes, 62 F*''6G2
Pro1ect leaders"ip2 Alders"ot, B=: o1er2
Cars1ell, A2 ;2, S <en8ates", <2 F2002G2 Learner
outcomes in an async"ronous distance
education environment2 &nternational 7ornal
o% =$an#Co$pter (tdies, ,6, +(,&+'+2
Cleland, ;2 #2 F*'''G2 Pro1ect $ana!e$ent:
(trate!ic desi!n and i$ple$entation2
$ingapore: 6cra1&7ill EducationJEurope2
#B62 Fn2d2G2 <alley City (tate 2niversity ses
&BM tec"nolo!y to create $lti$edia
classroo$s. 4etrieved Canuary *2, 200,, .rom
5062i/m2co m 0so.t1are0s u ccess0cssd/ 2ns.0C$0C
6AU&,75 ; ' HEp e n;oc u mentS$ite_
&BM tec"nolo!y en"ances co$$nication at
+ort"ern Mic"i!an 2niversity. 4etrieved 6ay
,, 200,, .rom "ttp:00111&
*2i / m 2com0 in dust r ies 0 edu c ation 0 doc0c o nt e nt 0 ca
sestudy05, ,' +,**02"tml
Landry, $2 2, Long, P2, !alter, B2, 4ogerson, L2
-2, 72, $tiles, $2, $te1art, 72, et al2 F2000G2 A case
stdy o% biMitos co$ptin! at (eton
2niversity. 4etrieved Canuary *2, 200,, .rom
"ttp:00pirate 2s"u2edu0al an dryst0Pres e n t ations0
Landry, $2 2 F2000G2 Costs o. u/i:uitous
computing: a case study at $eton 7all
Bniversity2 #n 62 C2 -in8elstein, C2 -rances, -2 #2
Ce1ett, S B2 !2 $c"ol> FEds2G, Dollars, distanced
and online edcation. P"oeni9: Ace0Ery92
Lan8s"ear, C2, Bigum, C2, ;urrant, C2, reen, B2,
7onan, E2, 6organ, !2, 6urray, C2, $nyder2, #2,
S !ild, 62 F*''(/G2 Di!ital r"etorics: literacies
and tec"nolo!ies in edcation. Crrent
practices and %tre directions, .#I. Can/erra,
Australia: ;EEAUA2
6c;onald, 72, S #ngvason, #2 F*''(G2
Aec"nology: a catalyst .or c"ange2 7ornal o%
Crricl$ (tdies, 2'F,G, ,*5&,2(2
+ote(ys8 T"e Laptop Learnin! (pecialists.
4etrieved 6ay ,, 200,, .rom
"ttp:00111 2notesys2com0
Aarca, -2 F200+G2 <innipiac 2niversity Laptop
Pro!ra$. 4etrieved Canuary *2, 200,, .rom
"ttp:00111 2nercomp2org 0 sigs0050+00+0+0)$t
udentBac8A o $c"ool00+0)0+$c"oolAarca2pd.
A1igg, C2 A2 F2000G2 #nstitutional readiness
criteria2 E;BCAB$E 4evie1 F6arc"0AprilG, +2&
A"e aut"ors 1ould li8e to t"an8 Co"n&Patric8
Bdo .or "is assistance in editing t"is manuscript2
!e also t"an8 t"e Learning Edge Committee
and #B6 .or t"eir generous participation in
intervie1s a/out t"e process2 !e also t"an8
Barry 7ollis .or "is support and contri/ution to
t"is project2 -unding .or t"is project 1as
provided /y t"e -aculty o. Business at 4yerson
A"ite, 62 F*'''G2 Leaders"ip styles in
in.ormation tec"nology projects2 &nternational
7ornal o% Pro1ect Mana!e$ent, .)F2G, 25,&2+*2
C"apter *'
Evolving a Large $cale 7ig"er
Education E&learning Project
6anagement $ystem: Aec"nology
En"anced Learning FAELG at t"e
Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1an
Dir* Morrison
("eena 9o'an
2niversity o% (as*atc"e'an
(as*atoon, (as*atc"e'an, Canada
*bstract+ ;espite t"e c"arge t"at universities are unnecessarily slo1 to c"ange structures and processes
related to teac"ing and learning, over t"e last .ive years t"ere "as /een an increased proli.eration o. e&
learning across tertiary education2 %o1 seen as a valid and important alternative to traditional classroom&
/ased met"ods, institutions o. "ig"er education are attempting to increase /ot" t"e rate and scope o.
course and program development using #CA tools and tec"nologies2 7o1ever, suc" initiatives, especially
ta8en on an institution&1ide level, re:uire signi.icant .iscal and "uman resource investments2
iven t"at most universities in Canada are under considera/le /udgetary pressures due to .unding
cut/ac8s, deep investment in e&learning .rom 1it"in t"e institution is li8ely to /e impeded /y suc"
constraints2 #ronically, .or1ard t"in8ing governments understand t"at t"e s8ills and e9perience gained /y
learners using e&learning tools and tec"nologies are critical to t"e ongoing via/ility o. t"e 8no1ledge
economy FBloom S 6urray, 200*G2 A via/le strategy .or any government t"at 1is"es to support t"e
products and processes necessary to reali>e t"e goals o. a 8no1ledge economy is to empo1er institutions
o. "ig"er education t"roug" targeted .unding programs as direct investments in t"e design and
development o. e&learning initiatives and innovations2 <ia an innovative .unding program called t"e
Tec"nolo!y En"anced Learnin! DTELJ Action Plan, t"e overnment o. $as8atc"e1an "as supported and
encouraged t"e adoption o. e&learning across multiple institutions o. "ig"er education in t"e province2
A"roug" an e9amination o. AEL at t"e Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1an, t"is c"apter 1ill document t"e macro&
level project management structures, issues, pro/lems and solutions, and cumulative lessons learned
.rom t"e implementation o. t"is initiative2
,e# words+ 9ec,nolo)5-en,ance( lea$nin): 4ac&lt5 s&.;ect matte$ e2pe$ts: ,i),e$
e(&cation<te$tia$5 e(&cation: inte)$ate(<st$ate)ic plannin): p$o;ect teams<mana)ement:
coope$ative vs. colla.o$ative mo(els o4 p$o;ect mana)ement: contin&o&s imp$ovement
#n t"e year 2000, t"e $as8atc"e1an overn&
ment, t"roug" its department o. education,
(as*atc"e'an Learnin!, initiated a province&
1ide .unding program aimed at stimulating t"e
development and implementation o. tec"nology
en"anced learning across t"e spectrum o. its
educational institutions2 #n addition to .unding
targeted .or t"e =&*2 sector, separate .unding
envelopes 1ere made availa/le to t"e provinceIs
tertiary education institutions, including t"e
Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1an, t"e Bniversity o.
4egina, and t"e $as8atc"e1an #nstitute o.
Applied $ciences and Aec"nology F$#A$AG2
!"ile t"e institutions naturally 1elcomed t"e
initiative and t"e associated .unding support,
AEL presented signi.icant project management
c"allenges due to t"e scope and novelty o. t"e
initiative, as 1ell as t"e diverse constituencies
involved2 #n t"is case study, t"e .ocus 1ill /e
1it" t"e e9periences o. t"e Bniversity o.
$as8atc"e1an FB o. $G 1it" AEL2
In the 4eginning < 2AAB&/CCC
$ince *''), t"e B o. $ "ad received special
provincial .unding t"roug" t"e Mlti#Media
Pro!ra$ Develop$ent and (pport )nd
F6P;$-G .or projects in tec"nology&
en"anced learning2 A"is .unding 1as targeted
.or t"e development o. on&line courses to
serve learners at a distance, and included t"e
integration o. ne1 approac"es to teac"ing
and learning t"at 1ould accommodate t"e
diverse needs o. t"ese learners2 #t 1as
assumed t"at in.ormation and communi&
cation tec"nologies F#CAG 1ould "elp to ma8e
distance irrelevant, /ot" in education and in
1or8, and t"ere.ore serve a greater range and
num/er o. $as8atc"e1anIs rural and
nort"ern population2 -inally, t"e 6P;$-
program and t"e projects it supported 1ere
seen to encourage t"e .ormation o. signi.icant
partners"ips among t"e post&secondary
institutions and 1it" industry2
!it" t"e .ormation in *''( o. a MPD()
Wor*in! Co$$ittee, esta/lis"ed to .ormulate
goals, c"allenges and strategies .or t"e program,
t"e start o. a provincial strategy .or tec"nology&
en"anced learning 1as under1ay2 A"e Depart#
$ent o% Post (econdary Edcation and (*ills
Trainin! FP$E$AG Fno1 re.erred to as (as*at#
c"e'an Learnin!G, in colla/oration 1it"
$as8atc"e1anIs post&secondary institutions,
developed t"e Tec"nolo!y En"anced Learnin!
DTELJ Action Plan, a .ive&year strategy t"at
/egan in 2000&0*2 As articulated in t"e Action
Plan, t"e goals o. AEL are:
Ao develop0retain students, graduates
and .aculty .or a 8no1ledge&/ased
Ao advance education and training in
rural and nort"ern communities
Ao en"ance -irst %ations and 6btis
peoplesI education and training
Ao develop $as8atc"e1anIs intellectual
capital in in.ormation tec"nologies and
ot"er nic"e specialties
Central to t"e AEL Action Plan 1as t"e creation
o. Ca$ps (as*atc"e'an. Esta/lis"ed in Cune
2002, Ca$ps (as*atc"e'an is an inter&
institutional partners"ip, directed and managed
/y its mem/ers, to support t"em in developing
and advancing colla/orative initiatives to
ac"ieve s"ared goals and priorities .or
tec"nology en"anced learning2 F$ee:
"ttp:001112campus2usas82ca .or a description o.
goals and o/jectives2G
!it" t"e esta/lis"ment o. AEL and Campus
$as8atc"e1an, a co"erent set o. goals,
o/jectives, and support structures 1as
esta/lis"ed2 ;rilling do1n .rom t"ese province&
1ide, inter&institutional initiatives, it is
important to note t"at t"ese aligned 1ell 1it"
t"e Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1anIs ne1 strategic
planning processes and products /eing
developed2 Btili>ing a num/er o. prere:uisite
planning documents Fe2g2, Advantage B o. $G, t"e
B o. $ /egan its &nte!rated Plannin! process in
200*, one t"at de.ines t"e .uture direction t"e
institution2 A"is process involves t"e dra1ing
toget"er o. university&1ide and unit&speci.ic
planning e..orts, providing t"e .ocal point .or
institutional decision&ma8ing, initiatives and
resource allocations2 $peci.ic to supporting
tec"nology en"anced learning to meet t"e
strategic directions o. t"e Bniversity, President
6ac=innon states,
#n learning, in particular, 1e must
Kcapitali>e on our e9pertise in distance
learning, and ma8e e..ective use o. ne1
developments in in.ormation and
communications tec"nology to our
students courses in ne1, more .le9i/le
.ormatsL F6ac=innon, 2002, p2 'G2
A .oundational document in support o. t"e
#ntegrated Planning process, namely, t"e
strategic plan .or #n.ormation and
Communications Aec"nology, entitled
Advanta!e 2 o% (, underscores t"e .act t"at
tec"nology plays a large role in learning2
#n t"e ne1 millennium teac"ing spaces are
virtual as 1ell as p"ysical2 Advances in
distri/uted and async"ronous learning
promise to enric" t"e learning e9perience
.or /ot" on&campus and o..&campus
students /y e9tending t"e traditional
classroom2 FBunt, 2005, p2 'G2
Clearly, t"e strategic directions o. t"e B o. $
endorse a .ocus on tec"nology&en"anced
learning initiatives on an institutional&1ide
level2 -ortunately, t"is planning pat" converged
1it" t"e Provincial overnmentIs desire to
ena/le and encourage tec"nology&en"anced
learning t"roug" targeted .unding programs
suc" as AEL2
Implementation of T!$ at the ) of S+ The
!volution of a Project Management
*pproach to !&$earning Development
Phase I+ /CCC&/CC2
-ollo1ing a revie1 o. institutional recommend&
ations /y t"e provincial TEL (teerin!
Co$$ittee, .unds 1ere allocated to eac"
institution in 6arc" 200*2 AEL .unding .or t"e B
o. $ totaled X+'0,000 1it" X500,000 allocated
to content development projects and X*'0,000
Fall amounts in Canadian dollarsG allocated to
-aculty ;evelopment Fe2g2, !e/CA licenses,
.aculty training, 1or8s"ops and seminarsG
;ue to t"e e9tremely s"ort planning timelines in
t"e .irst year o. t"e implementation, a general
Call %or Proposals 1as not .easi/le2 #nstead, an
ad&"oc committee 1as struc8 to select a small
num/er o. pilot courses t"at 1ould /ot" address
AEL goals and .it t"e strategic plans o. t"e
Bniversity2 A"e committee 1as /roug"t toget"er
under t"e direction o. t"e ne1ly appointed A<P
#CA, t"e responsi/le .or AEL at t"e B o. $
.rom 200*&200+2
#nter&institutional tas8 teams continued t"eir
1or8 on de.ining Arts and $ciences initiatives,
1"ic" resulted in t"e .inal list o. courses in 6ay
200*2 Academic units and .aculty su/ject matter
e9perts F-$6EG 1ere noti.ied in Cune and Culy
200* o. t"eir .unding allocations, 1it" planning
and design /egun .or most projects in $eptem&
/er 200*2 ;uring t"is .irst year, nine B o. $ AEL&
.unded content development projects 1ere
approved, 1it" t"e cost o. eac" project estimated
at X50,000 per course2 -unds 1ere allocated .or
.aculty release time Fto academic departmentsG,
.or instructional design, copyrig"t clearance,
evaluation and coordination Fto t"e E9tension
;ivisionJE;G, and multimedia and 1e/
programming Fto t"e ;ivision o. 6edia and
#n addition to /eing paid .aculty release time,
departments received a small amount o. .unds
.or administrative over"ead2 ;espite re:uests
.or AEL .unding speci.ically allocated .or project
management, none 1as given2 #nstead, t"e
o. t"e A<P #CA received .unding .or .unctions o.
t"e coordination o. AEL activities and
administration campus&1ide Fe2g2, committee
meetings, processing o. trans.ers,
correspondence, etc2G2 A"ese monies 1ere not
earmar8ed .or project management per se Fe2g2,
monitoring individual projectsG, /ut 1ere used
to cover t"e costs o. an administrative assistant
to coordinate AEL activities and associated
over"ead2 #t is important to note t"at at t"is
time, t"ere 1as no letter o% a!ree$ent FLEAG in
place, nor 1as t"ere any system o. organi>ed
colla/oration /et1een t"e support units
F;ivision o. 6edia and Aec"nologyJ;6A,
E9tension ;ivisionJE;, and #n.ormation
Aec"nology $ervicesJ#A$G2 As t"e institution
and its internal partners 1ere relatively
ine9perienced 1it" e&learning project
management on suc" a grand scale as AEL, t"e
processes .or developing on&line courses could
not /e laid out in any e9act .orm to t"e
participating departments and0or -$6Es2
Phase II+ /CC2&/CC/
-or t"is .unding year, t"e AEL .unds increased
dramatically 1it" t"e B o. $ receiving X*2*(
million to support t"e development o. content,
learner supports and resources, and .aculty
development2 #n t"e spring o. 200*, a TEL
Coordinatin! Co$$ittee FAELCCG 1as set up to
oversee t"e B o. $ AEL activities2 A"e AELCCIs
tas8 1as to esta/lis" criteria /y 1"ic" to
evaluate AEL proposals, and to develop policies,
processes and guidelines .or AEL projects2 A"e
committee 1as made up o. .aculty mem/ers,
instructional designers, multimedia specialists
and #A representatives2 An o..icial Call .or
Letters o% &ntent FLE#G 1as distri/uted to t"e
campus community resulting in '2 letters
received .rom ** o. *5 colleges, an over1"elming
response2 A"e AELCC revie1ed t"e LE#s
according to ne1ly developed criteria and
approved 2( projects2 Contacts 1ere made
1it"in eac" support unit to provide an estimate
o. t"e costs involved .or t"ese projects2 $ome
courses re:uired simple te9t conversions Fe2g2, to
7A6LG, 1"ile ot"ers necessitated multimedia
components t"at 1ould /e e9pensive to design
and produce2 Project /udgets 1ere /ased on
estimates o. direct costs and in&8ind
contri/utions2 A"ese .irst estimates 1ere :uite
crude /ut during t"e years to .ollo1
improvements in levels o. accuracy 1ere
reali>ed2 As more projects could no1 /e
developed, t"e need .or more support in areas
suc" as learner services and .aculty development
1as apparent and 1as met 1it" an increase in
.unds allocated2
Phase III+ /CC/&/CC>
-or t"is .unding year, monies received 1ould
total X*222 million2 A"e Call %or Proposals 1as
circulated 1it" over ,0 LE#s received2 A"e
AELCC approved 2+ content development
projects totaling X)00,0002 6onies allocated .or
Learner $ervices totaled X*55,000, and
X200,000 .or -aculty ;evelopment respectively2
#n 2002&2005, t"e institutions 1ere as8ed to
provide a consolidated report to (as*atc"e'an
Learnin! t"at 1ould include all projects
approved .rom *'')2 A"is 1as a necessary
increase in t"e amount o. administration
re:uired .or AEL at t"e B o. $2 Campus
$as8atc"e1an 1as also no1 Kon&lineL and more
inter&institutional committees "ad /een .ormed,
re:uiring even more administrative resources2
;uring t"is period, project management o. AEL
at t"e B o. $ appeared to /e .loundering, 1it"
too many projects and too .e1 support people2
;espite t"e strain, patterns o. systematic project
management 1ere .inally /eginning to emerge
and evolve2
Phase I=+ /CC>&/CCD
As t"e program 1as ending its .ive&year cycle,
AEL .unding sa1 a slig"t decrease and provided
resources over t1o years instead o. one,
FX'60,000 .or 2005&0+, and X'20,000 .or
200+&200, respectivelyG2 An additional .orty
projects 1ere slated .or development during t"is
.unding period2 A"e entire AEL initiative is no1
under government revie1, and currently AEL is
in some1"at o. a transition period pending t"e
outcome o. t"is revie12 7o1ever, t"ere is
con.idence t"at t"e program 1ill continue .or at
least anot"er .ive years, i. not inde.initely, and
t"e B o. $ is planning accordingly2
!"ile earlier re:uests 1ere rejected, as o. t"e
.unding year 2005&0+, t"e B o. $ received
speci.ic .unding .or t"e project management o.
AEL2 $everal poc8ets o. AEL activity are ta8ing
place on campus and t"e program no1 re:uires
a .ull&time manager overseeing all o. t"is
activity2 #n response, a pro1ect $ana!er .or AEL
"as /een "ired2 Also, t"e entire AEL program
"as /een relocated .rom t"e A<PIs, to A"e
1enna 6oss Aeac"ing S Learning Centre
F6ALCG, and is no1 overseen /y t"e ;irector
o. t"e Centre2 #n t"e spring o. 2005, t"e AEL Co&
ordinating Committee FAELCCG 1as replaced /y
a smaller committee, 1"ic" included
representation .rom #n.ormation Aec"nology
$ervices F#A$G, ;ivision o. 6edia and
Aec"nology F;6AG, E9tension ;ivision FE;G, t"e
Associate <ice President #n.ormation and
Communication Aec"nology FA<P #CAG, select
mem/ers o. t"e 6ALC advisory committee,
and AEL project manager2 A"e project manager
is currently conducting an inventory o. all AEL
activity at t"e B o. $ and, a.ter 1ide
consultation, 1ill /egin t"e process o.
developing and applying a more concrete project
management system2 A"e goal is to "ave a 1ell&
organi>ed project management system in place
.or t"e anticipated 2006&20** .unding cycle2
Project Management $essons $earned
P"ase &
Large .unding envelopes suc" as AEL, 1"ile a
/oon to .acilitating c"ange and innovation, o.ten
cause institutions to initially scram/le to
organi>e t"emselves in any co"erent manner2
A"e B o. $ 1as no e9ception2 !it"out ade:uate
lead time, com/ined 1it" a relative lac8 o.
e9perience 1it" suc" opportunities, sta8e"olders
interested in developing e&learning projects 1ere
.aced 1it" an ad "oc approac", and resigned
t"emselves to Klearning as 1e go2L E/vious gaps
in project management principles included
minimal esta/lis"ed project selection criteria,
vague .unding and costing guidelines, some1"at
ar/itrary production team .ormations, and
elementary centrali>ed governance and
accounta/ility structures2 #t 1as clear t"at t"ese
gaps needed to /e addressed :uic8ly in
preparation .or t"e ne9t .unding year2
P"ase &&
#t /ecame o/vious early on t"at t"e success o.
AEL at t"e B o. $ increasingly depended on
e..ective project management strategies2 A"e
.ormation o. t"e AELCC assisted in t"is regard,
especially in t"e articulation o. selection criteria
and processes, 1"ic", in turn, .acilitated rational
.unding allocations2 $tructural and production
e..iciencies 1ere /eing reali>ed /y centrali>ing
services and processes .or instructional design,
1e/0multimedia programming, copyrig"t
clearance, and project coordinationQ t"is also
provided a measure o. consistency in project
development processes2 Ao t"is end, t"e B o. $
continued to assign content development .unds
to t"e relevant support units2
Along 1it" t"e consideration o. a project
management approac" to AEL, it 1as
increasingly apparent t"at t"e coordination o.
t"e program needed more attention2 Logically,
1it" t"e increase in .unding and num/er o.
projects /eing approved and developed came an
increase in administration o. t"e program2
Anot"er pro/lem 1as t"at alt"oug" teams made
up o. representatives .rom t"e support units "ad
no1 /een created, t"e reporting structure and
process re:uired 1as still not transparent2 -or
e9ample, pro/lems 1it" a particular project
1ould eventually reac" t"e AEL coordinator
1"o, in turn, too8 t"e concerns to t"e AELCC2
7o1ever, t"e teams "ad not yet re.ined t"eir
communications and process protocols 1it" one
anot"er, and o.ten tried to deal 1it" pro/lems
independently2 By t"e time t"ese concerns
reac"ed t"e o. t"e Associate <ice
President o. #n.ormation and Communication
Aec"nology F<P #CAG and t"e AEL Coordinator,
resources "ad /een used on a project t"at 1as
not meeting its timelines .or completion2 #n
some cases, t"e 1as no1 /eginning to
cancel courses and .or1arding re:uests to
departments t"at remaining .unding /e
returned2 $imultaneous 1it" t"ese terminal
interventions, attempts 1ere made to assist
particular departments in securing a committed
content developer in "opes o. completing
projects2 Pro/lems 1it" insu..icient oversig"t,
monitoring o. status progress reports, and
accounta/ility and insu..icient developer
commitment in some projects, coupled 1it"
continued provincial pressure .or rapid
production turnaround, led to many .rustrations
and ine..iciencies2 A"e A<P #A summed it up
/est: KA"is 1as li8e trying to design t"e plane
1"ile 1e 1ere .lying it2L
A.ter analysis /y AELCC, t"roug" consultation
1it" teams and associated project personnel, it
1as concluded t"at t"e lac8 o. a Letter o%
A!ree$ent FLEAG Fi2e2, project c"arterG designed
to increase commitment and accounta/ility, 1as
a root cause o. several o. t"e projects .alling
/e"ind2 #t 1as, t"ere.ore, important to consider
a more detailed agreement t"at 1ould outline
t"e support o. t"e participating department and
descri/e t"e connection /et1een t"e project and
t"e collegeIs plans2 #n ot"er 1ords, a concrete
commitment to t"e AEL projects .rom t"e
department "eads and ;eans 1as crucial2 A"e
AELCC immediately /egan 1or8ing on t"e
creation o. a LEA2 As 1it" any institution o.
"ig"er education, several sensitive issues, suc"
as intellectual property, rig"t to use, and .aculty
agreements "ad to /e considered2 !"ile many o.
t"ese meetings ended 1it" more :uestions t"an
ans1ers, t"e process continued during t"is
.unding year and concluded 1it" an appropriate
letter o. agreement /eing cra.ted2
#t is important to note t"at, 1"ile t"e B o. $ 1as
learning "o1 to manage AEL Kon t"e .ly,L
(as*atc"e'an Learnin! Ft"e .underG 1as
continually attempting to re.ine t"e process at
t"e provincial level2 !"ile t"is 1as reasona/le it
meant t"at administrators at t"e B o. $ 1ere
o.ten 1or8ing in a reactive rat"er t"an proactive
mode2 A"at /eing said, t"is is not li8ely unusual,
as t"e entire system Fi2e2, provincial .unding
agency, educational institutions, and product
developersG 1as /eing c"allenged in ne1 1ays,
and a signi.icant period o. time 1as needed to
ma8e adjustments and re.ine policies, processes
and practices2
P"ase &&&
!it" more t"an 60 projects no1 in various
stages o. development, AEL administrators
/egan noticing a pattern in projects e9periencing
di..iculties2 -or e9ample, some o. t"e initial
projects approved 1ere running s"ort o.
.unding2 A"is initiated t"e process setting up a
contingency account, 1"ere/y t1enty percent o.
