Jochen Balla, Frank Layer

Production Planning with SAP APO-PP/DS

Bonn

Boston

Contents at a Glance
Introduction ....................................................................... 1 2 An Overview of Planning with mySAP SCM ...................... An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS ................................................................. The APO Core Interface ..................................................... Master Data ....................................................................... 13 17

23 45 99

3 4 5 6 7 A B C D

Basic Functions of Production Planning ............................ 125 Tools to Evaluate and Process Planning ............................ 201 Advanced Processes in APO-PP/DS ................................... 249 Menu Paths ........................................................................ 295 SAP Notes on APO-PP/DS ................................................. 307 Heuristics ........................................................................... 315 Authors .............................................................................. 325 Index .................................................................................. 327

Contents
Introduction ................................................................................. 13

1

An Overview of Planning with mySAP SCM ............ 17
1.1 1.2 mySAP SCM ............................................................... SAP APO .................................................................... 17 19

2

An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS ................................................ 23
2.1 Production Planning Functions ................................... 2.1.1 Material Requirements Planning .................... 2.1.2 Multilevel Planning ........................................ 2.1.3 Material Planning and Capacity Planning ........ Advanced Production Planning with APO-PP/DS ........ 2.2.1 Requirements Planning with Exact Times ....... 2.2.2 Descriptive Characteristics ............................. 2.2.3 Simultaneous Quantity and Capacity Planning ........................................................ 2.2.4 Production Planning Runs with Several Steps .............................................................. 2.2.5 Pegging and Control of the Material Flow ...... 2.2.6 Determining the Source of Supply and Cost-Based Planning ................................ 2.2.7 Advanced Alert Handling ............................... 2.2.8 Advanced Options in Capacity Planning ......... 2.2.9 Simple Options for Enhancement with Custom Functions and Heuristics ............ Planning in APO and Execution in ECC ....................... 23 24 27 29 32 32 33 33 33 34 36 37 40 42 44

2.2

2.3

3

The APO Core Interface ............................................ 45
3.1 Design of the CIF ........................................................ 3.1.1 Plug-In ........................................................... 3.1.2 Connecting the Systems Using RFC ................ 3.1.3 APO-Specific Settings .................................... The Principle of Master Data Transfer ......................... 3.2.1 Initial Transfer of Master Data ........................ 45 46 48 52 58 60

3.2

7

Contents

3.3

3.4

Transferring New APO-Relevant Master Data .................................................. 3.2.3 Change Transfer of Master Data .................... The Principle of Transaction Data Transfer ................. 3.3.1 Transaction Data in ECC and APO ................. 3.3.2 Initial and Change Transfers for Transaction Data ........................................... 3.3.3 Transfer of Transaction Data from APO to ECC ................................................... CIF Monitoring .......................................................... 3.4.1 The Principle of qRFC .................................... 3.4.2 Tools for Troubleshooting Transfer Errors ...... 3.4.3 Eliminating Transfer Errors .............................

3.2.2

71 73 83 83 85 87 90 91 94 95

4

Master Data ............................................................. 99
4.1 4.2 Mapping Principle ...................................................... Locations ................................................................... 4.2.1 Transferring Plants and Distribution Centers .. 4.2.2 Storage Location MRP Areas ......................... 4.2.3 Customers and Vendors ................................. 4.2.4 External Procurement Relationships and Transportation Lanes .............................. Products .................................................................... 4.3.1 Header Data .................................................. 4.3.2 ATP Settings .................................................. 4.3.3 Requirements Settings ................................... 4.3.4 Lot Size Settings ............................................ 4.3.5 Additional Settings ........................................ Resources .................................................................. 4.4.1 Resources in APO .......................................... 4.4.2 APO Resource Data ....................................... Production Data Structures and Production Process Models ...................................................................... 4.5.1 PPM, RTO, PDS, and APO Releases ............... 4.5.2 Release-Dependent Notes for RTO or PDS .... 4.5.3 PPM and PDS Structures ............................... 4.5.4 Transfer from ECC ......................................... Mass Changes to APO Master Data ............................ 99 100 101 103 104 106 107 109 109 110 112 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 119 120 123

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

8

Contents

5

Basic Functions of Production Planning .................. 125
5.1 Basic Settings .............................................................. 5.1.1 CIF Integration ............................................... 5.1.2 Global Settings ............................................... 5.1.3 Planning Procedure ........................................ Independent Requirements ........................................ 5.2.1 Sales Orders ................................................... 5.2.2 Planned Independent Requirements in APO .. 5.2.3 Requirements Strategies ................................. 5.2.4 Reducing Planned Independent Requirements ................................................. 5.2.5 Descriptive Characteristics ............................. The Planning Procedure .............................................. 5.3.1 Interactive Planning ....................................... 5.3.2 Production Planning Run ............................... 5.3.3 Capable-to-Match (CTM) ............................... Heuristics ................................................................... 5.4.1 Product Heuristics .......................................... 5.4.2 Heuristics for Flow Control ............................. 5.4.3 Service Heuristics ........................................... Example of a Complete Planning Run ......................... Firming ....................................................................... 5.6.1 Manual Firming .............................................. 5.6.2 Firming Based on a Firming Period ................. Net Requirements Calculation and Lot Sizes ............... 5.7.1 Net Requirements Calculation ........................ 5.7.2 Lot Size Calculation ........................................ Determining the Supply Source .................................. 5.8.1 Procurement Types ........................................ 5.8.2 Automatic Determination of the Supply Source ........................................................... Scheduling .................................................................. 5.9.1 Scheduling for External Procurement .............. 5.9.2 Scheduling for In-House Production ............... 5.9.3 Planning Strategy ........................................... 5.9.4 Finiteness Level (as of APO 4.0) ..................... 5.9.5 Alternative Resources ..................................... 5.9.6 Scheduled Planned Orders ............................. Pegging ...................................................................... 5.10.1 Dynamic Pegging ........................................... 125 125 126 128 131 131 134 137 142 143 145 146 148 152 153 154 160 161 162 164 165 166 168 168 170 172 172 174 176 176 176 179 184 186 188 188 190

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5 5.6

5.7

5.8

5.9

5.10

9

Contents

5.11 5.12 5.13

5.10.2 Fixed Pegging ................................................ 5.10.3 Safety Stocks in SAP liveCache (as of APO 4.0) .............................................. Setup Times in Planning ............................................. Product Interchangeability (as of APO 4.0) ................. Executing Planning in ECC .........................................

192 194 194 197 199

6

Tools to Evaluate and Process Planning .................. 201
6.1 Order Views ............................................................... 6.1.1 Entering the Product View ............................ 6.1.2 Structure of the Product View ....................... 6.1.3 Application of the Product View .................... 6.1.4 Customizing the Product View ...................... Product Planning Table .............................................. 6.2.1 Entering the Product Planning Table .............. 6.2.2 Structure of the Product Planning Table ........ 6.2.3 Application of the Product Planning Table ..... 6.2.4 Customizing the Product Planning Table ........ Product Overview ...................................................... 6.3.1 Entering the Product Overview ...................... 6.3.2 Structure of the Product Overview ................ 6.3.3 Application of the Product Overview ............. Detailed Scheduling Planning Board ........................... 6.4.1 Entering the Detailed Scheduling Planning Board ............................................................ 6.4.2 Structure of the Detailed Scheduling Planning Board .............................................. 6.4.3 Application of the Detailed Scheduling Planning Board .............................................. 6.4.4 Settings for Detailed Scheduling Strategies .... 6.4.5 Customizing the Detailed Scheduling Planning Board .............................................. Resource Planning Table ............................................ 6.5.1 Entering the Resource Planning Table ............ 6.5.2 Structure of the Resource Planning Table ...... 6.5.3 Application of the Resource Planning Table ... 6.5.4 Customizing the Resource Planning Table ...... PP/DS Optimizer ........................................................ 6.6.1 Basics of PP/DS Optimization ........................ 6.6.2 Entering the Optimizer .................................. 201 202 202 203 204 206 206 207 209 210 211 212 212 213 214 214 216 217 220 230 232 232 233 234 235 235 235 236

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

10

Contents

6.6.3

6.7

Structure of the Evaluation View of the Optimizer ................................................ 6.6.4 Parameterization of the Optimizer ................. Alert Monitor ............................................................. 6.7.1 Entering the Alert Monitor ............................. 6.7.2 Structure of the Alert Monitor ....................... 6.7.3 Application of the Alert Monitor .................... 6.7.4 Customizing the Alert Monitor .......................

