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Urban Heritage Management in Vietnam
Institute for
Conservation of
Institute for
Conservation of
Urban Heritage Management in Vietnam
Donovan Rypkema, Heritage Strategies International
Paul Rabe, Urban Solutions
Ester Van Steekelenburg, Urban Solutions
Tran Xuan Bach, Urban Solutions
David Brenner, Urban Solutions
Dong Thi Thu Lan, Urban Solutions
Huynh Phuong Lan, Institute forConservation of Monuments
and experts from the Institute forConservation of Monuments
David Brenner, Urban Solutions
Paul Schuttenbelt, Urban Solutions
Le Thanh Vinh, Institute forConservation of Monuments

Nguyen Van Hau
Cau Vong Trading Advertising & Printing Company Ltd.
The Institute for Conservation of Monuments is responsible for documenting and
protecting national heritage in Vietnam. The Institute forConservation of Monuments
is an agency within the Vietnamese Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism.
Urban Solutions is a Netherlands based company that provides advisory services
on urban issues and heritage conservation.,
Funding for this manual was provided by the Netherlands Organization for Interna-
tional Cooperation in Higher Education (NUFFIC) and the Institute for Conservation
of Monuments.
For the duplication or sale of thismanual, written permission must rst be obtained from Urban Solutions
Institute for
Conservation of
Institute for
Conservation of
All over the world cities regret the heritage
that was lost during development and modern-
ization. Integrated heritage management helps
protect areas of historical value while contribut-
ing to the local economy.
Heritage places including buildings,
monuments, street patterns and landscapes
fulll a fundamental function in that they stand
as stirring statements about a communitys
evolution. Remainders of the past provide an
enriching and valued educational story to
residents and visitors to understand and appre-
ciate aspectsof change within communities.
This manual will help urban managers,
planners, developers, heritage experts and
local authoritiesto develop and manage urban
heritage conservation efforts in a way that con-
tributesto the health of the economy, increases
community pride, and protects heritage for the
benet of future generations. With these aims,
the manual compares the current context of
Vietnam with international principles and cases
in the hopes of creating a guide for the process
of heritage conservation in Vietnamscities.
Chapter 1:
1.1 The Changing Face of Vietnams Cities 10
1.2 Challenges for Urban Heritage 10
1.3 What is Urban Heritage? 14
1.4 Heritage Value: The Economic Benets 17
Chapter 2:
2.1 Sustainability Objectives 22
2.2 Approaches to Built Conservation 25
Chapter 3:
3.1 Designing a Management Strategy 28
3.2 Heritage Promotion 38
Chapter 4:

4.1 Drafting Local Regulations 44
4.2 Renovation of a Site 45
4.3 Impact Assessment 49
Chapter 5:
5.1 Architectural Design 54
5.2 Advertising and Signs 56
5.3 Street Design 58
5.4 Made in Vietnam 61
Chapter 6:
6.1 State Management for Heritage 66
6.2 Legislation and Policy Documents 68
8 9
Integrated urban heritage is the
ensemble of individual heritage
assets and its interaction with
social, economic and environ-
mental issues. It is this ensemble
of assets which makes any city
unique. It is what provides societies
with roots, with an identity, and
people with a sense of place.
10 11
ietnams urban heritage faces many
pressures - land prices, new infrastructure
demands, and the impact of tourism. Yet,
alongside these challenges there are new op-
portunities to protect heritage, including tourism
revenues, international recognition, and rising
standards of living. In the last decade and a half,
some of Vietnams cities have made admirable
efforts to identify and protect their heritage and
these efforts should serve as models for the rest of
Vietnams cities.
For heritage conservation in Vietnam to
be successful, it is necessary for the values of
heritage to be widely recognized. This is greatly
dependant on planners realizing the economic
value of heritage. Urban heritage conservation
creates jobs and develops tourism, while main-
taining conditions suitable for small businesses.
The rapid transformation of Vietnamese cities
is putting considerable strain on the countrys
urban heritage. Tangible urban heritagein-
cluding entire ancient quarters as well as indi-
vidual houses, pagodas and monumentsare
vulnerable to decay and are being threatened
with demolition, as private developers and
landlords seek to redevelop properties in the
context of a highly competitive urban land
market. Meanwhile, intangible urban heritage
in the form of traditional customs, lifestyles and
tradesis being eroded as older neighborhoods
are gentried and traditional livelihoods are
squeezed out in the process.
At the same time, the number of international
and domestic tourists to Vietnams cities is in-
creasing exponentially. Many of these tourists
are heritage tourists and they base themselves in
Vietnams richest heritage cities, including Hanoi,
Hue, Danang, Hoi An, and Ho Chi Minh City.
Since inclusion on the World Heritage List, the
cities of Hoi An and Hue have sought to conserve
their tangible and intangible heritage and present
it to tourists. The city of Hoi An has worked closely
with UNESCO to forge conservation plans. Con-
servation and promotion efforts have saved many
houses in the central area and transformed the
city into a major destination for heritage tourists.
These successes have been accomplished by es-
tablishing new regulations, organizing manage-
ment of heritage sites, and planning large scale
heritage conservation projects.
Unfortunately, heritage in urban areas is under
immense pressure and not always recognized
forthe value it has.
An estimated urbanization rate of 30%, and
rapid population growth, are putting ever more
pressure on heritage cities such as Hanoi, Ho
Chi Minh City and Hue. In these cities cranes rise
overhead, workers tear down old houses, and
the noise of motorcycles drowns out neighbour-
hood street life. Hotel construction and housing
renovation in Hanois Ancient Quarter, designed
to accommodate an increasing number of
tourists and improve living standards, are de-
stroying the typical identity of the quarter. Fur-
thermore, limited awareness on the part of the
community and inadequate education about
heritage conservation hinder planning efforts.
Urban heritage conservation is not an attempt
to freeze neighborhoods and buildings in time and
thereby turn them into museums. Rather, it can
be an action with multiple objectives an effort
to revitalize, reuse, and improve, all while pro-
tecting an aspect of cultural heritage. Effective
heritage conservation, when it addresses the
economic realities of an area, has the ability
to improve social and economic situations and
increase the pride and satisfaction of area
residents. Likewise, intangible heritage can be
both protected and advanced if provided with
the necessary conditions. While tourists benet
from the conservation of cultural heritage and
elder residents appreciate the nostalgic con-
nections of it, cultural heritage is also a basis
for future cultural development. By educating
younger generations about cultural heritage,
and thus conserving it becomes the rst step,
urban planners and managers are strengthening
the social fabric of cities.
12 13
The Ancient Quarter of Hanoi
The Ancient Quarter of Hanoi the 36 streets
and corporations quarter has been the historic
heart of the old trading city for nearly 1,000
The quarter bears the traces of its history. The
street names also recall the goods that were
produced there or often still exist today: the street
of silk, the street of cotton, the street of iron, the
street of sugar, etc.
The urban fabric reects the historic urban or-
ganisation of the 36 corporations. This spatial and
social organisation is reected in the presence
of an outstanding intangible heritage, with the
exercise of the historic crafts and the presence
of a large number of traditional local activities in
the streets.
Hoi An ancient town
Hoi An was Vietnams important international seaport
town from the 16th century to the late 19th century with
merchants from both Asia and Europe trading all sorts of
goods from spices to gold. Located on the bank of Thu Bon
River 30 kilometers south of Danang, this is a quiet riverside
town dotted with temples, shrines and Chinese style tile-
roofed wooden houses girding a long narrow streets. The
original structure of these street houses still remains almost
intact. The architecture of Hoi An is characterized by a har-
monious blend of Vietnamese, Chinese and Japanese inu-
ences. All the houses were made of rare wood, decorated
with lacquered boards and panels engraved. Pillars were
also carved with ornamental designs.
In every 15th nights of lunar months, the town turns off
street lamps and uorescent lights, leaving the old quarter
bathed in the warm glow of coloured silk, glass and paper
This town started to draw the attention of visitors and re-
searchers at the beginning of the 1980s. What is so special
about Hoi An is that this little port town is in an incredible
state of preservation. It offers some of the most densely con-
centrated sights in Vietnam with its old streets bordered with
ancient houses and assembly halls, its pagodas, temples,
ancient wells and tombs.
After many centuries, Hoi An is still respectful of its tradi-
tions, folk festivals, beliefs and of its sophisticated culinary
art. The Town was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site in
December 1999
Hang Hom Street, Hanoi, Vietnam (early 1900s)
Thus, the urban space is very much alive:
craftsmen work or sell out on the street, small
restaurants, sellers of goods and shop displays
occupy the pavements.
Furthermore, a rich architectural heritage lives
on. A large number of the historic buildings bear
witness to this, with dwellings of great value,
communal houses, temples and pagodas.
Nowadays, the Ancient Quarter is proting from
economic development and the arrival of an in-
creasing number of tourists : cafs, restaurants,
craft souvenir boutiques and small hotels have
emerged. Some trades, like the silk and jewellery
crafts, have experienced new expansions.
In order to preserve the heritage of the Ancient
Quarter, the Vietnamese Construction Ministry
decided in 1995 on the principles of conserva-
tion and restoration of the Ancient Quarter.
City of Hue
Beginning in 1744 when the Nguyen lords con-
trolled all of southern Vietnam, Hue served as
the countrys feudal capital. The dynasty of the
Nguyen family lasted (in theory) from 1802 until
1945, when the last emperor abdicated. The city
was severely damaged in 1968 during the war,
when house-to-house ghting lasted for weeks,
but many architectural gems survived.
