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HSC Biology Topic 3 Search for Better Health

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1
but first, some definitions...
HSC Biology Topic 3
THE SEARCH FOR BETTER HEALTH
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:
1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES & PATHOGENS
2. BODY DEFENCES AGAINST DISEASE
3. NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES
4. STRATEGIES TO PREVENT DISEASE
IN PLANTS & ANIMALS
What is Health ?
Health is a very difficult thing to define. A simple
definition is that Health is the absence of
disease .
The Worl d Heal th Organi zati on (WHO) has
declared this definition as too simplistic and
defines health as
... and NOT merely the absence of disease.
Does this mean that
if you were physically
fit, well-fed and sane,
but having a bad hair
day, (socially
dangerous) that you
are not healthy?
Despite the WHOs
definition, to really
understand Health ,
you need to study
Disease , and thats
what this topic is really all about!
What is Disease ?
Disease can be defined as
By this definition, a broken toe-nail might be a
disease, but in this topic you will study some
much more serious conditions...
The Different Types of Disease
Diseases can be simply classified as follows
a state of complete physical, mental
and social well-being
any condition that disturbs the
normal functioning of the body
DISEASES
Caused by the invasion of
the body by a disease-
causing organism, a
Pathogen
Do NOT involve a
pathogen, and cannot be
contagious.
May be due to
Pathogens include:
Prions
Viruses
Bacteria
Protozoans
Fungi
Macro-parasites
Heredity (inherited)
Structural or
metabolic malfunction
Lifestyle factors
Environmental
factors
Poor nutrition
... and other things
Many infectious
diseases are
Infectious Non-infectious
Contagious
This means that you can
catch the disease from
another infected person,
from body contact, from
the air, from food and
water etc.
Some diseases can be
infectious, but not
contagious.
Some are transmitted by a
Vector
A vector is another
organism which transmits
the pathogen from one
person to another.
For example, the pathogen
which causes Malaria is
carried from one infected
person to another by
mosquitoes. The mosquito
is the vector of the disease.
Fleas
(on rats) were
the vector for
the Black
Death in the
Middle Ages.
Plague victims
14th century
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2
CONCEPT DIAGRAM ( Mind Map ) OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorising the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember
the concepts and important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to
this page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole. At the end of the notes
you will find a blank version of this Mind Map to practise on.
The History of
our
understanding
of infectious
disease
1st Line of
Defence...
the barriers
Epidemiology
The range of
PATHOGENS
2nd Line of
Defence...
Non-specific
Immunity
Case Study of
an Infectious
Disease
Inherited
Disease
Nutritional
Deficiency
Environmental
Disease
Use of
Pesticides
Genetic
Engineering
Quarantine
THE SEARCH
FOR BETTER
HEALTH
Body
Defences
Against
Disease
Strategies to
Prevent
Disease in
Plants & Animals
Infectious
Diseases &
Pathogens
Non-
Infectious
Diseases
Case Studies
3rd Line of
Defence...
Specific
Immunity
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3
Genes, Differentiation and Health
You began life as a single cell, and have since
grown to be made up of billions of cells. Growth
occurs by mitosis which produces genetically
identical daughter cells, so every one of your
billions of cells has exactly the same set of genes.
However, not all your cells are the same... they
have specialised for different functions; muscle
cells, nerve cells, blood cells, and so on. If all
your cells are genetically identical, how can
they also specialise and be so different? The
answer is that, in the embryo stage, your body
underwent a process called differentiation.
Every cel l i n your body contai ns i n i ts
chromosomes, ALL the genes needed to
specify all your body parts, functions and traits.
In each cell though, only some of the genes are
switched-on . Muscle cells have switched on
the genes for building muscle fibres, but have
not switched on the genes for eye-colour, or
production of saliva. Each specialised type of
cell has switched on just those genes which
allow it to carry out its function, and no others.
Di fferenti ati on i s essenti al for the correct
functioning of your body, and therefore for
health. If a muscle cell suddenly switched on the
genes appropriate for a blood cell, it would no
l onger be functi oni ng properl y. Thi s coul d
cause a loss of body function, and therefore, a
lack of good health.
Cleanliness is Next to Healthiness
Good health is not just about correct cell and
body functioning. It was recognised in ancient
ti mes that cl eanl i ness i n water, food and
personal hygiene would help prevent disease.
At the time, the concept of germs was not
understood.
You may have done laboratory work to grow
microbes on nutrient agar in petri dishes.
You probably discovered an amazing number
and variety of microbes in our food and water,
and throughout our whole environment.
When Good Guys Turn Bad
We are constantly surrounded by millions of
microbes. Most of them are harmlessly going
about their business and cause no problems.
However, even harmless microbes can cause
disease.
If, for example, people are careless with food
storage then mi crobes can rapi dl y mul ti pl y
within the food. If eaten, the food can cause
food poisoning because of the waste products
and toxins produced by the growing microbes.