237 238 243 243 244 245 247

7

Advanced Processes in APO-PP/DS ......................... 249
7.1 Finite Planning with the Planning Run ........................ 7.1.1 Finite Requirements Planning ......................... 7.1.2 Finite Planning as Multi-Step Procedure ......... Setup-Optimal Sequencing with the PP/DS Optimizer ........................................................ 7.2.1 The PP/DS Optimizer as an Interactive Planning Tool ................................................. 7.2.2 Sample Process for Interactive Setup Optimization .................................................. Capable-to-Promise (CTP) ........................................... 7.3.1 Prerequisites for the CTP Procedure ............... 7.3.2 The CTP Process ............................................. Planned Material Flow ................................................ 7.4.1 Fixed Material Flow Using Pegging ATP ......... 7.4.2 Fixed Material Flow Using the Material Requirements Planning .................................. 7.4.3 Fixed Material Flow to Support the Optimization .................................................. 7.4.4 Fixed Material Flow to Support the CTP Procedure ............................................... Multi-Resource Planning with the Wave Algorithm .... 7.5.1 Prerequisites for the Multi-Resource Planning ........................................................ 7.5.2 Multi-Resource Planning Process ................... 7.5.3 Alternative to Multi-Resource Planning .......... 250 250 250 263 263 264 272 273 273 280 281 283 283 285 286 286 287 294

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

Appendix ........................................................................ 295
A Menu Paths .......................................................................... 295 A.1 ECC Core Interface ...................................................... 295 A.2 ECC Customizing ........................................................ 297

11

Contents

B

C

D

A.3 APO-PP/DS Master Data ............................................ A.4 APO-PP/DS Planning ................................................. A.5 APO Monitoring ........................................................ A.6 APO Administration ................................................... A.7 APO Customizing ....................................................... SAP Notes on APO-PP/DS .................................................... B.1 PP/DS in General ....................................................... B.2 Master Data in General .............................................. B.3 Production Process Model, Runtime Object and Production Data Structure ................................... B.4 MRP Areas ................................................................. B.5 Product Interchangeability ......................................... B.6 Integration ................................................................. B.7 Production Planning in General .................................. B.8 Production Planning Run, Heuristics, MRP ................. B.9 Product View and Product Planning Table .................. B.10 Pegging ...................................................................... B.11 CTP, Multilevel ATP ................................................... B.12 Conversion of Orders ................................................. B.13 Safety Stock ............................................................... B.14 Characteristic Dependent Planning/Block Planning .... B.15 Special Planning Processes ......................................... B.16 Detailed Scheduling—Integration ............................... B.17 Detailed Scheduling Planning Board ........................... B.18 Scheduling ................................................................. B.19 Customer-specific Heuristics ...................................... B.20 Optimization .............................................................. B.21 Alert Monitor ............................................................ Heuristics ............................................................................. C.1 Heuristics for APO 3.0 ............................................... C.2 New Heuristics Introduced in APO 3.1 ....................... C.3 New Heuristics Introduced in SCM 4.0 ....................... C.4 New Heuristics Introduced in SCM 4.1 ....................... C.5 New Heuristics Introduced in SCM 5.0 ....................... Authors ................................................................................

298 300 301 302 303 307 307 307 307 308 308 308 308 309 309 310 310 310 311 311 311 311 311 312 313 313 313 315 316 319 320 322 323 325

Index ........................................................................................... 327

12

What are the objectives of this book? Which APO releases does it cover? How is the book structured?

Introduction
With SAP Advanced Planning and Optimization (SAP APO) and SAP Supply Chain Management (SAP SCM), SAP has offered a powerful system to support a whole range of processes in supply chain management for many years now. The APO-PP/DS (Production Planning/Detailed Scheduling) component is used for plant-specific production planning and detailed scheduling. The objective of this book is to provide an in-depth introduction to the functions, applications, and customizing of APO-PP/DS. As of Release 4.0, SAP APO is contained in SAP SCM, along with other applications. This book explicitly refers to the following APO releases: SAP APO 3.0 SAP APO 3.1 SAP SCM 4.0 (containing SAP APO 4.0) SAP SCM 4.1 (containing SAP APO 4.1) SAP SCM 5.0 (containing SAP APO 5.0) We will refer to the differences between the releases, but this “delta knowledge” will not be in the foreground of the discussion. Unless otherwise indicated, the screenshots in this book are taken from the current release, SAP SCM 5.0 (SAP ERP Central Component (SAP ECC 6.0), respectively). The large number of processes supported and the basic flexibility of APO-PP/DS make simple and secure access difficult. In addition, the following challenges present themselves: The concepts and technology behind advanced planning with SAP APO are based on “normal” production planning with SAP ECC.
Challenges associated with advanced planning APO releases

13

Introduction

To fully benefit from using PP/DS, a knowledge of the basic processes is required. “Advanced planning,” by its very nature, is more complex than standard processes. Planning is distributed across more than one system. In addition to SAP SCM or SAP APO, an SAP ECC or SAP R/3 system is required as the executing system. Master data and transaction data are exchanged between the systems involved. Knowledge of the relevant interface (the Core Interface, or CIF) is essential. You can gain this knowledge through the usual channels (the SAP Help Portal, SAP training courses, the SAP Corporate Portal). In addition, many SAP Notes provide detailed explanations of specific functions. However, even with this support on hand, it is still difficult to get a clear overview of the essential functions and understand how to benefit from their use.
Objectives of this book

The goal of this book is to provide an in-depth explanation of the essential functions of PP/DS and how they relate to one another. It will equip you with essential background knowledge, specify the relevant customizing settings, and explain the relationship between PP/DS and SAP ECC. You should note that we have deliberately restricted the scope of the book, so that the focus remains on providing an overall context and an understanding of the core concepts. Furthermore, an extensive index will help you to pinpoint specific information, and the explanations in the book are supplemented by numerous references to other sources of information, as well as several appendices. In addition, this book will help you to make the essential system settings in accordance with your specific requirements. Numerous screenshots will enable you to reproduce the settings without system support. Finally, a selection of sample processes illustrates how the various functions can be optimally used.

Structure of the book

This book is structured as follows:
Chapter 1 provides an overview of planning with the mySAP SCM

solution. Planning with APO-PP/DS is placed in an overall context, and its relationships with other SAP components and concepts are explained.

14

Introduction

Chapter 2 begins by explaining the basic features of production plan-

ning in SAP, which apply equally to SAP ECC and SAP APO. This part of the chapter is intended for readers who have little or no experience using SAP ECC. The second part of the chapter examines the special features of planning with SAP APO and focuses on the advantages of planning with APO-PP/DS.
Chapter 3 is devoted to the CIF, which plays an integral role in APO-

PP/DS, but is also significant to other applications.
Chapter 4 describes the APO master data required for PP/DS, against

the background of transferring this data from ECC. Since the contents of Chapter 3 and 4 are also relevant for other APO applications (for example, Global Available-to-Promise), they may be of interest to you, irrespective of PP/DS.
Chapter 5 introduces the basic functions in APO-PP/DS and therefore

forms a central part of this book.
Chapter 6 describes the main tools for planning and evaluation in

APO-PP/DS and their options and practical applications. It therefore provides essential information about the practical work of the planner in the system.
Chapter 7 uses various examples of processes to explain how the

individual components interact to create a finite production plan. The examples cited provide insight into how you can get the most out of using APO-PP/DS. The Appendix contains supplementary lists of: Menu paths SAP Notes that pertain to APO-PP/DS Heuristics Lastly, we should point out that this book cannot cover everything you can do with APO-PP/DS. Suffice it to say that APO-PP/DS is extremely flexible and other applications are possible, especially when used with industry-specific enhancements, which will not be addressed here. Nevertheless, the basic and detailed knowledge provided in this book should help you to acclimate to and cope with any PP/DS environment.