Nowadays, Hue is one of
the most popular destinations
for visitors to Vietnam. The City
is divided between the older
fortied Citadel, and the new
developments across the river.
The new side contains most of
the facilities, the hotels, restau-
rants, travel agencies, and banks.
People come to Hue to see the old
Imperial complex, the Citadel and
the Forbidden city, the pagodas,
and the tombs of the emperors
that lie a few kilometers south of
the city. Each tomb is a walled
compound containing temples,
palaces, and lakes.
The Vietnamese regard Hue
as the pinnacle of Vietnamese
fashion, language and cuisine.
The women of Hue, wearing the
traditional ao dai (long dress)
and non bai tho (sun hat), are
reputed to be the most beautiful in
all of Vietnam. The food, including
local dishes such as banh khoai,
is said to be the tastiest.
The heritage complex in Hue has
been titled as World Heritage by
UNESCO since December 1993.
14 15
Tangible Heritage Natural Heritage
Urban Fragment Intangible Heritage
Cultural Heritage is commonly dened as: An expression of the ways of living developed by
a community and passed on from generation to generation

material products of historical, cultural or scientic value.
These material products include:
* historical-cultural monuments
* scenic landscapes and beauty spots
* relics, antiques and national treasures

United NationsEducational, Scientic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Thismanual adoptsthe following denitionsof tangible and intangible cultural heritage, asdened
by Decree 92 (2002), an expansion of the Law on Cultural Heritage of Vietnam (2001)
16 17
Recipe: Bnh Xo
Ingredients: rice our, turmeric, salt, vegetable
oil, scallions, small shrimp, pork, bean sprouts
Eating: wrap in lettuce leaves, add fresh herbs,
and dip in sauce
My whole garden is in a holding mode,
For you have such a touch of poetry.
Come here to pick a pair of fortune owers
And save my heart from its ill-fated hope.
Xuan Dieu
(translated by Thomas D. Le)
spiritual products of history culture or scientic
value, being saved in memory or in scripts, handed
down orally and through professional teaching, per-
formance and other forms of saving and handing
These forms include:
a. Speech,
b. Literary, art or scientic works
c. Oral philology
d. Folk oratorio, including music, dance, theater
e. Lifestyles and ways of life, reected through con-
ventional rules of behavior
f. Traditional festivals
g. Traditional handicrafts;
h. Folk cultural knowledge, including knowledge
about traditional medicine and pharmacy, tra-
ditional costumes, nature and production experi-
ences, art of war, experience in artistic (academic)
creation and composition, gastronomic culture.
In Vietnams larger cities like Hanoi,
Hue and Ho Chi Minh City, three
specic major economic contribu-
tions can be identied.
1. Small Business Incubation:
Since the introduction of doi moi
two decades ago, the entrepreneur-
ial spirit and the business acumen of
the Vietnamese people has rapidly
emerged. The energy, vibrancy, and
economic vitality of small business-
es are obvious to even the casual
One of the few costs small busi-
nesses can control is occupancy
cost rent. And the reality is that
new buildings cannot charge low
rents. Therefore worldwide, older and
historic buildings provide a natural
incubator for small business. That is
very clearly the case in places like
Hanois Ancient Quarter.
Further it is the proximity, the critical
mass, and the interdependency of
these businesses that provides an
overall physical context within which
they can prosper (see box 1.4.1).
Box 1.4.1 Small Businesses Thrive in Hanois Ancient
In Hanois Ancient Quarter, the pedestrian orienta-
tion of the block fronts, the scale of the buildings and
even the seeming chaotic nature of activities, add
signicantly to the economic environment that allows
business success. To replace that physical context with a
new, sterile and expensive physical context would have
a severely negative impact on small businesses in the
Ancient Quarter today, and those that may establish
themselves there in future years.
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per year and have perpetual employment in the
construction industries.
3. Heritage Based Tourism
Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in
the world, and the heritage tourism component
is growing more rapidly than most other types.
Heritage visitors worldwide have different charac-
teristics than tourists in general. They tend to stay
longer, visit more places, and spend more per
day for every day they are in a city. Thus the per
visit economic impact of a heritage visitor is signi-
cantly greater than the tourist visiting a country for
other reasons.
Many cities in
Vietnam possess in-
ternational appeal
for heritage visitors.
Those visitors can
see new shopping
centers, western style
hotels, and chrome
and glass ofce
towers in their own
countries. But it is only in Vietnam that they can
see the Ancient Quarter of Hanoi, the citadel in
Hue, and the many other urban heritage sites.
Further more, while a golf course or a theme park
can be replicated anywhere, Hanois Ancient
Quarter cannot be replicated anywhere. These
are singular assets that no one else has, and no
one else can have.
In the next 20 years there will be incredible
growth in the middle class in both India and China.
It is this middle class that will provide a sizable share
of heritage tourism, and Vietnam is perfectly posi-
tioned to take advantage of that opportunity. But
the opportunity to attract well paying heritage
tourists will be lost if the heritage sites are not there
to attract them.
Concluding: Economic potential of urban
heritage in Vietnam
These three economic contributions small
business incubation, jobs, and heritage tourism
cannot be overlooked. Lessons should be drawn
from other fast growth
cities in the region.
Singapore, Hong Kong,
and Shanghai are all
Asian cities now pros-
perous and fully inte-
grated into the global
economy. But in ret-
rospect, all three now
regret they didnt save
more of their built heritage when they had the
In order to avoid a similar mistake, the preser-
vation of heritage sites should merit the highest
priority on the part of decision makers for cultural,
social, aesthetic, environmental and educational
reasons. In doing so for those important reasons,
cities will receive economic benets as well.
2. Employment Creation:
The second broad area of economic contribu-
tion of heritage buildings is the most important
element of economic development strategies
jobs. Certainly that includes the jobs in small
businesses, but more specically the jobs that are
created on an ongoing basis in the maintenance
and rehabilitation of historic buildings.
The construction industry in general has
important job creating capacity. But analyses in
Europe, North America and the Middle East have
demonstrated the signicant incremental job
creating ability of rehabilitation over new con-
struction. While the expenditures for new con-
struction will typically be fty percent materials
and fty percent labor, rehabilitation will tend to
be sixty to seventy percent labor with the balance
being materials. Why does this matter? Materials
for new construction are usually brought in from
elsewhere. In smaller countries such as Vietnam
many of those materials have to be imported from
abroad. That represents a transfer of nancial
resources out of the country. Labor, on the other
hand, tends to be local the jobs are created for
tradesmen and craftsmen from across the street
rather than across the ocean.
Furthermore, once money is spent on materials
the materials dont themselves spend any more
money. But the craftsman gets his paycheck, and
then spends it locally, on a haircut, on groceries, on
a new set of tools. Thus the same dollars are recircu-
lated within the local economy rather than perma-
nently lost to another, and often foreign economy.
Construction jobs are often dismissed as being
short-term, lasting only as long as it takes to build
the building. But because most heritage buildings
have components that have a life of twenty ve
or thirty years, this means that a city centre in
Hanoi or Ho Chi Minh City could commit to re-
habilitating two to three percent of the buildings
By 2020 international tourism is expected to nearly
double (from 898 million arrivals in 2007 to 1.6 billion
arrivals) In 2007, 167 million tourists arrived in Asia.
While Vietnam received a mere 2.1 percent of
Asian arrivals, itis in a prime position to attractmore
tourists. International tourism has been increasing in
Vietnams cities atover8 percenta yearwith a total
of 4.1 million arrivals in 2007.

tion requires
a higher
of labor costs
than new
creating skilled
local jobs
longer and
spend more
time in each
city they visit
World Tourism Organization (2008), Vietnam National Authority on Tourism
22 23
ntegrated heritage management differs from the more
traditional approach where heritage is seen as a collec-
tion of buildings, sites and traditions. Integrated heritage
management considers the social cohesion and traditions,
as well as the environment and economy as an integrated
part of the heritage of an urban area. Too often historic
centers become museums where traditional residents, skills
and trades can only be seen as tourist attractions.
Management of urban heritage should be an integral
element of an overall local sustainable development policy
for Vietnamese cities, as it is linked to vital social, environ-
mental and economic policy objectives.
Environmental policy objectives:By preserving and restoring
the original fabric of ancient neighborhoods, proper urban
heritage management helps to maintain an appropriate
and human scale in city centers, thereby preventing un-
balanced development and the negative development
externalities that may result from poorly planned new de-
velopment (trafc congestion, air pollution, poor drainage
and water management).
For example, poor planning and an unsustainable
increase in motorized transportation have clogged
Bangkoks city centre, deterring visitors and slowing the
speed of business. Destroying old buildings in the Hanois
Ancient Quarter and replacing them with large commercial
buildings and housing units will have disastrous effects on
trafc ow, water supply, waste collection and drainage.
Social policy objectives: The
protection of intangible urban
heritage is aimed at preserving
and sustaining local cultural tra-
ditions, lifestyles and livelihoods,
including trades and crafts. The
proper management of tangible
heritage, such as individual
houses and pagodas, enables
these ancient trades and tradi-
tions to survive, and in so doing
helps to maintain cohesive com-
It is difcult for residents to
imagine Beijing without the
Forbidden City, Amsterdam
without its canals, Paris without
the Eiffel tower, Hoi An without
the Japanese bridge and Hue
without the Citadel. Singapore
destroyed much of its built
heritage and regrets the con-
sequential lose of its traditional
roots. Also intangible traditions
like the Carnival in Rio, Mardi Gras
in New Orleans and the Flower
Festival in Da Lat. Without these
symbols of heritage, the unique-
ness of the social fabric would be
diminished and residents sense
of identity would be reduced.