.unds mar8ed .or content development, across
all approved projects, 1ould no1 /e set aside to
s"ore up projects t"at 1ere estimated
incorrectly2 Anot"er c"ronic pro/lem 1as t"e
.act t"at many -aculty $u/ject 6atter E9perts
F-$6EsG 1ere /eing overloaded 1it" ot"er
academic duties, 1"ic", in turn, caused t"eir
AEL projects to /e put on t"e K/ac8 /urner,L
1it" concomitant delays in project completion2
#t 1as at t"is time t"at a Letter o% A!ree$ent
FLEAG 1as .inali>edQ t"e approval o. any AEL
project no1 re:uired t"is document /e signed2
A"is allo1ed t"e AEL program to ensure t"at t"e
projects "ad t"e .ull support o. t"e participating
departments or colleges2 Letters o. support .rom
;eans and ;epartment 7eads 1ere re:uested at
t"e Letter o. #ntent FLE#G stage and at t"e Letter
o. Agreement FLEAG stage2 A"e LEA clearly
stated t"at timelines needed to /e ad"ered to or
t"e project 1ould ris8 "aving t"e .unding
revo8ed and re&allocated to ot"er AEL Projects2
#t also indicated t"at it 1as t"e responsi/ility o.
t"e ;epartment 7ead or ;ean to ensure t"at i. a
-$6E s"ould no longer /e a/le to 1or8 on t"e
project, anot"er developer 1ould /e assigned2
#n addition to t"e a/ove re.inements, project
teams no1 /ecame involved earlier in t"e
process Fi2e2, as soon as t"e LE#s 1ere receivedG2
A"is allo1ed teams to meet 1it" developers
earlier to discuss t"eir projects in greater detail
Fe2g2, /udgeting .or t"e projects, media
resources, process e9pectations, timelines, etc2G2
Communication and colla/oration processes
/et1een t"e team mem/ers, and t"e units t"ey
represented, /egan to .unction more e..ectively2
-inally, a clear understanding, amongst all
players emerged, namely, t"at any concerns or
pro/lems s"ould /e directed to t"e o. t"e
A<P in a timely .as"ion2 A"e AEL Coordinator
1as .ormally designated t"e 8ey contact and
/egan to 1or8 more closely 1it" t"e project
teams and .aculty mem/ers2
$earning b# !(perience
As t"e various groups and individuals
participating in t"e AEL initiative at t"e B o. $
1or8ed t"roug" t"e assortment o. projects and
processes, t"ere 1as a collective learning t"at
too8 place2 Aa8en toget"er, t"e institutional
collective learned ne1 approac"es to managing
t"e process, .ound solutions to pro/lems
encountered, and /egan to more met"odically
plan .or t"e design, development, and delivery o.
e&learning courses and programs2 7o1ever,
1"ile successes "ave /een reali>ed and c"anges
in met"ods o. project management
implemented, t"ese "ave not /een 1it"out
.rustration and a sense o. Kt1o&steps&.or1ard,
one&step&/ac82L #n ot"er 1ords, 1"ile some
aspects o. AEL project management "ave
evolved .or t"e /etter, it is clear t"at t"ese
innovations mig"t "ave /een reali>ed sooner2
Ne(t Steps+ Developing a Project
Management S#stem for T!$
#n addition to tracing t"e trajectory o. AEL at t"e
B o. $, and cele/rating its successes, including
t"e evolution o. structures and processes o.
project management, it is important to
some vision o. 1"at is needed to catapult t"e
entire endeavor .or1ard2 #n.ormed /y concrete
recommendations F6artin, 200*Q 6at"eos,
;e1"irst, S 4o1an, 200+G, t"ere are a num/er
o. steps t"e B o. $ can implement to1ard
improving t"e project management system used
.or AEL2 -irst and .oremost, t"ere needs to /e a
t"oroug" understanding o. 1"at an optimi>ed
project management system .or AEL 1ould loo8
li8e, 1"at t"e /asic elements o. suc" a system
1ould include2 Ao reali>e t"is end goal, /aseline
data regarding current and past AEL projects
need to /e gat"ered and analy>ed to discover
1"at per.ormance gaps e9ist, and to in.orm /ot"
s"ort&term and long&term project management
system goals2 #t is recommended t"at t"ese and
ot"er project management .unctions /e
.ormali>ed in a TEL Pro1ect O%%ice2 Advantages
o. t"is structure include direct support .or t"e
designated project system o1ner, internal AEL
Advisory Committee, and t"e various project
teams2 A AEL Project can also assist in
deploying a system&1ide project met"odology,
provide consultation to project teams, and serve
as a centre .or e9cellence on project
management2 -rom consultation 1it" project
teams, analyses o. data gat"ered .rom project
arc"ives, and continual .eed/ac8 mec"anisms,
t"is 1ould also develop and provide
tec"nical process templates2 Continually
capturing /ot" tec"nical process and project
management /est practices 1ill provide an ever&
evolving 8no1ledge /ase .or t"e institution2
Bltimately, t"e implementation o. suc" a meta&
level approac" to project management 1ill only
solidi.y e..icient and e..ective structures and
processes .or t"e development o. e&learning
projects at t"e B o. $2
AEL "as provided great opportunities .or t"e
development o. e&learning at t"e Bniversity o.
$as8atc"e1an, ranging .rom e9panded student
access t"roug" to trans.orming teac"ing and
learning 1it"in and /eyond t"e institution2 #n
lig"t o. /ot" internal and e9ternal in.luences and
trends, .ocusing on e9tending e&learning is only
timely .or t"e institution2 A"e AEL initiative "as
provided t"e impetus to develop a strategy .or
distri/uted learning t"at is congruent 1it" t"e
institutionIs academic agenda2 #mportantly, AEL
"as also provided a matri9 o. c"allenges and
opportunities t"at toget"er "ave provided a
conte9t in 1"ic" t"e institution can learn and
c"ange2 Ene concrete outcome o. t"is process
"as /een t"e evolution o. a co"erent and 1ell&
developed project management system .or e&
learning2 A"e end result o. t"ese collective
e..orts, namely, t"e development o. a vi/rant
and innovative e&learning environment, one
1"ic" results in advancing and improving t"e
teac"ing and learning enterprise at t"e B o. $,
1ill /e t"e ultimate accomplis"ment2
A )ra$e'or* %or Action, 2 o% ( &nte!rated
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C"apter 20
Barriers and ;rivers o. Bniversity
E&Learning Projects 3 a Case $tudy o.
Mitra Ara$i,
)ridolin Wild
Aienna 2niversity o% Econo$ics and Bsiness Ad$inistration DW2 WienJ
Aienna, Astria
*bstract+ ;ue to t"e universityIs comple9ity and diversity, t"e project management c"allenges o. suc"
projects are gaining more importance in academic researc"2 A"is paper identi.ies project /arriers and
success .actors o. a large scale university e&learning project F L ear n D!BG at <ienna Bniversity o.
Economics and Business Administration2 4esults .rom a project audit involving decision ma8ers,
academic content providers, pedagogic e9perts, and #A&tec"nicians are presented to reveal t"e
importance, strategies and c"allenges o. project management in e&learning projects2 A"e case study s"o1s
t"at project management in e&learning projects is dependant on t"e a/ility o. t"e project manager to act
as negotiator and motivator .or continuous sta8e"older alignment and .ostering o. a colla/orative culture2
,e# words+ Project 6anagement, E&Learning, Case $tudy
According to various researc"ers F!illcoc8 and
6argetts, *''+G #A0#$ projects are considered as
"ig" ris8 and c"allenging projects2 A"e under&
management o. ris8s in #$ projects is very
surprising considering t"e si>e o. #A
e9penditure, and t"e "istory o. disappointed
e9pectations F=een, *''*Q 7oc"strasser and"s, *''*Q !illcoc8s, *''+Q *''6G2
4esearc" /y 6eta roup Fc.2 6acp"erson et al2,
2005G indicates t"at t"e over1"elming majority
o. employers are loo8ing .or tec"nologists 1it"
/usiness s8ills2 Bot" 1or8ers and employers
1ant #A to /ecome more /usiness&.ocused2
Companies 1ant #A 1or8ers to possess /usiness
as 1ell as tec"nical s8ills, 1"ile #A pro.essionals
reported a desire to /roaden t"eir communic&
ation, /usiness modelling and project
management s8ills2
A"is c"apter reports t"e .indings o. a survey
designed to capture t"e e9periences o. project
management personnel at Learn D !B, a large
scale e&learning project at t"e <ienna Bniversity
o. Economics and Business Administration,
1"ic" 1as initiated /ac8 in 20002
E&Learning supports learning t"roug" in.orm&
ation tec"nology, t"ere/y creating ne1 inter&
action and communication possi/ilities, /y
o..ering an increased independence o. /ot" time
and space2 Accordingly, an e&learning project
deals 1it" design, implementation, and utilisa&
tion o. a social and in.ormation tec"nological
system Fsee e2g2 7oppe and Breitner, 200+G2 At
t"e centre o. suc" a system is an e&learning
application, o.ten called a learning0content
management system, 1"ic" is .ocused on
supporting one or more su/&processes o. t"e
educational Kvalue c"ainL, including educational
planning, content production or ac:uisition
FRma8e or /uyIG, content delivery, assess&
ment0evaluation and certi.ication2
Planning .or learning typically involves
applications supporting needs analysis
Fincluding 8no1ledge, s8ills and competencies
gap analysisG, as 1ell as assisting in t"e
identi.ication o. individual and organisational
goals Funnarsdottir et al2, 200+G2 Content
production and ac:uisition is supported /y
aut"oring tools and /ro8erage plat.orms .or
learning resources2 ;elivery applications
support learning in courses, eit"er delivered
remotely or "eld in a classroom2 #n t"e
assessment and evaluation step, so.t1are is
applied to support /enc"mar8ing o. t"e ac:uired
8no1ledge, s8ills and competencies F$eu.ert,
200*G, and to evaluate t"e :uality o. t"e course2
#n t"e certi.ication p"ase, applications li8e
grade&/oo8s support administration and
reporting .unctions2
Project Management
RProject management processI "as mi9ed
de.initions in t"e project management literature2
Baccarini F*''', 2'G to $"en"ar et al2
F*''(G, 6cCoy F*')6G and ot"ers de.ine t"e
project management process as controlling
project costs, time, and measures o. pro.ita/ility
to gain mar8et s"are t"roug" e..iciency2
6ore dynamic and integrative vie1s o. project
management process can /e .ound in project
management literature Fc.2 Caa.ari 2000Q areis,
*')'Q !ard, *'''Q and 4oyer, 2000G2 A"ese
aut"ors consider culture, organisation, and
ot"er Rso.tI .actors as additional dimensions
1"ic" in.luence project success2 A"ey vie1
project mem/ers and teams more .rom an action
oriented, interactive perspective in 1"ic"
process is part o. and lin8ed to product
outcomes2 Eur vie1 relates to and e9tends t"e
1or8 o. t"ese aut"ors2
A"e symptoms o. project .ailure are di..erent2
Ciang and =lein F200*G identi.ied nine #A0#$
project development ris8s2 A"e .irst t"ree are
project si>e, application comple9ity and
tec"nology ac:uisition2 7artman and As"ra.i
F2002G reported misunderstood re:uirements,
overly optimistic sc"edules and /udgets,
inade:uate ris8 assessment and management2
Ciang and =lein F200*G concluded t"at Keac"
organi>ation 1ill approac" t"e pro/lem
according to its culture, /ut t"e importance o.
selling t"e system still rings loud and clear2
Additionally, involvement, training, and support
serve as common practice to lo1er t"e ris8s
associated 1it" so.t1are development projectsL2
7artman and As"ra.i F2002G recommend
lin8ing t"e project to corporate /usiness
strategy, aligning major sta8e"olders on 8ey
issues, simpli.ying project controls and metrics,
and ma8ing sure e..ective communication and
e9pectation management is maintained
t"roug"out t"e project li.e2 Et"er studies
recommend improving t"e nature o.
communication /et1een t"e parties F4iggle,
200*G2 All t"ese recommendations mainly aim to
get participation and commitment .rom all t"e
sta8e"olders in t"e project2
"esearch Methodolog#
A :ualitative researc" approac", particularly
case study researc", 1as applied as t"e 8ey
met"odology in t"is study2 Pualitative researc"
met"ods are designed to "elp researc"ers
understand people and t"e social and cultural
conte9ts 1it"in 1"ic" t"ey live2 =aplan and
6a91ell F*''+G argue t"at t"e goal o.
understanding a p"enomenon .rom t"e point o.
vie1 o. t"e participants and its particular social
and institutional conte9t is largely lost 1"en
te9tual data are :uanti.ied2 Case study researc"
is t"e most common :ualitative met"od used in
in.ormation systems FErli8o1s8i and Baroudi,
*''*Q Alavi and Carlson, *''2G2
According to areis F200+, p2 +0G, project
auditing can /e di..erentiated into t1o parts &
auditing project content and auditing processes2
A"e project management audit serves as an
evaluation o. t"e project management process in
projects or in programmes2
A"e .ocus o. our investigation 1as on t"e project
management o. e&learning projects and t"e
c"allenges o. suc" projects2 A"e data .or t"is
researc" 1as gat"ered .rom *, structured
intervie1s 1it" t"e project manager, project
team mem/ers, and t"e project coac"2 #ntervie1
data 1ere en"anced /y content analysis o.
project documentation, reports, internal memos
and presentations2 As 1ell, in t"e .ollo1&up
sessions 1it" our intervie1 partners, 1e
validated our interpretations 1it" t"em2
Additional detailed in.ormation a/out project
management competencies 1as collected /y
o/serving meetings /et1een t"e project o1ner
and t"e project team2 ;ata 1ere en"anced /y
structured individual sel.&assessments o. t"e
project representatives using :uestionnaires2
A"e project management competence o. t"e
project team can /e descri/ed as 8no1ledge and
e9perience in con.lict resolution, .acilitating
tools and met"ods, utilising synergies,
organisational learning, to design t"e project
management process F7uemann and 7ayes,
A"e intervie1s, :uestionnaires and audit
c"ec8lists 1ere /ased on 4oland areisI F*')'G
met"od o. Project and Program 6anagement
A"e collected data 1as analysed and presented
to t"e project core team2 -igure * provides an
overvie1 over t"e researc" design: starting 1it"
a planning p"ase, data 1ere collected in several
steps, t"en analysed and .inally presented to t"e
project core team2
.igure 2+ 4esearc" ;esign
The Case of $earnE5)
#n t"is section 1e introduce t"e L earn D !B
project2 !it" more t"an 2*,000 students, t"e
<ienna Bniversity o. Economics and Business
Administration F!BG, is one o. t"e largest
/usiness sc"ools in t"e 1orld2 6ore t"an 5,)00
.res"men enrolled in t"e 1inter term
20050200+ and a/out 2,000 courses are o..ered
eac" term2 As t"ere are no general selection
mec"anisms li8e entrance e9aminations in
Austria, access to t"e <ienna Bniversity o.
Economics and Business Administration is not
restricted, t"us traditionally leading to "ig"
initial enrolments and si>ea/le dropout rates as
many students .ail to pass t"e courses in t"e .irst
year2 Learn D !B 1as planned in t"ree p"ases2
A"is case study reports on t"e project audit o.
t"e .irst p"ase, 1"ic" "as /een .inis"ed in 20052
$earning -bjectives
A"e primary learning o/jective 1as to 8eep
didactic design o. learning o/jects rat"er open
Fc.2 Al/erer et al2, 2005G, since learning content
and learning culture vary e9tensively across
di..erent su/ject .ields li8e $tatistics, Englis",
6ar8eting, 7uman 4esources, or La12
-urt"ermore, several .urt"er o/jectives 1ere
de.ined /y a re:uirements survey carried out
among pro.essors and content developers Fc.2
Al/erer et al2 2005G2 A"e survey results included
ena/ling computer assisted sel.&assessment,
.acilitating do1nloads o. course material, online
sample e9ams, and t"e o..ering o. online
te9t/oo8s2 Enly to a limited degree t"e survey
outcomes s"o1ed interest in community and
colla/oration support2
Project -bjectives
#n .all 2002, si9 ne1 degree programs FBusiness
Administration, #nternational Business
Administration, Economics, Business and
Economics, Business Education and #n.ormation
$ystemsG 1ere introduced, replacing t"e old
degree programs2 A"ese degree programmes
s"are a common /ody o. 8no1ledge, 1"ic"
accounts .or )0W o. t"e courses o. t"e .irst year2
A"e remaining 20W o. t"e courses are program
speci.ic, i2e2 learners are taug"t su/jects typical
.or t"ese programs2
#n parallel, an increase in enrolments at t"e
university could /e o/served, raising t"e num/er
o. .res"men .rom 1inter term 200* to 1inter
term 2002 /y nearly one t"ird & .rom 5,+)+ to
+,5'2 students2
A"e degree programmes all "ave in common,
t"at t"ey are designed to ena/le teac"ing in
mass courses in t"e .irst year, leaving t"e
regular, intensive interaction 1it" .aculty sta.. to
t"e "ig"er study years2 As university access in
Austria is not restricted, t"e idea /e"ind t"at
1as to concentrate t"e "ig" drop&out rates in t"e
.irst year and s"i.t resources to t"ose 1"o are
li8ely to .inis" a degree programme2
A"e Learn D !B project 1as launc"ed to give
learning alternatives to .res"men and to tac8le
t"e pro/lem o. larger classes /y ena/ling t"e
university to Rmass coursesI in t"e .irst year2
A"ere/y, t"e primary o/jective o. t"e project 1as
to develop a scala/le electronic learning
management system capa/le o. serving all
.res"men t"roug" large scale courses2
Project 0istor#
Eriginally t"e project 1as .unded /y t"e
Austrian -ederal 6inistry o. $cience and
Culture2 !it" t"e project starting -all 2000, t"e
planned launc" o. t"e plat.orm 1as sc"eduled
.or t"e -all 2005, /ut deployment "ad already
started /y Ecto/er 20022
A"e initial Project 6anager "ad /een involved in
a similar e&learning project, 1"ere t"e project
management "ad /een outsourced to a leading
consulting company2 Because "is lac8 o.
e9perience, t"e project manager .aced various
pro/lems, including acceptance o. "is aut"ority
and "is ina/ility to motivate t"e main su/ject
matter e9pert in t"e project2 #t 1as :uic8ly
concluded t"at "e /e replaced /y an #A0#$
Pro.essor o. t"e university, 1"o 1as "ig"ly
accepted /y all2 Because o. t"is e9perience, t"e
$teering Committee nominated Pro.essor usta.
%eumann as t"e Project 6anager o.
Learn D !B2 7e "ad /een 1or8ing 1it" t"e
su/ject matter e9pert .rom t"e /eginning o. t"e
project, and "is 8no1ledge o. t"e internal rules
o. t"e Bniversity 1as invalua/le2 !e 1ill .urt"er
e9amine t"is in t"e $ection 4esults2
A"e .irst project p"ase 1as "eaded /y Pro.essor
%eumann2 At t"at time +2 sta.. mem/ers F2'
.ull&time e:uivalentsG 1ere employed: t"ere
1ere 56 content developers, 2 educational
support sta.. and + #A&tec"nicians2 A"e content
developers are primarily e9perts .rom .ields suc"
as mar8eting, pu/lic la1 or mat"ematics2 A/out
52, million euros "ave /een invested in t"e
project to date in p"ase one and t1o2 !or8load
/arriers occur in traditional #$0#A Projects, t"e
/arriers "ere are seen as especially pro/lematic,
/ecause in t"e K#nternet AgeL a /arrier t"at is
not :uic8ly removed can rapidly lead to
1idespread pro/lems, e2g2 loss o. investor
con.idence or loss o. 8ey employees2 A"e
.ollo1ing are some e9amples o. /arriers:
$"i.ting project priorities a..ected t"e
motivation o. team mem/ers2
Aeam leaders and mem/ers 1"o could not
e..ectively negotiate personal and pro.essional
tradeo..s created project and company con.licts2
Communication across e9pertise areas
Fso.t1are and "ard1are engineers, :uality
assurance, mar8eting, content developer and
tec"niciansG 1as anot"er major constraining
/arrier to project management2 Part o. t"e
communication pro/lem 1as /elieved to /e t"e
orientation o. pro.essionals: type o. 1or8,
demands, time .rames, and 1or8ing styles: e2g2
di..erences /et1een tec"nical and creative
mem/ers o. t"e project2 A"e tremendous
speciali>ation o. roles diminis"ed opportunities
.or generalists to see and t"ere.ore control t"eir
entire project cycle2 Project o1ners can /e
especially disappointed i. t"eir projects cras"
1it"out t"eir input2
Aa/le , summari>es t"e main /arriers .ound in
e&learning projects in university settings2
in t"e project is "ig"ly distri/uted, and most o.
t"e communication ta8es place via e&mail,
e9cept .or 1ee8ly meetings o. t"e core team2
At t"e time o. 1riting, Lea r nD!B "ad more
t"an *6,000 registered users and "olds more
t"an 2*,000 learning resources ranging .rom
online te9t/oo8s to online e9ercises2 A"e system
encounters up to 522 million page impressions
per day, ma8ing it one o. t"e most "eavily used
1e/sites in Austria, 1it" 1e/ tra..ic similar to
t"e online portal o. t"e Austrian ne1spaper
1112presse2 a t F6endling et al2, 200+G2 #n t"e
last *+ days /e.ore e9ams at t"e /eginning o. t"e
1inter term 200+00,, more t"an *2'( million
:uestions 1ere ans1ered online /y students,
1it" an average response time .rom t"e server o.
less t"an * second per item2
#n t"is c"apter 1e summari>e t"e results o. t"e
analysis o. collected data .rom t"e project audit:
Project 4arriers
#nitial intervie1 results reported in Aa/le *
identi.y signi.icant /arriers to e..ective team
process integration2 !"ile many o. t"ese process
Culture: #ntegrating tec"nical and creative
-rgani6ation: Lac8 o. cross&.unctional
People: 6anaging motivation, career pat"s,
pride, and egosQ responsi/ility 1it"out aut"ority
Strateg#: Bncertainty and continuous c"ange
Project leadership: #ne9perienced project
Methods: #na/ility to /alance discipline and
$ack of Communication: across e9pertise
$ack of Input from !nd )sers 7students8+
a .ocus on product speci.ications rat"er t"an
gat"ering in.ormation on usa/ility
Table D+ Common Barriers o. E&Learning
Projects in Bniversities
Project Drivers
$everal intervie1ees noted t"at t"e project
drivers are t"e reverse o. t"e /arriers t"ey
identi.ied2 A"at is, it 1as t"ese speci.ic types o.
/arriers t"at "ad motivated t"e university to
institute t"e project in t"e .irst place2 !"ile t"is
may /e true, 1e identi.ied t"e .ollo1ing
additional .actors as drivers2
E..ective project management is t"e a/ility to
integrate and support teams as 1ell as to
produce results and success2 Project teams and
leaders 1"o can e..ectively manage multiple
projects in c"aotic environments are "ig"ly
A signi.icant motivational .actor .or team
mem/ers 1as /eing a/le to learn ne1
tec"nologies and met"ods2 #n many corporate
projects, stoc8 options and t"e goal o. "ig"
income are o.ten reported motivational .actors,
/ut in our case t"e intervie1ees mentioned
Rpride o. 1or8I and R/elonging to a 1inning teamI
as t"e most motivating .actors2 A"e colla/orative
positive culture and 1or8 environment "ad also
pleased project team mem/ers2 RE9pressive, .un,
team&orientedI are attri/utes t"at descri/e
positive projects and cultures2 REverly tec"nical,
missed opportunitiesI are attri/utes t"at
descri/e projects in trou/le2 Project drivers are
summari>ed in Aa/le 62
Stakeholder Management+ Balanced
Motivation+ 6aintaining team morale and
$earning+ <alue&added, mar8eta/le s8ills
Communication+ Articulating actiona/le
messages and .eed/ac8
Negotiation+ A/ility to respond to project
Coordination+ Cross&.unctional integration on
8ey decisions
Creative Culture+ Ent"usiasm .or Rne9t stepI
development, colla/orative, .un
Table F+ Project drivers o. E&Learning Projects
at Bniversities
Based on our researc", t"e potential /arriers and
drivers t"at can in.luence t"e success.ul
management o. an e&learning project in "ig"er
education are descri/ed in t"is c"apter2 Eur
results indicate t"at an e..ective and sustaina/le
e&learning project management process is, a/ove
all, dependant on t"e .ollo1ing c"aracteristics
and competencies2
-irst, t"e a/ility o. t"e project manager to act as
negotiator and motivator is crucial2 Project
managers need to /alance and satis.y s"i.ting
demands o. investors and project o1ners in any
e&learning project2 $uccess is /ased on t"eir
s8ills in negotiating con.licting priorities 1"ile
motivating talented tec"nical and creative
pro.essionals, 1"ile e..ectively managing people,
processes, tec"nologies and strategies2
6oreover, 1e "ig"lig"t t"e importance o.
continuous sta8e"older alignment and process
sync"roni>ation t"roug"out t"e entire project
li.e cycle, t"ere/y lin8ing t"e strategy and
connections o. t"e company0organi>ation 1it"
customers, vendors, and suppliers, 1"ic" in
turn, needs to /e connected to project sc"edules,
resources, :uality assurance procedures, and
e9pected .unctionality2 6anaging trade&o..s
/et1een sta8e"older priorities is crucial since
projects can a..ect an entire company0
organi>ation Fc.2 Uourdon, 2000G, demanding
alignment or even reengineering o. a..ected
/usiness processes and models2
-inally, 1e o/served t"at success.ul project
management particularly depends on
maintaining a colla/orative environment 3
/alancing competitiveness, 1it" /eing open .or
sustaina/le c"ange Fc.2 ;evane, 2000G2
Alavi, 62 and Carlson, P2 F*''2G: @A revie1 o.