15

Production planning follows the same basic principles in both SAP ECC and SAP APO. This chapter provides an overview of planning with the two systems. This is followed by a discussion of the advanced options available to you with APO.

2

An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

Production planning in APO-PP/DS uses the same processes that are familiar from the SAP ECC system. It is based on master data records, specifically plants, material masters, bills of material (BOM), and routings (PP) or master recipes (PP-PI). Planning results in planned orders, which are converted into manufacturing orders for executing production. These may be either production orders (PP) or process orders (PP-PI). Repetitive Manufacturing (REM) is also possible, whereby production is executed on the basis of planned orders.

2.1

Production Planning Functions
PP/DS, MRP, CRP

PP/DS is short for Production Planning and Detailed Scheduling. Of course, the objectives of this kind of planning did not originate with APO. Production planning in ECC pursues the same objective, that is, consistent, capacity-based planning. In ECC, these functions are found under Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP). The basic principles of planning in APO and ECC are outlined below, followed by a discussion of the advanced options in APO.

23

2

An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

2.1.1

Material Requirements Planning

The goal of Material Requirements Planning (MRP) is to ensure material availability in good time and in sufficient quantities. Two different procedures can be used:
Material Requirements Planning

In this case, procurement planning is controlled by material requirements. The requirements consist of sales orders, planned independent requirements, dependent requirements, and so on. Planning is based on backward scheduling from the requirements date to ensure on-time availability.
Consumption-Based (Reorder Point) Planning

In this case, materials planning is based on consumption. Reorder point planning simply checks whether the available stock has fallen below a defined threshold value or reorder point. Whenever this happens, procurement is planned with forward scheduling. As you can see, the two procedures are essentially different. Consumption-based planning is usually used for only low-value, noncritical materials (consumable material, for example), while MRP is used for precise planning. Consumption-based planning therefore only plays a secondary role in the context of advanced planning in APO-PP/DS.
MRP type

In ECC, you define the MRP procedure in the MRP type field in the material master. Typical entries in this field are PD for MRP or VB for reorder point planning. However, both these entries are irrelevant for planning materials in APO. If a material is planned in APO, it cannot be planned again in ECC. Therefore, you should select the entry X0 as the MRP type to exclude it from planning in ECC. There is no MRP type in the APO product master. Planning in APO is essentially “requirement-driven” (i.e., it is based on the MRP procedure described above) unless a different procedure is explicitly chosen by applying a corresponding heuristic. The starting point for MRP is a requirement for a material in a plant. As a rule, this requirement is in the future. We proceed from the following assumption: Material A is required in quantity B on date/at time C in plant D.

24

Production Planning Functions

2.1

Think of how this applies to a sales order, for example. However, dependent requirements resulting from in-house production can also be formulated in this way. With backward scheduling for material A in plant D, a suitable procurement element is generated in such a way that the availability date of this element corresponds to the requirements date. The start date of procurement therefore precedes the availability date, and the procurement lead time represents the time interval between these two dates (backward scheduling). Scheduling of a procurement element depends on the procurement type:
In-House Production
Backward scheduling

Procurement types

A routing and a BOM or master recipe is required to produce a material in-house. The in-house production time is the sum total of the durations of the individual operations, plus any additional floats/time buffers.
External Procurement

If you want to procure a material from an external vendor or to transfer your stock from another location, you must schedule a delivery time. In the system, these two procurement types correspond to the entries E for in-house production and F for external procurement on the MRP 2 view of the material master (see Figure 2.1). If you enter X here, both procurement types are permitted, but planning initially assumes in-house production.

Figure 2.1 ECC Transaction “Change Material Master” (Transaction Code MM02, Material Master View “MRP 2” with Field Selection for Procurement Type)

25

2

An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

You can define the procurement type more precisely by specifying the special procurement type (Special procurement field). For example, you can configure external procurement as a stock transfer from another production location. With external procurement, you can define a vendor-specific delivery time and factor this in your planning.
Order start and finish dates and production dates

With in-house production, various dates and times can be defined. The ECC manufacturing order contains both production dates and basic order start and finish dates. Floats separate these dates: the float before production separates the order start date and the production start date, while the float after production comes between the production finish date and the order finish date (see Figure 2.2).
Requirements date

Float before production

Operations

Float after production

10

20

30

Goods receipt processing time

Order start date

Production start date

Production finish date

Order finish date Availability date

Figure 2.2 Dates in Planned Orders and Manufacturing Orders in ECC

In this context, we must point out the following basic difference between ECC and APO: APO-PP/DS ignores the float before production and the float after production, and APO orders don’t contain basic order start and finish dates. Therefore, you should always enter a scheduling margin key (for example, AP1) with a float before production and float after production both equal to zero for materials that are planned in APO (see Figure 2.3).

26

Production Planning Functions

2.1

Figure 2.3 ECC Transaction “Change Material Master” (Transaction Code MM02, Material Master View “MRP 2” with Field Selection for Scheduling Margin Key)

2.1.2

Multilevel Planning

With in-house production, you generally use multilevel planning, where the material is produced from other materials that must be available in time for the production process. You can refer to the BOM for information about the required materials. Since a BOM item may be the header of another BOM, planning may encompass several BOM levels. The objective of multilevel planning is therefore to create procurement elements at the right time across all relevant BOM levels (see Figure 2.4). The procurement dates for the assemblies and components are calculated from the BOM structure using backward scheduling from the requirements date of the finished product. This enables operation-specific material staging. Multilevel planning uses backward scheduling from the requirements date for the finished product. This means that the start dates for procurement of the required assemblies and components are calculated to ensure that production of the finished product can start on

27

2

An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

time. The sum total of these times is referred to as the total replenishment lead time. This is distinct from the in-house production time, which refers only to the time taken to produce individual materials.
Bill of materials explosion A B D Start of procurement Purchase order D C Dependent requirement Planned order B Purchase order C Planned order A Requirements date

Today

Time

Figure 2.4 Dates in Multilevel Production: Total Replenishment Lead Time and InHouse Production Time

Problems may occur with your procurement plan if the requirements date is less than the end of the total replenishment lead time in the future. With backward scheduling, this corresponds to a situation in which the start date for assemblies or components (or even for the finished product itself) would have to be in the past.
Forward scheduling and scheduling delays

Since the system does not create orders in the past, forward scheduling is generally used in this situation. With forward scheduling, the start date of the relevant order is the current date, while the end date is scheduled in the future as the start date plus the lead time of the order. This kind of order is therefore delayed because the requirements date that triggered the order (think of a secondary requirement, for example) cannot be covered in time. In ECC requirements planning, exception messages normally alert you to this kind of problem. These messages indicate that procurement of a material will be delayed. These delays typically occur in lower-level assemblies, while procurement of the finished product still appears to be on schedule. The exception message is not normally propagated to the relevant finished product. It is the MRP con-

28

Production Planning Functions

2.1

troller’s responsibility to identify problematic supply chains using these exception messages and to solve the problem, for example, by changing procurement elements manually or by finding alternatives in the procurement process.