Symbols: The Tortoise Tower in Hanoi, the streetscape in Hoi
An and the Citadel in Hue
24 25
Economic policy objectives:Good urban heritage
management contributes to local employment
creation and the economic revitalization of city
centers. Businesses, whether catering to tourists
or taking advantage of busy central locations,
create wealth in an area that can fund the
conservation of heritage. Malacca in Malaysia
receives over 5.5 million tourists a year while nearby
Palembang in Indonesia, a city that also contains
considerable heritage but has not maintained or
managed it well, receives hardly any. The well
conserved ancient city of Hoi An receives near
2 million domestic and foreign tourists annually,
while the average foreign tourists spends $76.4 in
the city each day.
In the long run the social, cultural, and environ-
mental values of heritage buildings are far more
important than their economic value. But in the
short term, for those in a position to determine
the future of heritage buildings public ofcials,
property owners, bankers, real estate developers,
and others the economic value is very important.
And it is to those groups that advocates for
heritage conservation must make their case.
In the case of tangible (built) heritage, heritage
management comprises at least seven different
approaches, ranging from passive to active as
summarized below.
Conservative/Passive Proactive/Active
Maintenance Conservation Restoration Renovation Renewal Redevelopment
The more passive or conservative approaches
to built heritage management include mainte-
nance, preservation, conservation and restora-
tion. All these approaches aim to introduce only a
minimum amount of change to an historic property
or neighborhood:
Maintenance: the upkeep of an historic property
or neighborhood.
Preservation: the act of keeping an historic
property or neighborhood safe from injury, harm,
or destruction.
Conservation: all efforts designed to understand
cultural heritage, know its history and meaning,
ensure its material safeguard and, as required, its
presentation, restoration and enhancement.
Restoration: the act of bringing an historic
property or neighborhood back to a former
position or condition.
The more active/proactive approaches to built
heritage management include renovation,
renewal and redevelopment. They aim to improve
and alter the state of built heritage:
Renovation: to restore an historic property or
neighborhood to life, vigor, or activity by bringing
it to a former, better state.
Renewal: the rebuilding of a large area of a city
by a public authority.
Redevelopment: the renovation of a blighted
The selection of an appropriate urban heritage man-
agement approachor combination of approach-
es described abovedepends on local needs and,
most importantly, on support for a chosen approach
among a range of key stakeholders, including city
authorities, local residents, local businesses, and
relevant national government agencies.
28 29
specic. For example, a conservationist may gather
informational about maritime history in Vung Tau or
consult monastic records to understand the signi-
cance of pagodas in a community in Hue.
The basic questions of heritage should be asked:
why is this signicant? What features make this site
distinctive? What cultural or historical purpose does
it serve? What value does it hold for the future?
t an ancient pagoda in Hue, young monks
carry on monastic lives while tourists wander
by, accompanying guides dispensing facts
and stories about local traditions. Meanwhile vendors
try to attract the tourists and neighborhood residents
watch on from their homes.
Since urban heritage is indeed living heritage, it is
important for planners to realize the diversity of stake-
holders. A heritage management strategy, wherein
the city chooses its vision and management plan,
should be born from the diversity and often conict-
ing nature of stakeholders desires.
FirstStage: Assessing Cultural Signicance
GOALS: It is important for planners to identify the
features of an area that make that area unique
and valuable to its residents and visitors. Gathering
truthful written, verbal and visual accounts of an
areas past and present signicance help establish a
deeperunderstanding. Planners can analyze features
whose absence would detract from the culture and
character of a place.
The Venice Charter warns against the construc-
tion of a false historicism, whereby developers try
to construct a sense of historical appearance and
function that dont match a places original values.
This commonly occurs when heritage conservation
efforts are driven solely by tourism developers.
Interview with Mr. Duc
Ancient Quarters Development
Management Board
Mr. Duc monitors new construction in the
Ancient Quarter. Duc considers there to
be some difculty in reaching consensus
among residents and notes the different
attitudes between elder residents who
are adamant about conservation, the less
concerned younger generation, and the
renters who state business as a primary
focus. He agrees though that the vitality
and the uniqueness of the Ancient Quarter
are enjoyed by all its residents. He says, the
intangible culture of the Ancient Quarter is
the most valuable aspect. The general at-
mosphere and liveliness of the streets should
always be.
METHODS: There are ve general catego-
ries of value dened by UNESCO: Scientic,
Social, Spiritual, Architectural/Aesthetic, and
Historic. When trying to understand the history
of a neighborhood, historical records of land
ownership, demography and commercial
activity can be utilized. These records often
provide an understanding of the continuity and
change in a neighborhood and may help con-
servationists better understand the dynamics
of a community. Research need not be site
30 31
ACTIONS: When assessing cultural signicance,
there are ways for planners in Vietnam to
document their ndings:
*Dossiers: a comprehensive le containing
detailed information about a site or an aspect of
intangible culture.
Action: Collect documentation and conduct an
expert site survey
*Inventory/Register: a list of site information that
can be given to local agencies to increase
awareness about cultural heritage and its
locations. The city of Toronto publishes its Historic
Register on its website.
Action: Compile summaries of sites and intangible
cultural traditions
*Monument ranking: Grading and ranking of
heritage is the processes whereby heritage is
assigned a level of importance and protection.
The Thang Long Imperial Citadel has been desig-
nated as national heritage.
Action: Dossiers are to be sent to the Ministry of
Culture, Sports and Information
*Maps: In Hue a digital map of the citadel has been
created to better understand its spatial orientation.
Action: create a map using survey measurements
Second Stage: Encouraging Community and
Private SectorParticipation
GOALS: Residents should be allowed an active
role in the planning and design of heritage conser-
vation efforts. In Vietnam there is a strong sense of
cultural pride. Residents are proud of their history
and their intangible cultural heritage. By improving
the aesthetics of built heritage together with the
continuation of intangible heritage, this pride is
manifested in the landscape.
Through active participation, residents develop
a sense of ownership and responsibility concern-
ing the street and house they live in. In the process
of giving opinions and watching projects develop,
residents feel a greater sense of belonging and
value in their community. In the Ancient Quarter
in Hanoi, the average duration of residency is
55 years. This means that older residents have
witnessed the transformations of their neighbor-
hoods through times of war, struggle, change,
and family growth. They have also witnessed a
physical transformation as economic changes
altered their communities. Whether appreciative
of change or nostalgic for the past, most residents
feel a strong connection to their neighborhoods.
Conservation can be considered as a program
of human development. The rst benets are to
the society, which are in the form of strength-
ened communities, a sense of belonging, and
the increased sense of pride that is produced by
heritage awareness.
Secondly, the potential benets of improved
living conditions and increased economic vitality
(tourism, jobs, new businesses, and real estate
value). For these reasons, heritage requires an
inter-disciplinary approach that is not merely ac-
commodating in its vision but actively promotion-
al of many distinctive objectives.
In Nepal, The Kathmandu Municipal Corporation (KMC) has under-
taken extensive efforts to educate citizens about their heritage and envi-
ronment. The KMC has been successful by encouraging a broad process
of community and citizen participation, coupled with in-depth efforts at
community education. The KMC states two goals: civic pride, and a belief
that community involvement leads to heritage conservation success. These
initiatives have produced positive results in efforts ranging from waste man-
agement to renovation. During the recent renovation of a central heritage
building, supportive citizens donated small amounts of gold.
In addition to a unique level of interaction with, and reliance on, residents,
the KMC involves the local business community. The KMC has privatized
some government services and empowered citizens to make choices about government services
that have increased efciency and service quality.
METHODS: The community should be
instrumental in shaping conservation
goals. Their role is NOT to lend support to
a proposal, but to be real actors in the
crafting of ideas and visions.
If businesses are aware of the economic
benets of heritage conservation, they
too will want to play a role in conservation
efforts. Changes made by businesses in
the process of heritage conservation (e.g.
reduced elements of modernity, more
subtle signage and corporate logos) are
often engines for growth as they attract
customers to the area.
32 33
ACTIONS: Public participation necessitates
constant engagement of stakeholders. Following
are some actions to engage the community.
*Survey: Asking questions of area residents helps
planners understand community opinions.
Action: prepare questions and distribute them in
the target area.
*Heritage Celebrations: in Hue, leaders often
organize celebrations and festivals to showcase
tangible and intangible culture, including the
annual nine-day Hue Festival.
Action: engage local donors, businesses and
cultural groups
*Community Education: In Sumatra, a version of
the board game monopoly was made with local
heritage locations to educate children.
Action: engage local schools and community
groups to organize education.
*Focus Groups: when studying the Ancient Quarter
in Hanoi, the HAIDEP research team composed of
Japanese and Vietnamese experts held in depth
group discussions with residents to gauge their
sentiments about the areas heritage.
Action: engage community members representa-
tive of population diversity
*Conservation Updates: The Royal Asiatic Society
of Hong Kong publishes a free newsletter to
update citizens about ongoing heritage conser-
vation projects.
Action: compile and publish information about
*Open Door Government Ofces: In Madison,
U.S.A, citizens are encouraged to enter govern-
ment ofces and either speak directly to staff or
leave statements of concern.
Action: consider mechanisms for public feedback
to proposed actions
*Community Work Days (voluntary labor): lay
persons in Myanmar often volunteer their services
for the maintenance of pagodas and temples.