6#$ researc" and disciplinary development,@
7ornal o% Mana!e$ent &n%or$ation (yste$s,
F):+G, pp2 +,&622
Al/erer, 2, Al/erer, P2, En>i, A2, Ernst, 2,
6ayr", =2, %eumann, 2, 4ieder, 42, and
$imon, B2 F2005G: A"e Lea r nD!B Learning
Environment2 #n: Wirtsc"a%tsin%or$ati* ,--I 0
Band &, pp2,'536*22
Anderson, C22, Aydin, C2E2 and Cay, $2C2 F*''+G:
Met"ods and Applications2 $age, A"ousand
Ea8s, CA, pp2 +,&6)2
Baccarini, ;avid F*'''G: A"e Logical -rame1or8
6et"od .or ;e.ining Project $uccess, Pro1ect
Mana!e$ent 7ornal, <ol2 50, %o +, 2,&52
Ben/asat, #2, oldstein, ;2=2 and 6ead, 62
F*')(G: @A"e Case 4esearc" $trategy in $tudies
o. #n.ormation $ystems,@ M&( <arterly F**:5G,
pp2 56'&5)62
;evane, Aom F2000G: KLeading #A projects,L
E3ective E3cellence, Provo, <ol2 *(, #ssue (,
areis,4 F%ovem/er, *')'G: 6anagement /y
projects: t"e management approac" .or t"e
.uture2 Pro1ect Mana!e$ent, (, F+G, 2+5&+'2
laser B2, $trauss A2 F*'6(G: T"e discovery o%
!ronded t"eory: strate!ies %or Malitative
researc"2C"icago, #L: Aldine2
unnarsdottir, $2Q =ieslinger, B2Q =gc"ler, A2Q
$imon, B2 F200+G: -rom e&Learning to Learning
6anagement: 4esults o. an #nternational
$urvey2 Proceedin!s o% /t" &nternational
Con%erence on 4no'led!e Mana!e$ent2 ra>2
7ac8ley, P2 and !e/ster, C2 F*''(G: Aeac"ing
E..ectiveness in Aec"nology&6ediated ;istance
Learning2 Acade$y o% Mana!e$ent 7ornal, +0
F6G, *2)2 & *50'2
7oc"strasser B,"s C2 F*''*G: Controllin!
&T &nvest$ents: (trate!y and Mana!e$ent.
C"apman and 7all, London2
7oppe, 2 und Breitner, 62 72 F200+G: Business
6odels .or E&Learning2 #n: 4om/ac", ;2, Eic8er,
$2, Po"l, =2, Adels/erger, 72, !ul., <2, =rcmar,
72, und Pa1lo1s8i, C2 Feds2G: Mlti*on%eren5
Wirtsc"a%tsin%or$ati* DM4W&J ,--/ # Band .,
Caa.ari, A2 F2000G: Li.e&Cycle Project
6anagement: A Proposed A"eoretical 6odel .or
;evelopment and #mplementation o. Capital
Project, Pro1ect Mana!e$ent 7ornal, <ol2 5*,
%o2 *, ++&,22
Ciang, C2 C2 and 2 =lein F200*G, ?$o.t1are
Project 4is8s and ;evelopment -ocus?, Pro1ect
Mana!e$ent 7ornal 52F*G, +&'2
7uemann, 62and 7ayes, 42 F2005G:
6anagement Audits o. Projects and Programs a
Learning #nstrument, in *(t" #P6A !orld
Congress on Project 6anagement, Pro1ect
Oriented Bsiness and (ociety, +&6 Cune 2005,
=aplan, B2 and 6a91ell, C2A2 F*''6G:
@Pualitative 4esearc" 6et"ods .or Evaluating
Computer #n.ormation $ystems,@ in Evalatin!
=ealt" Care &n%or$ation (yste$s: Ma3'ell 7A.
<alitative researc" desi!n: an interpretive
approac". A"ousand Ea8s, CA: $age2
=een, P2 F*''*G: ("apin! t"e )tre2 7arvard
Business Press, Boston2
6acp"erson, C2, 7andler, 42, Ballou, 62 and
Bittler, $2 F2005G2 Lac8 o. Project 6anagement
$8ills #s a 6ajor #A #ssue .or 6any
Ergani>ations2 6EAA roup %e1s Analysis
$ummary2 +e's Analysis, ,2,2
6cCoy, -2 F*')6G2 Measrin! sccess:
Establis"in! and $aintainin! a baseline2 P6#
Annual $eminar S $ymposium, 6ontreal
6eier, P2 and $imon, B2 F2000G: 9een!ineerin!
2nder!radate Teac"in! by &ntrodcin!
&nternet#based Learnin! &n%or$ation (yste$s.
$pringer, <ienna2
6endling, C2, %eumann, 2, $imon, B2, Pinterits,
A2 F200,G K4evenue 6odels .or E&Learning at
BniversitiesL, Proceedin!s C. &nternationale
Ta!n! Wirtsc"a%tsin%or$ati*
Erli8o1s8i, !2C2 S Baroudi, C2C2 F*''*G:
@$tudying #n.ormation Aec"nology in
Ergani>ations: 4esearc" Approac"es and
Assumptions@, &n%or$ation (yste$s 9esearc"
F2G, pp2 *&2)2
4iggle, 62 F200*G: Brea8ing t"e Cycle o. -ailureQ
&ntelli!ent EnterpriseQ %o2 *2Q <ol2 +Q Pg2 +0&++
4oyer, P2 $2 F2000G: 4is8 6anagement: A"e
Bndiscovered ;imension o. Project 6anage&
ment, Pro1ect Mana!e$ent 7ornal, 5*F*G, 6&*52
$e8aran B2 F*''2G 9esearc" $et"ods %or
bsiness: a s*ill bildin! approac".2nd Edition2
%e1 Uor8: Co"n !iley S$ons2
$eu.ert, $2 F200*G: E&Learning Business 6odels,
$trategies, $uccess -actors and Best Practice
E9amples2 #n: 9. De )illippi, 9. W. Ded.J:
9et"in*in! Mana!e$ent Edcation.
#n.ormation Age Press, reen1ic"2
!ard, $tep"en F*'''G: 4e:uirements .or an
Elective Project 4is8 6anagement Process,
Pro1ect Mana!e$ent 7ornal, 50F5G, 5(&+52
!illcoc8s L, 6argetts 72 F*''+ G: 4is8
assessment and in.ormation systems2 Eropean
7ornal o% &n%or$ation (yste$s 5F2G: *2(&*5)2
!illcoc8s L2 F*''+2G &n%or$ation Mana!e$ent:
T"e Evalation o% &n%or$ation (yste$s
&nvest$ents. C"apman and 7all, London2
!illcoc8s L2 F*''6G: &nvestin! in &n%or$ation
(yste$s: Evalation And Mana!e$ent.
C"apman and 7all, London2
Uin, 42 =2 F*''+G: Case (tdy 9esearc", Desi!n
and Met"ods, 2nd ed2 %e1/ury Par8, $age2
Uourdon, Ed F2000G: K$uccess in e&projectsL,
Computer !orld, #ssue 5+, August 2*, p2 562
C"apter 2*
6oving courses online: 4eturn on
investment, learner demand, and
strategic planning
Lori Wallace
2niversity o% Manitoba
Winnipe!, Manitoba, Canada
*bstract+ A"e !e/ presents many opportunities to e9tend learning, improve student success and
per"aps even lo1er costs2 A"e university cost&recovery distance education F;EG unit discussed in t"is case
1as under some pressure to move .rom a primarily print&/ased course delivery model to an online model2
7o1ever, moving courses, learning, and services online potentially involved system c"anges 1it" .ar
reac"ing e..ects, particularly 1it" respect to t"e unitIs .inancial via/ility2 iven t"e .inancial ris8s
involved, t"e unit c"oose to move slo1ly into online delivery, and undertoo8 a researc" project in order to
determine 1"ic" courses and services s"ould /e o..ered online, and at 1"at rate t"ese s"ould /e
developed2 <aria/les investigated 1ere student demograp"ics and motivations, enrolment and attrition,
tec"nology use, and return&on&investment2 A"e case discusses t"e uni:ue project management c"allenges
encountered in t"e planning o. cost recovery e&courses and services during a period o. s"i.ting learner
demograp"ics and organi>ational insta/ility2
,e# words+ online, demograp"ics, distance education, cost recovery, return on investment, university2
Institutional conte(t
A"e unit descri/ed in t"is case is located at a
large dual&mode university Fone t"at is .ocused
primarily upon .ace&to&.ace learning, /ut also
o..ers distance education coursesG, and provides
t"e in.rastructure .or /ot" t"e development and
delivery o. t"e institutionIs distance education
F;EG courses2 A"ree .ull degree programs
comprised o. 2(0 undergraduate courses are
o..ered via .ive delivery modes: independent
study Fprint&/ased course materials, o.ten
supplemented /y audiovisual materialG, and a
limited num/er o. group&/ased courses Fprint&
/ased course materials, supplemented /y
audiovisual materials and audiocon.erence
discussionsG, online courses Fentirely net&/asedG,
.le9i/le study courses Fprint&/ased or online
course materials, supplemented /y on&campus
tutorial sessionsG, and multi&site virtual
classroom courses2
A"e ;E unit provides, at no cost to students, t"e
services o. ;E student advisors, re.erence
li/rarians, and e9am invigilators, as 1ell as e&
mail and toll&.ree telep"one contact 1it" ;E
sta.. and instructors2 All ;E courses "ave a
course 1e/site Fin !e/CAG 1it" course
in.ormation Fe2g2, te9t/oo8s, details o. term
1or8, and academic sc"eduleG, course materials,
and communication and course management
tools2 Enly in entirely online courses, "o1ever,
are students reMired to "ave online access and
use t"e course 1e/site .or learning activities2
A"e unit operates on a cost&recovery model 1it"
a /udget o. X+2(m Fderived .rom course tuitionG,
and employs 2* .ull&time sta.. and an additional
*20 part&time instructors and content
specialists2 #n 200,&06 over 6,000 registrants
enrolled in 5,,000 credit "ours o. ;E courses
o..ered /y t"is unit2
By t"e year *''', e&learning 1as gaining
momentum: t"e literature on online FELG
learning 1as .illed 1it" ent"usiasm a/out t"e
possi/ilities o. "ig"ly interactive learning, online
community /uilding, s"ared content, and cost
savings2 A"e e9plosion o. t"e !e/ as a ve"icle
.or commerce, communication and learning "ad
t"e e..ect o. creating a tremendous /u>> to put
anyt"ing and everyt"ing online2 Eur unit 1as
e9cited /y t"ese possi/ilities, and /y t"e learning
en"ancements t"at 1e anticipated /uilding into
our courses2 !e 1ere also concerned a/out
predictions t"at students 1ould /egin to vie1
our print&/ased independent study courses as
relying on redundant tec"nology, and 1ould
t"ere.ore .loc8 to online courses at competing
institutions, leaving us 1it" declining
enrolments and KdinosaurL systems and
Caution 1as, "o1ever, 1arranted /ecause muc"
o. t"e researc" compared t"e costs o. online to
.ace&to&.ace learning rat"er t"an comparing
online to ot"er distance education met"ods Fe2g2,
Bates, *'',Q !"alen S !rig"t, *'')Q Arvan,
Ery, Burnas8a S 7anson, *'')G, and signi.icant
.inancial commitment and ris8 1ould /e
involved in e9panding our online o..erings2 Even
i. 1e could .oresee .inancing t"e initial
migration o. t"e courses, 1e 1ere a unit in 1"ic"
independent&study F#$G enrolments comprised
almost '0W o. our revenue2 !e 8ne1 t"at 1e
could not a..ord to ma8e costly c"anges to our
course delivery met"ods 1it"out evidence t"at
our students could, and 1ould, .ollo12 A"e tas8
1as to determine 1"ic" o. our courses and
services s"ould /e moved online, and at 1"at
rate2 Eur researc" activities included
investigating student demograp"ics,
participation and success, and tec"nology use as
1ell as return&on&investment on online and #$
Challenges presented b# changing learner
!e "ad previously gat"ered data regarding t"e
demograp"ics and motivations o. our learners
F!allace, *'''G, and "ad learned t"at, over t"e
previous *, years t"ere "ad /een a dramatic s"i.t
in t"e demograp"ics o. t"e ;E population at our
university as 1ell as at ot"ers2 #n t"e *')0s, our
typical ;E student "ad /een a part&time student
1it" .ull&time 1or8 and .amily responsi/ilities,
living at a geograp"ic distance .rom t"e
university2 #n contrast, over "al. o. our students
in *''' 1ere typical ur/an undergraduates,
under t"e age o. 26 years, 1"o 1or8ed 20 "ours
a 1ee8 in service&sector jo/s, and com/ined on&
campus and ;E courses2 A"is demograp"ic s"i.t
meant t"at 1e 1ere no1 serving a more
"eterogeneous population2 !e needed to
continue to serve part&time adult learners 1"o
1ere geograp"ically distant, 1"ile also serving a
ne1 and gro1ing population o. young, on&
campus, .ull&time students2
A"ese t1o identi.ia/le populations presented
c"allenges in moving our courses and services
online2 Br/an students "ad muc" greater
opportunity to access t"e !e/ at lo1er costs
t"an did truly KdistantL learners2 -or e9ample,
1"ile all registered students at our institution
"ad access to on&campus computer la/s and a
.ree #nternet account, students living outside t"e
city "ad less access to dial&up, let alone "ig"
speed, #nternet service, and even 1"en
e:uipment and service 1ere availa/le, o.ten "ad
to pay long distance c"arges to t"eir #$P2 iven
t"at a signi.icant num/er o. our students lived in
rural or nort"ern Canada, or 1ere mem/ers o.
t"e Canadian -orces and t"eir .amilies,
stationed 1orld1ide, our planning "ad to
include 1ays to en"ance access as opposed to
creating additional /arriers to it2
Challenges presented b# internal politics
!it" t"e convergence o. ;E and on&campus
student demograp"ics, and t"e increasing use o.
centrally supported learning management
systems FL6$G suc" as !e/CA .or on&campus
courses, ;E units across t"e country 1ere /eing
dis/anded or re&structured2 !e 1ere convinced
t"at a centrali>ed ;E unit could provide t"e /est
support .or /ot" ur/an and remote ;E learners
at our institution, /ut 1e lac8ed strong support
.rom ot"er .aculties t"at, mean1"ile, 1ere
.acing resource s"ortages in t"e .ace o. s"rin8ing
grants and increasing demand2 A"e
demograp"ic s"i.t to increasing num/ers o. on&
campus ;E learners "ad t"e un.ortunate e..ect
o. placing ;E in competition 1it" .aculties and
departments .or tuition revenue2 -aculties and
departments "ad /egun to vie1 ;E as
canni/ali>ing t"eir on&campus enrolments,
sip"oning a1ay income t"at t"ey urgently
re:uired2 !e 8ne1 t"at /eing perceived as a
t"reat to t"e via/ility o. on&campus programs
could only "urt our already marginali>ed
!e t"ere.ore needed to /uild closer ties 1it" our
internal partners Ft"e .aculties and departments
1it" ;E o..eringsG, in order to gain support and
provide our unit 1it" greater visi/ility across t"e
campus2 Ao ac"ieve t"is, 1e concluded t"at 1e
"ad to .ind a 1ay to .inancially re1ard t"eir
participation2 !"ile t"is 1ould .urt"er constrain
our immediate a/ility to .und e&learning
initiatives, 1e .elt t"at it 1ould en"ance our
via/ility in t"e longer term2
#n vie1 o. our c"anging learner demograp"ics
and t"e need to attend to internal sta8e"olders,
1e decided on a s"ort&term e&learning plan2
iven t"at 1e "ad little concrete evidence to
guide our decisions, 1e determined t"at, until
1e "ad several yearsI data to direct our plan, 1e
1ould continue to support t"e limited num/er o.
online courses 1e currently o..ered, and entice
Frat"er t"an compelG students to go online /y
o..ering opportunities2 A"ese attractions
included optional online discussion groups in #$
courses, and services suc" as online posting o.
receipt and return dates o. studentsI
assignments Fdone manually in ;EG as 1ell as
online grade posting, optional online assignment
su/mission and return, and uploading o. #$
course materials and instructor letters o.
1elcome as P;- .iles2 !it" t"e e9ception o. t"e
P;- .iles, t"ese services "ad t"e potential to
serve t"e dual purpose o. lo1ering our costs
Fe2g2, postage, sta.. time to respond to student
en:uiresG and ma8e greater use o. t"e L6$ t"at
"ad /een adopted .or campus&1ide use2
#n order to in.orm our decisions regarding e&
learning course and service delivery, 1e started
to collect and analy>e data relating to enrolment,
.inances, and tec"nology use /y students2 A"e
primary researc" :uestions 1ere:
aG !"at disciplines, course levels, and
delivery met"ods attracted t"e "ig"est
enrolments and o..ered t"e "ig"est
return on investmentH and,
/G !"at .actors 1ere responsi/le .or t"ese
di..erences, i. anyH
As one o. our measures o. return&on&investment,
1e /egan to investigate enrolment patterns to
determine 1"ic" .aculties and delivery met"ods
attracted t"e most students2 !e also /egan to
trac8 student success rates using t"ese varia/les
in order to identi.y patterns o. attrition /y
delivery met"od, and plan appropriate revisions
or additional student supports2
As part o. our cost recovery /udgeting, 1e /egan
trac8ing direct e9penses and income at t"e
course level .or course development and
delivery2 !e trac8ed direct Fvaria/le and .i9edG
and indirect costs Flargely allocated sta.. costs,
/ut also costs .or t"e unit as a 1"ole, suc" as
mar8eting and promotion, student services,
reception, and researc"G2
As a cost recovery unit, 1e could not a..ord to
employ t"e assumption o. K/uild it and t"ey 1ill
come2L !"ile 1e 1ere eager to move :uic8ly
a"ead to en"ance our courses 1it" online
content and learning activities, 1e needed
evidence o. 1"at students actally do 1it"
respect to online learning, as opposed to 1"at
t"ey report t"ey do2 #t can /e di..icult and
e9pensive to gat"er accurate data relating to
studentsI online activity, /ut 1e determined t"at
one measure o. "o1 1illing and a/le our
students 1ere to go online 1ould /e to
investigate t"e rates at 1"ic" t"ey accessed
optional course discussion groups2 4esults o. an
earlier survey t"at included :uestions relating to
t"e reasons 1"y students enrolled in ;E courses
1ere also revie1ed2
9etrn on invest$ent
Analysis o. si9 years o. data suggests t"at, 1"ile
enrolments "ave increased in online courses,
enrolments in independent&study courses
consistently e9ceed t"em /y a considera/le
margin2 -rom *''' to 200+, enrolments in #$
courses increased /y (,002 credit "ours, 1"ile
enrolments in EL courses increased /y *,225
credit "ours2 -or every #$ course credit "our t"at
1e added /et1een *''' and 200+, 1e generated
,)+ credit "ours o. enrolment2 #n contrast, .or
every EL course credit "our added during t"e
same period, 1e generated only 2( credit "ours
o. enrolment2 iven t"at our income is varia/le
Fi2e2, per course credit "our enrolledG, and t"e
majority o. our direct delivery costs are also
varia/le on t"e same credit "our /asis, greater
economies o. scale 1ere created in #$ courses2
E9amining return&on&investment /y comparing
t"e total num/er o. credit "ours enrolled FC7EG
in relation to t"e credit "ours o..ered FC7EG in
#$ and EL, 1e .ound t"at .rom *''' to 200+ t"e
ratio o. C7E to C7E rose .rom 2( to +2 F,6WG in
#$ courses, and .rom ** to 2* F'*WG in EL
courses2 A"ere.ore, 1"ile EL o..erings continue
to generate .ar .e1er C7E per C7E t"an #$
o..erings, enrolments in EL courses "ave /egun
to s"o1 promising increases2
!it" respect to t"e year&level o. courses o..ered,
t"e ratio o. C7E to C7E is "ig"est .or entry&
level survey courses2 A"is 1as anticipated as
t"ese are also t"e most "eavily enrolled on&
campus, and over "al. o. our students are dra1n
.rom t"at population2
E9amination o. t"e .aculties in 1"ic" t"e
increases in #$ and EL occurred provided
additional relevant data2 A"e t1o .aculties 1it"
t"e largest num/er o. #$ and EL o..erings are
Arts and $cience2 As illustrated in Aa/le *, in
200+, #$ courses in Arts and $cience continue to
generate "ig"er enrolments t"an EL in terms o.
overall enrolment per credit "our o..ered as 1ell
as in terms o. enrolments per additional credit
"our o..ered F2*, in ArtsQ 6' in $cienceG2 #n
ot"er 1ords, not only 1ere #$ Arts and $cience
course o..erings more "eavily enrolled /y 200+,
/ut enrolments increased .aster t"an did
o..erings2 A"is latter point is particularly
important in cost recovery ;E programming
/ecause ne1 courses carry not only delivery
costs, /ut also amorti>ed development costs, and
t"ere.ore generate less return t"an do e9isting
Table # 1rowth in *, and %0. by faculty
"aculty Deliver
*ncrease in '2E
for each
additional '2%
'2E3'2% ratio
*ncrease in
Arts #$ 2*, 2' +6 Y 65W X66),000
Arts EL *+ , ** Y *20W X 2),500
$cience #$ 6' +5 +' Y *+W X*0',500
$cience EL 52 *( 50 Y (6W X**6,*00
A"e greatest improvement in t"e ratio o. C7E to
C7E 1as in EL courses, and 1"ile t"ese
percentage increases 1ere "ig", t"e C7E0C7E
ratio remained considera/ly lo1er in EL courses
t"an in #$2 As 1ell, o..ering additional credit
"ours generated .e1er enrolments t"an in #$2
%evert"eless, t"e improvements in C7E0C7E in
EL o..erings, particularly in $cience, are
encouraging .or .uture EL development2
!"en attrition rates 1ere e9amined across t"e
si9&year span, t"ere appeared to /e no
signi.icant di..erence in t"e rates /et1een #$ and
EL in Arts or $cience courses2 Attrition rates
averaged *,&*6W in Arts courses, and *+&*)W in
$cience courses2
Develop$ent and delivery costs
As at ot"er institutions F4um/le 2000G, t"e costs
o. development .or our EL courses are "ig"er
t"an t"ose o. #$, particularly 1it" respect to
instructional design, programming, and digital
copyrig"t clearances2 6oreover, t"e
in.rastructure F"ard1are0so.t1are ac:uisition,
upgrading and maintenanceQ and sta.. trainingG
and direct costs o. delivery are "ig"er in EL
courses2 -or e9ample, our course maintenance,
and instruction and tutoring costs are *2&50W
"ig"er in EL courses2 !"ile savings "ave /een
reali>ed on some direct costs and over"eads .or
EL course delivery Fe2g2, on printing, pac8aging
and mailingQ deletion o. manual trac8ing o.
assignment and grades, and a centrally
supported L6$ license and "elp des8G, t"ese
"ave /een insu..icient to o..set ot"er "ig"er
delivery costs2
Comparisons suc" as t"ese, o. course, provide
only a snaps"ot o. current costs, and 1ill re:uire
.urt"er investigation2 #t must /e recogni>ed t"at
units suc" as ours "ave "ad many years to re.ine
our #$ systems, /ut are still in t"e early Fand
more costlyG stages o. developing systems .or EL
delivery2 -urt"ermore, t"e "ig"er costs o. EL
courses re.lect not only "ig"er start&up costs /ut
also muc" lo1er economies o. scale t"an are
present .or #$ courses2
!it" respect to tec"nology use /y students, t"e
rates at 1"ic" students accessed optional online
discussion groups in #$ courses 1ere analy>ed in
2002 F6iller S !allace, 2002G as a measure o.
"o1 li8ely students 1ould /e to voluntarily go
online .or at least a portion o. t"eir learning
activities2 #nitial results determined t"at less
t"an 20W o. #$ students accessed t"e course site
to read postings, and less t"an *0W accessed t"e
site and posted an item, suggesting t"at most
students in #$ could not, or 1ould not,
participate in t"e online component2 %ot
surprisingly, a major .actor a..ecting access and
posting rates 1as "o1 .re:uently t"e instructor
posted messages2 As classroom instructors "ave
long o/served, many students in undergraduate
courses tend to /e reluctant to participate in
discussions, are more interested in 1"at t"e
instructor "as to say t"an in t"e o/servations o.
ot"er students, and .ocus t"eir interactions 1it"
t"e instructor on "ouse8eeping :uestions
Fgrades, topics to /e covered on tests, etc2G2 ;E
undergraduate learners also appear to /e
reluctant to engage in discussion, and are
instrumental 1it" respect to 1"ere t"ey invest
t"eir study energies F"ence t"e 1idespread need
to assign grades .or participation in online
A"e less t"an ent"usiastic online participation o.