2.1.3

Material Planning and Capacity Planning

In material planning, procurement elements are created with dates that correspond to the requirements situation. This type of planning is based on the individual in-house production times or delivery times of the materials in question. With externally procured materials, you therefore have to assume that the planned vendor will be able to deliver within the planned delivery time. If in doubt, confirm this with the vendor. You may find that you will need to switch to another vendor with a different delivery time. The situation is more complex for materials produced in-house. In this case, material planning uses the MRP II concept. This means that material planning is initially based on infinite production capacities, with capacity planning following in a second, separate step. When an order is created, there is therefore no check to determine whether the required work centers or resources are available for the relevant period or are already fully occupied by another production process. Capacity planning comprises the following steps: First, the available capacity at the work centers (or resources (PP-PI)) is established. For example, it is established that work center A is available for 40 hours each week. The orders (planned orders or manufacturing orders), on the other hand, have certain capacity requirements, resulting from the routing (or master recipe (PP-PI)). The routing can be broken down into operations. Each operation is assigned a work center, where it can be executed. For example, operation 10 requires work center A for 10 minutes for each piece of the finished product. This means that work center A is required for 50 minutes if you have an order with an order quantity of five pieces. An order therefore contains not only the planned production start and end dates, but also the operations dates, including details of the required production resources, and, in addition, it formulates the corresponding capacity requirement.
MRP II

Available capacity

Capacity requirement

29

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An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

The goal of capacity planning is to ensure that orders can be executed, in other words, that work centers are available when required. Capacity planning therefore compares the capacity requirement with the available capacity. Since a work center may naturally be required by different orders for completely different finished products, this comparison is normally carried out as work centerspecific.
Scheduling

To ensure that a certain order can be executed at a certain time at a specific work center, the order is scheduled. A production resource can only be reserved by an order using scheduling. Scheduling can be performed interactively in a capacity planning table (or detailed scheduling planning board in APO) for individual orders, or it can be executed automatically as a background job. Problems associated with capacity planning can be extremely complex. For example, orders may involve several operations that require different resources. Successful scheduling of one operation at a resource may conflict with the dates of the other operations, and so on. What this means is that capacity planning is restricted to the planning of the bottleneck resources. You therefore must assume that no more than one resource from the routing actually needs to be checked for scheduling conflicts, and have to trust that the remaining operations in the order will work. This focus on bottleneck resources is an important principle in capacity planning and is also integral to ensuring an executable production planning process in the context of APO-PP/DS. If a check is performed to determine the existing production resource load, that is, to determine whether capacity is available or has already been reserved by another order, this is referred to as finite scheduling. The availability checked in this instance is finite. If this check is not performed, this is referred to as infinite scheduling, whereby the available capacity is assumed to be infinite. Finite capacity planning generally results in date shifts because time gaps must be found when the bottleneck resources can be scheduled. If a date is brought forward, the availability date of the order is delayed as a result. The deadline of the requirements date of the finished product is missed. If, on the other hand, the order is moved backward in time, the secondary requirements dates for the materials required for production are also delayed, with the result that the

Bottleneck resources

Finite and infinite scheduling

Interaction with requirements planning

30

Production Planning Functions

2.1

receipt elements cannot cover these requirements in time. In short, capacity planning generally impacts the requirements plan (see Figure 2.5). Operation 0020 shown in Figure 2.5 is executed using the bottleneck resource. The total order is based on the bottleneck resource, which means that the availability date and secondary requirements have to be shifted. You will need to react to these shifts with a new requirements plan, with which any new orders are generated with the scheduled requirement, and so on.
Requirements date Dependent requirements Order A 0010 0020 0030 Availability date

Scheduling of bottleneck operation 20 Resource for operation 20 Occupied 0010 Order A 0020 0030 Time Occupied

Position of order after capacity planning

Figure 2.5 Capacity Planning for the Bottleneck Resource of an Order

Material requirements planning and capacity planning are thus closely interwoven. The goal of production planning is to take into account these interdependencies and to create a consistent procurement plan. To facilitate the planning process, the production plan is often firmed in the short term after capacity planning is completed. Individual orders or all orders can be firmed in a defined planning time fence. Firming means that the dates and quantities of the orders cannot be changed automatically; however, they can still be changed manually. The component requirements used for an order can also be firmed. This is useful if the required components are manually changed for an order in a way that deviates from the BOM explosion, with the result that a new BOM explosion is no longer possible.
Firming

31

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An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

2.2

Advanced Production Planning with APO-PP/DS

The previous section discussed the basic principles of production planning with SAP, which apply equally to ECC-MRP and APOPP/DS. Even if you use APO-PP/DS, you still need to make the basic settings for the production planning process in ECC, so that you can then systematically enhance planning with the functions in APO. This section illustrates the advanced planning options that are available in APO-PP/DS. APO-PP/DS offers an extremely wide range of additional processes and options. In practice, any one of the points discussed below would be enough to justify using PP/DS—you don’t have to use all of the functions simultaneously. Indeed, a gradual and selective enhancement of the core processes is often much more useful. Note that the following description of the advanced options is not exhaustive. Rather, it focuses on just some of the main features, by way of an introduction to the more detailed descriptions of the individual functions in the following chapters.

2.2.1

Requirements Planning with Exact Times

Requirements planning in ECC is generally accurate to the day. Even if you can enter an availability date with an exact time, as would be done in sales orders, requirements planning still takes into account only the date. Similarly, requirements planning takes into account only the dates of dependent requirements, which are derived from the exact start time of an operation. This means that it is impossible to distinguish between two different requirements that relate to the morning and afternoon of the same date. Orders created to cover requirements in ECC only contain an availability date. In APO-PP/DS, requirements planning is based on exact times (accurate to the second). Sales orders, dependent requirements, and all other requirements are assigned an exact time. Orders to cover the requirements are scheduled for precisely this time. If, for example, you need a precise requirement coverage for a justin-time processing, this can be planned with APO-PP/DS.

32

Advanced Production Planning with APO-PP/DS

2.2

2.2.2

Descriptive Characteristics
Planning with final assembly

If you use the Planning with final assembly planning strategy, the planned independent requirements are consumed by sales orders, which are generally received at a later stage. In ECC, this consumption is both plant-specific and material-specific. In APO, you can control consumption more precisely across plants and materials. For example, consumption can be specific to individual customers. For this purpose, planned independent requirements are created with reference to individual customers, that is, they are assigned additional descriptive characteristics. Sales orders that are received then only consume the forecasts for these customers.

2.2.3

Simultaneous Quantity and Capacity Planning

In ECC, quantities and capacities are planned separately. This applies to requirements planning, but the possibility of taking into account capacities is similarly limited when you manually create or move an order. Instead, this must be done in a second step. In APO-PP/DS, you can plan quantities and capacities simultaneously. For example, the capacity situation can also be considered when an additional order is created in a short-term horizon in which capacity planning has already been completed and the production plan is already defined. The order can be created only if periods of available capacity are found for the operations in the order, and it is then automatically scheduled for this period.

2.2.4

Production Planning Runs with Several Steps

In APO-PP/DS, it is easy to construct the automatic production planning process from several steps. The individual steps are simply specified in the production planning run. An example of how individual steps can be placed in a logical sequence is shown below: 1. Requirements planning based on MRP logic 2. Scheduling of capacities for bottleneck resources 3. Requirements planning for the materials for which capacity planning has resulted in shifts in requirements These steps can be easily defined using procedures referred to as heuristics, and can be limited to specific materials or resources (see FigHeuristics

33

2

An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

ure 2.6). The result of this kind of planning run (which, in practice, often comprises up to 10 steps) is a procurement plan, which allows for as many conditions of planning as possible (capacity bottlenecks, deadlines).