Many potenti al l y dangerous mi crobes
commonly live on the skin or in peoples throats
and generally cause no disease because their
population is small. However, if the person is
weakened by stress, lack of food or illness,
these resi dent mi crobes can suddenl y
multiply rapidly and cause a serious disease.
So, quite apart from the B.O. and bad breath, it
really is a good idea to wash yourself and clean
your teeth!
Water from a ri ver or l ake may contai n
potentially dangerous microbes. This is why our
water supplies are so carefully treated.
Treatment of Water Supplies
A typical Australian town or city obtains its
water from the local rivers. Generally, before it
reaches the consumer:
the water sits for some time in a large reservoir.
This allows time for much of the suspended
matter (including microbes and the matter they
are feeding on) to settle to the bottom.
the water is filtered to remove any remaining
suspended solids.
the water is chlorinated to kill virtually all
remaining microbes.
When is a Microbe a Pathogen?
Some of the germs around us are always bad
guys and their only purpose and way of life
involves invading a persons body and causing
disease.
Others are harml ess organi sms whi ch
normally go about their life without affecting
people. However, many are opportunistic, and if
presented with a chance to multiply in or on our
body they will do so, and may cause a disease.
Any organism is a pathogen
if it causes a disease.
1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES & PATHOGENS
Fungi
colonies
PETRI DISH
inoculated
by
touching
with
fingers
Bacteria
colonies
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4
We have onl y known about the rol e of
pathogens (especially microscopic germs ) as
the cause of infectious diseases for about 150
years. Diseases were previously thought to be
caused by evil spirits or were due to bad air ,
or similar ideas. The man recognised as the
discoverer of the Germ Theory of Disease
was:
Louise Pasteur (1822-1895)
Pasteur came to suspect that infectious diseases
were caused by microbes after proving that
microscopic yeast was responsible for the
fermentation involved in making beer and wine,
and also showing that it was the growth of bacteria
in wine that caused it to go sour.
His famous experiment of 1862 did 3 things:
di sproved the general l y-hel d i dea of
spontaneous generation of life, and helped
establish Cell Theory .
proved that decay was caused by air-borne
microbes, and not just due to contact with air.
sti mul ated sci enti sts to start l ooki ng for
microbes that were causing diseases... and, of
course, they found them!
You may have repeated Pasteurs experiment in
your laboratory work.
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Each flask contains a broth,
boiled until sterilized
Closed flask
remains
sterile... no
microbes
grow in it.
Open flask grows
microbes & rots.
It was believed
the life came
spontaneously
from contact
with air.
This flask is open to the
air, but the gooseneck
prevents airborne spores
getting to the broth.
It remained sterile, and
proved spontaneous
generation is wrong.
A Brief History of Our Understanding of Infectious Disease
Pasteurs
Experiment
Robert Koch (1843-1910)
One of the sci enti sts who fol l owed up on
Pasteurs work was the German Robert Koch. He
i sol ated the bacteri um responsi bl e for the
serious disease anthrax, but more importantly
he developed a general system for identifying a
pathogen.
The problem is that there are always many
different microbes present in the body of a
person with a disease. It can be very difficult to
be certain which one is causing the disease, and
which are just innocent by-standers .
Koch developed a set of procedures to follow,
which will definitely and scientifically identify
the pathogen. These procedures are known as
Kochs Postulates and are still used today
when previously unknown infectious diseases
are discovered.
Historical Case Study: Understanding Malaria
Malaria is a tropical disease caused by a protozoan
pathogen which is carried by a vector... the
mosquito. The symptoms are attacks of shivering,
fever, headaches, nausea and extreme tiredness.
Without treatment, about 10% of patients die, but
survivors keep having re-occurrence of symptoms,
perhaps for many years.
The history of human attempts to understand it,
and cure or prevent it, is a good example of how
difficult this process can be.
The name malaria means in Italian bad air
and it was believed since ancient times that it
was caused by the smelly gases from swamps.
In ancient Rome the occurrence of malaria was
reduced by drai ni ng swamps. (The real
connection to swamps was mosquitoes... but
no-one thought of that)
After the work of Pasteur and Koch, a scientific
search for a microscopic pathogen began. In
1880, Charles Laveran discovered a protozoan
Plasmodium in the blood of malaria patients, but
the method of transmission could not be found.
In 1898-9 Ronald Ross found the pathogen in
mosquitoes and, using human volunteers, was
able to prove the transmission of the disease via
the mosqui to vector. Throughout the 20th
century many strategies were tried against the
disease:
Anti-malarial drugs, such as
Chloroquine , seemed
effective to cure the disease
until the pathogen evolved
resistance.
Widespread spraying of swamps, forests and
villages with insecticides to try to eradicate the
mosquito vector may have reduced the incidence
at times, but overall this strategy failed.
All attempts to develop a vaccine against the
pathogen have been unsuccessful, but research is still
going on, and recent developments are promising.
Malaria remains one of the worlds greatest
heal th probl ems. Several hundred mi l l i on
people are affected by it, and 2-3 million die
each year... mostly children.
Anopheles Mosquito
Vector for Malaria
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5
The Variety of Pathogens
There are 6 different categories of pathogen known to cause human diseases.