students in optional discussions is consistent
1it" t"e patterns o. enrolment t"at 1e o/served
in courses t"at 1e simultaneously o..ered in
/ot" #$ and EL .ormat, in t"e same term, 1it"
t"e same instructor2 !"ile t"e sample 1as small,
#$ enrolments in suc" sections e9ceeded t"ose in
EL sections /y a .actor o. .ive2
Eur researc" on t"e reasons 1"y ur/an students,
1"o presuma/ly "ad access to t"e campus to
ta8e .ace&to&.ace courses, c"ose ;E courses
suggested t"at t"e major motivation o. t"ese
students to enrol in ;E courses 1as to gain
control o. t"e time and place o. t"eir learning2
A"ese learners carried .ull course loads 1"ile
1or8ing an average o. 20 "ours per 1ee8 in
service sector jo/s in 1"ic" t"ey "ad little
control over t"eir s"i.ts, and t"ey enrolled in ;E
courses in order to allo1 t"em .le9i/ility in
1"ere and 1"en t"ey studied2 #n ot"er 1ords, in
CrossIs F*')*G terms, t"e /arriers to education
.aced /y our ur/an learners 1ere largely o. a
situational nature Fpressures o. time resulting
.rom 1or8 and study demandsG, rat"er t"an
psyc"osocial or institutional2 A"e /arriers .aced
/y our learners at a geograp"ic distance .rom t"e
campus 1ere also situational /ut arose .rom
geograp"ic distance, and t"e need to /alance t"e
.ull&time responsi/ilities o. career and .amily2
A"e popular assumption t"at EL courses
more .le9i/ility .or learners may /e c"allenged
/y our .indings 1it" respect to enrolment,
tec"nology use and learner demograp"ics2 A"ese
.indings suggest t"e possi/ility t"at enrolments
in EL courses continue to lag /e"ind #$ /ecause
t"ese courses may in .act less .le9i/ility
t"an #$ courses2 !"ile our students seem to /e
1illing to go online .or some services and
learning activities Fe2g2, grades, instructor
contact, li/rary searc"esG, t"ey appear to resist
enrolling in courses t"at re:uire t"at all o. t"eir
learning activities ta8e place online2 #t may /e
t"at, until 1ireless tec"nologies /ecome more
1idespread in ur/an areas, and "ig" speed
internet service more availa/le in remote areas,
independent&study courses 1ill continue to
allo1 /ot" populations o. ;E learners to
overcome t"e situational /arriers t"ey encounter
to university study2 Uoung ur/an learners 1ill
t"en "ave t"e independence to study en route to
campus or 1or8, or during t"eir /rea8s at t"eir
K6cCo/s,L and adult learners at a geograp"ic
distance 1ill "ave relia/le and a..orda/le online
Bildin! internal spport
4e1arding t"e participation o. .aculties and
departments t"roug" ;E tuition s"aring "as "ad
t"e desired e..ect o. increasing t"eir
participation and /uilding internal support .or
t"e ;E unit2 !"ile .aculties and departments are
not compelled to deliver t"eir distance or online
o..erings via t"e ;E unit, t"e .inancial /ene.its
t"at t"e unit no1 o..ers "ave resulted in a
num/er o. ne1 partners"ips2 %e1 partners "ave
clearly indicated t"at, "ad t"e income s"aring
agreement not /een in place, t"ey 1ould not
"ave agreed to develop or ;E courses2 At
t"e institutional level, t"e gro1t" in ;E
partners"ips "as reduced t"e need to replicate at
t"e .aculty level t"e capital and "uman resources
re:uired .or distance and online learning2
A"e past decade "as /een t"e most c"allenging
Fand e9pensiveG in our over +0&year "istory o.
o..ering ;E courses2 #n response to t"e increase
in on&campus students in ;E courses, 1e "ave
added .acilities and services to attend to
students 1"o came into our o..ices to pic8&up
course material, drop o..0pic8 up assignments,
and consult 1it" sta..2 !"ile "elp.ul to students,
t"e development o. t"ese services duplicated t"e
.unctions o. our print0mail course distri/ution
system and call centre2 A"en, as 1e developed
EL courses, 1e .urt"er duplicated systems to
support EL course delivery and services2 A"is
service duplication, as opposed to our c"oice o.
tec"nology, "as /een t"e greatest .actor in
increasing our costs2 !e "ave not seen, nor are
not li8ely to see, signi.icant cost reductions until
1e can delete some o. t"is service duplication /y
moving our course materials distri/ution online2
A"e development o. EL systems concurrent 1it"
#$ systems 1as necessary, "o1ever, in order to
allo1 us to conduct small&scale studies suc" as
t"is one, and to prepare our unit .or t"e s"i.t o.
learning activities, courses, and services online2
A"is s"i.t, 1"ile .urt"er in t"e .uture t"an 1e
once 1ould "ave anticipated, nevert"eless
remains our goal, .or /ot" .inancial as 1ell as
pedagogical reasons2
As a result o. our investigation, our strategic
plan no1 currently outlines t"e .ollo1ing
Continue to attract, rat"er t"an compel,
learners online /y en"ancing online student
services: program in.ormation, mar8eting,
and student advising2 $tudents 1ill /e
directed to our 1e/site, /ut assistance 1ill
also /e availa/le in person and /y p"one2
Enline services 1ill continue to /e selected
.or t"eir li8eli"ood o. meeting our goals o.
enticing students online and, 1"erever
possi/le, reducing over"eads2
-or t"e ne9t t"ree years, continue to develop
online courses as 1ell as add online
components to #$ courses, particularly in t"e
$ciences2 !e 1ill t"en /e prepared to move
online at t"e rate t"at our students do2
Lo1er online course development costs /y
using t"ird&party materials Fe2g2, learning
o/jects, pu/lis"ers, and leasing courses .rom
ot"er institutionsG2
Continue to /uild internal support and
reduce marginali>ation o. t"e ;E unit /y
providing incentives .or participation /y
s"aring a minimum 20W o. ;E tuition
income 1it" participating .aculties and
!e "ave learned several important lessons .rom
t"is investigation2 A"e .irst relates to t"e
.undamental mar8eting principle o. 8no1ing
your consumers2 #t is critical to determine 1"at
c"aracteristics learners s"are and 1ays in 1"ic"
t"ey are di..erent2 Cost recovery units cannot
a..ord not to conduct mar8et researc", and
s"ould not put more energy into understanding
t"e tec"nology t"an t"ey invest into
understanding t"eir learners2
$econdly, projects in 1"ic" e9penses and
income are direct and varia/le Fvs2 indirect and
.i9edG allo1 closer monitoring o. cost recovery
and economies o. scale2 $uc" /udget trac8ing
may reveal t"at anticipated savings in direct
costs may /e o..set /y increases in indirect costs
Fmailing vs2 programming sta.. timeG2
-inally, 1"en adopting learning tec"nologies, 1e
s"ould 1or8 to remove /arriers to access, rat"er
t"an add to t"em2 !e s"ould not, .or e9ample,
assume t"at students necessarily 1ant to
conduct all o. t"eir learning online, nor t"at
online learning activities are in"erently more
engaging or pedagogically superior t"an t"ose
employing ot"er tec"nologies2 Compelling
students to go online /e.ore t"ey are ready,
1illing, or a/le may result in poorly su/scri/ed
courses2 #nstead, 1e s"ould .irst use t"e online
environment to provide a..orda/le services and
learning activities most needed /y students2
Arvan, L2, Ery, C2 C2, Bulloc8, C2 ;2, Burnas8a, =2
=2, and 7anson, 62 F*'')G2 A"e $CALE
E..iciency Projects, 7ornal o% Async"ronos
Learnin! +et'or*s , F2G2 Accessed at
"ttp:001112 a ln2org0aln1e/0journ a l0vol2]issue
Bates, A2 !2 F*'',G2 Tec"nolo!y, Open Learnin!
and Distance Edcation2 London: 4outledge
Cross, P2 F*')*G2 Adlts as learners2 $an
-rancisco: Cossey&Bass2
6iller, C2 and !allace, L2 F2002G2 An analysis o.
online access rates and student interaction in
distance education courses2 Paper presented /y
C2 6iller at t"e %ort" American !e/&Based
Learning Con.erence, Ect2 *'&22, 2002, and
pu/lis"ed in t"e con.erence proceedings at:
"ttp:@ @ n a ' eb .OL. c a@p ro cee d in !s@, -- , @ .
4um/le, 2 F2000G2 T"e Costs o% Online
Learnin!2 Accessed at
"ttp: 00ie t 2op e n2ac2u80rese a rc"0ev e nts0r e sources
0grevil le]rum/ le]6&*22 p pt 2
!allace2 L2 F*'''G2 4esponding to c"anging
learner demograp"ics2 #n Bro1n, B2 FEd2G,
Distance Edcation and Web#based Trainin!
Fpp2,*&,5G2 Colum/us, E7: Bniversity o. E"io
and t"e E4#C Clearing"ouse on Adult, Career,
and <ocational Education2
C"apter 22
Enly Ene 6illion Aeac"ers to Arain V
(san Cric"ton
Gail 4opp
2niversity o% Cal!ary
Cal!ary, Alberta, Canada
*bstract+ $trengt"ening Capacity in Basic Education in !estern C"ina F$CBE!CG is a .ive&year, X*2
million project currently conducted /y C"ina and Canada in partners"ip2 A"e project goal is poverty
reduction t"roug" en"anced teac"er training systems using distance education in !estern C"ina2 Ao
ac"ieve t"is goal, t"e project .ocuses on teac"er education 3 ultimately .or over one million teac"ers2
!or8ing 1it" C"ina in colla/orative teams, Canada provides e9pertise in student&centred instruction
F$C#G and distance delivery 1"ile /uilding C"inese capacity to design, implement, and sustain t"is teac"er
education program2 %o1 at t"e midpoint o. t"e project, t"is paper e9amines some o. t"e project
management tensions and c"allenges encountered in a multinational program o. t"is si>e and comple9ity,
and goes on to discuss solutions, models, processes and tools used Fand proposedG up to t"is point to
resolve issues2
,e# words+ Canadian #nternational ;evelopment Agency FC#;AG, Aeac"er education, 6ultilateral
projects, ;istance education, $cala/ility, Capacity /uilding, Content and conte9t
(tren!t"enin! Capacity in Basic Edcation in
Western C"ina F$CBE!CG is a .ive&year, X*2
million project, jointly developed /y t"e C"inese
6inistry o. Education and t"e Canadian
#nternational ;evelopment Agency FC#;AG2 #ts
goal is poverty reduction in !estern C"ina
t"roug" en"anced teac"er training systems
using distance education .or Basic Education
teac"ers2 Basic Education includes grades * to '2
!"ile it must /e noted t"at C"ina "as made
progress in poverty reduction, currently *(W o.
t"e 1orldIs poor live in C"ina2 Peter 6organ,
t"e $CBE!C project manager in C"ina, lists
.our signi.icant c"allenges .or /asic education in
!estern C"ina t"at project management must
deal 1it", including:
aG A"e need .or large, scala/le solutions 3
solutions t"at "ave not /een attempted
/e.ore2 -or e9ample t"ere are *0 million
teac"ers in C"ina, over * million sc"ools
and *00Is o. millions o. studentsQ
/G A"e need to increase t"e e..ectiveness o.
sc"ools /y ma8ing t"e sc"ool
environment more appealing to learners
and t"eir parents and ma8ing t"e
/ene.its o. "ig"er education accessi/le
to t"e graduatesQ
cG A"e relatively lo1 level o. e9isting
educational ac"ievement o. teac"ers, t"e
need .or .urt"er academic upgrading,
and t"e lac8 o. access to re:uired
academic and pro.essional development
trainingQ and
dG -inancial arrangements t"at ma8e it
di..icult to /asic education .ree o.
all .ees .or students and t"at ma8e
pro.essional development una..orda/le
.or teac"ers, sc"ools and cas"&strapped
county Bureaus o. Education2
$i9 counties in t"ree provinces in !estern C"ina
1ere selected .or t"e $CBE!C project /ased on
need, culture and language2 Languages and
cultures re.lected in t"ese countries include
Ai/etan, =a>a8, Byg"er, and 6ongol, and 7ui,
in addition to 6andarin2 By t"e end o. t"e
project all materials 1ill /e developed and
delivered in t"ese languages2
A"e t1o major partners FC#;A and t"e C"inese
6inistry o. EducationG in t"is multinational
endeavor assigned speci.ic tas8s to individual
agencies and organi>ations in t"eir respective
countries Fsee -igure *G2
-igure * 3 $CBE!C Project Participants
#n t"e case o. C#;A, direct responsi/ility .or
project management 1as a1arded to Agriteam
Canada, a Canadian consulting company
speciali>ing in international development
F1112agrite a m2caG2 A"e C"inese 6inistry o.
Education F6oEG involved its %ational Center
.or Educational Aec"nology F%CEAG2 Agriteam
and its partners Ft"ree Canadian universities
and one provincial ministry o. educationG are
1or8ing 1it" t"eir C"inese counterparts Ft"e
C"inese 6oE, %CEA and t"ree provincial
centers .or education tec"nology & PCEAG, to
s"are Canadian e9pertise in teac"er education
and distance education2 A"e goal o. t"is
colla/oration is to develop a systematic
approac" to improving /asic education and to
/uild C"inese capacity in a manner t"at is
respect.ul o. t"e various cultures and minority
groups in !estern C"ina2 -urt"er, t"e partners
agree t"at it is important t"at t"is approac" /e
sustaina/le /eyond t"e .ive years o. t"e project
and Canadian involvement2
At t"e time o. t"is 1riting, t"e $CBE!C project
is at t"e midpoint2 A"ere.ore, it is timely to
consider t"e 8ey management tensions t"at "ave
arisen /et1een t"e project goals and t"e actual
practices to date2 A"is consideration can
readers a sense o. /est practices and lessons
learned in a comple9 and multilayered conte9t2
A"ree principal tensions appear to /e impacting
t"e project2 A"e .irst is o/vious2 A"e project
re:uires t"at Canadian and C"inese education
pro.essionals 1or8 toget"er in a colla/orative
manner t"at transcends issues o. language,
culture, and geograp"y2 Language, alone, is an
issue, /ut so is t"e understanding o. t"e notion
o. colla/oration2 !"en one party Ft"e Canadian
teamG is seen to /e /ringing e9pertise, t"e
second party Ft"e projectIs C"inese
counterpartsG may /e reluctant to s"are t"eir
perspectives and opinions as t"e playing .ield is
perceived to /e une:ual2 7o1ever, one mig"t
speculate t"at it is only 1it" a ric" in.usion o.
cultural conte9t .rom t"e C"inese side t"at t"e
delivera/les in t"is project 1ill /e relevant and
maintain t"e sustaina/ility o. t"e project2
$olutions to t"is tension "ave included F*G t"e
esta/lis"ment o. a Beijing sta..ed /y
Canadian and C"inese administrative and
su/ject matter e9perts, and F2G t"e matc"ing o. a
Canadian and C"inese mem/er .or eac" jo/ on
content design, implementation, or p"ases o. t"e
researc" project2 By partnering in t"is manner,
s8ills and e9periences are s"ared and eac"
person /uilds capacity to 1or8 in t"is
multinational, multicultural conte9t2
$econd, t"e C"inese structure tends to /e more
"ierarc"ical2 A"ere is a national education
system, and t"at system is tied to /ot" political
and governance issues across t"e country2 A"e
Canadian project structure is more .lat, 1"ic"
ironically "as created some o. t"e greatest
c"allenges in t"e project in terms o. project
implementation and clari.ication o. roles and
responsi/ilities2 Bntil recently, t"e .our
Canadian partners "ave tended to 1or8ed
independently on t"eir speci.ic project
components, inadvertently creating silos o.
e9pertise 1it"in t"e project2 #t is interesting to
note t"at t"e creation o. t"e ;istance Education
uidelines Fcreated a.ter t"e completion o. t"e
.irst distance education course 3 $C# Course
EneG "as caused mem/ers t"e Canadian
partners to come toget"er and tal8 a/out course
development assumptions and some core
elements o. t"e project design2
A"e t"ird tension concerns t"e di..erence in t"e
vie1s o. distance education "eld /y t"e various
partners in t"e project2 #nitially, some Canadian
partners 1ere concerned t"at student centred
instruction F$C#G could not /e presented
e..ectively t"roug" online delivery Fsee Appendi9
A and B .or descriptions o. $tudent Centred
#nstruction and t"e C"inese %ational
CurriculumG2 A"ey 1ere concerned t"at /ecause
$C# re:uired e9ploration, discussion, and
colla/oration, t"e online version o. t"e training
mig"t /e o. poor :uality and core principles
mig"t /e lost2 -urt"er, t"ese same people 1ere
concerned t"at t"e tec"nology availa/le to
teac"ers in rural sc"ools, in some o. t"e most
remote parts o. !estern C"ina, 1as inade:uate
to allo1 teac"ers regular access to t"e online
course and online interaction 1it" .acilitators,
mentors, and colleagues in t"e course2
Part o. t"e solution to t"is t"ird tension rests in
t"e La =a $"ing -oundation, 1"ic" generously
provided "ard1are to t"e project sc"ools2
7o1ever, t"e -oundation could supply receive&
only satellite F#nternet Protocol or #PG systems2
A"is system allo1s %CEA to transmit content to
learning support centers in t"e projectIs t"ree
county sc"oolsQ "o1ever, t"is system does not
allo1 .or interaction as t"e receiving sites cannot
send content /ac8 to %CEA, or even email2
A"ere.ore, teac"ers at t"e project sc"ools can
do1nload t"e content, print it or /urn it to C;&
4E6$Q and t"ere is o.ten no ot"er #nternet
capacity in t"ose sc"ools2
A"e use o. t"e #P satellite "as caused t"e
Canadian distance education team to ret"in8 an
instructional design model t"at "onors t"e
constraints and strengt"s o. t"e availa/le
tec"nology and t"e core principles o. $C# 1"ile
/uilding intentional opportunities .or
interaction to occur at t"e Learning $upport
Center FL$CG sites2 A"e .ollo1ing diagram,
presented /y t"e Canadian distance education
specialist, re.lects t"e importance o. content and
t"e s"i.ting roles o. teac"er and tec"nology
1it"in t"e $CBE!C project2
-igure 2 3 4ole o. 6edia and t"e Aeac"er in t"e ;istance Education Conte9t
Guidelines Distance
Education Model
Role of the
Role of Media
Distance Education
A"e t"ree tensions presented a/ove 1ill /e
ela/orated later 1it"in t"e conte9t o. t"e .our
project management c"allenges presented
earlier Fsee Lessons LearnedG2
Project -bjectives
!"ile t"e ultimate o/jective o. t"is project is
poverty reduction t"roug" a systems approac"
to improve learning .or c"ildren, its .ocus is on
teac"er training2 #n order .or t"e project to
reac" t"e intended capacity Finitially *,000
teac"ersG and /e sustaina/le Fultimately *
million teac"ersG, it must /e developed in suc" a
1ay t"at it can /e delivered over one 1ay
satellite F#P systemG and /e pedagogically sound
.or adult learners2 -urt"er, t"e development
must /e nim/le enoug" to /e adapta/le to
tec"nological advances2 Content also "as to map
onto t"e %e1 4e.orm Curriculum .or C"ina,
1"ic" is moving to1ard a student centred,
e9periential approac" 3 a concept :uite ne1 .or
C"inese educators2
!"ile distance education is not ne1 in C"ina,
t"e use o. t"e #nternet t"roug" t"e #P satellite as
a delivery mec"anism is2 Aelevision "as /een
t"e main mode .or upgrading teac"ersI
:uali.ications2 A goal o. t"e $CBE!C project is
to allo1 teac"ers to e9perience student centred
instruction as learners, .irst, /e.ore t"ey are
called upon to teac" 1it" t"at approac"2
A"ere.ore, t"e project must leverage t"e e9isting
#P delivery system in suc" a 1ay t"at it can
model student centred instruction 1it"in t"e
course content2 Anot"er goal o. t"e project is to
/uild t"e capacity o. C"inese educators at t"e
%ational Centre .or Educational Aec"nology
F%CEAG so t"ey can continue to develop and
deliver :uality, pedagogically sound, and
increasingly interactive distance education
materials once t"e .ive years o. t"is project are
A"e $CBE!C project "as c"osen a cascade
model to train C"inese teac"ers2 A"is model
initially set out to train )0 teac"ers .rom eac" o.
t"e project L$Cs, e9panding to *,000 t"e
.ollo1ing year, and *0,000 1it"in t1o years2
Bltimately one million C"inese teac"ers 1ill
"ave access to t"e training materials2
A"e o/jective o. P"ase * o. t"e project 1as to
train t"e .irst )0 L$C teac"ers2 A"ese teac"ers
1ere given .ace&to&.ace classroom training /y
Canadian teac"er education specialists in
student centred instruction F$tudent Centred
#nstrcuction: Classroom $uggestions .or
Aeac"ersG and strategies .or delivering
su/se:uent training to t"eir colleagues2 P"ase 2,
again .ace&to&.ace, provided Canadian support
.or t"e initial )0 teac"ers as t"ey conducted
1or8s"ops in t"eir counties .or appro9imately
*,000 teac"ers2 P"ase 5, currently /eing
conducted at t"e time o. t"is 1riting, is t"e
testing o. t"e distance education F;EG version o.
Course Ene & $tudent Centred #nstruction 1it" a
second *000 teac"ers 1"o 1ill receive t"e
material via t"e #P satellite F.or more see
"ttp:00111 2ncet2edu2cn0cidacourse* G2 A"e ;E
version o. t"e course is supported /y project
teac"ers 1"o are /ac8ed /y "eadmasters and
resource teac"ers 1"o participated in P"ase *
and 22 4unning concurrently 1it" t"e 5 p"ases
F-igure 5G is t"e content development p"ase o.
training %CEA personnel in aut"oring content
.or distance delivery2
-igure 5 3 $CBE!C Project P"ases and Aimelines
$essons $earned
A"e c"allenges and tensions presented a/ove
"ave created a uni:ue situation .or t"e
management o. t"e $CBE!C project2 !"ile
some o. t"e c"allenges are ongoing, ot"ers "ave
/een addressed2
C"allenge Ene, t"e need .or a large, scala/le
system to meet t"e need .or teac"er education, is
at t"e "eart o. t"is project2 As stated earlier
t"ere are *0 million teac"ers in C"ina, over *
million sc"ools and *00Is o. millions o. students2
Currently, t"ere is not a model in place to in.orm
t"e design o. a project 1it" t"is scope2 A"e
$CBE!C project implemented t"e cascade
model descri/ed a/ove, using distance education
to ma8e it scala/le2 -rom a project management
point o. vie1, implementation o. t"e cascade
model re:uired a "uge .ront&loading o.