Figure 2.6 APO Transaction “Production Planning Run,” Transaction Code /SAPAPO/CDPSB0, Production Planning Run with Multiple Steps

2.2.5

Pegging and Control of the Material Flow

In ECC, dynamic references are created between requirement and procurement elements in order to evaluate requirements planning. These references can be seen in the MRP list or in the current stock/requirements list as part of the Pegged Requirements and Order Report functions, and they can be used to edit the planning result manually. Because these references are generated dynamically and are not stored in the database, they are not available for other transactions or functions.
Pegging

In APO-PP/DS, dynamic references are similarly created between requirements and procurement elements following requirements planning or the generation of orders. In APO, these references are

34

Advanced Production Planning with APO-PP/DS

2.2

called pegging relationships. These relationships are created in multilevel production across all BOM levels. This network of relationships is referred to as a pegging network. In contrast to ECC, pegging relationships are stored in the APO database and are therefore available to all applications in APO. The pegging network can be used in capacity planning, for example, to shift the corresponding orders for components whenever an order is shifted. Dynamic pegging can be influenced by a range of settings, and can be adjusted to suit the specified planning situation (see Figure 2.7). You can also fix pegging relationships so that the relevant orders and requirements remained fixed in a relationship with one another, even if the planning situation changes and new dynamic pegging relationships are created as a result. You can create (and delete) these fixed relationships manually or automatically with the relevant functions or heuristics.
Dynamic and fixed pegging

Figure 2.7 APO Transaction “Product,” Transaction Code /SAPAPO/MAT1, Product Master and Pegging Settings

35

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An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

2.2.6

Determining the Source of Supply and Cost-Based Planning

The procedure for selecting a source of supply in ECC is described below.
Source of supply for external procurement in ECC

You may have several different vendors for externally procured materials. If you want one of several vendors to be automatically selected in materials planning, all planning-relevant vendors must first be defined in the purchasing info record, scheduling agreement, or contract in the source list. If several MRP-relevant vendors exist, the selection of a single vendor must be defined using a quota arrangement. In this case, scheduling of the replenishment lead time may be vendor-specific. Several sources of supply may also exist as alternative production versions for materials produced in-house.1 Production versions are defined in the material master, and they, in turn, define which manufacturing process is to be used, usually by specifying a routing and a BOM (or master recipe in PP-PI). Production versions can be limited in terms of their validity periods and lot-size range (see Figure 2.8). If several valid production versions exist simultaneously, ECC simply selects the first valid version, or a quota arrangement is used to distribute production among several production versions. The ECC sources of supply described above are the same in APO after they are transferred. However, the process for selecting a source of supply is different in APO, in that costs may play a crucial role. First, a check is performed to determine whether a specific source of supply can deliver by the required delivery date. If this is not possible because the replenishment lead time is too long, APO searches for an alternative source of supply with a shorter replenishment lead time. For example, the vendor with the shortest delivery time can be automatically selected if scheduling problems arise.

Source of supply for in-house production in ECC

Sources of supply in APO

Cost-based planning

Costs can also be considered in relation to supply. You can ensure that, among several possible vendors, the one with the lowest costs is always automatically selected (provided that there are no scheduling problems). Various price scales can be taken into account in this

1 At this point, we'll focus on using production versions, because only they are relevant to APO.

36

Advanced Production Planning with APO-PP/DS

2.2

case, which means that different vendors may be used, depending on the lot size.

Figure 2.8 ECC Transaction “Change Material Master,” Transaction Code MM02, Material Master with Several Production Versions

The process is exactly the same for the planning of in-house production. There may be differences in terms of lead times and production costs in the various production versions (transferred to APO as production process models or production data structures).

2.2.7

Advanced Alert Handling

Exception messages (alerts) indicate problems with planning. In ECC, exception messages are displayed in the MRP list (or in the current

37

2

An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

stock/requirements list). Collective evaluation is possible if you call up the collective display of all MRP lists. In the material overview, you can display all exception messages that appear in the individual materials, sorted by exception group (see Figure 2.9). To examine a problem, you must then access the individual list.
Alerts

In APO-PP/DS, the options for alert handling are much more advanced than they are in ECC. First, you can display alerts in the evaluation lists (for example, in the order views) in many different ways. In addition, alerts that are issued in relation to the supply of an important component are also propagated to and displayed in the finished product (network alerts). Alerts are propagated based on the relevant pegging relationships. The pegging network can also be used to evaluate the entire order structure for orders (see Figure 2.10).

Figure 2.9 ECC Transaction “MRP List Collective Display, Transaction Code MD06,” Display of MRP Lists for the MRP Controller with Exception Messages in Various Exception Groups Alert Monitor

Finally, the Alert Monitor provides a comprehensive tool for the centralized evaluation of alerts. The Alert Monitor provides an overview of all relevant alerts. Alerts can be evaluated across all materials, resources, plants, and so on (see Figure 2.11).

38

Advanced Production Planning with APO-PP/DS

2.2

Figure 2.10 APO Transaction “Product View,” Transaction Code /SAPAPO/RRP3, Accessing the Context for an Order in Multilevel Production from the Product View

Figure 2.11 APO Transaction “Alert Monitor,” Transaction Code /SAPAPO/AMON1, Alert Monitor with PP/DS Alerts

39

2

An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

If you incorporate the Alert Monitor into the product planning table as a chart, this enables alert-based planning in the sense that you can make manual changes in one chart (for example, you shift orders in the capacity planning table) and simultaneously monitor the alerts that are triggered or resolved as a result in the Alert Monitor chart.

2.2.8

Advanced Options in Capacity Planning

In ECC, capacity planning can be performed manually (in the capacity planning table), or executed automatically as a background job. All orders that require the same work center can be scheduled in chronological sequence.
Improved performance

One general benefit of using capacity planning in APO is the improved performance. Due to the liveCache architecture, the detailed scheduling planning board in APO can be used for many orders, without affecting runtime (in ECC, the time it takes to import a large number of orders from the database can lead to situations in which the planning table can almost no longer be used). The considerably enhanced performance in APO also enables the inclusion of new features, such as an Undo function, which allows you to manually undo individual steps. A whole range of advanced options and selection criteria are provided for manual and, in particular, automatic scheduling and rescheduling of orders. These options are merely listed at this stage. You can use the strategy profile (see Figure 2.12) to define, among other things: Finite or infinite scheduling, using a finiteness level if required Scheduling sequence Whether alternative resources (modes) are to be taken into account Compact scheduling Whether pegging relationships are to be considered Whether order-internal relationships are to be taken into account Various functions and heuristics are available for capacity planning; (fixed) pegging can be used in various ways; resource overload alerts can be used for troubleshooting; and so on.

A range of advanced options

40

Advanced Production Planning with APO-PP/DS

2.2

APO is ultimately a production planning system, which contains a powerful optimization tool, the PP/DS Optimizer. Optimization is the final step in the production planning process, which can therefore be logically broken down into the following three steps: 1. Requirements planning (quantity planning) 2. Capacity planning 3. Optimization

Optimizer

Figure 2.12 APO Transaction “Detailed Scheduling Planning Board—Variable View,” Transaction Code /SAPAPO/CDPS0, Detailed Scheduling Planning Board with DS Planning Strategy

Steps 2 and 3 can also be merged and executed by the Optimizer (see Figure 2.13). The Optimizer thus represents the only option for con-

41

2

An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

sistently taking into account all constraints in a multilevel production plan.

Figure 2.13 APO Transaction “Detailed Scheduling Planning Board—Variable View,” Transaction Code /SAPAPO/CDPS0, Accessing the Optimizer from the Detailed Scheduling Planning Board

2.2.9

Simple Options for Enhancement with Custom Functions and Heuristics

In ECC (as in APO), the exact steps involved in planning can be determined by a range of customizing settings. However, if you want to take things a step further and, for example, create special new planning algorithms, a modification of the ECC system is required.

42

Advanced Production Planning with APO-PP/DS

2.2

In APO-PP/DS, it is very easy to incorporate new algorithms and processes into the planning process by adding them to the system as additional functions or heuristics. They are then available alongside the standard algorithms (see Figure 2.14) and can simply be used as alternatives in the applications. A system modification is not required.