Action: engage the community by planning days
for site projects.
Third Stage: Developing a Strategy
GOALS: Once the objectives of a heritage con-
servation effort are agreed upon (refer to chapter
2) and a vision is drafted, these objectives must
be integrated with other goals drawn from visions
and plans in use by the city. For the conserva-
tion of intangible heritage, plans should propose
to develop the connection between an aspect of
culture and other tangible and intangible things
around it.
METHODS: After all stakeholders have been
initially consulted, details of the strategy should
be laid out. A strategy should include a clear
plan with goals, objectives and strategies and
an acknowledgement of the responsible stake-
Action Plan
September 2008-2010
Investment Conference I
September 2008
Hanoi 1000 years
Cultural capital of
Asia (J uly 2010
December 2010)
Hanoi 2025 Strategy
Hanoi AQ Profile
Economic Impact
tion of 2025
exhibitions, arts,
International UN
10 priority Projects
2025 Strategy
Capacity Building
PHASE I (9 months)
Institutional strengthening
Stakeholder Identification
Economic impact assessment
Hanoi Profile
Identification of projects
Formulation of Vision
Implementation of major Infrastructure works
Action plan implementation (continued)
PHASE II (20 months)
Capacity Building
Action Plan implementation
Strategy preparation
cultural events (music, art, etc)
International conference
Signing of 2025 Strategy
2nd Investment conference
Above are two diagrams from the Toronto heritage management strategy and below is a
diagram from a development strategy for Hanois Ancient Quarter proposed by Urban Solutions.
3. Goal: Conserve Heritage Resources
4. Goal: Generate Awareness
5. Goal: Approprinately Fund Conservation
1. Identifying Heritage Resources
1.1 Criteria for determining cultural heritage value or interest
1.2 Heritage Impact Assessments
1.3 Properties of Cultural Heritage Value or Interest
1.4 Heritage Conservation Districts
2. The Management Structure
34 35
ACTIONS: Urban heritage strategies should include
some, if not all, of the following actions.
*Vision: The vision for Hoi An emphasizes the need
for it to remain a livable city while sharing its
culture and history with visitors, and the need to
achieve equitable income distribution.
Action: engage stakeholders to agree upon a
suitable vision
*Action Plan: A timeline and budget for projects
and a description of management responsibilities.
Hoi Ans action plan describes the main issues
including income distribution and local education
and the responsible agencies.
Action: organize stakeholder meetings to create
*Financial Plan: A summary of funding sources,
nancial commitments and direct nancial costs.
Action: seek funding from multiple sources and
predict conservation costs
*Incentives: Building owners within historic areas
sometimes feel unfairly burdened by regulations.
Thus, incentives for conservation are often built
into the legal code to encourage responsibility
and reward owners for conservation (refer to box
Action: consider nancial and zoning mechanisms
to reward conservation
*Street Design: In Singapores Chinatown, street
improvements began with the harmonization of
advertisement boards.
Action: survey the street and compare with other
well maintained streetscapes.
*Pilot Project: A project at a select site should be
carried out to create a model process. This project
should be well documented and organized in con-
junction with universities, planners and heritage
experts, as it is an opportunity for everyone to
learn and to address specic contextual problems
(refer to Box 3.1.3)
Action: select an appropriate site and identify
experts and local stakeholders
Fourth Stage: Implementing the Heritage Strategy
GOALS: In an area targeted for conservation,
new developments should reinforce the sense of
place. Through adaptive reuse and promotion, an
area will continue to stay economically healthy.
Heritage efforts should be capable of adapting
to changes in economy and dealing with unex-
pected challenges without losing sight of the
agreed conservation objectives. In Hanois
Ancient Quarter, many of the streets are experienc-
ing economic changes. Streets like Ma May have
transitioned away from their original functions to
benet from the more protable tourism business.
As the number of tourists increases in the Ancient
Quarter, more businesses will appear to cater to
their demands. The Ancient Quarters economic
separation, whereas individual streets have his-
torically been characterized by single products
and guilds, represents an important aspect of in-
tangible culture. Planners must balance the need
for tourist infrastructure and services without losing
the sense of place that these guilds bestow.
METHODS: At all times throughout the heritage
conservation process it is important to keep a
holistic view. Neglecting different interests in a
place can cause a project to lose support.
Box 3.1.3 Nguyen Thai Hoc StreetProject
Start date: April, 2000.
Scale: Initial phase included the restoration of 11 of the 21 buildings on
the street, the water supply, drainage networks, and sidewalks.
Cost: 6,222,000,000 VND (429,000USD)
Result: 20% increase in tax revenue from Nguyen Thai Hoc Street
In April 2000, the government of Hoi An began an effort to restore and revitalize Nguyen Thai
Hoc Street. Previously, most of the heritage conservation efforts had been on Tran Phu and Le Loi
streets, where tourists spent most of their time and money. The average income on Tran Phu and
Le Loi streets was nearly double the average income on Nguyen Thai Hoc Street. The city of Hoi An
invested 6,222 million Vietnamese Dong into eleven buildings on Nguyen Thai Hoc. The majority
of these buildings are private homes and small businesses. This project also included the creation
of a community centre, two small museums and two ofces. Furthermore, to improve the general
condition of the street, the city upgraded the water supply, rebuilt drainage networks and con-
structed new sidewalks. The development of Nguyen Thai Hoc was formulated and achieved by a
broad spectrum of groups, including UNESCO representatives, the Department of Commerce and
Tourism, the Department for Monuments Management and Preservation, private donors and local
home owners.
36 37
The result of these efforts has been a steady increase in the number of tourists onto Nguyen
Thai Hoc Street and a broadening of Hoi Ans tourist areas. City authorities have made efforts
to increase awareness about Nguyen Thai Hoc Street by distributing maps displaying its attrac-
tions and by promoting it on Hoi Ans website. Since then, merchants on Nguyen Thai Hoc have
seen their prots rise and home owners have witnessed a signicant increase in the value of their
homes. The tax revenue from commercial activity on the street increased 20 percent after the
restoration efforts were complete.
ACTIONS: When implementing the heritage
strategy, planners should focus on ensuring that
the goals and objectives are being met while
improving the capacity of responsible institutions.
*Database: a collection of dossiers and documents
relating to heritage sites and aspects of intangible
heritage. The city of Hue is considering building a
spatial database which would include all the old
house and sites in the city.
Action: engage all relevant agencies and seek
exchanges of information
*Heritage Impact Assessments (HIAs): The city of
Hong Kong uses detailed HIAs to ensure that new
developments dont negatively impact heritage
(refer to chapter 4.3).
Action: inspect HIAs and make sure remedial
measures are completed
*Monitoring Report: A UNESCO monitoring report
for Luang Prabang analyzed the rational for
buildings selected for conservation and studied
the effectiveness of local agencies.
Action: create monitoring materials and evalua-
tion tools
*Capacity Building: Training of planners in heritage
management must be an on-going process.
Training should also be provided to architects, de-
velopers and builders.
Action: assess training needs and set training and
occupational standards
*Heritage Promotion: awareness is vital to the
success of future conservation (refer to 3.2).
Action: engage the community and media
There is often a delicate line between societys heritage conservation goals and the desire of individ-
ual property owners to redevelop private heritage properties. The declaration of private buildings as
heritage sites, or the local recognition of any building as having heritage value, can be problematic.
Many countries offer incentives to owners of heritage buildings. Following are some examples of this
1. In Sydney, Australia, the potential oor space (development potential) from listed heritage sites can
be transferred to another site, and such transferred development potential can be sold.
2. In Singapore, heritage buildings are free from many construction laws and requirements, including
car-park provisions, development charges, and building site ratios.
3. In New York City, U.S.A, heritage buildings arent restricted by zoning requirements or built form
Another common solution is to offer nancial incentives to owners of heritage buildings:
4. In Hoi An, Vietnam, owners of heritage homes are provided with non-interest loans for conservation
5. In Los Angeles, U.S.A, tax rebates are given to owners of heritage homes that undertake respectful
6. In Chicago, U.S.A, a ne is levied against heritage site owners that dont comply with heritage laws.
7. In Elmina, Ghana, residents are provided a certain percentage of the renovation cost if they
become a member of the home owner scheme.
Case Study: Negative Side Effects: Lijiangs Rebirth
Lijiang, China, is an 800 year old trading city rich in ethnic diversity and architectural preservation.
Since its inception to the World Heritage List in 1997, tourism has boomed and the city has undergone
physical and commercial changes to suit its new role.
While many of these changes have been well planned by authorities, some have had negative
effects on the citys tangible and intangible heritage. In the most historic part of the city, high rent
prices and changes in land use have prompted many older residents to lease out their homes and
38 39
move away from the city. Prohibitions on local grocery and convenience stores in the central area,
where only items for tourists may be sold, have diminished the local cultural. While the government
has made efforts to develop local handicrafts and provided special incentives for local residents,
there is strong competition from migrant merchants and their cheap mass produced souvenirs.
Built heritage has also suffered as many historic buildings have been replaced by new buildings
in pseudo traditional styles. Although guidelines exist for renovation, local authorities complain
that they are vague and inadequately enforced. Furthermore, the city lacks a place to educate
local architects and builders about heritage conservation.
According to researchers from ACHRs Asian Heritage Project, poor tourism education and a
lack of participatory opportunities for local residents are partially responsible for the outward ow of
the local population. Property owners are rarely allowed a role in planning decisions. This is further
compounded by residents difculty in adapting to the new tourist driven economy.
