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Permutation Matrix. Definition, explanation and properties.

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uk

Permutation Matrix

A permutation matrix is a square matrix

1

in which is zero everywhere apart from having only

one 1 on every row and in every column. For example the following matrix is an example of a

33 permutation matrix:

(

)

When a matrix or vector is pre-multiplied

2

by a permutation matrix then its effect is to

rearrange its rows. For example, pre-multiplying a typical matrix or vector by the example

permutation matrix above is illustrated by the following examples:

(

)(

) (

) (

)(

) (

)

In this example the effect of pre-multiplication with the example permutation matrix is as

follows:

(

)

Hence a 1 in row i and column j in the permutation matrix has the effect of replacing row i by

row j in the matrix or vector following pre-multiplication.

When a matrix or vector is post-multiplied by a permutation matrix then its effect is to

rearrange its columns. For example, post-multiplying a typical matrix or vector by the example

permutation matrix above is illustrated by the following examples:

(

)(

) (

) ( ) (

) ( )

The effect of the post-multiplication of a matrix or vector by a permutation matrix with a 1 in

row i and column j has the effect of replacing column j by column i.

There are six 33 permutation matrices:

(

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

)

Hence there are six possible outcomes of pre-multiplication with a 33 permutation matrix,

there are six possible rearrangements of the rows, just as there are six possible permutations

3

of three items, hence the term permutation matrix. (The same point can be made for the effect

on columns following the post-multiplication with the permutation matrices.) In general there

are n! nn permutation matrices, just as there are n! permutations or arrangements of n objects.

1

Matrix Definitions

2

Matrix Arithmetic

3

Permutations

www.mathematics.me.uk

Transpose of a permutation matrix

The transpose of a permutation matrix is also a permutation matrix. For the example

permutation matrix above, (

), the transpose is (

)

The transpose of a permutation is also its inverse. For the example above:

(

)(

) (

)

In general if is a permutation matrix then

and

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