Figure 2.14 APO Customizing Setting “Change Heuristics,” Transaction Code /SAPAPO/CDPSC11, List Showing Some of the Delivered Heuristics

43

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An Overview of Production Planning with ECC and APO-PP/DS

2.3

Planning in APO and Execution in ECC

To fully benefit from using APO-PP/DS, an understanding of the main options for advanced planning is essential. This includes a clear understanding of how an APO function affects the final production plan that is to be executed.
Document flow in production planning

Planned orders and purchase requisitions represent the direct result of production planning in APO-PP/DS. These orders are created based on APO master data, which was transferred from ECC. When they are converted into manufacturing orders or purchase orders, the orders must be transferred to the executing ECC system. The corresponding ECC master data is again essential for this purpose. The ECC master data design is therefore very important in APO planning. Master data should be maintained in a way that both supports the relevant APO process and enables a smooth transfer of the planning result from APO back to ECC. The planning steps executed in APO only make sense if the results can have a rippling effect in the manufacturing order or purchase order in ECC. Note also that certain process steps in the ECC manufacturing order must be transferred back to APO (production backflushes result in the reduction of the corresponding capacity requirement in APO, for example). But, it is not useful to exploit all of the options that are theoretically possible in the ECC manufacturing order. For example, you could manually reschedule an operation from the production order by changing the default values. However, the result could not be taken into account in APO because the APO order is based on the APO master data. Therefore, this step is not permitted. The reasoning behind this constraint in this example is that rescheduling is a function of production planning and thus of APO, and therefore should be executed in APO. It follows that you should therefore verify the integrity of all process steps with APO. These include creating master data, transferring master data to APO and enhancing it there as required, using transaction data, planning in APO, converting orders and transferring them to ECC, and backflushing manufacturing orders.

Executing planning in ECC

44

Index
A
Absolute optimum 235 Accessibility 232 Action at scheduling error 226 Activation of sequence-dependent setup activities 230 Active model 78 Active planning version 78 Active strategy 180 Activities 216 Additional status 247 Advanced planning 19 Alert 38, 229, 234 Alert based planning 209 Alert management 246 Alert Monitor 38, 209, 213, 219, 243 Alert notification engine 248 Alert object type 247 Alert profile 204, 244 Alerts 206 redefine 245 Alternative mode 220, 228, 240 Alternative procurement source 249 Alternative production data structure 286 Alternative resource 186, 209, 218, 220, 249, 289, 291 Alternative work center 240 Analytical solution 235 Anonymous make-to-stock 138 APO indicator 70 APO master data 58 APO resource 79 APO target system 52 APO-relevant 73 APO-specific data field 59 Append operation from behind 222 Append structure 77 Application errors 90 Application log 94 Ascertaining planned independent requirements 162 Assignment mode 137 ATP category 127 ATP check 273 ATP Customizing 273, 274 ATP Available to Promise (ATP) Automated Planning 251 Automated production control 237 Automatic determination of the source of supply 174 Automatic mode selection 225, 229 Automatic planning 210 Availability check 273 Availability situation 213 Available capacity 220, 234 Available to Promise (ATP) 272

B
Background processing 241 Backlog 234 Backlog rescheduling 235 Backorder processing 283, 285, 286 Backward planning 221, 257 Backward scheduling 25 Backward with reverse 221 BAdI 56 Basic date 26 BD61 75 Block limit 225, 226 Block planning 222, 224 BOM 27 Bottleneck 264 Bottleneck resource 30, 214, 239, 265, 266, 286 Bottleneck workstation 256 Bottom-up planning 251 Breaks 177 BSG 54 Bucket 224, 280 Bucket capacity 222 Bucket oriented planning 224 Bucket-finite 227 Bucket-oriented capacity check 222 Bucket-oriented CTP 273, 280 Bucket-oriented planning 235

327

Index

Business system group 54 Button profile 235 By period 171

C
Calendar 242 Calendar resources 176 Campaign 225 Campaign optimization 241 Campaign requirement 225 Capable to Match (CTM) 152 Capable to Promise (CTP) 250, 272 Capacity availability 243 Capacity leveling 235, 258 Capacity load 214 Capacity planning 29, 206, 214, 216, 221, 232 Capacity requirement 29, 204, 209, 218 Capacity requirements planning (CRP) 17, 23 Capacity situation 206, 209 Category 83 Category group 137 Change fixing/planning intervals 230 Change material master 173 Change mode 204 Change pointer 75 Change transfer 60, 73 Change transfer of master data 73 Characteristic 134 Characteristic evaluation 281 Chart 216, 220, 234, 237 Chart selection 208, 209, 232 Check control 281 Check instructions 274 Check mode 132, 273, 281 maintain 132 Checking horizon 283 CIF 45 CIF cockpit 95 CIF comparison/reconciliation function 96 CIF interface 21 CIFCUS 75 CIFMAT 75 CIFMTMRPA 77 CIFSRC 75

CIFVEN 75 Clipboard 233, 234 Close slots 222 Collective access 211, 212 Collective display 211 Collective requirements 139, 142 Communication errors 90 Compact scheduling 227 Comply with block planning 225 Configuration 209 Configuration-dependent setup 249 Consider Maximum Intervals 226 Consider safety stock requirements in SAP liveCache 194 Consider time buffer (pegging) 227, 228 Constraint 214, 217, 221, 229, 235, 236 Constraint programming 242 Constraint propagation 242 Consumption group 144 Consumption-based planning 24 Context menu 232, 233, 234 Context of an order 189 Continuous input and output 156 Continuous time CTP 275 Control parameter 153 Conversion 204 Conversion flag 199 Conversion of Orders 199 Conversion of Orders/Purchase Requisitions 140 Conversion rule 139 Costs 240 Cross-order relationship 227 CRP Capacity requirements planning (CRP) CTP check 224 CTP confirmation 278 CTP scenario 222 Current date 224 Current modes 223 keeping 228 Customer exit 56 Customer requirements class 273 Customer requirements type 273 Customer’s required date 230 Customizing 204, 210, 215, 218, 230, 231, 235, 238, 247

328

Index

D
Data channel 91 Database 204 Database alert 248 Date 242 Date alert 191 Date and time entry 217 Date fixed 166 Date/time violation 219 Days’ supply 202, 213 Days’ supply type 205, 210 Deallocation 217, 218 Deallocation costs 237 Define activities for mass processing 136 Define finiteness level for resources 185 Degree of freedom 243 Delay 229, 240, 244 Delay costs 239, 240 Deletion flag 77 Delivery time 26 Demand Planning (DP) 19 Dependent operation 226, 229 Descriptive characteristics 33, 143 Desired date 224 Detailed planning function 253 Detailed planning heuristic 251 Detailed scheduling board 209, 236 Detailed scheduling heuristic 214, 218, 229, 234 Detailed scheduling planning board 206, 210, 214, 216, 217, 230, 231, 266 Detailed scheduling strategy 217 Determining the source of supply 172 Diagram area 216 Diagram section 232 Direction of interchangeability 197 Display operation in work area 233 Display period 234 Distribution definition 53, 87 Downtime 234 DP Demand Planning (DP) Drag and Drop 217, 233, 234 DS strategy 217 DS strategy profile 220 DS view 180 Dynamic exception alerts 206 Dynamic exception condition 292 Dynamic exception message 204, 209

Dynamic pegging 190, 228, 229 Dynamic setup 239

E
Earliest date 224 Eliminating transfer errors 95 End of horizon 236 End run at the first solution 242 Enhanced backward scheduling 230 Error 209, 244 Error-tolerant scheduling 226, 229 Evaluation tool 201 Exact solution to a problem 235 Exception based planning 209 Exception group 212 Exception message 28, 37, 203, 209, 213, 217, 222, 234, 243 Exception-based planning 292 Executing the integration model 64 Expanded selection 212 Expert view 180 Explain result 241 Extended selection 207, 210 External capacity 79 External procurement 25, 174