Canadian design and development e9pertise in
t"e early stages in order to /uild capacity .or t"e
C"inese partners2 $u/se:uent stages see t"e
Canadian participation s"i.ting to a supportive
Building t"e capacity o. C"inese partners to
develop distance education 1it" a student&
centred .ocus is an important part o. t"is
Canadian support role2 #n $ummer 200+ t1o
Canadian e9perts 1or8ed 1it" .our C"inese
%CEA pro.essionals and t1o L$C teac"ers to
convert Course Ene 3 $C# .rom its original .ace&
to&.ace .ormat to distance delivery2 A.ter one
mont", t"e Canadian e9perts returned "ome,
and %CEA and PCEA completed media pieces,
produced, and delivered t"e course via #P
satellite to t"e teac"ers in P"ase 2 o. t"e project2
Engoing assistance 1as provided /y t"e
$CBE!C Beijing o..ice2 A"e a/ility to do t"is
re.lected t"e s8ill o. t"e %CEA team, and t"e
/ o. t"e training and instruction provided
to t"e team /y t"e Canadian e9perts2
#n t"e transition .rom P"ase * to P"ase 2, t"e
Canadian side 1restled 1it" issues o. "o1 to
merge t"e .ace&to&.ace content prepared /y one
university 1it" t"e distance education
re:uirements suggested /y a second university2
!it" negotiation, an instructional design
process accepta/le to all partners evolved, and
P"ase 2 participants moved success.ully t"roug"
it2 A"e need to capture t"is process 1as
recogni>ed /y t"e end o. t"e 1or8 s"o1n in
-igure 52
-rom a project management point o. vie1, t"e
creation o. t"e guidelines document to re.lect
t"e process 1as critical2 A"ere.ore, in addition
to t"e ;E version o. Course Ene, a tangi/le
product o. t"e design and delivery o. $C# .rom
P"ase 2 o. t"e project "as /een t"e creation o. a
;E uideline document 1"ic" 1ill direct
su/se:uent course design, development, and
implementation2 Later p"ases Fcompleted /y
Canadian and C"inese su/ject matter e9perts
and instructional designersG 1ill /uild .rom t"e
guidelines, t"ere/y creating a common loo8 and
.eel to t"e remaining resources developed in t"e
project2 A"e project manager can also use t"e
;E uideline to monitor t"e process, to ensure
consistency o. t"e products, sc"edule time and
to manage resources2
Project partners 1ill need to recogni>e t"at t"e
guidelines document is a living document,
suggesting t"at templates, instructional design
steps, and standards are %EA cast in stone and
need to /e open to some degree o. negotiation2
7o1ever, variances .rom t"e guidelines 1ill
re:uire approval .rom t"e project management
and 1ill need to /e /ased on clear rationale Fe2g2,
speci.ic issues in t"e C"inese conte9t, tec"nology
concerns, %ational Curriculum, and teac"er
C"allenge A1o, t"e need to increase t"e
e..ectiveness o. sc"ools /y ma8ing t"e sc"ool
environment more appealing to learners and
t"eir parents, and ma8ing t"e /ene.its o. "ig"er
education accessi/le to t"e graduates, is central
to t"e design o. Course Ene 3 $tudent Centred
#nstruction F$C#G2 $C# as an instructional
strategy maps closely to t"e re.orms called .or in
t"e ne1 %ational Curriculum initiative in C"ina2
!or8ing 1it" C"inese colleagues .rom %CEA, a
team .rom Bniversity o. Calgary 1rote training
materials entitled (tdent Centred &nstrction:
Classroo$ (!!estions %or Teac"ers2 -or t"e
initial training Fillustrated in -igure 5 3 P"ase
*G, copies o. t"ese training materials 1ere made
in C"inese .or t"e )0 participants2 As t"e
project considered t"e training o. t"e ne9t *000,
t"e decision 1as made to pu/lis" t"e materials
in C"ina in all languages2
A"is decision prompted t"e issue o. language
considerations2 6any o. t"e teac"ers 1ere .rom
counties in 1"ic" 6andarin 1as not t"e .irst
languageQ materials needed to /e translated into
=a>a8, Byg"er, and ultimately Ai/etan2 -rom
t"e project management point o. vie1, t"is
created a major 1rin8le in terms o. costs,
production time, and distri/ution /e.ore t"e
training could /egin2 !"ile t"e initial
developers o. t"e content 1restled 1it" issues o.
cultural sensi/ilities, minority education,
diversity, and language, t"e actual production
1as a c"allenge2 $u/tle issues o. 1"ic"
languages 1ere privileged over ot"ers in terms
o. .irst&o..&t"e&press or delayed&in&production
1ere a concern among 1or8s"op participants2
Also, t"e selection o. speci.ic readings 1it"in
Course Ene 1as dra1n into :uestion2 7o1
1ould t"e 1or8 o. ;e1ey or <ygots8y /e
received /y rural educators 1it" limited
amounts o. .ormal, academic educationH
Concern 1as raised t"at, as t"e project moved
t"roug" eac" group o. participants in t"e
cascade model, t"e s8ills and a/ilities Fdue to
varying degrees o. access to .ormal educationG o.
t"e teac"ers 1ould /e less appropriate .or
"andling t"e material2 $peci.ically, it 1as .eared
t"at t"e .irst )0 teac"ers mig"t /e more .ormally
trained t"an t"e *000 t"at .ollo1ed2 #n $ummer
200,, a .ormal evaluation 1ill /e conducted to
determine t"e impact t"at t"e previous .ace&to&
.ace training and ;E materials "as "ad on t"ose
1"o "ave engaged 1it" t"em2 A"is evaluation
loo8ed .or evidence o. c"anged teac"ing
practices2 Based on .ield o/servations to date,
t"e rural teac"ers "ave risen to t"e c"allenge o.
t"e content presented to t"em, and to varying
degrees t"ere is evidence o. c"anged and
improved practice in t"eir classrooms2 A"e
mi9ed met"od evaluation completed in 6ay
200, determined t"at t"e project "as in .act
/egun to c"ange teac"ing practices and pro.ess&
ional development activities2 A"e project man&
ager is currently using t"ose results to in.orm
su/se:uent actions and project directions2
Ao some degree, C"allenge A"ree "as /een
touc"ed on in t"e preceding paragrap"s2
!it"out a dou/t, t"ere is a relatively lo1 level o.
e9isting educational ac"ievement among
teac"ers in t"e rural sc"ools2 A"roug" t"e
development o. :uality content, tied directly to
t"e C"inese curriculum and conte9t, distance
delivery 1ill "elp 1it" t"e increased capacity o.
rural teac"ers 1"o previously "ave received
varying amounts o. pro.essional training in
teac"ing2 !"ile many o. t"ese teac"ers use
e9isting lessons designed /y %CEA and delivered
/y t"e #P satellite, t"is sometimes translates into
students 1atc"ing a television s"o1 o. a master
teac"er presenting content t"at is o.ten :uite
removed .rom t"e studentsI rural conte9ts2
A"ere.ore, t"e content presented in t"e $C#
training materials developed .or t"is project
attempts to introduce $C# as an instructional
t"eory to "elp teac"ers create content t"at is
more engaging and relevant to t"e students,
t"ere/y reducing t"e "ig" drop out rate .or rural
and minority sc"ool and "elping 1it" poverty
alleviation in !estern C"ina2 A"us, it is critical
t"at t"e teac"ers at t"e /ottom end o. t"e
cascade model also learn to create and modi.y
content relevant to t"eir o1n conte9ts2 A"erein
rests t"e c"allenge2
Aeac"ers 1it" t"e least education and t"e .e1est
s8ills 1ill /e most reliant on t"e media in t"e
distance delivery .ormat and "ave t"e least
access to teac"er&mediated instruction Fsee
-igure 2G2 ;uring t"e remaining t1o years o. t"e
project, additional content 1ill /e produced and
delivered2 Critical to t"e design o. t"is content is
t"e connection to Course Ene so t"e samples
and e9amples do not /ecome coo8ie cutter
templates o. generic lessons, only to replace t"e
e9isting %CEA materials2 ;ue to t"e "ierarc"ical
administrative structure Fsee -igure *G descri/ed
previously, it is anticipated t"at a o.
project management 1ill move .rom Canadian
suggestions to C"inese directives to ma8e t"is
An understanding o. t"e tec"nology promises
and limitations o. t"e distance education
delivery options 1ill /e critical2 A"e ;E
uideline ;ocument 1ill go a long 1ay to assist
1it" developing t"is understanding2 7o1ever,
tec"nology is not stagnant, so t"e project
managers .or /ot" Canada and C"ina 1ill need
to /e in.ormed as to developments on t"e
tec"nology .ront2 Because C"ina "as not created
a "uge and costly landline structure, it "as /een
a/le to em/race cell p"one tec"nology2 #t is
reported t"at almost all o. C"ina "as cell service,
and it is a pervasive tec"nology availa/le to
almost everyone, as it is relatively ine9pensive2
A"ere.ore, e9ploration o. t"e capacity o. 1ireless
"and"eld units may an alternative to t"e
e9clusive use o. t"e #P delivery system2
!"ile t"e #P satellite may continue .or large
trans.ers o. content, 1ireless options may
provide a solution to t"e issue o. interaction2 E.
concern is t"e pus" to consider learning
management systems & L6$s2 4ecent articles
suggest t"at L6$ contracts are currently /eing
signed in C"ina, and t"is move is /eing seen /y
C"inese decision ma8ers as adopting t"e current
standard .or ;E in t"e !est2 -rom a project
point o. vie1, t"is 1ill "ave large implications
.or t"e #mplementation uidelines and t"e
design o. e9isting and su/se:uent content
development2 -urt"er, /ecause t"e computer
ratio in many o. t"e rural sc"ools is * per sc"ool,
adoption o. a L6$, re:uiring continuous
computer access /y users, may e9acer/ate t"e
digital divide event outside t"e ur/an centers2
A"ere.ore, one o. t"e solutions to t"e tec"nology
conundrum is t"e use o. scenario&/ased case
studies o. t"e project sites2 A"e $CBE!C project
manager "as approved t"e development o.
descriptive scenarios so /ot" t"e management
team and t"e sites t"emselves can understand
speci.ic training, "ard1are, and content design
needs2 A"roug" t"e use o. scenario&/ased
models, t"e $CBE!C project can modi.y
pro.essional development and suggest
tec"nology purc"ases and curriculum design to
meet 1"at appears to /e .our prevalent
situations across t"e 560 project sc"ools2 As t"e
C"inese educators use t"e system to scale t"e
project to ultimately address t"e learning needs
o. t"e one million teac"ers, t"e scenarios 1ill
again /e "elp.ul to ma8e sure t"e content,
delivery, and support are relevant to a speci.ic
teac"erIs needs2
A"e notion o. scenario&/ased case descriptions
came out o. t"e alp"a testing o. ;E Course Ene2
A Canadian and C"inese ;E e9pert 1ent into
one province and met 1it" PCEA personal t"ere2
#t /ecame apparent t"at some sc"ools "ad /etter
"ard1are and more s8illed sta.. t"an ot"ers2
!it" t"e "elp o. t"e local PCEA sta.., t"e ;E
e9perts 1ere a/le to descri/e .our scenarios
consistent among sc"ools in t"at province2 A"e
;E e9perts 1ere t"en a/le to as8 t"e PCEA sta..
to ta8e t"em to sc"ools re.lecting t"e various
scenarios, tal8 1it" teac"ers and administration
in t"ose site to .urt"er understand ;E needs and
concerns, and to gain an idea o. t"e tec"nology
in.rastructure t"at is availa/le in t"e project
sc"ools2 Based on t"e scenarios, t"e project 1ill
need to provide a multi.aceted approac" to ;E
delivery2 -urt"er, it 1ill need to t"in8 creativity
a/out e9isting as 1ell as .uture content
development strategies to ensure t"at t"e most
rural mem/ers o. t"e project, usually t"ose in
t"e most need, 1ill /e included and supported
rat"er t"an /ecoming t"e typical causalities o.
t"e digital divide2
A"e -ourt" C"allenge is .inding a 1ay to ensure
/asic education is .ree o. all .ees .or students and
pro.essional development is a..orda/le .or
teac"ers, sc"ools and cas"&strapped county
/ureaus o. education in project sites2 !"ile t"is
is a concern across most o. C"ina, especially
t"ose areas a1ay .rom t"e eastern ur/an centers
Fe2g2 Beijing, $"ang"aiG, t"e $CBE!C project is
only responsi/le .or its si9 counties2 7o1ever,
t"e project management strongly /elieves t"at
t"e sustaina/ility o. t"is project rests 1it" t"e
development o. a model t"at can /e replicated in
ot"er situations and countries2
A"roug" t"e development o. t"e ;E
#mplementation uidelines, t"e project
management "as /een a/le to de.ine a process
.or t"e production o. site speci.ic, :uality
distance education content2 Based on a .airly
typical instruction design process, s"o1n in
-igure +, Canadian distance education e9perts
and su/ject matter e9perts "ave /een partnered
1it" C"inese counterparts2 A"e design process
allo1s .or t"e partners to come toget"er and
develop /ot" individual s8ills and usa/le content
in a systematic 1ay2 $ince joining t"e $CBE!C
project in $ummer 200+, t"e current Canadian
project manager "as /een clear t"at a major goal
is t"e development o. a 1or8ing system .or
content development and delivery rat"er t"e
design o. speci.ic content pieces2 #t is t"is /elie.
in t"e value o. a systematic process over
curriculum development t"at may "ave t"e
/iggest impact in addressing t"e goal o.
a..orda/le learning .or teac"ers and students2
-igure + 3 #nstructional ;esign 6odel .or $CBE!C Project
A"e .ocus on t"e delivery o. learning
opportunities .or rural, remote teac"ers and
administrators in t"e project sites via distance
education is 1"at 1ill ma8e t"e $CBE!C
scala/le2 4e&t"in8ing instructional design .or
distance delivery 1it"in t"e constraints o. t"e
scenarios in t"e $CBE!C is t"e ongoing
c"allenge2 As t"e tec"nology c"anges and rural
areas gain increased access to t"e #nternet, t"e
a/ility o. t"e project to incorporate online social
interaction to support learning 1ill improve2
Eventually, t"e sustaina/ility o. t"e project 1ill
rest 1it" t"e teac"ers 1"o "ave continued t"e
training2 !"en t"ey are a/le to s"are site&
speci.ic activities Fe2g2 lesson plans, e9amples o.
student 1or8G 1it" t"eir colleagues across t"e
counties, t"e project participants 1ill 8no1 t"at
t"e training 1as e..ective and appropriate2
Uet anot"er potential tool to simpli.y project
management is s"o1n in -igure ,2 A"is model
could /e used to consider i. t"e content t"at is
developed s"ould /e delivered via t"e #P
satellite2 $teps * & + :uery t"e appropriateness o.
content developed /y $CBE!CIs content
developers F-igure *G2 $teps + and , involve t"e
teac"ers in project sc"ools2 $tep + as8s 1"et"er
t"e content /eing presented is nim/le enoug" in
its design to support a teac"er 1or8ing 1it" it to
/uild personal 8no1ledge2 #n ot"er 1ords, "as
t"at content /een presented using t"e principles
o. student centred instruction so t"at t"e teac"er
can engage 1it" it, re.lect on it, actively do
somet"ing 1it" it, and /uild meaning relevant to
t"emselves 1it"in t"eir conte9t2 $tep , as8s i.
t"e personal meaning is somet"ing t"at s"ould
/e s"ared 1it" ot"ers enrolled in t"e course or
participating in t"e project2 -rom a project
management point o. vie1, $CBE!C sta.. 1ill
"ave to develop an online management system
t"at 1ill allo1 .or vetting o. t"e content t"roug"
t"e consistent application o. a project standard2
-urt"er, t"at management system 1ill need to
/e a/le to inde9 and distri/ute t"e ne1 content
is a timely and organi>ed manner2
-urt"er, it suggests t"at teac"ers 1ill continue to
access Course Ene as ongoing pro.essional
development2 A"is is :uite a departure .rom
typical distance education course 1"ere students
complete a course and move on2
-igure , 3 <etting ;iagram .or $CBE!C Content
A"e goal o. t"e $CBE!C project is poverty
reduction in !estern C"ina t"roug" en"anced
teac"er training systems using distance
education2 A"e target group is teac"ers 1or8ing
in grades * to '2 Because t"ere are millions o.
teac"ers in C"ina, t"e approac" ta8en is to
improve educational practices t"roug" distance
delivery o. pro.essional development courses
t"at support t"e ne1 %ational Curriculum .or
Because o. t"e .our c"allenges identi.ied .or t"e
management o. t"is project, t"e $CBE!C
partners are .acing some uni:ue implementation
issues2 As t"is c"apter is /eing 1ritten, t"e
project is at its mid point2 A"e approac"es .or
project management t"at are /eing developed
.or t"is project are moving t"e partners in
interesting, innovative directions2 As 1it" any
project, ne1 approac"es "ave t"e potential to
cause a certain degree o. discom.ort .or t"e
participants t"at results in particular types o.
tensions2 7o1ever, t"e sustaina/ility o. t"e
project rests 1it" t"e partners 1or8ing t"roug"
t"ose tensions to create positive solutions t"at
allo1 t"e project to accomplis" its larger aims
1it"out resorting to :uic8 .i9es2
#t is t"e .ocus on t"e development o. a
sustaina/le systematic approac" to t"e
development o. :uality content, delivered at a
distanceQ it appears t"at t"e $CBE!C project is
an interesting case .or ongoing study2
As Bill ates stated at t"e recent ;avos !orld
Economic -orum, KC"ina is going to /e t"e
c"ange agent .or t"e ne9t t1enty years2L A"e
$CBE!C project may, in small part, in.luence
some o. t"is c"ange2
Distance Edcation Gidelines2 F200,G2 Beijing,
C"ina: $trengt"ening Capacity .or Basic
Education in !estern C"ina2
ates, B2 F200,G2 Emerging economies, ne1
opportunitiesH A"e case o. C"ina2 4etrieved
;ecem/er *), 200,, .rom
"ttp:001112 ar ticle*52c o m0A*5]ContentList2asp
HstrAction_ etP u / licationSP%#; _ ***6
7uns/erger, 62, 7odges, U2, S Paul, C2 FEds2G
F2005G2 (tdent Centred &nstrction:
Classroo$ (!!estions %or Teac"ers2 Beijing,
C"ina: $trengt"ening Capacity .or Basic
Education in !estern C"ina2
P2 6organ Fpersonal communication, Culy
$tandards .or Aec"nology&supported Learning
Environments F2002G2 4etrieved ;ecem/er *),
200, .rom
"ttp:001112iste2org0ne1 s 020020*002 5 &nas/e&
$tudent Centred #nstruction: Course *2 Availa/le
in C"inese only .rom
"ttp:00111 2ncet2edu2cn0cidacourse*
e e e
*ppendi( * < Student Centred Instruction 7from the Distance !ducation 3uidelines <
SC4!5C Project8
Student centred instruction means+
A"e student, not t"e teac"er, is t"e .ocus o. attention2
A"e student is active, involved in activities t"at .oster learning Fnot passive, just sitting listening
or ta8ing notesG2
A variety o. 1ays o. learning are o..ered, since people learn in di..erent 1ays2
Aeac"ers provide a variety o. activities .or learning in order to catc" student interest2
$tudents o. /ot" genders and all et"nicities are assisted to learn in 1ays appropriate to t"em2
Aeac"ing is adapted to t"e developmental level o. t"e students2
A"e teac"er o/serves students care.ully to learn 1"at t"ey are a/le to do and 1"at t"ey are trying
to learn2
A"e teac"er prepares lessons to ta8e into account t"e development and t"e individual di..erences
o. students2
A"e teac"er uses o/servation and assessment o. students in order to plan .urt"er instruction2
$tudents are encouraged to /ecome responsi/le, independent persons 1"o continue learning
t"roug"out t"eir lives2 F(tdent Centred &nstrction in Basic Edcation: Classroo$ (!!estions
%or Teac"ers, ,--I, p2 iiiG
A"e #nternational $ociety .or Aec"nology in Education & #$AE F2002G states:
KAraditional educational practices Mas practiced around t"e 1orldN no longer provide V teac"ers 1it"
all t"e necessary s8ills .or teac"ing students 1"o must /e a/le to survive economically in t"e glo/al
1or8place2 Aeac"ers must prepare students to apply strategies .or solving pro/lems and to use
appropriate tools .or learning, colla/orating, and communicating2 As tec"nology /ecomes a
supportive resource .or teac"ing and learning in t"e classroom, teac"ers move .rom traditional
teac"ing strategies to strategies proven /y researc" to promote more e..ective learning2 K
Araditional Learning Environments %e1 Learning Environments
Aeac"er&centred instruction
$ingle&sense stimulation
$ingle&pat" progression
$ingle media
#solated 1or8
#n.ormation delivery
Passive learning
-actual, 8no1ledge&/ased learning
4eactive response
#solated, arti.icial conte9t
$tudent&centred learning
6ultisensory stimulation
6ultipat" progression
Colla/orative 1or8 #n.ormation
e9c"ange Active0e9ploratory0
Critical t"in8ing and in.ormed decision
Proactive0planned action
Aut"entic, real&1orld conte9t
-igure * Esta/lis"ing %e1 Learning Environments $upported 1it" Aec"nology
-igure * suggests t"at teac"ers plan learning activities t"at devote less time to t"e traditional learning
activities .ound in t"e le.t column and more time to t"e corresponding strategies in t"e rig"t column2 A"e
strategies suggested as indicative o. %e1 Learning Environments are descri/ed in researc" studies as
more e..ective .or improving student learning2 Alt"oug" t"e strategies in t"e rig"t column do not speci.y
use o. tec"nology, 1e 8no1 t"at tec"nology used e..ectively /est ena/les educators to ac"ieve
environments t"at support t"e po1er.ul learning strategies listed F#$AE, 2002G2
Ao "elp teac"ers understand "o1 $C# can /e implemented in t"e classroom, (tdent Centred &nstrction
in Basic Edcation: Classroo$ (!!estions %or Teac"ers presents eleven topics .or study2 A"e topics and
t"eir relations"ip teac"ing practice are illustrated in t"e .ollo1ing diagram2
*ppendi( 4 < National Curriculum 3eneral 3oals 7translated from Chinese Ministr# of
!ducation Documents < available from Distance !ducation 3uidelines8
A"e ne1 curriculum s"ould provide students 1it" t"e 8no1ledge and s8ills needed .or t"e present and
.uture2 A"e ne1 curriculum s"ould incorporate values o. patriotism, collectivism, socialism, and e9cellent
traditions o. C"inese "istory and cultureQ s"ould develop t"e studentsI appropriate values and p"ilosop"y
to1ard t"e 1orld and li.eQ s"ould strengt"en t"e studentsI accounta/ilities and a/ilities o. serving t"eir
communitiesQ s"ould ena/le t"e students to /e creative, practical, scienti.ic, literate and environmentally
sensitiveQ s"ould develop 8no1ledge and s8ills t"at are necessary .or li.e&long learningQ s"ould ena/le t"e
students to "ave a "ealt"y li.e&style, p"ysically and psyc"ologicallyQ s"ould educate a ne1 generation o.
students 1"o are am/itious, moral , literate, and disciplined2
,pecific %bjectives
*2 $"i.t .rom t"e 8no1ledge&.ocused curriculum to one t"at emp"asi>es t"e importance o. .ostering
studentsI active learning attitude2 =no1ledge and s8ill ac:uiring processes s"ould /ecome a
process o. mastering learning s8ills and .orming appropriate values2
22 $"i.t .rom t"e overa/undant su/ject&/ased curriculum to a systematic '&year consistent
curriculum 1"ere appropriate time is to /e allocated accordingly2 An integrated curriculum 1ill
also /e developed in order to meet t"e needs o. a variety o. regions and students2 A"e ne1
curriculum s"ould also /e /alanced, integrated, and appropriate .or local situations2
52 $"i.t .rom t"e old curriculum content 1"ic" 1as very di..icult, complicated and out&o.&date to t"e
ne1 curriculum 1"ic" strengt"ens t"e relations"ip /et1een t"e curriculum content and studentsI
real lives as 1ell as /et1een modern society and tec"nological advances2 A"e ne1 curriculum
s"ould also .ocus on t"e studentsI interest and development and re.lects t"e most necessary
8no1ledge and s8ills re:uired /y li.e&long learning2
+2 $"i.t .rom t"e old curriculum implementation 1"ic" emp"asi>es passive learning, 8no1ledge
memori>ing and drill and practice to a ne1 curriculum implementation t"at develops studentsI
active, in:uiry, "ands&on learning as 1ell as .ostering t"e studentsI a/ilities in: collecting and
analy>ing in.ormationQ ac:uiring ne1 8no1ledge and pro/lem&solvingQ and e9c"anging and
communicating ideas 1it" ot"ers2
,2 $"i.t .rom t"e curriculum evaluation 1"ic" .ocused on its selective .unction to a ne1 curriculum
evaluation t"at improves teac"ing practice as 1ell as advances students and teac"ersI
62 $"i.t .rom t"e centrali>ed curriculum administration to a decentrali>ed on in 1"ic" curriculum is
administered at national, local, sc"ool levels2 A"e ne1 curriculum s"ould /e more adapta/le .or
local areas, sc"ools and students2
C"apter 25
C"anging Uour Learning 6anagement
$ystem: .rom "ype to "appiness
Marilyn Mitc"ell
4onica Minolta
9a$sey, +e' 7ersey, 2(A
Mic"ael (*inner Operitel
Corporation Peterboro!",
Ontario, Canada
*bstract+ !"at "appens 1"en you install a learning management system only to .ind t"at it doesnIt meet
your needs, and t"at t"e vendor is too slo1 to adapt to t"e c"anges t"at you needH #. you .ollo1 t"e process in
t"is c"apter, you go out and searc" .or a ne1 learning management system, and try to apply t"e lessons
learned .rom t"e pro/lems 1it" t"e .irst implementation2 A"e process o. .inding and t"en implementing an
adapta/le learning management system t"at meets t"e /usiness needs o. t"e .irm is descri/ed in t"is c"apter2
,e# words+ Learning management systems, c"ange management, vendor relations, "ype curve, adapta/ility
o. so.t1are, merger
Learning management systems arrived on t"e
educational scene in t"e late *''0s2 -rom a .e1
simple programs t"at trac8ed grades and
courses, learning management systems "ave
developed into "ig"ly sop"isticated multi&
.eatured programs t"at trac8 and report on a
1ide variety o. learning e9periences2 A"is rapid
gro1t" "as not /een 1it"out pro/lems2 -or
many people, e&learning, to date, "as /een a
major disappointment or even a .ailure2
Part o. t"e pro/lem "as /een t"e incredi/le
amount o. "ype t"at "as accompanied t"e
development and mar8eting o. e&learning,
especially during t"e "yper&competitive
tec"nology /u//le t"at occurred in t"e mar8et&
place in 2000&200*2 A"e artner roup F200+G
"as suggested t"at all tec"nology goes t"roug" a
predicta/le K"ype cycleL, 1it" t"e .ollo1ing
Aec"nology trigger
Pea8 o. in.lated e9pectations
Aroug" o. disillusionment
$lope o. enlig"tenment
Plateau o. productivity
As an early adopter o. /ot" online courses and a
learning management system, =onica 6inolta
Business $olutions F=6B$G in %e1 Cersey, B$A,
"as managed to graduate t"roug" all .ive stages
o. t"e "ype cycle2 A"is case study outlines "o1
t"e .irst decisions on adoption o. e&learning 1ere
made, t"e pro/lems t"at arose, and t"e
management o. t"e c"ange .rom one learning
management system to anot"er2 Bot" client and
vendor perspectives are given on t"e c"ange
management and project management processes
!arl# *doption of e&$earning
By *''), 6inolta B$A, a leading manu.acturer
and distri/utor o. "ig"&end copiers in %ort"
America, "ad adopted various @"ome gro1n@
computer systems, and li8e many companies
"ad a variety o. servers and data/ases scattered
around t"e company2 A"ere 1as no co"erent #A
structure t"at allo1ed in.ormation to easily .lo1
.rom one unit to anot"er2 #t 1as ne9t to
impossi/le, .or e9ample, to pull toget"er a
company1ide picture o. t"e use o. tec"nology in
training at t"at time2
A"e early adoption o. e&learning started 1it" a
crisis2 Ene o. 6inolta?s copiers "ad a signi.icant
pro/lem t"at needed to /e modi.ied :uic8ly in
t"e .ield2 A"is necessitated service tec"nicians
at appro9imately +00 dealers"ips /eing trained
as :uic8ly as possi/le to .i9 t"e pro/lem2
%ormally, t"is 1ould mean sending trainers all
over t"e Bnited $tates to give courses to t"e
tec"nicians2 Because t"ere is no time .or t"is,
6inolta management decided t"at t"e only
.easi/le solution 1as t"e development and
distri/ution o. an online course on "o1 to
service t"is particular copier2
;uring t"e same period, 6inolta 1as installing
an enterprise resource planning FE4PG system
.rom $AP2 A"is opened up ne1 possi/ilities .or
using computer tec"nology to communicate
1it"in and outside t"e company2 A large&scale
e9tranet, using secure #nternet connections, 1as
developed and used to communicate among
suppliers, dealers, and 6inolta "ead:uarters2
A"is e9perience resulted in a vision o. using
net1or8ed computer tec"nology to improve t"e
.unctioning o. t"e /usiness2
At t"at time 6inolta 1as 1or8ing 1it" a
tec"nology vendor 1"o also "appened to "ave a
learning management system FL6$G, ma8ing it
relatively easy to adopt t"is particular L6$2
A"ere 1as no analysis o. needs, and no vision o.