PROMOTION: Documentation of a conservation
effort makes promotion of a heritage site easier.
Once a heritage conservation project is complete,
promotion can raise awareness about the efforts
and bring tourists to the site.
Often residents living in historic cities are not
fully aware that their surroundings have deep
historical roots or are potentially attractive to
tourists. Active documentation and communica-
tion reap numerous benets: they build pride and
possession in a community, gather momentum for
conservation efforts, and lay the groundwork for
tourism promotion.
SIGNS: After reading a sign, visitors are likely to
spend a longer time experiencing a site or watching
a display of traditional culture. These signs can be
located on streets, against exterior walls or inside
foyers. Banners can also provide simple informa-
tion about heritage that informs visitors.
MAPS AND BROCHURES: Maps and brochures
make information available to visitors and help
them plan their sightseeing activities. Maps that
provide brief informative paragraphs that corre-
spond to elements of heritage connect a readers
spatial understanding of a place with its cultural
Brochures can also be made available to share
information and history about a place. These can
also should recount the efforts of conservation
and acknowledge the sources of funding.
MEDIA PROMOTION: Raising awareness about
heritage helps raise support for conservation
efforts. Using local newspapers and television
news channels, the stories of conservation and
heritage will foster pride in the community and
attract local visitors to a place.
There are also less direct forms of media
promotion. Since heritage sites usually hold unique
aesthetic value, they are often used by aesthetic
and creative industries (lm producers, wedding
photographers, artists, etc.). Awards are another
way to involve the media while recognizing quality
conservation work (refer to Box 3.2.1)
COMMUNITY EDUCATION: Community approach-
es to heritage education should be considered.
When projects are completed, it is often possible
to invite community members, especially those
that contributed to their completion, to toast
the effort. These occasions are also a chance to
encourage community care and stewardship of
a heritage.
Another way is to involve local schools. Heritage
conservation efforts are a good opportunity to
start children thinking about heritage and under-
standing the history of their neighborhood and
40 41
BOX 3.2.1 Recognizing Conservation in Singapore
The city of Singapore acknowledges outstanding work in the eld of heritage conservation on
an annual basis. The citys Architectural Heritage Awards are given in two categories. The rst is
to the best work on national monuments and fully conserved buildings. This award is based on
the three R criteria: maximum Retention, sensitive Restoration and careful Repair. The second
category includes buildings that blend old elements with new developments and designs. Ap-
plicants are considered by the Assessment Committee, comprised of university and government
representatives. On average, the Assessment Committee chooses six buildings each year.
44 45
he history of a city is stored in its built heritage.
In their minds residents bind their memories
and the history lessons theyve inherited to
the built structures around them. When these
structures are transformed or demolished, this his-
torical awareness fades. Conserving built heritage
is an important part of cultural and future cultural
development. For successful built heritage con-
servation, planners should implement strong regu-
lations, but also be aware that each site needs
specic planning.
In Vietnam, local governments (peoples com-
mittees) are responsible for managing and devel-
oping the urban area. When it comes to urban
heritage this responsibility might be shared with
a special conservation committee or board (like
in Hanoi, Hoi An and Hue). The roles and the re-
sponsibilities between the boards or committees
and the peoples committee are not always clear
(refer to Chapter 6 for details relating to respon-
sible institutions).
To prevent new developments from robbing
neighborhoods of their historic character, local gov-
ernments should promulgate local laws. In Vietnam
these can be written by heritage experts at the city,
district or ward level (or in special boards/commit-
tees). These regulationsshould be widely acknowl-
edged and strictly enforced. For enforcement to
be more effective, these regulations should be in-
corporated into a larger zoning code.
Urban neighborhoods rich in tangible heritage
should also publish guidelines of design to
harmonize architectural styles. While regulations
strictly forbid, guidelines are strong recommen-
dations. The drafting of regulations and design
guidelines should be done by inter-disciplinary
committees of urban planners, architects, histori-
ans, lawyers, code regulators and neighborhood
Box 4.1.1 CASESTUDY: Guidelines in the United States
In the United States, there are 2,300 local heritage districts that have promulgated design regula-
tions and guidelines.
*A guideline in the River District in Portland, advises signs and awnings t with and respect a build-
ings architecture.
*A guideline in Chapel Hills Historic District states, The rhythm of building massing is important in
creating a visually comprehensible environment. This involves the organization of building elements
or spaces between them in a logical sequential manner.
*A guideline in Wales Garden, Columbia states that new roofs should be designed to be distin-
guished from the historic portion of the building.
Choosing an approach for a specic site is
dependant on the interest of stakeholders. If an
active approach is selected, new developments
should reinforce the sense of place.
In publicly owned orfunded heritage sites, there
are some common problems that can be avoided
and some strategies that can be followed:
1. Dont pay too much for acquisition
2. Dont spend too much on rehabilitation; predict
the likely buyer/renter and dont over-improve
3. Dont give control of nancial issues to the
architect; however, dont give control of design
issues to bankers
1. Do conduct a thorough physical analysis of a site
2. Do have early discussions with regulators and
public ofcials
3. Do only use architects familiar with rehabilitation
4. Do make as many reversible changes as
5. Do prepare for adaptive re-use and plan for
mixed uses
6. Do use multiple sources of funding
When applying principles of adaptive reuse, let
the building tell you what it wants to be by accu-
rately analyzing its design and potential uses.
In privately owned heritage buildings, funding
and approach selection are signicantly more
complex. These complexities necessitate a exible
and innovative approach to heritage manage-
ment that addresses the needs of stakeholders.
When selecting an approach for a specic
site and drafting the details of design, heritage
experts should advise builders and owners. Regu-
lations of design should be made clear to builders,
who then must address these issues in a Heritage
Impact Assessment (chapter 4.3). Where con-
servation regulations arent comprehensive, it is
possible to negotiate additional details of design
with property owners on a case by case basis
(refer to box 4.2.1).
It isbest to rely on ar-
chitectsand builders
with extensive
experience and
knowledge about
renovating heritage
By predicting the
likely buyer or user of
a heritage building,
plannerscan make
realistic decisions
about cost and
46 47
While negotiating the details of a site, it is benecial to make a short statement of vision for a heritage
site that illustrates the heritage value, the communitys perspective and the architects ideas (refer to
the form in the back of this manual)
Box 4.2.1 CASESTUDY: Negotiating with Heritage Owners
In an effort to protect privately owned heritage buildings outside historic districts, the city of
Vancouver, Canada uses Heritage Revitalization Agreements. These Agreements are mutually
benecial to the city and the owner and help prevent the destruction or diminishment of heritage
buildings. Through negotiations with the owner a legally binding agreement is formed that super-
sedes city regulations.
These agreements can change zoning requirements and vary density, use or siting regulations.
Unlike the legal incentives discussed in Box 3.1.2, Heritage Revitalization Agreements are individual
agreements that apply to a single property.
Example of a Heritage Revitalization Agreement
In order to conserve an historic hotel and to construct a new building beside it, a signicant
investment in restoration work was required. The city of Vancouver negotiated a HRA with the
property owner that addressed their concerns:
1) the HRA described the details of the new development and forbade improvements outside this
detailed description.
2) the HRA varied siting requirements, removing requirements for the new building to be set back
from the street.
3) the HRA allowed non-conforming uses of the building, including guest accommodation
4) the HRA increased the allowable density on the site.
In return, the owner agreed to restore, maintain and protect the exterior of the building. The
owner also agreed to restore the interior lobby, the grand staircase and the ballroom, rather
than replacing them.
like one in
U.S.A., which
front entrances
and orient
them to the
main street,
seek to
continue past
Adaptive reuse and mixed use planning ensure
that buildingscontinue their contributionsto the
A thorough
a heritage
site before
renovation is
necessary to
ensure that the
building issafe
Controlling costsof
renovation iscentral
to success. A balance
must be struck
between the wishesof
architectsand those
responsible for funding
One goal of renova-
tion isto maintain the
integrity of the building.
At thissite, the integrity
of the heritage building
hasbeen signicantly
48 49
Four Facts about Heritage Buildings
To ensure that new developments do not negatively impact existing urban heritage, many cities use
Heritage Impact Assessments (HIAs).
In Hong Kong HIAs are required for all renovation projects on designated built heritage. They are also
advisable for any new developments that are less than 50 meters from a heritage site.
In Hong Kong, from 1 January 2008 onwards, planners of all capital works projects in the Territory
need to ll in a checklist to determine whether planned new projects will impact a heritage site.
If a planned project does impact a heritage site, the project must undergo a Heritage Impact
The rst action is to determine which sites require HIAs. The Antiquities and Monuments Ofce in
Hong Kong is responsible for conducting baseline studies to determine which buildings fall into the
following categories:
(i) all sites of archaeological interest;
(ii) all pre-1950 buildings and structures;
(iii) selected post-1950 buildings and structures
of high architectural and historical
signicance and interest;
(iv) landscape features include sites providing a signicant historical
record or a setting for buildings or monuments
of architectural or archaeological importance
Information regarding specic sites is gained by the Antiquities and Monuments Ofce through
eld evaluation, archeological survey and desk top analysis of historical records.
50 51
A description of the measures envisaged in
order to avoid, reduce and if possible, remedy
signicant adverse effects (the mitigating
measures), and their proposed costs and a list
of the actors involved;
An outline of the main alternatives proposed by
the project planner
and an indication
of the main reasons
for their choice,
taking into account
cultural heritage,
social and environ-
mental effects;
A non technical
summary of the
above information.