F
Factorial 235 Feasible plan 209, 229 Feasible production plan 280, 282, 292 Feasible production program 217, 260 Feasible solution 242 Field selection 232 Filter object 85 Find slot 217, 221 Finite 217 Finite capacity 224 Finite forward planning 221 Finite MRP run 250 Finite planning 184, 221, 249 Finite requirements planning 179, 250, 277, 287 Finite resource 183, 221 Finite scheduling 30 Finite strategy 250 Finiteness level 184, 224, 229, 241 Firming 31, 164

329

Index

Firming date 166 Firming horizon 166 Fixed costs 240 Fixed date 133 Fixed lot size 171 Fixed material flow 281, 283 Fixed pegging 192, 227, 229, 280 Fixing interval 218, 230, 234 Flexible planning 17 Float after production 26 Float before production 26 Follow-up rescheduling 229 Forward scheduling 28 Fragmentation 279, 285 Function 150

G
GATP 20 General selection options for materials 61 Genetic algorithm 242 Global ATP 20, 273 Global parameters and default values 89, 126 maintain 126 Goods issue time 176 Goods receipt time 176 Graphic object 232

Industry-specific process 241 Infinite planning 179 Infinite scheduling 30, 222 Infinite sequencing 223 Information 209, 244 Inheriting fixed pegging 194 In-house production 25 In-house production time 25, 28 Inifinite 217 Initial dialog 236 Initial transfer 59 Input firmed 165 Insert operation 217, 221 Integration model 60, 85 Activate 65 Create 61 Delete 72 Execute 63 Interactive 214 Interactive detailed scheduling 230 Interactive optimization 236 Interactive planning 146, 217, 229, 236 Interactive setup optimization 263 Interruptibility of activities 243 Inventory management 216

K
Key figure 134, 239 Kl++ 251

H
Hard constraint 243 Heuristic 130, 153, 204, 206, 210, 231, 236 Heuristic for flow control 160 Heuristic profile 147, 229 Heuristically 242 Heuristics package 159 Highlighting 218 Horizon 236, 241

L
Layout 205, 210, 213, 217, 232 Lean manufacturing 206, 207, 286 Line utilization planning 287, 293 Line-loading planning 209 List area 234 LiveCache 20 Location 177 Location product 201 Log 220, 241, 291 Log Deactivated Material Masters 65 Logical unit of work 93 Loser products 180 Lot size 156 Lot size settings from heuristic 170 Lot-for-lot 170 Lot-sizing procedure 156

I
Ignore error 68 Inbound queue 57 Inbound resource 176 Individual customer requirement 142 Industry solution 22

330

Index

Lowest mode priority 225 Low-level code 150, 253, 262, 287, 291 Low-level code alignment 253 Low-level code method 250, 253 LTP 17 LUW 93

M
Maintain conversion rules 140 Maintain heuristics 154, 193 Maintain interchangeability group 197 Maintain strategy profile 181 Make span 239 Make-to-order production 141 Make-to-order segment 203 Make-to-stock strategy 274 Manual planning 217, 234 Manual postprocessing 262 Manual sequence scheduling 230 Manual sequencing 262 Mass conversion 204 Mass data 211 Mass rescheduling 229 Mass selection 211 Master recipe 29 Material availability 242 Material requirements planning 24 Maximum delay costs 239, 240 Maximum integration model 69 Maximum interval 226 Maximum lot size 171 Maximum runtime 241 Message types 75 Middle-out planning 251 Minimize runtime 230 Minimum lot size 171 Mixed resource 78 MM 17 MM02 173 Mode 221, 223, 225 Mode costs 239, 240 Mode priority 182, 187 Model 78 Model and planning version management 127 Monitoring 90 MRP 17, 23, 213 MRP element 206

MRP II concept 29, 250 MRP list 211 MRP planner 206 MRP type 24, 61 MRP type X0 61 Multi-activity resource 78 Multilevel costs 175 Multiple loading 218 Multi-resource 223 Multi-resource planning 286, 287, 291 Multi-resource planning primary resource 287 mySAP SCM 17

N
Navigation area 216 Navigation structure 208, 233, 234, 266 Navigation tree 205, 210 Net change planning 150 Net requirements calculation 168 Network alert 191 Network display 216, 220, 232 Network view 268, 271 Non-availability 272, 273, 283, 285 Non-working time 217, 224, 225, 234 Number range 126, 247, 277, 278

O
Objective function 239 Offset 176 Offset time 178, 221, 223 Online transfer 73 Open selection criteria 71 Operation 216, 217 insert 262 squeeze in 217 Operation list 219, 234 Optimization 237, 251, 266 Optimization concepts 235 Optimization horizon 236, 240 Optimization objective 239 Optimization parameter 237, 238 Optimization procedure 242 Optimization profile 210, 231, 236, 238, 241, 259 Optimization result 235 Optimization run 236

331

Index

Optimized setup 214 Optimizer 164, 214, 234, 259, 263 Optimizing lot-sizing procedure 156 Optimum 235 Order 204, 216 Order list 219, 232 Order liveCache 20 Order priority 240, 249, 263 Order processing 201 Order report 34, 190 Order structure 221 Order view 201, 206 Order-internal relationship 182, 226, 227, 228 Outbound queue 57 Outbound resource 176 Outlet 226, 229, 289 Output firmed 165 Overall lead time 239 Overall planning 252 Overall production costs 239 Overall profile 210, 214, 220, 231, 243, 244 Overall setting 210 Overlap 234 Overload 206, 209, 219, 222, 258

P
Parallelize 65 Parameterization 238 Parisian parking 221 Pegged requirement 34 Pegging 188, 229, 281 Pegging area 188 Pegging ATP 281 Pegging consider 281 Pegging network 189 Pegging overview 201 Pegging relationship 35, 188, 217, 235 Pegging requirements 190 Pegging strategy 191 Pegging structure 228 Performance 215 Period factor 171 Period of adjustment 162 Period profile 235 Period split 234 Periodic change transfer 74

Periodic planning 210 Periodic product view 206 Periodic view 234 Period-oriented 234 Period-oriented plan 235 Period-oriented planning 206, 208 Permutation 235 Phase-out control 197 PI 17 Pick and Drop 233, 234 Plan explosion 172 Planned delivery time 176 Planned independent requirements 134 Planned order quantity 220 Planning 203 Planning adjustment 142 Planning board profile 217, 232 Planning date 212, 234 Planning direction 217, 221, 222, 224, 234 Planning file 150 display 151 Planning group 152, 212 Planning interval 230 Planning log 234 Planning mode 179, 221, 223, 229 Planning object 254, 257 Planning of shortage quantities 155 Planning of standard lots 155 Planning package 197 Planning period 206, 234 Planning procedure 128, 218, 262 maintain 128 Planning product 141 Planning reservation 150 Planning result 214 Planning run 212 Planning segment 203 Planning strategy 179 Planning submode 226, 229 Planning table 207 Planning time 223 Planning versions 78 Planning with final assembly 138, 274 Planning with planning product 141 Planning without final assembly 139 Planning-related minimum interval 227 Plant stock 275 Plug-in 46

332

Index

PP 17 PP strategy profile 220 PP view 180 PP/DS alert 246 PP/DS alert profile 209, 244 PP/DS bucket capacity 224, 280 PP/DS horizon 148 PP/DS Optimizer 210, 218, 235, 263, 282, 285, 292 PP-Firmed 166 PPM change transfer 81 Primary resource 288 Prioritization 247 Priority 132, 162 Priority category 244 Process heuristic 282, 283 Processing indicator 213 Process-related minimum interval 226, 227 Procurement date 204 Product 216 Product alert 191 Product heuristic 146, 154, 204 Product hierarchy 141 Product interchangeability 197 Product interchangeability groups 197 Product inventory 216, 220 Product overview 211 Product planning board 291 Product planning table 206, 207, 213, 236, 265 Product stock 232 Product view 201, 202, 213 periodic 209, 291 Production costs 239, 240 Production data structure 81, 206 Production date 26 Production in a different location 172 Production line 287 Production list 210 Production order 199, 204 Production overview 219 Production planner 207, 244 Production planning 23 Production planning run 148, 149, 236, 250 Production Planning/Detailed Scheduling 20 Production process 214