t"e .uture possi/ilities o. e&learning2 4at"er, t"e
primary driver .or t"is decision 1as t"e t"in8ing
t"at an L6$ 1ould cut do1n on instructor
travel, t"us saving money2 iven t"at training at
6inolta 1as primarily instructor led, e&learning
1as seen as an easier 1ay o. delivering training
materials and instructor presentations to target
learners2 A"ere 1as no t"oug"t o. registering
users or reporting results, or any ot"er .eatures
t"at today are ta8en .or granted as /eing part o.
a competent learning management system2
6inolta?s e9perience 1as similar to all early
tec"nology adopters & /ot" t"e vendor and t"e
/uyer e9perienced a considera/le learning curve2
A"ere 1as little researc" availa/le on t"e impact
o. e&learning, or "o1 it s"ould /e deployed2
A"ere 1as little projection o. .uture costs, 1"ic"
meant t"at it 1as impossi/le to /udget .or any
increases in e&learning use2 6oreover, t"ere is
no particular analysis o. 1"et"er e&learning
1ould meet t"e needs o. t"e /usiness2
As 6inolta sta.. /egan to use t"e learning
management system, it /ecame clear t"at
c"anges 1ould "ave to /e made in order .or it to
.unction in a 1ay t"at 1as accepta/le .or
training purposes2 Because t"ere 1as no central
aut"ority over t"e learning management system,
re:uests .or c"anges 1ere coming .rom several
parts o. t"e organi>ation2 A"ere 1as no one in
c"arge o. e&learning at 6inolta at t"at time, and
online initiatives "ad /een started in $ales,
6ar8eting and $ervice groups 1it"in t"e
A.ter spending * *02 years involved 1it" t"e
implementation o. t"e $AP project, 6arilyn
6itc"ell /ecame "ead o. t"e ne1 e&/usiness unit
in 200*, and 1it" t"is ne1 position too8
responsi/ility .or e&learning across t"e company2
At t"at point, t"ere 1ere no speci.ic
re:uirements .or e&learning, e9cept t"ere 1as a
need to "ave all training records in one location2
*nal#sis of Issues with the first $MS
By t"e time 6arilyn 6itc"ell too8 over t"e e&
/usiness unit, pro/lems and issues 1it" t"e .irst
learning management system 1ere /ecoming
apparent2 A"e L6$ 1as K"ard1iredL and
re:uired vendor involvement to ma8e t"e
smallest o. c"anges2 Eac" time t"e vendor made
a c"ange, a "e.ty /ill arrived .or t"eir 1or82 At
t"e same time t"e sta.. .elt Kloc8ed inL /ecause
t"is learning management system 1as /uilt 1it"
proprietary tec"nology t"at 1ould not lin8 or
integrate 1it" any ot"er learning tec"nologies at
t"at time2 Enline courses /uilt "ad to /e
launc"ed 1it"in t"e program, and could not /e
s"ared 1it" anyone 1"o did not "ave t"is
particular so.t1are2
A"e so.t1are "ad not /een developed .rom a
user?s perspective or an educational perspective,
/ut re.lected t"e t"in8ing o. a tec"nology
company2 As t"e 6inolta sta.. /egan to as8 .or
c"anges, a /ig e..ort re:uiring lots o. money 1as
re:uired .rom /ot" t"e vendor and t"e 6inolta
sta..2 7uge amounts o. resources 1ere tied up
1it" trying to improve a program t"at didn?t
1or8 very 1ell .or t"e /usiness2 6inolta sta.. .elt
K/o9ed inL, and resolved to c"ange t"e situation2
A"e L6$ 1as turning into a Kmoney pitL, yet,
/ecause it 1as /eing "eavily used, no one
1anted to see it c"anged 1it"out a muc" /etter
solution /eing in place2
A"e process o. c"ange started 1it" 6inolta sta..
dra1ing up a list o. re:uirements .or t"e vendor,
1"o 1as t"en as8ed to give an estimate o. t"e
costs o. ma8ing all t"e c"anges2 A"e vendor?s
price turned out to /e "ig"er t"an many ne1er
.ull&.eatured learning management systems
availa/le on t"e mar8et2 #t 1as at t"is point t"at
6arilyn 6itc"ell and "er sta.. decided to start
loo8ing .or alternatives to t"eir learning
management system2
$ta.. /egan to investigate t"e many alternatives
in learning management systems t"at 1ere
availa/le at t"at time2 A"ey also tal8ed to e&
learning consultants and /usiness partners
a/out t"eir e9periences 1it" learning
tec"nologies2 An intense period o. reading,
going to e&learning trade s"o1s, and searc"ing
t"e #nternet .or in.ormation and demonstrations
o. e&learning systems .ollo1ed2
By t"is time t"e 6inolta sta.. "ad learned a/out
t"e p"enomenon o. Kvapor1areL2 <endors o.ten
promised .eatures t"at didn?t e9ist /ut 1ere
"eavily advertised2 $ta.. learned to distinguis"
/et1een 1"at 1as coming and 1"at actually
e9isted and 1ould 1or8 i. installed at t"at time2
A"is caution 1as driven /y t"e need to ma8e
sure t"at a ne1 system 1ould 1or8 /e.ore t"e
plug 1as pulled on t"e old system2
At t"e same time, t"e un"appiness 1it" t"e .irst
learning management system continued to
mount2 $ta.. e9"i/ited increasing .rustration
levels 1"en told /y t"e vendor t"at a particular
c"ange could not /e made availa/le Kuntil t"e
ne9t releaseL o. t"e product2 By t"is time,
pro/lems 1it" t"e system meant t"at it 1as no1
slo1er to use t"an t"e previous "ome gro1n
system t"at 6inolta "ad /uilt itsel.2
A"e /iggest .rustration 1as t"at t"e system
cras"ed 1"en running reports, /ecause t"e
data/ase "ad poorly designed arc"itecture2 As
1ell, reports 1ere impossi/le to o/tain .or t"e
most up&to&date list o. regions and /usiness
units, /ecause t"ese continue to c"ange2 As in
any /usiness, 6inolta e9perienced
organi>ational c"ange on a regular /asis2
Because it too8 over '0 days to ma8e any
c"anges in t"e learning management system,
most ne1 reports 1ere out o. date /e.ore t"ey
1ere implemented2
The Change Management Process
By t"is time, 6inolta sta.. 8ne1 a lot more a/out
1"at to e9pect in an L6$, as 1ell as t"e re:uired
.eatures o. any L6$ to /e used in t"e .uture2
Because t"e vendor o. t"e .irst L6$ 1as not a/le
to response to 6inoltaIs needs, a .irm decision
1as made to searc" .or an alternative L6$2
A"e c"ange process included de.ining detailed
/usiness re:uirements, and a realistic projection
o. costs .or t"e ne1 so.t1are .or present needs
and into t"e .uture2 A /usiness consultant 1"o
"ad an in dept" 8no1ledge o. 6inoltaIs /usiness
and its culture 1as a/le to develop a
compre"ensive re:uirements :uestionnaire o.
over 200 :uestions2 A"e ans1ers to t"is
:uestionnaire in.ormed t"e 1riting o. a very
detailed speci.ications document2
All /usiness units 1it"in t"e company, including
sales and mar8eting, service and administration,
1ere consulted on t"eir ideas .or t"e .uture
L6$2 Because people 1ere attac"ed to 1"at t"ey
"ad /uilt in t"e .irst L6$, t"ere 1as some
resistance to c"ange2 A"ose leading t"e c"ange
"ad to proceed care.ully, convincing sceptics
t"at t"e ne1 system 1ould /e /etter .or t"em in
doing t"eir jo/s, and 1ould address t"eir
priorities2 A"is involved turning t"ose 1"o "ad a
"ig" sta8e in t"e success o. any ne1 system into
Kam/assadorsL .or t"e c"ange, convincing ot"ers
t"at t"is 1as a good t"ing t"at 1as "appening2
As 1ell, "onesty 1it" t"e vendor o. t"e .irst L6$
1as important, as 1ell as assurance .rom
6inolta sta.. t"at t"e vendor 1ould continue to
do /usiness 1it" t"e company in ot"er 1ays in
t"e .uture2 A disgruntled vendor could ma8e a
smoot" transition to any ne1 system di..icult2
Process of choosing a new $MS
Because learning management systems can /e
major investments in time and money, t"e
process .or c"oosing a ne1 L6$ 1as t"oroug"2
As 1ell, it 1as important t"at 6inolta sta.. .eel
com.orta/le 1it" any ne1 vendor, as t"e
implementation o. any large scale system
re:uires a close and sometimes intense 1or8ing
relations"ip /et1een client and vendor2
4elations"ip /uilding is a necessary s8ill in
managing all success.ul large scale #A projects,
and, t"ere.ore, any prospective supplier 1ould
"ave to /e committed to getting to 8no1 6inolta
at a deep level2 -ortunately, t"e /usiness
consultant 1"o 6inolta sta.. "ad /een 1or8ing
1it" understood t"e needs o. t"e organi>ation,
and 1as a/le to .acilitate t"e ultimate c"oice o. a
ne1 L6$2
A"e ne1 learning management system needed to
/e "ig"ly .le9i/le2 #n any enterprise, constant
c"ange is a given, especially in t"e "ig"&speed
"ypercompetitive atmosp"ere o. t"e past decade
or so2 #n addition, it 1as important t"at t"e ne1
L6$ /e designed /y educators, rat"er t"an
Ktec"iesL, so t"at it 1ould con.orm to sound
educational principles and practices2
#t is not enoug" to trust vendor claims o. t"eir
educational pedigree2 A"e only 1ay to veri.y "o1
a system 1ill 1or8 is to try it out2 6inolta sta..
.anned out to various e&learning s"o1s and tried
out a variety o. learning management systems2
As t"e ne1 L6$ 1as /eing revie1ed, sta.. 1"o
tried it out t"en 1ent out to di..erent /ranc"es o.
t"e company to demonstrate its capa/ilities2
A"e L6$ t"at =onica 6inolta eventually c"ose
1as Learn-le98, an adapta/le .ull&.eatured
learning management system .rom Eperitel
Corporation in Peter/oroug", Entario, Canada
F.ull disclosure: t"e second aut"or 1or8s .or
EperitelG2 Learn-le98 "ad all t"e mandatory
.eatures listed a/ove, and most o. t"e optional
ones as 1ell2 #n addition, it "ad a .e1 uni:ue
1rin8les o. its o1n 3 .or e9ample, capa/ilities
.or multiple languages Fc"angea/le on t"e .lyG,
t"e a/ility to .ine tune t"e Kconte9tual languageL
o. t"e navigation inter.ace to con.orm to local
usage, t"e a/ility to c"ange Kloo8 and .eelL .or
various communities using t"e same system,
support .or con.erences and 1or8s"ops,
grouping o. courses into diplomas or certi.icates,
and t"e a/ility to enter and c"ange a variety o.
K/usiness rulesL t"at impact on t"e usage o. t"e
system2 Learn-le98 integrated 1it" a 1ide
variety o. aut"oring tools, and supported
industry standards suc" as A#CC and $CE462
Learn-le98 is a .ourt" generation L6$ t"at
started 1it" t"e /uilding o. a learning
management 1e/ site .or a Canadian /an8 in
*'')2 Eriginally conceived /y t1o university
educators, t"is so.t1are is designed to launc"
and trac8 a 1ide variety o. online learning
activities and courses2 Ac:uired /y Eperitel
Corporation in 200*, Learn-le98 "as developed
into a very .le9i/le and compre"ensive solution
t"at 1as a/le to meet all o. 6inoltaIs
documented re:uirements2
A"e .le9i/ility o. t"e ne1 L6$ 1as demonstrated
1"en =onica Corporation merged 1it" 6inolta
B$A in 2005 to .orm =onica 6inolta #nc2, in t"e
middle t"e installation and implementation o.
t"e Learn-le98 system2 %e1 communities 1ere
added, t"e corporate /randing c"anged,
/usiness rules 1ere adjusted and legacy data
migrated 1it"out any signi.icant issues or delay
in t"e project2
Process of implementing the new $MS #n
order to "ave a success.ul implementation, /ot"
t"e client F=onica 6inoltaG and t"e vendor
FEperitelG needed to "ave strong project
management procedures in place2 !"ile e&
learning project management is a relatively ne1
.ield, t"ere are already K/est practicesL t"at 1ere
.ollo1ed in t"is implementation o. a major
learning management system2 A list o. 1"at
needed to /e managed .or implementation
included t"e .ollo1ing:
-ormation o. an e9ecutive steering group to
manage t"e entire initiative, including vision
and strategy
-ormation o. a project management team
.or day to day management
4e:uirements gat"ering e9ercise, including
t"e development o. Kuse casesL and a 200Y
items :uestionnaire on speci.ic needs o.
eac" /usiness unit
;evelopment o. a detailed speci.ications
;evelopment o. a compre"ensive project
6anagement o. /udgets
6anagement o. tec"nology, including t"e
so.t1are to /e implemented and t"e
"ard1are on 1"ic" it 1ill /e installed
6anagement o. t"e e9pectations o. end&
Planning .or t"e uploading o. content into
t"e L6$
;evelopment o. /ot" print and online "elp
and documentation .or t"e system
C"ange management procedures 1"ile t"e
implementation is under1ay
6anagement o. all personnel involved in t"e
Aesting and :uality assurance procedures
=onica 6inolta /egan /y organi>ing an internal
Kvirtual corporationL t"at included t"e e9ecutive
team sponsoring t"e initiative, =onica 6inolta
#A and training sta.., as 1ell as representatives
.rom t"e vendor2 A"is group met online on a
1ee8ly /asis t"roug"out t"e project2 Bot" t"e
client and t"e vendor appointed project
managers, 1"o t"en 1or8ed closely toget"er2
A"e project managers made regular reports to
t"e team2
A"e project 1as governed /y t"e detailed
speci.ications document and t"e project plan2
A"e team tried to set realistic goals .or t"e
completion o. t"e project, in spite o. pressures to
c"ange t"e system as :uic8ly as possi/le2 A
sc"edule 1as set, /ut "ad to /e adjusted as t"e
project progressed, somet"ing :uite common in
any #A implementation2 Because o. t"e "ig"
sta8es involved, it 1as important not to pull t"e
plug on t"e old system until t"e ne1 system 1as
in place, and s"o1n to /e 1or8ing properly2
-rom t"e vendorIs point o. vie1, project
management procedures included t"e
appointment o. a dedicated implementation
team .or t"e project, "eaded /y 6ic"ael $8inner,
an e9ecutive 1"o "as e9tensive tec"nical,
/usiness, and c"ange management e9perience2
=onica 6inolta sta.. mem/ers 1ere considered
part o. t"e vendorIs implementation team, and
treated as suc"2 Continual communications and
t"e reduction o. /arriers /et1een client and
vendor greatly "elped in delivering a success.ul
implementation, in spite o. t"e .act t"at t"e
client 1as c"anging its /usiness in signi.icant
1ays t"roug"out t"e project2
Ene o. t"e reasons t"at Eperitel 1as a/le to
deliver so.t1are t"at met c"anging
re:uirements, is t"at all its so.t1are is /uilt to /e
"ig"ly adapta/le2 C"anges are a matter o.
recon.iguring t"e many properties o. a .eature,
rat"er t"an 1riting ne1 custom code2 A"is
approac" to so.t1are also means t"at .uture
c"anges can easily /e implemented .or =onica
6inoltaIs /usiness2 A"ese c"anges in t"e L6$
can /e carried out /y =onica 6inolta sta.. 1it"
appropriate administrative privileges2 A"is
approac" illustrates EperitelIs /usiness
p"ilosop"y o. trans.erring *00W o. t"e
8no1ledge o. t"e /usiness use o. its so.t1are to a
clientIs sta..2 =onica 6inolta sta.. 1as given
training in t"e easy&to&use administrative tools
t"at come 1it" t"e so.t1are2
All c"anges in t"e so.t1are are .ully
documented2 !"en t"ese is a need .or a c"ange
t"at goes /eyond t"e simple recon.iguration o.
t"e L6$, =onica 6inolta sta.. .ill out an online
c"ange re:uest .orm2 A"is goes into a central
document repository, and is assigned a Ktic8et
num/erL so t"at it can /e trac8ed until t"e
c"ange is completed2 Because c"anges o.ten
improve t"e usa/ility o. any so.t1are, c"ange is
seen as positive /y /ot" t"e vendor and t"e
A1o years a.ter t"e implementation, t"e amount
o. e&learning at =onica 6inolta "as tripled, and
t"e training department "as c"anged .rom a cost
center to a revenue generator2 Courses on
product use and maintenance are no1 sold to
dealers and end users using t"e /uilt&in e&
commerce capa/ilities o. t"e system2
Competencies are /eing trac8ed, and related to
sales and service per.ormance measures2 %e1
communities and ne1 courses and assessments
are continually /eing added to t"e system /y
=onica 6inolta sta..2 %o1, t"ere is no
.rustration or stress in delivering online training2
6ost importantly, training is no1 in "ig"
demand, as t"ousands o. users across t"e
company see t"e value and possi/ilities o. online
training2 !it" t"at comes a ne1 vision .or t"e
.uture o. training at =onica 6inolta, and
increased con.idence o. t"e sta.. t"at as t"ey
innovate t"eir pedagogical met"ods, t"e
Learn-le9 system 1ill evolve 1it" t"em2
A"e rig"t L6$ can /e an ena/ler, a KconvivialL
tec"nology t"at empo1ers and en"ances "uman
capa/ilities2 But, as e9perienced /y =onica
6inolta sta.., implementing and using an L6$
can also /e a "ig"ly .rustrating and negative
e9perience2 etting t"e rig"t enterprise
tec"nology to meet t"e needs o. a /usiness is
8ey, /ut so is "aving a positive e9perience in
managing t"e implementation o. suc" a system2
artner roup F200+G W"at is t"e =ype CycleH
Enline article availa/le at:
"ttp:001112 g artner2c o m0pages0story2p " p2id2)(
',2s2) 2jsp
C"apter 2+
!"en !orlds Collide: Project
6anagement and t"e Collegial
Mar* Bllen
2niversity o% Britis" Col$bia
Aancover, Britis" Col$bia, Canada
*bstract+ A"is c"apter argues t"at t"e use o. a project management approac" to e&learning in "ig"er
education creates t"e potential .or organi>ational con.lict t"at t"reatens t"e sustaina/ility and :uality o.
e&learning2 Project management is in.ormed /y a managerial organi>ational culture /ut t"e dominant
organi>ational culture o. universities is t"e collegial culture2 A"is situation sets up t"e conditions .or
con.lict and ultimately organi>ational restructuring t"at 1ill ma8e it di..icult to continue to use a project
management approac"2 Bnless 1e are sensitive to t"e issues and ta8e steps to avoid t"e pro/lems t"at
may arise, t"e .uture o. t"e project management approac", and t"us t"e sustaina/ility o. :uality e&
learning, in a university setting is not promising2
,e# words+ E&learning, project management, distance education, organi>ational culture, online
learning, academic .reedom
6odern distance education occupies a curious
position in conventional "ig"er education /e&
cause it is industrial and managerial in nature
yet it is em/edded in institutions t"at are gener&
ally c"aracteri>ed as collegial2 ;eveloping and
teac"ing distance education courses "as /een
li8ened to a manu.acturing assem/ly line in
1"ic" t"e process is /ro8en do1n into compon&
ent parts and eac" is "andled separately FPeters,
*''+G2 !"ile t"is analogy may /e a /it e9treme,
t"e general principle o. division o. la/our does
apply as does t"e generally managerial approac"
to organi>ing t"e 1or8 involved in developing
and delivering distance education2
A"is ma8es distance education an odd .it in
conventional "ig"er education institutions
/ecause t"is is an organi>ational conte9t t"at
generally resists management in t"e convention&
al sense2 #nstead it values a collegial organi>a&
tional culture in 1"ic" academics guard t"eir
autonomy and resist t"e notion o. /eing man&
aged or accepting direction2 ;istance education
"as t"us al1ays /een a /it o. a t"orn in t"e side
o. "ig"er education2 Bniversities, in particular,
"ave never /een sure "o1 it s"ould /e organi>ed
since it straddles disciplinary /oundaries and
t"e /oundary /et1een t"e academic and support
1orlds o. t"e university2
!it" t"e gro1t" o. e&learning, t"is issue "as
/ecome even more critical2 E&learning, 1it" its
muc" greater emp"asis on t"e use o. costly
tec"nologies, depends even more "eavily on t"e
use o. care.ul planning and t"e use o. a manag&
erial approac"2 A"us t"e potential .or tension
and con.lict /et1een t"e t1o organi>ation cul&
tures is even greater2 #n t"is c"apter # 1ill e9&
plore some o. t"e issues t"at 1e .ace in attempt&
ing to use a project management approac" to
develop e&learning in conventional "ig"er
education institutions2
The !&$earning Continuum
Ao /egin, # 1ould li8e to e9plain 1"at # mean /y
e&learning, /ecause it is a term t"at is used to
mean di..erent t"ings to di..erent people2
!it"out a clear understanding o. t"e term, it
1ill not /e apparent 1"y # suggest t"at project
management is essential .or t"e e..ective devel&
opment and implementation o. e&learning2 -or
me, e&learning is a /road term t"at encompasses
a variety o. educational conte9ts in 1"ic"
tec"nology is used to en"ance or .acilitate
learning2 # .ind it use.ul to t"in8 o. e&learning as
a continuum, as illustrated in .igure *2 7ere 1e
see .ully .ace&to&.ace teac"ing at one e9treme
and .ully distance teac"ing at t"e ot"er e9treme2
E&learning descri/es all o. t"ese types o.
teac"ing and learning2
As 1e move along t"e continuum .rom .ully .ace&
to&.ace teac"ing, more and more tec"nology is
used to replace t"e .ace&to&.ace elements2
#nitially, t"is "as very little impact on "o1
teac"ing is organi>ed /ecause t"e tec"nology is
used primarily to en"ance t"e .ace&to&.ace
teac"ing2 But as 1e move .urt"er along t"e
continuum F.rom le.t to rig"tG t"e nature o.
teac"ing and "o1 it is organi>ed is a..ected /y
t"e tec"nology2
$ome1"ere around t"e middle o. t"e continuum
1e "ave 1"at is called mi9ed&mode teac"ing
F/lended or "y/rid are ot"er terms commonly
usedG 1"ere signi.icant amounts o. t"e .ace&to&
.ace element are replaced /y tec"nology
mediated teac"ing2 -e1er class sessions are "eld
as tec"nology is used increasingly to deliver t"e
teac"ing and to .acilitate t"e learning2 Ence 1e
reac" t"e e9treme rig"t o. t"e continuum, t"ere
is no longer any .ace&to&.ace teac"ing2 All
teac"ing is tec"nology&mediated2
According to t"is .rame1or8, e&learning is t"at
part o. t"e continuum t"at /egins 1"en
tec"nology is used to replace some o. t"e .ace&
to&.ace teac"ing to t"e e9treme rig"t 1"ere it
replaces it all2 Accordingly, 1e can "ave 1"at 1e
call mi9ed&mode e&learning in 1"ic" t"ere is a
com/ination o. .ace&to&.ace and tec"nology&
mediated teac"ing or distance education e&
learning in 1"ic" all teac"ing and learning is
done 1it"out teac"er and learners ever meeting
.ace&to&.ace2 %ote t"at, according to t"is
understanding o. e&learning, distance education
is an overlapping concept t"at may or may not
involve e&learning2
Three T#pes of !&$earning
A second .rame1or8 .or understanding e&
learning comes .rom Oems8y and 6assy F200+G2
A"is .rame1or8 captures a diversity o.
understandings o. e&learning in t"ree .airly easy
to understand categories2
E#learnin! as distance edcation
A"is re.ers to courses t"at are delivered entirely,
or almost entirely, on t"e #nternet2 6assy S
Oems8y F200+G suggest t"is is t"e most common
understanding o. e&learning /ut # t"in8
increasingly, e&learning is not seen as distance
education /ut as any teac"ing t"at involves
tec"nology 1"ic" is t"e second type o. e&
E#learnin! as electronically#$ediated learnin!