A partial HIA,
completed for
projects with only minimal impact on the heritage
site, should contain at least the rst three sections
outlined above.
Step 4: Consideration of the HIA and Proposed
Remedial Measures
In the nal step, the competent authorities
consider the submitted impact assessment and
give their notice of approval or rejection, based
on established criteria for HIAs.
In case of approval, the project planners are
given the go-ahead from the point of view of
cultural heritage authorities to implement the
proposed projectconditional on implemen-
tation of the proposed remedial measures as
submitted in the HIA. In the case of rejection, the
project planners must revise and re-submit their
Step 1: Determining the Need
foran ImpactAssessment
For this purpose, two questions
need clear legal answers:
What is a declared heritage
Declared sites are dened
by government agencies (refer
to chapter 6.1). The criteria for
making such determinations is
described in the Law of Cultural
Heritage and Decree 92 (Annex
1 and 2)
What constitutes impact?
Article 4 of Decree 92 gives
a general description of what
constitutes impact.
New developments that
dont respect the original
elements and actions that
distort the value of a site
are considered negative. For
questions concerning a specic
site, local agencies can be
Step 2: Determining the Scale of
The authorities can make a
useful distinction between two
categories of impact:
1. Projects with only minimal
impact on the heritage site.
In this case, only a partial HIA
is required
2. Projects with moderate or
major impact on the heritage
site. In this case, a full HIA is
Step 3: Submission of a Heritage
In the third step, project
planners should submit either a
full or partial HIA.
A full HIA, completed for
projects with moderate or
major impact on the heritage
site, should contain at least the
following sections:
A description of the develop-
ment proposed, comprising
information about the site
and the design and size or
scale of the development.
Data required to identify
and assess the main effects
which that development is
likely to have on the envi-
ronment (based on informa-
tion submitted by project
planners in Step 2);
54 55
any of Vietnams ancient urban areas
are like overgrown jungles: beneath
tangled wires, overwhelming sign boards
and decaying facades hide buildings of great
architectural and historical value. The marks of
recent urban development often overshadow
the old, and heritage buildings are rarely given
settings suitable with their signicance. Harmo-
nizing sign positions and styles and upgrading
elements of the street have many positive effects,
including the creation of respectful settings for
heritage sites.
When renovating damaged or deteriorating
elements of a heritage building, planners should
always consider repair before replacement.
Where replacement is necessary, new material
should be compatible with historic material in ap-
pearance, texture, colour and form, yet be distin-
guishable from historic fabric.
When alterations are made to a heritage
building, it is a good idea to make these changes
reversible. At some time in the future it may be
necessary to alter or remove the rehabilitation work
for historic, aesthetic or functional reasons. New
work should, in spirit and material, be designed so
that it may be removed leaving the essential form
and integrity of the building intact.
Boxes 5.1.1 to 5.1.3 give explanations of regu-
lations and guidelines in three large cities: Hong
Kong, Vancouver, and San Francisco.
BOX 5.1.1 Hong Kong SAR
In Hong Kong, new developments near heritage sites must respect the site and not diminish
its architectural integrity. The law states that larger elements should be located farthest from the
heritage feature (Figures 1 and 2). Furthermore, views to heritage buildings should remain open
(Figure 3).
BOX 5.1.2 Chinatown District, Vancouver, Canada
Heritage architects in Vancouver recognize a series of design elements
that are unique to the Chinatown area. These include an emphasis on ver-
ticality tall windows and columns, an emphasis on soft paint colors with
bright colors used for trim, and a large number of small wooden signs. They
also considered building widths and heights to be important in the past
philosophies of design and essential to preserving the authenticity.
As an historic district, Chinatown, Vancouver has its own set of design
regulations and guidelines. These regulations, for example, limit the width of
shop fronts or demand segmentation with pillars to a width no greater than
7.6meters (gure 1). They place regulations on the height of each story in
relation to the neighboring building and oors higher than the overall rec-
ommended height are to be set back from the front of the building (gure
2). The city publishes guidelines for both declared heritage sites and non-
designated historic buildings inside the district.
BOX 5.1.3 Downtown Conservation Districts, San Francisco, U.S.A
The city of San Francisco places special emphasis on the scale of buildings in heritage areas.
The city places less emphasis on the details of architectural design, recognizing the importance of
heterogeneity and individuality within heritage areas.
In gure 1, The buildings on the block have a variety of building forms and details, however,
the overall building scale is uniform, helping dene the blocks visual character. Figure 2 shows
the inappropriateness of a building with a starkly different shape and roof design than the other
buildings on the street.
Figure 3 stresses the importance of new windows matching the scale of other windows on the
street. In this historic area windows are traditionally small.
Figures1 Figures2 Figures3
gure1 gure2 gure3
56 57
Contrasting design and positioning of signs often
have a negative impact. Discordant signs obscure
and distract from the appearance of heritage
Elements that positively affect the sense of place
in heritage areas:
*similar sizes of signs
*controlled elements of modernity blending the
old and the new
*similar colour schemes and tones
*matching vertical or horizontal sign positions
*moderate display of company logos
58 59
Street design is often an important factor in the feeling of a place. In Vietnam, the energy and vitality
of street scenes often set the tone for a neighborhood. Small scale improvements can bring harmony
to street scenes while accentuating the architecture of buildings and the culture of the street. Urban
fragments are signicantly bolstered by good street design, which links built heritage and intangible
There are many nice featureson thishistoric street in Hoi An. There are no visible
signs, except for a small well hung banner. Floor levelsare approximately the
same height and modern elements(i.e - down-pipes, air conditioners, etc) are
hidden or well disguised. Although the overhead wiresare tangled they are
raised higher than in most Vietnamese cities.
waste bins
mobile signs
electric wire
electricity boxes
greenery (trees, bushes)
air conditioning units
balcony design
metal roofs
drain pipes
street/wall lights
Thisrenovated heritage building in HanoisAncient Quarter doesnot have a respectful setting. The sur-
rounding buildingshave excessive sign boardsand overowing displays. The overhead wiresadd to the
general disharmony on the street
60 61
BOX 5.3.1 StreetSurvey in Hanois AncientQuarter
A survey in the Ancient Quarter conducted by the ALMEC Corporation analyzed residents
sentiments about street design and sense of place. Residents stated overhead wires, oversized
sign boards and unharmonized colours as negative visual elements. Residents also complained
about a lack of sidewalk space, an un-unied installment of urban facilities and overowing
parking arraignments.
On thisstreet
in Hanoi
the tangled
wiresare very
low. The pho-
tography shop
in the center
hasan excess
of signs, strong
dont compli-
ment other
hueson the
street and
bright modern
62 63
Hanois Ancient Quarter
In the Ancient Quarter intangible
culture continues to thrive but modern
elements are creeping in. A historic
building (bottom center) has had the
lower level remodeled with a modern
door front, exterior materials and sign.
Two neighboring banks in the Ancient
Quarter (bottom right), where one has
renovated an old building and selected
a moderate sign, the other has chosen
for modern materials and a large sign
that obscures the historic building.
Bottom left, a sketch of a Vietnamese shop house. The interior or ancient houses often have
polished wood columnsand sometimessmall courtyards. Garden house (top center) are unique
in the city of Hue.
66 67
rom the public sector, heritage manage-
ment is dependant on good leadership. Fur-
thermore, a thorough understanding of the
mechanisms that work as incentives and deter-
rents is imperative to success. The laws of heritage
protection serve as a backbone for heritage
management, but are not an end in themselves.
For these laws to be most effective and strictly
enforced, heritage conservation must constitute
an economic and social priority.
According to the Law on cultural heritage
(Article 54, 55 & 56), major contents of state man-
agement for heritage include:
1. Formulate and guide the implementation of
strategies, plans and policies on preservation
and promotion of cultural heritage values.
2. Promulgate and organize implementation of
regulatory and legal documents on cultural
3. Organize and provide guidance for activities of
preservation and promotion of cultural heritage
values; Disseminate laws and regulations of
cultural heritage
4. Organize and manage scientic research,
training activities on cultural heritage
5. Mobilize and utilize resources to preserve and
promote cultural heritage
6. Remunerate people with contributions to
heritage preservation and promotion
7. Cooperation with international organizations to
preserve and promote cultural heritage values
8. Supervise heritage and prosecute legal viola-
tions on cultural heritage


MANAGEMENTATCENTRALLEVEL(Ministry of Culture Sportsand Tourism,
departmentsofcultural heritage, related ministries)
1. Formulate and organize implementation
Strategies, plans and policies to preserve and promote cultural
heritage values;
2. Evaluate and approve projects of conservation and promotion for
cultural heritage values;
3. Classify heritages and grant licenses
4. Train officials, research, disseminate and educate about laws and
regulations; inspect impacts on cultural heritage.
MANAGEMENTATLOCAL LEVELS (Province/City/District/Ward (commune)
PeoplesCommitteesin charge ofadministration and departments/Division
in charge ofprofessional matters)
1. Formulate plans to preserve and promote local cultural heritage
2. Grant licenses for activities of preservation and promotion for local
cultural heritage
3. Make decisions for classification approval or dismissal of provincial
4. Approve projects of preservation, maintenance and restoration.
5. Inspect and monitor legal observance on heritage
6. Ward (commune) levels: to preserve and promote local heritage;
prevent and deal with violations; propose authorities for heritage classifi-
cation; Make plans for preservation and promotion of local heritage.
PROFESSIONALINSTITUTIONS(ICM, Institute ofarchitectural studies,
Universities, etc.)