Production process model 81, 173, 206 Production program 209, 210 Production quantity 219, 220 Production rate 288 Production version 36, 288 Profile 204, 210, 232 Profile maintenance 231 Propagation range 149, 206, 210, 214, 215, 231, 240

Q
qRFC alert 95 qRFC monitor 94 Quantity alert 191 Quantity planning 220 Queued Remote Function Call (qRFC) 91 Quota Arrangement 294 Quotation heuristic 294

R
Receipts view 201 Reconciliation 251 Redirection of exception messages 246 Reducing planned independent requirements 142 Reduction of lead time 227 Regenerative planning 217, 218, 220 Relationship 217, 221, 227, 229, 235, 262 Release sales planning to SNP 134, 145 Removal of backlogs 230 Reorder point method 128 Repetitive manufacturing 286 Report 220 RAPOKZFX 70 RCIFIMAX 69, 72 RCIFMTDE 65, 72 RIMODAC2 72 RIMODDEL 72 RIMODGEN 72 Representative 246 Requested delivery date 133 Requested quantity 133 Required date 221, 222 Requirement ascertainment horizon 162 Requirement check 139 Requirement class 132

333

Index

Requirement coverage element 229 Requirement date/time 214, 217, 221 Requirement planning 222 Requirement planning with exact times 32 Requirement strategy 131 Requirement type 131 Requirement view 201 Reschedule 209, 257 Rescheduling 214, 217, 218, 220 Rescource planning table 231 Resource 78, 183, 207, 214, 216 Resource assignment 230 Resource buffer 241 Resource chart 266 Resource load 210, 220, 234 Resource overload 209 Resource overload alert 184 Resource planning table 231, 232 Resource pool 233 Resource schedule plan 216 Resource selection 214 Resource situation 216 Resource time buffers 227, 228 Resource utilization 234 Resource utilization planning 286 Resource view periodic 209, 210 Reuse mode 155 Reverse 222 Reversing the planning direction 229 RFC 49 RFC connection 48 Right mouse buttom 220 Rounding profile 171 Rounding value 171 Routing 29 Row format 232 Rules-based availability check 274 Runtime 242

S
Safety days’ supply 169 Safety stock 169, 194 Safety time 169 SALE 49 Sales order 131, 275 SAP APO 19 SAP APO customizing 205

SAP ECC 17 SAP R/3 17 SAP SCM 18 SAP_MRP_001 160 SAP_MRP_002 161 SAP_PP_002 130, 155, 168 SAP_PP_003 131, 155 SAP_PP_004 155 SAP_PP_005 155 SAP_PP_007 155 SAP_PP_009 161 SAP_PP_010 162 SAP_PP_011 192 SAP_PP_012 162 SAP_PP_013 155 SAP_PP_014 162 SAP_PP_015 162 SAP_PP_018 194 SAP_PP_019 192 SAP_PP_020 163 SAP_PP_C001 155 SAP_PP_CTP 131 SAP_PP_I001 197 Schedule deallocated operations 230 Schedule sequence 230 Schedule sequence manually 230 Schedule slippage 257 Scheduling 30, 176, 214, 217, 218 Scheduling at block limits 226 Scheduling attempt 217 Scheduling error 229 Scheduling offset 223 Scheduling on the required date 221 Scheduling problem 229 Scheduling sequence 182, 217, 223, 230, 263 Scheduling state 218 SCM Queue Manager 94 SD 17 Search area 242 Search for gaps 183 Search procedure 242 Selection 214 Selection criteria 243 Selection rule 202, 206 Selection variant 244 Sequence 218, 220, 221, 242 Sequence planning 234, 235 Sequence-dependent setup activity 230

334

Index

Sequence-dependent setup time 223 Sequencing 209, 214, 224, 232, 262, 270 Service heuristics 161 Set 215 Set requirements strategy 137 Set user parameters 87 Setup activity 196, 230, 287 Setup costs 239 Setup key 196 Setup matrix 195, 249, 263, 264, 267 Setup optimization 266, 267, 268 Setup sequence 263 Setup time 194, 218, 239, 263 Setup-condition-dependent setup time 263 Setup-status-dependent setup time 239 SFC 17 Shift 209 Shop floor control 210 Shop floor papers 237 Shortage 168, 209, 213 Shuffler 216, 233 Simultaneous quantity and capacity planning 33, 250, 293 Single level costs 175 Single resource 221, 223 Single-activity resource 78 SM59 50 SNP Optimizer 235 SNP Supply Network Planning (SNP) Soft constraint 243 SOP 17 Sort sequence 263 Sorting sequence 223 Source of supply 225 Special procurement key 172 Special stock 202 Specified date 224 Stable forward scheduling 230 Stage numbering 253, 262 Stage-numbering algorithm 163 Standard optimization profile 242 Start of horizon 236 Start of optimized schedule 236 Status information 217 Stock available for MRP 168 Strategy 157 Strategy profile 180, 231

Strategy setting 218, 220 Subassembly forecast 138 Submode 226 Subprofile 214 Substitution orders 198 Supersession chain 197 Supply chain management 17 Supply Network Planning (SNP) 20 Surplus 213

T
Table area 216 Table-oriented 232 Target host 50 Temporal termination criterion 229 Temporary requirement 277 Termination criterion 229, 236, 241, 242 Threshold value 244 Time buffer 178 Time constraint 217, 221 Time decomposition 241 Time factor 177 Time interval between activities 178 Time profile 148, 215, 231 Time relationship 242 Time series liveCache 20 Time window 236 Time-continuous capacity 224 Time-continuous CTP 273 Timeliness 270 Toolbar 232 Top-down planning 251 Total delays 240, 270 Total of the delay costs 239 Total of the mode cost 239 Total of the setup costs 239 Total of the setup times 239, 266 Total replenishment lead time 28 TP/VS Transport Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) Trade-off 240 Transaction codes /INCMD/UI 197 /SAPAPO/C4 53, 87 /SAPAPO/C41 94 /SAPAPO/C5 88 /SAPAPO/CDPSB0 150

335

Index

/SAPAPO/CDPSC11 154, 193 /SAPAPO/CDPSC7 195 /SAPAPO/CQ 94 /SAPAPO/CSP1 144 /SAPAPO/LOC3 177 /SAPAPO/MAT1 130 /SAPAPO/MC90 135, 145 /SAPAPO/MD74 142, 143 /SAPAPO/MVM 127 /SAPAPO/RES01 183 /SAPAPO/RRP_NETCH 151 /SAPAPO/RRP3 133 /SAPAPO/RRP7 140 /SAPAPO/SCC03 173 /SAPAPO/SDP94 135 CFC1 58 CFC2 94 CFM1 61, 62 CFM2 65 CFP4 81 CR02 80 CURTO_CREATE 81 PIMG 48 Transaction data 85 Transaction data integration 83 Transfer of planning results 127 Transferring new APO-relevant master data 71 Transport Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) 20

U
Undo 218, 234 User settings 204, 210 Use-up strategy 197 Utilization rate 177

V
Validity area 229 Validity periods for orders 225 Variable costs 240 Variable heuristic 146, 204 Variable view 214, 215 Variants 208 Viable production plan 249, 251 Visualization profile 205, 210

W
Warning 209, 244 Wave algorithm 286, 291 Weighting criterion 240 Weighting factor 239 Window technique 241 WIP list 219 Work area 214, 215, 231, 233 Work center 29, 78 Work in progress 219 Worklist 233, 241

336

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