A"is category includes any teac"ing or learning
t"at is mediated /y tec"nology2 A"us, products
li8e computeri>ed test preparation courses t"at
prepare students to ta8e t"e $AA, 4E, comple9,
integrated learning pac8ages suc" as 6aple or
6at"ematica t"at teac" elementary calculus,
learning o/jects t"at simulate and illustrate
various concepts suc" as c"emical reactions,
mat"ematical modeling, social interactions and
musical compositions, and tools li8e
6acromediaIs ;ream1eaver and -las" t"at
students use to /uild t"eir o1n 1e/sites2
#nteractive C;&4E6s and t"e 1e/sites o. /oo8
pu/lis"ers 1ould /e part o. t"is category2 !"at
all t"ese products and resources "ave in
common is t"at t"ey involve electronically
mediated learning in a digital .ormat t"at can /e
used as part o. regular on&campus teac"ing2 #t is
not necessarily distance education2
E#learnin! as %acilitated transactions so%t'are
A"is category includes t"e so.t1are t"at is used
to organi>e and manage teac"ing and learning,
course management systems li8e t"e commercial
products, Blac8Board and !e/CA and open
source products li8e 6oodle2 A"ese course
management systems lin8 teac"ers 1it"
students, students 1it" eac" ot"er, and students
to resources2 Course content, sc"edules,
assignments and ot"er resources are uploaded to
t"ese systems .or students to access2 #n addition,
t"ese systems allo1 .or online testing2
As you can see, e&learning can /e :uite /roadly
de.ined to include a range o. di..erent
educational conte9ts and it can "ave .airly
narro1 tec"nical de.inition, as in t"e case o.
.acilitated transactions so.t1are, to a very
pedagogical de.inition, as in t"e case o. distance
education2 -or t"e purposes o. t"is discussion,
my .ocus 1ill /e primarily on e&learning as
distance education alt"oug" some o. 1"at # "ave
to say is also applica/le to mi9ed&mode e&
*cademic Cultures
Berg:uist F*''2G suggests t"at li.e in
conventional universities is governed /y .our
distinct /ut related organi>ational cultures t"at
are o.ten operating simultaneously2 7e argues
t"at t"ese cultures pro.oundly a..ect "o1 .aculty,
sta.., students and administrators vie1 and carry
out t"eir roles and "o1 t"e institutions are
organi>ed2 7e calls t"e .our cultures colle!ial,
$ana!erial, develop$ental and ne!otiated2 -or
t"e purposes o. t"is discussion, t"e collegial and
managerial cultures are t"e most relevant2
T"e Colle!ial Cltre
#n t"e collegial culture t"e autonomous .aculty
mem/er reigns supreme2 $"e or "e is driven /y
t"e pursuit o. 8no1ledge2 A"e notion o.
measura/le outcomes and accounta/ility are
resisted and academic .reedom is t"e guiding
principle2 overnance processes are .aculty&
driven and controlled, and institutional c"ange
ta8es place slo1ly2 !"ile it "as many strengt"s
suc" as t"ey 1ay in 1"ic" it encourages
deli/eration and open communication, t"e
collegial culture lac8s organi>ation and
co"erence2 FBerg:uist, *''2G2
T"e Mana!erial Cltre
A"e managerial culture is de.ined primarily in
structural terms2 !or8 is organi>ed and directed
to1ard speci.ic goals2 Evaluation and
accounta/ility are "ig"ly valued as are .iscal
responsi/ility and e..ective supervisory s8ills2
A"e managerial culture "as "ad a pro.ound
impact on college and university campuses2
overnments "ave increasingly demanded
greater accounta/ility .rom pu/lic universities
and colleges Fat t"e same time as t"ey reduced
.undingG 1"ic" .orced t"ese institutions to
engage in t"e 8ind o. planning and organi>ation
t"at is commonplace in /usiness /ut largely
.oreign to t"e collegial culture2
Project Management
Project management "as /een 1ell&de.ined and
discussed else1"ere in t"is /oo8 so # 1ill not go
into detail2 -or t"e purposes o. t"is discussion, #
.ind t"e .ollo1ing /rie. de.inition use.ul2 KA"e
process o. leading, planning, organising,
and controlling activities, people and ot"er
resources in order to ac"ieve particular
o/jectivesLF#nternational -und .or Agricultural
;evelopment, 200,G2 # li8e t"is de.inition
/ecause it "ig"lig"ts t"e 8ey issues t"at clearly
place it in t"e realm o. t"e managerial culture
and it clearly suggests 1"y it mig"t create
con.licts 1it" a collegial culture2 Leading,
planning, organi>ing and controlling are all
activities t"at are not "ig"ly valued in a collegial
Project management and e&learning go "and in
"and2 !"ile ot"er approac"es are used to
develop and implement e&learning, t"ere is a
consensus in t"e literature t"at to /e
sustaina/le, cost&e..ective and o. "ig" :uality, a
project management approac" is needed FBates,
2000G2 7o1ever, despite t"e gro1t" in t"e
in.luence o. t"e managerial culture in
universities and colleges, t"e collegial culture
still dominates academic li.e o. t"ese
institutions2 E&learning is clearly an academic
activity, /ut it is managed /y pro.essionals 1"o
1or8 in a managerial culture2 A"us 1e "ave
academics 1"o 1or8 according to t"e values and
/elie.s o. a collegial culture 1or8ing 1it"
pro.essional instructional designers and
tec"nical sta.. 1"o in"a/it a 1orld governed /y
values and /elie.s o. t"e managerial culture2 A"is
creates t"e potential .or con.lict2
A"e implications o. t"is cultural clas" are :uite
signi.icant and t"e pro/lems t"at arise can /e
e9acer/ated i. individuals involved in situations
1"ere t"e t1o cultures overlap are not a1are o.,
and sensitive to, t"e cultural di..erences2 A"e
most o/vious source o. con.lict 1ill /e t"e
attempt to manage .aculty mem/ers2 Berg:uistIs
F*''2G description o. t"e collegial culture clearly
"ig"lig"ts t"e issue2 K#n t"e collegial culture
major emp"asis is placed on independent 1or82
Aypically, .aculty mem/ers la/or alone on
projects, teac" /y t"emselves in t"e classroom,
and plan curriculum and courses in isolation
.rom t"eir colleaguesL Fp2 +5G2 Contrast t"is 1it"
"is description o. t"e managerial culture: Ka
culture t"at .inds meaning primarily in t"e
organi>ation, implementation, and evaluation o.
1or8 t"at is directed to1ard speci.ied goals and
purposesQ t"at values .iscal responsi/ility and
e..ective supervisory s8illsL Fp2 ,G2
Clearly, project management as a process o.
leading, planning, organi>ing, and
controlling activities, people and ot"er resources
in order to ac"ieve particular o/jectives is
in.ormed /y t"e 8ind o. managerial culture t"at
Berg:uist identi.ies2 -urt"ermore t"e university
departments t"at support e&learning project
development tend to /e in.ormed /y a
managerial culture and a cost&recovery .inancial
model, organi>ed "ierarc"ically, and sta..ed /y
non&.aculty employees 1"o are managed and
Managing "aculty Members
A"e amount o. control t"at project managers can
e9ert over .aculty mem/ers 1"o are involved in
an e&learning project, t"en, is :uite limited2 #t is
limited /ecause t"e .aculty mem/ers usually
1or8 in a di..erent organi>ational unit in t"e
university Fand t"us t"e project managers "ave
no direct aut"ority over t"e .aculty mem/ersG
and /ecause t"ey 1or8 according to t"e values o.
a di..erent organi>ational culture2 A"is means
t"at deadlines, delivera/les and e9pectations
must /e negotiated and t"at creativity must /e
used in getting .aculty mem/ers to .ul.ill t"eir
responsi/ilities2 Bltimately, t"ere is little t"e
project manager can do i. t"e .aculty mem/er
doesnIt produce2
!"ile e&learning project managers may not "ave
any direct line aut"ority over .aculty mem/ers
involved in e&learning projects, t"ey can
in.luence "o1 t"e .aculty mem/er per.orms2 #t
re:uires creativity and an approac" t"at is muc"
more su/tle t"an one traditionally .inds in
project management2 A"e .irst t"ing is to /e
a1are o. t"is pro.ound cultural di..erence and to
understand t"at t"e .aculty mem/er 1or8s
according to a completely di..erent set o. values2
Attempting to coerce .aculty mem/er to produce
using t"reats and ultimatums 1ill usually /e
counterproductive2 #nstead t"e .ollo1ing steps
are suggested:
*2 Ensure t"at t"e .aculty mem/er is .ully
a1are o. "is or "er responsi/ilities
/e.ore t"e project even /egins2
22 %egotiate t"e deadlines and delivera/les
1it" t"e .aculty mem/er to ensure t"at
t"ey are practical and 1ill not con.lict
1it" ot"er responsi/ilities "e or s"e may
52 #mpress on t"e .aculty mem/er t"at t"e
deadlines are critical to t"e e..ective
.unctioning o. t"e project team2 #. "e or
s"e doesnIt meet "is or "er deadlines it
"as a ripple e..ect on every/ody else
involved on t"e project2
+2 6a8e sure t"e academic department
"ead is involved and a1are o. t"e
project, t"e deadlines and t"e .aculty
mem/erIs responsi/ilities2
,2 #. t"e .aculty mem/er is /eing paid an
"onorarium .or "is 1or8 on t"e project,
ma8e sure payments are tied to t"e
completion o. speci.ic p"ases2 A"is is
a/out t"e only Kstic8L t"e project
manager "as2
62 $tay in touc" 1it" t"e .aculty mem/er2
;onIt 1ait until t"e deadline to c"ec8 up
on progress2 Constant monitoring 1ill
"elp avoid missed deadlines or poor
:uality 1or8 t"at "as /een produced at
t"e last minute to meet an impending
(2 Lead /y e9ample2 !"en t"e .aculty
mem/er su/mits 1or8, /e sure to
respond :uic8ly 1it" your .eed/ac82
)2 Brea8 t"e project up into small steps or
p"ases2 A"is not only ma8es t"e project
psyc"ologically easier to tac8le .or t"e
.aculty mem/er, it also provides you
1it" more opportunities to provide
.eed/ac8 and guide t"e process2
Academic "reedom
A more signi.icant and serious issue t"at
t"reatens to derail t"e project management
process completely is related to academic
.reedom2 Academic .reedom is a .undamental
tenet o. t"e collegial culture2 According to 6illet
F*'62G, it is rooted in t"e uni:ue relations"ip
/et1een "ig"er education and society2
7ig"er education is dangerous2 #t carries
1it" it at all times t"e possi/ility t"at it may
upset an e9isting po1er structure in society2
#t carries 1it" it at all times t"e possi/ility
t"at individuals and institutions in society
may "ave to accept ne1 ideas and ne1s o.
/e"aviorL Fp2 ,6G2
Academic .reedom allo1s .aculty to pursue t"eir
researc" and teac"ing 1it"out inter.erence or
in.luence2 #t serves to protect t"e .aculty
mem/er .rom outside pressure and it is seen as
essential to sa.eguard society and t"e academy2
Academic .reedom may seem li8e an issue .ar
removed .rom t"e mundane considerations o.
project management /ut it is emerging as one o.
t"e 8ey con.lict&producing .eatures o. t"e
collegial culture t"at is t"reatening t"e a/ility o.
universities to use a project management
approac" to e&learning development2 A"e
con.lict occurs /ecause t"e e&learning course
development model used /y most universities
involves .aculty mem/ers assigning copyrig"t to
e&learning courses to t"eir institutions2 A"e
speci.ics vary .rom institution to institution2 At
t"e Bniversity o. Britis" Colum/ia, .or e9ample,
copyrig"t "as /een Kun/undledL or divided into
Kaut"or materialsL and Kcourse materialsL2
-aculty mem/ers retain o1ners"ip o. any
material t"ey produced on t"eir o1n /e.ore t"e
start o. t"e e&learning project2 A"e university
claims o1ners"ip o. t"e course as a collective
1or82 -aculty mem/ers, .aculty unions and t"e
Canadian Association o. Bniversity Aeac"ers
"ave e:uated t"is as an attac8 on academic
.reedom /ecause, unli8e .ace&to&.ace courses, t"e
university 1ill o1n t"e e&learning course and
t"us potentially /e a/le to in.luence "o1 and
1"at t"e .aculty mem/er teac"es and "o1 t"at
material is used in t"e .uture2
Cynics may argue t"at outraged .aculty mem/ers
are really more concerned a/out t"e loss o.
potential pro.its .rom t"e sale o. e&learning
courses t"an t"ey are a/out up"olding t"e
virtues o. academic .reedom2 %onet"eless t"is
issue "as moved to centre stage in many %ort"
American universities2 At BBC, t"e -aculty
Association recently 1on an ar/itration /e.ore
t"e La/our 4elations Board over t"e issue2
-aculty mem/ers can no longer /e re:uired to
sign agreements outside o. t"eir collective
agreement related to t"e development o. e&
learning courses2 Ene o. t"e 8ey issues covered
in t"ese agreements is copyrig"t2 $cratc" /elo1
t"e sur.ace, "o1ever, and 1"at 1e see again is
t"e collegial culture colliding 1it" t"e
managerial culture2 $tep"en Petrina "as
c"ampioned t"is issue at t"e Bniversity o.
Britis" Colum/ia and astutely points out t"at t"e
university "as ta8en on t"e role o. a pu/lis"er:
K1"en a university assumes t"e role o.
Rpu/lis"erI o. on&line courses, .aculty mem/ers
are little more t"an 1idget ma8ers in t"e
process2 A"e pu/lis"ing .actory is in .act t"e
model t"at university la1yers are adoptingL
FPetrina, 2005, p2 'G2 Petrina is, o. course,
overstating "o1 poorly treated .aculty are in t"is
process2 A"ey are muc" more t"an 1idget&
ma8ers2 A"ey "ave .ull academic control o. t"e
course and t"ey "ave access to and support .rom
a team o. pedagogical and tec"nical support
sta..2 7o1ever, "e is :uite correct in "is
assertion t"at t"e organi>ational model Fand t"e
underlying organi>ational cultureG is
signi.icantly di..erent2
A"is issue 1ill not /e resolved easily, /ut i. it is
not resolved it t"reatens t"e a/ility o.
universities to produce sustaina/le and cost&
e..ective e&learning2 E&learning "as "ig" up&.ront
costs t"at are only .easi/le i. t"ey can /e
amorti>ed over several years o. o..ering an
online course 1it"out su/stantial c"anges2 #.
.aculty mem/ers retain .ull o1ners"ip over e&
learning courses and ot"er .aculty mem/ers are
not permitted to teac" t"ose courses 1it"out
permission .rom t"e .aculty mem/erFsG 1"o
originally developed t"e course, universities may
not /e a/le to ac"ieve t"e cost e..iciencies o.
amorti>ing t"e up .ront costs over several
!"at "appens, .or e9ample, 1"en t"e .aculty
mem/er 1"o developed t"e e&learning course
goes on sa//atical or leaves t"e universityH
Allo1ing a .aculty mem/er to determine 1"o
teac"es an e&learning course e..ectively removes
any managerial aut"ority o. t"e university over
teac"ing assignments2 #. t"is notion o. copyrig"t
and academic .reedom is accepted, t"e .aculty
mem/er0e&learning course creator 1ould
e..ectively /e a/le to determine 1"o teac"es t"at
course unless t"e university 1anted to develop a
ne1 version o. t"e course .or eac" .aculty
mem/er 1"o 1as assigned to teac" it2
%rgani4ational *mplications
A"e implications .or "o1 universities organi>e to
develop and support e&learning are signi.icant2
!"ile organi>ational t"eorists tend to agree t"at
multiple organi>ational cultures can co&e9ist in
universities, t"ere is also general agreement t"at
t"e collegial culture still dominates2 A"us 1e
"ave a dominant culture t"at values t"e
independence and autonomy o. t"e individual
.aculty mem/ers, 1"o resist t"e notion o.
"ierarc"y and accounta/ility2 #n .act t"ey
consider t"emselves accounta/le only to
t"emselves and to t"eir disciplines2
7o1ever, 1"en .aculty mem/ers come to 1or8
on an e&learning project t"ey are entering a
di..erent reality, one t"at is governed /y a
managerial culture in 1"ic" 1or8 is organi>ed
very di..erently, 1"ic" emp"asi>es
accounta/ility, deadlines, organi>ation and
colla/oration2 Ene o. t"e major sources o.
con.lict in organi>ations occurs 1"en people do
not s"are t"e same values and perceptions o.
reality FA"ompson, *'6*G # "ave discussed t"e
implications o. t"is con.lict .or t"e project
management process2 But, it also "as an impact
on "o1 universities organi>e .or e&learning
/ecause an organi>ation t"at "as t"ese t1o
.undamentally di..erent cultures sets itsel. up .or
con.lict2 Eventually, c"ange must occur, as t"e
organi>ation attempts to eliminate t"e con.lict
and restore /alance2 #n practice, 1"at t"is o.ten
means is t"at an organi>ational restructuring
occurs to ensure t"at t"e dominant culture "olds
6ore o.ten t"an not, 1"at t"is organi>ational
restructuring loo8s li8e is t"e do1nsi>ing or
complete elimination o. e&learning support units
t"at are not /ased in .aculties2 A"e most recent
e9ample o. t"is in Canadian "ig"er education
"as just ta8en place at t"e Bniversity o. Britis"
Colum/ia2 $ince *'+', BBC "as "ad a central
support department .or distance education
development and delivery2 !it" t"e emergence
o. 1e/&/ased instruction in t"e late *''0s, t"is
department :uic8ly reinvented itsel. as an e&
learning support unit and developed an
international reputation .or its e&learning
e9pertise in instructional design, planning and
management o. e&learning and learner support2
7o1ever, in Cune 200+, a.ter a protracted
revie1 process t"at /egan in 2002, t"e
university decided to close t"e department and
decentrali>e all sta.. and services to t"e .aculties2
Arguments .or t"e economies o. scale t"at are
reali>ed /y concentrating resources 1ere ignored
as 1ere t"e arguments .or t"e synergies t"at
develop /y concentrating pro.essionals in
Kcentres o. e9cellenceL2 A"e stated rationale .or
t"is restructuring reveals t"e po1er o. t"e
collegial culture and supports t"e premise t"at
1"en t"is dominant culture comes into con.lict
1it" t"e alien managerial culture, it 1ill reassert
its dominance t"roug" restructuring2 A"e
Academic <ice&President at t"e time stated K#n
sustainingVe&learning gro1t"Vstrong .aculty
involvement in essential2 Ever t"e ne9t mont"s
1e 1ill /e loo8ing .or ne1 organi>ational
alignments t"at lin8s t"e strengt"s o. VMt"e
central e&learning departmentNV1it" t"e
.aculties F6cBride, 2005G2L
A"e implications o. t"is rationale are t"at t"e
restructuring 1as needed /ecause .aculties 1ere
not involved in t"e development and delivery o.
e&learning, t"at t"ey "ad some"o1 /een cut out
o. t"e process and need to reesta/lis" t"eir
control over t"is, primarily, academic activity2 #n
.act, .aculties controlled t"e .unding and
priority&setting process t"roug" an advisory
council2 All .aculties "ad access to earmar8ed e&
learning .unds and could determine 1"ic"
programs t"ey c"ose to develop2 !"at t"ey
didnIt "ave, "o1ever, 1as direct control over t"e
management o. t"e development process
/ecause ;istance Education S Aec"nology 1as a
central support unit t"at 1as not part o. a
.aculty2 And /ecause ;istance Education S
Aec"nology operated according to managerial
principles, it tended to provo8e t"e 8ind o.
con.lict mentioned earlier 1"en realities are not
s"ared2 A"us, t"e scene 1as set .or a
restructuring, particularly as e&learning gre1 in
The .uture of Project Management in the
Collegial Culture
# "ave argued t"at a project management
approac" is essential .or t"e development o.
"ig" :uality, cost&e..ective and sustaina/le e&
learning courses and programs /ut t"at t"e
organi>ational culture t"at in.orms t"is
approac" is at odds 1it" t"e dominant culture o.
our universities2 !"ile multiple cultures co&e9ist
in most universities, t"e collegial culture still
tends to provide t"e lens t"roug" 1"ic"
university .aculty see t"eir 1orld2 #t is a culture
t"at values independence and autonomy and
esc"e1s direction and accounta/ility2 As
Berg:uist F*''2G o/served,
V.or many .aculty mem/ers, one o. t"e most
attractive .eatures o. t"e collegial culture is
t"is tolerance .or and even encouragement
o. autonomous activity2 !"ereas t"e ot"er
t"ree academic culturesVrein.orce
colla/oration and corporate activity, t"e
collegial culture nurtures t"e Rlone 1ol.I, t"e
ReccentricI, and t"e socially o/livious Ra/sent&
minded pro.essorI in a manner t"at is
uni:ue to American "ig"er education Fp2
A"us 1e "ave t1o groups o. people 1it"
di..ering realities and a KdisconnectL /et1een
t1o .undamentally di..erent cultures: t"e .aculty
mem/ers 1"o in"a/it t"e collegial 1orld and t"e
e&learning support sta.. 1"o live in t"e
managerial 1orld2 A"is situation sets up t"e
conditions .or con.lict and ultimately
organi>ational restructuring t"at 1ill ma8e it
di..icult to continue to use a project
management approac"2
A"e picture # "ave painted is admittedly grim2
But, unless 1e are sensitive to t"e issues and
ta8e steps to avoid t"e pro/lems t"at may arise,
t"e .uture o. t"e project management approac",
and t"us t"e sustaina/ility o. :uality e&learning,
in a university setting is not promising2
# "ave already made some suggestions .or "o1 to
manage .aculty in a 1ay t"at /ot" respects t"e
cultural di..erences and is sensitive to t"e .act
t"at 1orld vie1s di..er2 A"ese are s"ort term
tactical solutions t"at can stave o.. t"e /igger
pro/lem o. organi>ational restructuring leading
to decentrali>ation and t"e elimination o. t"e
pro.essional approac" to e&learning
development2 A"e more critical decision is "o1
to deal 1it" t"is issue strategically, to prevent
serious organi>ational con.lict .rom developing
t"at 1ill t"reaten t"e e9istence o. t"e central e&
learning support unit and t"e project
management approac"2 A"ere are no easy
ans1ers to t"is, no .ormula to .ollo1 t"at 1ill
prevent t"is outcome2 7o1ever, t"ere are some
steps t"at # /elieve may "elp2
-irst, it is essential t"at an e&learning support
unit t"at is not located 1it"in a .aculty esta/lis"
strong relations"ips 1it" t"e .aculties at t"e
senior, decision&ma8ing levels2 -aculties "ave to
.eel t"at t"ey "ave o1ners"ip and control over e&
learning2 A"is means ma8ing t"e 8ey academic
decisions and setting priorities2 ;eans and
Associate ;eans must /e a1are o. t"e e&learning
activity in t"eir .aculties, understand "o1 it
contri/utes to t"eir missions, and "o1 t"ey
/ .inancially and academically /y
participating in e&learning projects2 #. e&learning
is seen as somet"ing t"at "appens some1"ere
else, t"at .aculties do not control, it 1ill /ecome
a prime target .or ta8eover /y .aculties2 A"ere are
a num/er o. 1ays o. ac"ieving t"is and t"ey 1ill
vary depending on t"e particular university
conte9t2 Advisory committees t"at "ave .aculty
representation .rom .aculties and t"at meet
regularly to discuss e&learning issues, set
priorities, and allocate resources are an e9cellent
1ay to ensure t"at .aculties are involved2
7o1ever more is needed2 E&learning "as to
/ecome part o. t"e .a/ric o. t"e .aculty, not an
optional e9tra only engaged in /y a .e1
ent"usiasts2 ;evelopment and teac"ing o. e&
learning courses need to /e part o. t"e regular
.aculty load2 Ac"ieving t"is 1ill re:uire 1or8ing
1it" ;eans and Associate ;eans to educate t"em
a/out 1"at e&learning is and "o1 it can
contri/ute to t"e academic plans o. t"e .aculties2
$econd, t"ere needs to /e a1areness and
understanding o. t"e signi.icance o. t"e
academic .reedom issue and "o1 sacrosanct t"is
concept is .or .aculty mem/ers2 #t is one o. t"e
dominant pillars o. collegial culture and a
de.ining c"aracteristic o. academicians t"at sets
t"em apart .rom ot"er pro.essionals2 !"ile 1e
may not agree 1it" "o1 t"e issue is /eing
applied to intellectual property in e&learning
courses, 1e "ave to ac8no1ledge t"at many
.aculty mem/ers resist t"e notion t"at anyt"ing
t"ey produce as part o. t"eir academic 1or8
s"ould /e signed over to t"e university2
7o1ever, as # "ave already outlined, unless t"e
institution "as some .le9i/ility in t"e use o. e&
learning material, it 1ill not /e a/le to ac"ieve
t"e cost e..iciencies t"at are necessary to ma8e
"ig" :uality e&learning sustaina/le2 A"us,
.inding a solution to t"is issue 1ill not /e easy2
7o1ever, t"e .irst step is to ac8no1ledge t"e
legitimacy o. t"e .aculty mem/ersI position and
to try to .ind solutions t"at 1ill respect t"eir
rig"ts 1"ile preserving some .le9i/ility .or t"e
institution2 A"e Bniversity o. Britis" Colum/ia
came up 1it" t"e idea o. di..erentiating t"e
rig"ts according to aut"or materials and course
materials, 1"ic" t"ey sa1 as a creative solution2
7o1ever, some .aculty mem/ers "ave rejected
t"is Run/undllingI as just a disguised attempt to
get at t"e intellectual property o. .aculty
mem/ers2 Clearly, t"en, creativity 1ill /e needed
in devising strategies to deal 1it" t"is issue2
-inally, e&learning support units "ave to
em/race c"ange t"emselves and resist t"e
temptation to assume t"at t"e 1ay t"ey "ave
done t"ings in t"e past is t"e only 1ay2 7ig"ly
centrali>ed, pro.essionali>ed support units t"at
tend to treat e&learning development as an
industrial process 1ill /e resisted /y most
.aculty mem/ers /ecause t"is approac" is not
consistent 1it" t"eir 1orld vie12 As Berg:uist
F*'62G notes, t"e .aculty mem/er
V"as little regard .or or patience 1it"
systematic planning processes advocated /y
proponents o. t"e RrationalisticI culture2 A"e
step&/y&step analysis o. a personnel or
curriculum pro/lem is considered
inappropriate2 V2A"e rationalistic culture
1ill deeply penetrate ot"er aspects o. society
long /e.ore it "as 1idespread and enduring
impact on t"e .aculty and collegially
oriented administrators o. our academic
institutions Fp2 +(G2
Even t"oug" t"e classroom is essentially a pu/lic
arena, .aculty mem/ers tend to vie1 teac"ing as
a private e9c"ange /et1een t"emselves and t"eir
students2 A"ere is a strong resistance to t"e
notion o. o/servation or t"e idea t"at teac"ing
can /e improved t"roug" s"aring e9periences
and developmental activities2 6illetIs F*'62G
o/servations .rom over +0 years ago still ring
Vt"e sc"olar 1ants to /e le.t alone in t"e
conduct o. t"e academic enterprise2 7e does
not 1elcome innovation in instructional
procedures, in instructional arrangements,
or in t"e organi>ation and operation o. a
college or universityVA"e sc"olar is
conservative in "is attitude to1ard and
appreciation o. t"e academic process2L Fp2
!"at t"is means, t"en, is t"at e&learning
support units "ave to /e sensitive to t"is 1orld
vie1 and adapt t"eir processes accordingly2 A"is
does not mean a/andoning t"e project
management approac" /ut it does mean
smoot"ing its managerial edges, /uilding in
.le9i/ility, avoiding t"e use o. overly managerial
terminology and, a/ove all, ensuring t"at t"e
.aculty mem/er .eels in control o. t"e process2 #t
also means t"at e&learning support units need to
re&e9amine t"eir procedures and organi>ational
structure to ensure t"at t"ey are properly
integrated into t"e academic core o. t"e
university2 A"is may mean devising ne1 and
innovative organi>ational structures t"at /lend
.eatures o. centrali>ation 1it" .aculty&/ased
support2 A"e danger is t"at i. t"ese ne1
structures are not developed t"at t"e con.lict
t"at develops .rom t"e clas" o. cultures 1ill
generate pressure to .ully decentrali>e and t"us
eliminate pro.essionalism in e&learning
Bates, A2!2 F2000G2 Mana!in! Tec"nolo!ical
C"an!e: (trate!ies %or Colle!e and 2niversity
Leaders. $an -rancisco: Cossey&Bass2
Berg:uist, !272 F*''2G2 T"e )or Cltres o% t"e
Acade$y. $an -rancisco: Cossey&Bass2
#nternational -und .or Agricultural
;evelopment. Mana!in! %or &$pact in 9ral
Develop$ent ,
"ttp:001112i.ad2org0eval u ation0g u ide 0 anne9a0
a2"tm2 4etrieved Canuary *+, 200,
6cBride, B2 F2005G2 &nternal $e$o2 Bniversity
o. Britis" Colum/ia, Culy *(2 20052
6illett, C2 F*'62G2 T"e Acade$ic Co$$nity: An
Essay on Or!ani5ation2 %e1 Uor8: 6cra1&
Peters, E2, F*''+G2 Otto Peters on Distance
Edcation # t"e &ndstriali5ation o% Teac"in!