1. Formulate basic studies and research on heritage, application studies on
technologies of preservation and maintenance;
2. Provide advisory services; Formulate heritage preservation and promo-
tion projects
3. Advise governmental management bodies in promulgation of relevant
4. Train officials, public knowledge and provide guidance to transfer
Organizational structure of heritage management and conservation
68 69
Case Study: Jakarta Kota Tua
In the 1970s, authorities in Jakarta Kota Tua, with international assistance, drafted action plans
to protect this historic area of the city in the face of rapid urban development and moderniza-
tion. The plans called for creative reuse of the heritage places - including the squares, markets
and museums - that would accommodate businesses and lead to a resurrection of these areas
as commercial and tourism centers. All funding for the revitalization projects came from interna-
tional donors. Initial efforts focused on conserving and beautifying a selection of key locations,
including Kali Bezar, Fatahillah Square, and several museums. After the initial conservation and
revitalization efforts, Kota Tua faced several problems. Since all the funding arrived from inter-
national donors, there was not enough investment to continue the maintenance of sites and
to conserve new ones. Furthermore, repairs to aging and overloaded infrastructure consumed
much of the budget.
Kota Tua faced management problems due to bureaucracy and limited resources. Lack of
coordination between government agencies hindered the speed and effectiveness of con-
servation efforts. Although Jakarta Kota was protected by a governors decree and adopted
international principles of conservation, these laws were poorly integrated into the existing legal
structure. At the administrative levels, there were few clear guidelines on how new develop-
ment was to be accommodated or a clear understanding of how conservation laws were to
be applied.
Kota Tua has made more recent gains in heritage conservation, but much of the area remains
neglected. Poor consideration and impoverished conditions have left the area unprotected
and unable to attract a signicant number of tourists.
In Vietnam, to perform urban heritage management, implement an urban development plan, or
simply develop construction or economic activities, the heritage managers, planners, and developers
should refer to the regulatory documents listed in Annex 1 and Annex 2. The local documents and pro-
cedures in Hanoi, Hue and Hoi An are based on these national documents with specic application to
each city (see Annex 2). A pair of national laws focuses in detail on cultural heritage protection.
1. Law on Cultural Heritage enacted by the National Assembly on 29 June 2001
2. Government Decree 92/2002/ND-CP on 11 November 2002 details implementation of Law on
Cultural Heritage
Managerial levels for heritage in Vietnam
Prime Minister
Minister of Culture
Sports and Tourism
Chairman of Provin-
cial Peoples Com-
Province/City Board of
Heritage Management
(For important heritages, the
management board is
under direct supervision of
province/city peoples
committees Eg. Hue and
Hoi An)
Province/City Board of
Heritage Management
For large scale and com-
plex heritages, an inter-
sectoral management
board is established under
supervision of the District
Peoples Committee
(Hanoi Ancient Quarter)
Division of Culture and
Prime Minister Minister of Culture Sports
and Tourism
approves projects,
designs of conservation,
renovation and restora-
tion for heritages under
the Ministrys direct
supervision, including Hue
and Hoi An. Province/city
peoples committee
Chairman approves
projects of preservation,
maintenance and
restoration of heritage
using local budget
funding Previous agree-
ment must be obtained
from the Ministry of
Culture Sports and
Tourism on projects and
conservation designs.
Levelsto approve investmentprojects
Group A* Group B,C*
Chairman of the Province or Citys
People Committee
* Classification of investment projectsinto A, Bor C level isidentified in investment law
70 71
Case Study: The Central Cultural Fund (Kandy, Sri Lanka)
The Central Cultural Fund, established in Kandy, Sri Lanka in 1979, is considered to be a suc-
cessful model for heritage management. The CCF is a polycentric organization with coordina-
tion between government agencies, private consultants and university researchers. The CCF
is under the Ministry of Cultural Affairs, but has the Minister of Finance and the Prime Minister on
its Board of Governors. The CCF also coordinates with the Department of Archaeology, which
holds equal standing within the Ministry of Cultural Affairs.
Managed with the support of UNESCO, the CCF has signicant independence and generates
its own funding. While the Fund supports heritage renovation projects, it also has an important
role as a distributor of information and a general coordinating manager.
To improve regional heritage conservation and tourism development, the CCF plays a part in
the Cultural Triangle Project, with the objective of identifying and promoting heritage in neigh-
boring areas and linking them in a common tourism scheme.
The CCFs success has been due, in part, to its cooperative approach. The CCF works with
many sectoral government agencies to ensure that projects have broad bases of support and
that conicts of interest and responsibility are addressed. The CCF also has a multi-disciplinary
staff that specializes in many areas of expertise, which can provide a greater range of perspec-
tives regarding heritage sites and conservation objectives.
ANNEX 1: National Legislation
Urban heritages
1. Law on Cultural Heritage enacted by the National Assembly on 29 June 2001
2. Government Decree 92/2002/ND-CP on 11 November 2002 detailing implementation of the Law
on Cultural Heritage
3. Decision 05/ 2003/QD-BVHTT on 6 February 2003 by Minister of Cultural and Information promul-
gating regulations on preservation, maintenance and restoration of cultural historic heritage
and landscapes
4. Decision 1706/2001/QD-BVHTT on 24 July 2001 by Minister of Cultural and Information approving
Master Plan towards 2020 on preservation and promotion of historic heritage and landscapes
Planning, architecture and landscapes
1. Decree 08/2005/ND-CP on 24 January 2005 by the Government on construction planning (in
which article 30 stipulates regulations on urban design)
2. Decree 29 /2007/ND-CP on 27 February 2007 by the Government on urban architecture
1. Law on Construction on 26 November 2003 by the National Assembly
2. Decree 08/2005/ND-CP on 24 January 2005 by the Government detailing implementation of
Law on construction
3. Decree 29/2007/ND-CP on 27 February 2007 by the Government providing guidance on urban
architecture management
72 73
4. Circular 07/2005/TT-BXD on 7 April 2008 by the Ministry of Construction providing guidance and
instructions of formulation, appraisal and approval of construction planning
5. Decision 4/2008/QD-BXD on 3 April 2008 by the Ministry of Construction promulgating the
national standards of construction planning
6. Joint circular 4/2007/TTLT-BXD-BCA by the Ministry of Construction and Ministry of public security
on joint action to tackle legal violations in construction activities
Land Use and Management
1. Law on Land enacted on 26 November 2003 (revised and updated for previous versions enacted
in 1993, 1998 and 2001)
2. Decree 181/2004/ND-CP on 29 October 2004 by the Government detailing implementation of
Law on Land
3. Circular 01/2005/TT-BTNMT on 13 April 2005 by the Ministry of Natural resources and Environment
providing guidance and instructions on implementation of Decree 181/2004/ND-CP
Socio-Economic DevelopmentPlanning
1. Socio-economic development master plan for the northern economic focal region
2. Vietnam Agenda 21 (Strategic Orientation for Sustainable Development)
3. Socio-economic development Orientation of the Central Economic Region towards 2010, vision
for 2020
4. Master plan on socio-economic development of the central coastal provinces towards 2020,
approved by the Prime Minister on 9th May 2008
Environmental Protection
1. Law on Environmental Protection enacted on December 27, 1993. Amendment was approved on
November 29, 2005
2. Government Decree 80/2006/N-CP on August 9, 2006 detailing implementation of Law on Environ-
mental Protection. Decree 21/2008/ND-CP on 28 February 2008 on adjustment of Decree 80/2006/
3. Circular 08/2006/TT-BTNMT on September 8, 2006 providing instruction and guidance on strategic
environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental
protection engagement.
Housing and Real Estate
1. Law on Housing enacted on 29 November 2005
2. Law on Real Estate Business on 29 June 2006
1. Ordinance 39/2001/PL-UBTVQH on 16 November 2001 by the National Assembly Standing
Committee on promulgating ordinances regarding advertisements
2. Decree 24/2003/ND-CP on 13 March 2003 by the Government detailing regulations of imple-
mentation of Ordinance on Advertisement
3. Circular 43/2003/TT-BVHTT on 16 July 2003 by the Ministry of Culture and Information providing
guidance and instructions on implementation of the Government Decree 24/2003/ND-CP.
Circular 79/2005/TT-BVHTT on adjustment of Circular 43/2003/TT-BVHTT
74 75
ANNEX 2: Local Legislation
1. Decision 14/2004/QD-BVHTT in 2004 by the Minister of Cultural and Information classifying Hanoi
Ancient Quarter as national historical heritage
2. Decision 45/1999/QD-UB on 4 June 1999 by the Hanoi Peoples Committee promulgating
temporary regulations on construction management, preservation and renovation for Hanoi
Ancient Quarter
3. Decision 70 BXD/KT-QH on 30 March 1995 by the Minister of Construction approving plan of pro-
tection, renovation and development of Hanoi Ancient Quarter
4. Decision 108/QD-TTg on 20 June 1998 by the Prime Minister on adjustment of Hanoi capital
spatial master plan towards 2020
5. Decision 79/2007/QD-UB on 11 July 2007 by the Hanoi Peoples Committee promulgating regu-
lations of permitting construction activities in Hanoi
6. Decision 96/2000/QD-UB on 7 November 2000 by the Hanoi Peoples Committee approving the
detailed planning of Hoan Kiem district with scale of 1/2000
7. Hanoi socio-economic development master plan towards 2010
8. Decision 10/2001/QD-UB on 9 March 2001 by the Hanoi Peoples Committee promulgating reg-
ulations on advertisement with sign boards and banners in Hanoi
9. Decision 20/2008/QD-UBND on 16 April 2008 by the Hanoi Peoples Committee promulgating
regulations on management of street width and pavements.