and Learnin!. London, 4outledge
Petrina, $2 F2005G2 Bn/undling #ntellectual
Properly 4ig"ts2 )aclty )ocs, 56F(G, (&'2
A"ompson, <2A2 F*'6*G2 7ierarc"y,
$peciali>ation, and Ergani>ational Con.lict2
Ad$inistrative (cience <arterly, 52
Oems8y , 42 S 6assy, !2-2 F200+G2 T"'arted
&nnovation: W"at =appened to E#learnin! and
W"y. A"e Learning Alliance2
"ttp:001112ir"e2upenn2edu0!eat " er$tation2 " t
ml2 4etrieved -e/ruary 5, 200,2
Aut"ors and Editors
*ndrel#n *pplebee "as an e9tensive academic career spanning 20 years and t"ree "ig"er education
institutions2 7er credentials as an educator 1it"in t"e .le9i/le 0 tec"nological environments toget"er 1it"
"er supervisory and project management e9perience "ave ena/led "er to success.ully underta8e various
project management roles2 7er a1areness o. 8no1ledge management in educational conte9ts "as ena/led
"er to develop and implement suita/le tertiary :uality assurance measures2 $ince 2005 "er current
researc" and teac"ing are .ocused on developing .le9i/le learning environments in "ig"er education at t"e
Bniversity o. $ydney, Australia2
Mohamed *ll# is an Associate Pro.essor at At"a/asca Bniversity, Al/erta, Canada2 7e "as /een
involved in distance education .or many years and "as conducted researc" in t"e areas o. providing
student support in distance education, project management, and t"e use o. tec"nology in delivery2
;eirdre 4onn#castle is a .aculty mem/er 1it" t"e #nstructional ;esign roup o. t"e E9tension
;ivision, Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1an2 #n t"at capacity, s"e 1or8ed as t"e Project 6anager and
#nstructional ;esigner on t"e $pecial Education Certi.icate Program2 $"e "as /een involved in t"e
development o. 50 online courses2 7er researc" interests include diversity and comple9 t"in8ing s8ills2
Mark 4ullen is t"e Associate ;ean o. t"e Learning S Aeac"ing Centre at t"e Britis" Colum/ia #nstitute
o. Aec"nology FBC#AG 1"ere "is main areas o. responsi/ility are curriculum and instructor development
and educational researc" and innovation2 Be.ore joining BC#A in 200,, ;r2 Bulllen 1as t"e ;irector o. t"e
Centre .or 6anaging S Planning E&Learning F6APLEG at BBC 1"ere "e initiated, managed and
conducted researc" on e&learning2 7e "as a P"2;2 in Adult Education F*''(G, a 6asters degree in
Educational Psyc"ology F*')'G and a B2Ed2 F*')2G .rom t"e Bniversity o. Britis" Colum/ia2 7e also "olds
a ;iploma o. Aec"nology in Broadcast Cournalism F*'((G .rom BC#A2
3iuseppe Chia66ese is a researc"er at t"e #nstitute .or Educational Aec"nologies o. t"e #talian %ational
4esearc" Council2 7is researc" activities concern t"e study, design and application o. teac"ing and
learning environments on t"e %etQ de.ining ne1 met"ods and tec"nologies .or eLearning processesQ
tec"nologies .or communication 1it"in learning communitiesQ net1or8 protocols and services .or t"e
development o. on line learning environments2
5illiam Chua is t"e Co&CEE o. eLearning Consultants PL, an eLearning company /ased in $ingapore
1ell 8no1n .or t"eir 1or8 in t"e ;e.ence and Education sector2 -or t"e project mentioned in "is c"apter,
"e 1as t"e General Mana!er .or t"e eLearning /usiness unit o. t"e #A vendor2 !illiam "as /een involved
in eLearning since t"e earlier Computer Aided #nstruction FCA#G days and did "is .irst KeL course1are in
t"e early *''0s2 7e started "is career in t"e $ingapore Armed -orces and "is tour mainly revolved around
Command and #nstruction, 1"ere "e 1as trained in numerous tools and tec"ni:ues .or improving t"e
e..ectiveness and e..iciencies o. training2
Martha Cleveland&Innes is an Assistant Pro.essor, Centre .or ;istance Education at At"a/asca
Bniversity, Al/erta, Canada2 $"e teac"es graduate level researc" met"ods and learning in t"e 1or8place2
-or t"e last *) years, ;r2 Cleveland&#nnes "as instructed, researc"ed and pu/lis"ed in t"e area o. teac"ing
and learning in "ig"er education and t"e 1or8place2 $"e "as presented 1or8s"ops and papers at many
con.erences including CA;E, t"e Canadian $ociety .or $tudies in 7ig"er Education, t"e $LEA%&C
Async"ronous Learning %et1or8s, and t"e Al/erta Enline $ymposium2
Susan Crichton is an assistant pro.essor o. Educational Aec"nology in t"e -aculty o. Education at t"e
Bniversity o. Calgary, Al/erta, Canada2 Prior to coming to t"e university in -all 200*, $usan lived in a
small community in eastern Britis" Colum/ia, Canada .or 25 years 1"ere s"e developed a program .or
returning adult students and at ris8 yout"2 7er interests include appropriate tec"nology and issues o.
e:uity o. access and social justice as t"ey impact t"e sustaina/ility o. rural communities2 $"e is involved
in t"e $CBE!C project in /ot" t"e teac"er education and distance education components2 $"e received
"er P"; .rom t"e Bniversity o. $ydney, %$!, Australia2
Neo ,im 0ai is currently t"e ;ivision 6anager .or t"e =no1ledge 6anagement $olutions Centre in t"e
;e.ence $cience S Aec"nology Agency, t"e national aut"ority on all de.ence science and tec"nology
matters2 -or t"e project mentioned in "is c"apter, "e served as t"e Divisional Mana!er in c"arge o. t"e
$PEA&E% Programme2 7aving /een involved in eLearning since t"e very .irst customised eLearning
content development project .or t"e $A-, =im 7ai "as a 1ealt" o. 8no1ledge and e9perience on t"e
implementation o. large&scale customised eLearning content development2
,athr#n 0ibbert is t"e ;istance Education Coordinator at t"e -aculty o. Education, A"e Bniversity o.
!estern Entario2 $"e is responsi/le .or 1or8ing 1it" instructors and aut"ors 1"o plan to teac" in and
1rite .or t"e online environment2 ;r2 7i//ertIs researc" interests include t"e development o. enunciative
spaces in t"e online conte9t, t"e creation o. online communities and t"e role o. language in creating
David 0ill "as :uali.ications in adult learning and management, and is currently 6anager 3 Learning
$olutions .or t"e Australian Customs $ervice2 $ince *''0 ;avid "as .ocused on developing and
implementing .le9i/le learning approac"es2 A"ese approac"es include using e&learning, paper /ased sel.
paced learning .ormats and /lended learning2 ;avid "as "eld training related positions in Aelecom
Australia, Australian 6aritime $a.ety Aut"ority, Pu/lic $ervice and 6erit Protection Commission and t"e
Australian Protective $ervice prior to joining t"e Australian Customs $ervice in 20002
*manda 0opkins is an #nstructional ;esign Consultant 1it"in t"e Academic ;evelopment Centre at
6ount 4oyal College, Calgary, Al/erta2 Amanda is an Acadia Bniversity graduate, 1"ere s"e .irst
discovered "er interest in elearning as a student #nstructional ;esigner 1it" t"e Acadia #nstitute .or
Aeac"ing and Aec"nology2 $"e is currently see8ing a graduate degree in Educational Aec"nology at t"e
Bniversity o. Calgary2 AmandaIs researc" interests include t"e development and reusa/ility o. learning
o/jects, .aculty learning communities, online teac"ing e9cellence, and t"e integration o. online learning in
international .orums2
3ail ,opp is an Assistant Pro.essor o. Educational Aec"nology in t"e -aculty o. Education at t"e
Bniversity o. Calgary, Al/erta, Canada2 ;r2 =opp "as 1or8ed as a pro.essional instructional designer and
project manager .or training in industry, aerospace and t"e military2 7er interests include distri/uted
learning, virtual learning environments, simulation, and colla/orative learning opportunities .or
disadvantaged learners2 $"e is involved in t"e $CBE!C project as an instructional designer2 $"e received
"er P"; .rom t"e Bniversity o. Calgary2
Colleen ,awalilak is an Assistant Pro.essor at t"e Bniversity o. Calgary, Al/erta, Canada2 7er .ocus "as
/een on adult education and li.elong learning, 1it" 2, years e9perience teac"ing and designing programs
and courses .or adult learners and educators in adult education and community settings2 Colleen "as a
P"2;2 in adult education, and "as traveled e9tensively as a consultant and 8eynote spea8er in Australia,
Cu/a, -inland, C"ina, Canada, t"e %ort"1est Aerritories and t"e Uu8on2 Colleen "as e9tensive e9perience
in /ot" -2- and e&Learning environments2
Mairi ,ershaw, a Biology graduate and teac"er, "as 1or8ed in education and local government .or over
t1enty years2 $tarting out as a secondary sc"ool teac"er s"e :uic8ly moved into environmental and
outdoor education, 1or8ing 1it" adults, c"ildren, students and t"e community as 1ell as services suc" as
yout", environmental services and social services2 7er 1or8 encompassed 1riting projects and national
con.erence organisation over issues li8e citi>ens"ip and sustaina/le development2 #n *''6 6airi
em/ar8ed on a project 1it" !!-&B=, developing a net1or8 .or $ustaina/le ;evelopment education in
;orset, supporting "er practice t"roug" an 6$c at $out" Ban8 Bniversity, London2
"and# $a4onte "as 1or8ed at t"e management level in corporate, non& and educational
organi>ations .or over 20 years2 ;uring t"is time, "e led multiple projects and teams o. diverse si>e and
nature2 As a senior manager and sales leader in Edyssey Learning $ystems, 4andy /rings trained s8ills in
sales, negotiation, team /uilding, planning, and implementation to "is role2 7e "as e9tensive /ac8ground
in t"e use and deployment o. tec"nology, and "as studied tec"nology, learning and leaders"ip as part o.
"is doctoral studies2 4andy o/tained a Bac"elor and 6asters o. Education and is presently pursuing "is
doctorate at t"e Bniversity o. Britis" Colum/ia, researc"ing leaders"ip in computer&mediated learning
"od Mac"ae is a .ood policy analyst 1it" a P";2 in .ood and agriculture policy .rom 6cill Bniversity
in 6ontreal, Canada2 ;r2 6ac4ae consults 1idely to non&governmental and governmental organi>ations
on .ood security and sustaina/le agriculture2 Current projects .ocus primarily on improving .ederal
agricultural policy ma8ing and programme design2 7e is t"e academic coordinator .or 4yersonIs
Certi.icate in -ood $ecurity and teac"es t1o courses in t"e programme & -ood $ecurity Concepts and
Principles, and -ood Policies and Programmes in -ood $ecurity2
"ichard Malinski is an e9perienced manager and educator 1it" over t"irty years o. p"ilosop"ical and
practical insig"ts into t"e c"allenges tec"nology /rings to andragogy speci.ically and t"e /usiness o.
"ig"er education generally2 7is management roles o. C"ie. Li/rarian and ;irector, ;istance Education,
4yerson Bniversity, Aoronto, Canada gave 8ey administrative and managerial insig"ts2 ;r2 6alins8iIs
current roles o. #nstructor in online Ergani>ational Be"aviour and Araining S ;evelopment courses, o.
#nstructional ;esigner .or online courses, and o. Communications Consultant .ocus "is attention on t"e
vagaries and "urdles o. elearning in adult learning and "ig"er education at /ot" local and international
Maril#n Mitchell is ;irector, Pro.essional ;evelopment S Enterprise Learning .or =onica 6inolta
Business $olutions B$A, "ead:uartered in 4amsey, %e1 Cersey2 $"e "as 1or8ed .or =onica 6inolta .or
over seven years, muc" o. 1"ic" 1as spent managing e/usiness and elearning projects2 6arilyn "as an
6BA .rom t"e Lu/in raduate $c"ool o. Business at Pace Bniversity2
Dirk Morrison is an Associate Pro.essor o. E9tension at t"e Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1an2 7e is a .aculty
mem/er 1it" t"e Centre .or ;istri/uted Learning FC;LG, and also 1or8s in t"e #nstructional ;esign
roup F#;G2 ;ir8Is researc" interests /roadly include t"e application o. learning t"eory to t"e design
practice o. distance and distri/uted learning2 6ore speci.ically, "is current researc" is .ocused on t"e use
o. #CA in "ig"er education and "o1 t"e appropriate pedagogical use o. suc" tec"nologies can in.luence
t"e .acilitation o. "ig"er order t"in8ing s8ills in online learning environments2
David M#kota is an Assistant Pro.essor in t"e ;epartment o. Educational Psyc"ology and $pecial
Education at t"e Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1an2 As Program ;irector and Principal Content ;eveloper .or
t"e $pecial Education Certi.icate, "e "as /een responsi/le .or procuring and administrating multi&year
.unding t"roug" t"e government o. $as8atc"e1anIs Aec"nology En"anced Learning initiative, a pan&
institutional partners"ip2 ;r2 6y8ota "as pu/lis"ed and presented researc" on psyc"osocial
c"aracteristics o. e9ceptional c"ildren, tec"nology and education, and resilient c"ildren and yout"2 7e
currently instructs courses at t"e graduate and undergraduate level in special education and educational
psyc"ology and is presently engaged in .unded researc" pertaining to t"e a..ective domain o. e&learning2
4everl# Pasian is $enior Project 6anager .or Bodec Corporation in Aoronto, Canada2 Beverly "as an
62A2 .rom t"e Epen Bniversity FB=G in Enline ;istance Education, and a Certi.icate in Project
6anagement .rom 7um/er College in Aoronto2 Pro.essionally, s"e "as "ad 1or8ed on various local and
national projects .or departments o. t"e .ederal government, colleges and universities and various private
sector .irms2 $"e is a mem/er o. t"e Board o. ;irectors o. t"e Canadian Association .or ;istance
Education FCA;EG2 Beverly is completing a doctorate in project management at t"e Bniversity o.
Aec"nology, $ydney, Australia2 $"e can /e reac"ed at /pasian D / od ec2c om 2
,evin Pitts is a .aculty mem/er and t"e eLearning -aculty Advisor in t"e -aculty o. #n.ormation Arts
and Aec"nologyIs eLearning Centre at $eneca College2 7e /elieves in t"e e..ective use o. tec"nology to
en"ance t"e teac"ing and learning process and "as /een involved in implementing tec"nology into
everyday teac"ing and learning at $eneca, 1"et"er in class, online, or a mi9ture o. /ot"2 =evin manages a
num/er o. projects Fand o.ten 1ears t"e ot"er "at o. #nstructional ;esignerG related to t"e design,
development, and delivery o. tec"nology&en"anced curriculum2 !"en not doing t"e a/ove, =evin sits on
$eneca College?s #A Council and currently c"airs t"e Portal !or8group $u/&Committee2 =evin "olds
degrees in science and education and is currently completing a 6asters o. ;istance Education at
At"a/asca Bniversity2
Sharon "ich is ;ean and Pro.essor in t"e -aculty o. Education, A"e Bniversity o. %e1 Bruns1ic82 A"e
online program discussed in t"e paper /elo1 1as initiated /y ;r2 4ic" and 1as under "er supervision2
;r2 4ic"Is researc" interests include teac"ing and learning at a distance and t"e development o. online
communities o. practice2
Sheena "owan is t"e AEL Project 6anager at t"e Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1an and "as /een involved
1it" t"is provincial initiative since *'')2 As manager, $"eena coordinates t"e approval o. .unding and t"e
development o. t"e process .or AEL activity at t"e Bniversity o. $as8atc"e1an2
$uciano Seta is a researc"er at t"e #nstitute .or Educational Aec"nologies o. t"e #talian %ational
4esearc" Council2 7e "olds a degree in P"ysics and a P"; degree in Applied 6at"ematics at Palermo
Bniversity2 7is researc" interests concern mat"ematical modelling in di..erent aspects o. real li.e
p"enomena originating in p"ysics, /iology, economy and social sciences2
,ath# Siedlac6ek is an #nstructional ;evelopment Consultant in t"e Learning S Aeac"ing Centre at t"e
Britis" Colum/ia #nstitute o. Aec"nology2 7er role at BC#A involves managing a variety o. educational
projects, including curriculum revie1s, degree development, and multimedia projects2 Among "er
projects, s"e 1or8s 1it" ot"er .aculty at t"e institute to "elp t"em integrate educational tec"nology into
t"eir courses, 1it" t"e goal o. creating pedagogically and tec"nologically sound learning materials .or
students2 =at"y "as /een project manager, instructional designer, teac"er, and student in various
online courses and "as e9tensive 8no1ledge and e9perience 1it" issues t"at a..ect teac"ing and learning
in t"e online environment2 $"e "as a B2$c2 F6at"G, B2A2 FPolitical $cienceG, and 62Ed2 .rom Broc8
Michael Skinner is President and C"ie. E9ecutive E..icer o. one o. Canada?s .astest gro1ing E&
Learning0E&Commerce providers, Eperitel Corporation2 6r2 $8inner "as guided Eperitel t"roug" t"e
many stages o. corporate gro1t" including seed investment, management team assem/ly, resource
training, competitive researc", product development, client adoption, product mar8eting, client support
and client retention2 6r2 $8inner "as also played an integral role in /uilding t"e consulting services
division /y esta/lis"ing Eperitel as an #ndependent $o.t1are <endor .or 6icroso.t, as 1ell as a Certi.ied
6icroso.t Partner2 6ic"ael developed t"e met"odology and standards .or rapid 1e/ development t"at are
currently used t"roug"out t"e Eperitel Application Engineering ;ivision2
4enson Soong is t"e Co&CEE S CLE o. eLearning Consultants PL, an eLearning company /ased in
$ingapore 1ell 8no1n .or t"eir 1or8 in t"e ;e.ence and Education sector2 -or t"e project mentioned in
"is c"apter, "e served as t"e =ead &nstrctional Desi!ner .or t"e #A vendor2 Benson "as more t"an +
years o. direct, "ands&on e9perience in implementing company&1ide, government&1ide, and industry&
1ide eLearning, and is actively involved in eLearning course1are design and consultancy2 Benson "olds a
6$c2 .rom t"e %ational Bniversity o. $ingapore, and a B$c2 and BCom2 .rom t"e Bniversity o. Auc8land,
%e1 Oealand2
Deborah =eness "as /een involved in educational pu/lis"ing since t"e early R)0s2 7er previous
e9periences as a teac"er, as a pu/lis"er o. educational te9t/oo8s, as an instructional designer in a large
traditional Australian university distance education centre, and as a project manager .or a small start&up
.le9i/le learning unit prepared "er .or t"e tas8 o. esta/lis"ing t"e Bniversity o. Can/erraIs -le9i/le
;elivery ;evelopment Bnit in 200*2 7er interests t"is year "ave s1ung to1ards concepts o. !e/&
pu/lis"ing, t"e creation and utility o. reusa/le learning o/jects, issues o. o1ners"ip and s"aring in t"e
"ig"er education sector, 8no1ledge management, and t"e sc"olars"ip o. teac"ing2
$ori 5allace is t"e Associate ;ean F;egree ProgramsG, ;ivision o. E9tended Education, and ;irector o.
;istance and Enline Education at t"e Bniversity o. 6anito/a2 ;r2 !allace "as 1or8ed in instructional
design since t"e *'(0s and in university distance education administration since *'),2
*udre# 5illiams "as /een t"e #nstructional Aec"nology $pecialist .or Pellissippi $tate Aec"nical
Community College in =no9ville, Aennessee since *'''2 $"e .ocuses "er e..orts on .aculty and sta..
development and planning .or t"e gro1t" and support o. t"e use o. instructional tec"nology, including
online teac"ing and learning2 $"e "as an 62$2 in Education and an 62$2 in #n.ormation $cience .rom A"e
Bniversity o. Aennessee2 Prior to Pellissippi $tate, s"e 1as t"e education coordinator in a .ederal science
museum and is a co&.ounder o. a national science outreac" educators net1or8 t"roug" t"e Association o.
$cience&Aec"nology Centers2 $"e "as also taug"t courses in educational tec"nology .or Pellissippi $tate
and Aennessee Aec"nological Bniversity2
$orraine 7$ori8 5illiams is ;irector o. #nstructional Aec"nology, and P"2;2 candidate in
#nterdisciplinary $tudies at Bnion #nstitute S Bniversity2 7er current researc" in adult and distance
education is .ocused on .aculty as mentors in individuali>ed, online adult degree programs2 Lori presents
at international "ig"er education and tec"nology con.erences and "as recently developed a graduate level
course .or .aculty 1"o teac" in non&traditional colleges .or adults to learn "o1 to teac" online2
3ar# 5oodill is C"ie. Learning E..icer, Eperitel Corporation2 #n *')+ ary received a doctorate in
applied psyc"ology .rom t"e Entario #nstitute .or $tudies in Education FE#$EG at t"e Bniversity o.
Aoronto2 A .ormer teac"er and university pro.essor in education, "e is also a 1riter and spea8er on
elearning and 8no1ledge management2 -or t"e past *+ years "e "as /een involved in t"e design,
production, and locali>ation o. educational C;&4E6s, and t"e design and implementation o. corporate
and academic learning management systems and online courses2 7e is a mem/er o. t"e Board o.
;irectors o. t"e Canadian eLearning Enterprise Alliance FCeLEAG, and aut"or o. E$er!in! eLearnin!:
ne' approac"es to deliverin! en!a!in! online learnin! content FBrandon 7all 4esearc", 200,G2 7e can
/e reac"ed /y email at g1 o odill D operitel2com 2
The Canadian e!earnin" Enter#rise $lliance (Ce!E$) is an industry-
based organization established in 2003 to help Canadian elearning
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