1. Decision 105/TTg on 12 February 1996 approving plan to preserve and promote value of Hue
ancient capital, period 1996-2010
2. Thua Thien Hue Province socio-economic development master plan towards 2020
3. Thua Thien Hue Province socio-economic development plan, period 2006 2010
4. Hue City socio-economic development plan towards 2010
5. Adjustment and complementation for Thua Thien Hue Province land use master plan towards
2010 and 5 year land use plan (2006 2010)
6. Thua Thien Hue Province transportation master plan towards 2020
7. Hue City urban transport development orientation, period 2006-2010

Hoi An (Quang Nam)
1. Decision 50/1999/QD-UB on 7 September 1999 by Quang Nam Peoples Committee promulgat-
ing regulations of protection and use of cultural historical heritage and landscapes in Quang
Nam Province
2. Decision 2337/2006/QD-UB on 10 November 2006 by the Hoi An Town Peoples Committee pro-
mulgating regulations on management, preservation and use in Hoi Ans ancient quarter
3. Guidance on preservation for wooden architectural heritage, 2003 by Heritage Preservation
Management Centre - Hoi An Town Peoples Committee
4. Decision 04/2007/QD-UBND on 6 April 2007 by the Hoi An Town Peoples Committee promulgat-
ing management regulations for tourist activities.
5. Decision 148/2005/QD-TTg on 17 June 2008 by the Prime Minister approving Quang Nam Province
socio-economic development master plan towards 2015
6. Quang Nam Province 5 year socio-economic development plan, period 2006-2010
7. Decision 29/2006/NQ-CP on 9 November 2006 by the Prime Minister approving Quang Nam
land use master plan towards 2010 and 5 year land use plan (2006 2010)
76 77
Hoi An Vietnam
Tran Anh, chief of Hoi An Case Study Team, 2001. Implementation of the Action Plans, Hoi An-Viet Nam.
Culture, Heritage Management and Tourism: Models for Cooperation Among
Hoi An, Vietnam. Global Heritage Fund, 2002.
Conservation of Houses in Hoi An Old Town, 2008. Nhan Dan.
(http: //www. vi etnamtouri sm. gov. vn/engl i sh/i ndex2. php?opti on=com_content&do_
Hong Kong, SAR
Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines, 2006. Planning Department, The Government of Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region.
Criteria for Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment, 2007.
Hue, Vietnam
Phan Thuan An, translated by Nguyen Van Hue. Architecture of the Ancient Capital of Hue Vietnam
National Characteristics and Foreign Inuences.
Culture and Sustainable Development in the Pacic. Compiled for UNESCO by Antony Hooper
Jakarta, Indonesia
Nas, Peter J.M, 2003. The Indonesian Town Revisited. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Gill, Ronald. Jakarata
Kandy, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka: Sacred City of Kandy. State of Conservation of the World Heritage Properties in the Asia-
Pacic Region. UNESCO, 2000.
Bandaranayake, Senake, 1998. Conservation and heritage management in the World Heritage city
of Kandy. 7th Seminar on the Conservation of Asian Cultural Heritage.
A Case Study on Kandy, Sri Lanka. The Kandy Municipal Council, 2001.
Kathamandu, Nepal
Srinivas, Hari, 1999. Prioritizing Cultural Heritage in the Asia-Pacic Region: Role of City Governments. The
Global Development Research Center.
Wernicke, Ulf, 2006. Responding to Urban Development Needs in Nepal.
78 79
San Francisco, U.S.A,
Preservationists Technical Specialists Planning Information, 2008
Historic and Conservation Districts in San Francisco 2003.
Vancouver, Canada
Guidelines of Design. The City of Vancouver.
Heritage Preservation. The City of Vancouver
Cost Benet Analysis for the Cultural Build Heritage: The Conceptual Foundation. ICOMOS, 1993.
Bogaards, Rod, 2008. Cost Benet Analysis and Historic Heritage Regulation. Australian Department
of Finance: Ofce of Best Practice Regulation.
Picture Project. Sixth Framework Programme UNESCO, 2005.
Lema and Spiral, 2004. SUIT: Sustainable development of Urban historical areas through an active In-
tegration within Towns. EU Programme: Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development.
Incentives for the Preservation and Rehabilitation of Historic Homes in the City of Los Angeles. The
Getty Conservation Institute, 2004.
Smith, Brian, 2003. SUIT International Colloquium
Cultural heritage and sustainable development in SUIT (Sustainable development of Urban historical
areas through an active Integration within Towns), 2002. EU Program: Environment and Sustainable
Guidelines for Design. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, U.S.A
Guidelines for Design. City of Galveston, Texas, U.S.A
Guidelines for Design. Columbia, U.S.A
Case Studies: Essential Strategies for Effective Arts Education
80 81
The following are helpful ways for a city to effectively conserve heritage.
Comprehensive heritage survey a list with short descriptions of sites that are
declared heritage and non-designated sites that meet some if not all of the
Database of heritage sites includes information about past developments and
renovations as well as any historical documents that relate to the site.
Planning scheme that includes heritage objectives an integration of heritage
objectives into city and neighborhood plans.
Local laws to address local heritage concerns aspects of unique local heritage
often necessitate local heritage laws.
Assessment and certication of architects in heritage design a program to train
and certify architects and measures to ensure that only certied architects work
on the renovation of important heritage buildings.
A model conservation project an example that is well documented and has
clear benets.
Education materials for government ofcials about heritage a package of infor-
mation that explains heritage laws and guidelines in a specic city. The package
should include the list of declared heritage sites and general information about
heritage values.
A simple manual for owners of historic homes simple information to inform
heritage home owners about their rights and responsibilities.
Tourist guides trained to teach visitors about heritage sites heritage should be
integrated into the curriculum of tourism training schools and information about
specic sites should be provided.
Heritage education programs for the community School programs, neighbor-
hood events, etc., that help raise awareness and encourage community re-
sponibility of neighborhood heritage sites.
Heritage and cultural development programs these can include art or music
or any creative activity. Linking these activities with heritage sites helps raise
awareness about heritage and promote cultural development.
Establishment of a heritage fund a fund or another means of collecting money
for heritage conservation.
Establishment of local heritage awards by recognizing outstanding heritage
conservation and rehabilitation projects, owners are rewarded for their efforts.
Not yet Already, but
could be



OWNER/DEVELOPER:___________________________________ CONTACT:____________________
Those using this form can tick the following that are relevant to their project. As the actions are nished the
completed box can be ticked. A comment should be added to explain possible problems or the degree
to which an action was useful.
Collect information about a site
Compile a list of possible sources of funding
Compile a list of non-monetary contributors (e.g. schools, universi-
ties, government agencies)
Check laws and regulations concerning the site
Consult with local government agencies
Consult with local residents
Consult with local businesses
Choose the best approach (passive or active)
Create a timeline
Check that architects and builders are qualied to work on a
heritage site
Assist in the creation of a construction plan with HIA
Prepare informative statement or release documents for the
public and donors, explaining the signicance of cultural heritage
and your vision for the site or area
Receive and check Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA)
Follow up on initial community engagement
Check that construction is faithful to the plan and that mitigation
measures described in the HIA achieve their aim
Promote heritage (e.g. send story to the media and tourism
Regulate business and tourism at the site
Ensure new use of the site is suitable
Applicable Completed Comments
example yes / no limited resources
yes / no
Additional Comments
PROJECTNAME: ______________________________________________________________________
LOCATION: ___________________________________________________________________________
OWNER/DEVELOPER:___________________________________ CONTACT: ____________________
Urban Heritage Management in Vietnam
The rapid transformation of Vietnamese cities is putting con-
siderable strain on the countrys urban heritage. Tangible urban
heritageincluding entire ancient quarters as well as individual-
houses, pagodas and monumentsare vulnerable to decay and
are being threatened with demolition, as private developers and
landlords seek to redevelop properties in the context of a highly
competitive urban land market. The transformation does not only
affect buildings, but also intangible urban heritagein the form of
traditional customs, lifestyles and trades, which is being eroded as
older neighborhoods are gentried and traditional livelihoods are
squeezed out in the process.
In the last decade and a half, some of Vietnams cities have
made efforts to identify and protect their heritage. Yet, more often
than not old buildings are at the loosing end in todays competitive
urban market. For heritage conservation to be widely successful in
Vietnam, it is necessary for the countrys planners to recognize the
economic value of heritage and the role that heritage can play in
revitalizing urban areas.
Urban heritage conservation is not an attempt to freeze
neighborhoods and buildings in time and thereby turn them into
museums. Rather, it can be an action with multiple objectives
an effort to revitalize, reuse, and improve, all while protecting an
aspect of cultural heritage.
This manual serves as a guide to assist urban managers in the
challenges they meet on a day-to-day basis. It analyses the wide
spectrum of heritage values looking into economic, social, cultural
and design aspects and presents a set of possible tools for todays
urban heritage managers: regulatory, nancial and institutional.
The manual is illustrated with successful examples of heritage con-
servation in Vietnam and abroad.
This manual was written by members of the Institute for Conser-
vation of Monuments and Urban Solutions, B.V., in Hanoi, Vietnam,
with nancial assistance from the Netherlands Organization for In-
ternational Cooperation in Higher Education ( NUFFIC).

Institute for
Conservation of
Institute for
Conservation of