Macro-Parasites
These are the larger, macroscopic parasites.
Ectoparasi tes are those
whi ch are parasi tes on
the outside of the body,
usually sucking blood.
Examples are fleas,
ticks, leeches, mites,
lice, mosquitoes, and
so on. Some can
inject toxins while
feeding, causing
inflammation, allergic
reactions and sometimes
partial paralysis.
Generally, ectoparasites only become major
threats to health if they are vectors for
microscopic pathogens.
Endoparasites are those parasites which live
inside the body. The most common pathogens
are either flatworms (e.g. tapeworms and flukes)
or roundworms.
Disease Example: Taeniasis
(Tapeworm disease)
Pathogen: Taeni a sagi nat a
(tapeworm)
Comment: Tapeworm lives in intestine.
Can cause weight loss and
abdominal pain.
Protozoans
Protozoans are single-celled organisms. The
cell is animal-like; eucaryotic and lacking a
cell wall. Billions of protozoans live in
swamps, rivers and oceans where they form
part of the plankton and are a vital link in
the food chains. Only a few cause disease.
Disease Example: Malaria
Pathogen: Pl asmodi um species
Comment: Mosquito vector.
Affects many millions of
people.
Major health problem.
Fungi
The Fungi include the various moulds and
yeasts. Some are very useful (yeast for bread
& beer) or are eaten for food (mushrooms).
Most fungi live in soil and are important as
decomposer organisms in nature.
Only a few cause disease.
Disease Example: Tinea (Athletes foot)
Pathogen: Tinea pedis (a mould-like fungus)
Comment: Highly contagious. Feeds on
skin, causing itchy, smelly,
flaking of feet.
Bacteria
Bacteria are an enormously varied group of single-celled, procaryotic organisms.
The vast majority are decomposer organisms in soil and water environments,
or make their own food by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.
Some, however, are disease pathogens and caused many of the great plagues
of history, such as the black death of the Middle Ages.
Tick
In the 20th century, most of the serious
bacterial diseases were brought under control
by the use of antibiotics and programs of
mass immunization.
Disease Example: Tetanus
Pathogen: Cl ost r i di um t et ani
(a rod-shaped bacterium)
Comment:Detailed case-study in this section.
More pathogens next page...
VARIETY OF BACTERIA
Bacteria have very small cells, in many shapes
Rod Shaped
Bacteria
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6
The Variety of Pathogens
Continued
Antibiotics
One of the great success stories of disease control in the
20th century was the discovery of the class of drugs called
antibiotics. The first and most famous was Penicillin, first
extracted from a mould fungus Peni ci l l i um, in 1928. Other
antibiotics were discovered in various fungi, and some have been synthesised chemically.
Antibiotics are selectively toxic to living cells. They kill or inhibit the cells of microbes such as
bacteria, but do not harm human cells. Antibiotics are mainly effective against bacteria. Some will kill
fungal pathogens (these are usually called fungicides ) and others work against protozoans.
It should be noted that antibiotics DO NOT work on viruses.
During the 20th century the use of antibiotics was
responsible for helping to bring under control a range
of diseases (mostly bacterial) which had been health
problems for centuries... tuberculosis, leprosy,
syphilis, pneumonia, cholera, to name just a few. For
the first time in history, these serious diseases
became curable, and some have been virtually
eradicated.
Also, antibiotics are widely used to treat infection in
minor wounds, sore throats, eye and ear infections, and
so on. This speeds recovery from minor ailments and
improves everyones quality of life. Antibiotics are
frequently prescribed for those suffering viral infections
also. This prevents secondary infections of bacterial
disease that might strike a person weakened by the virus.
The Bugs Fight Back...
Antibiotic Resistance
Unfortunately, there is a down-side to the use of
antibiotics; Natural Selection. Among the billions of
individual pathogen cells there may be a few which
have some natural resistance to an antibiotic. When
the antibiotic kills all the others, the resistant cells
survive and reproduce and evolution takes place.
Many pathogens have evolved resistance to the
ol der anti bi oti cs and new ones need to be
developed or discovered, in order to keep winning
the war against the germs.
The danger is that, by using antibiotics, we have caused
the evolution of resistant strains. This could lead to future
epidemics of diseases that we cannot control.
Prions
Prions are a mysterious type of pathogen
only discovered about 20 years ago and
still not fully understood. They are NOT
living things, and are not cellular.
Prions are proteins molecules which
reproduce themselves and cause
infectious disease, especially of nerve
tissue such as the brain. They seem to be
proteins that are folded and twisted into
the wrong shape, and are able to cause
more proteins to re-arrange to the wrong
shape, thus spreading from cell to cell
and causing malfunctions to the brain.
Disease Example: CJD
(Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)
Pathogen: BSE prion
(causes Mad Cow Disease in cattle.)
Comment: Incurable, 100% fatal, brain
degeneration. Transmitted by eating
nerve tissue from infected animals.
Viruses
Viruses are all bad guys .
Every virus is a pathogen which
causes disease in some organism
or other... plants, animals, even
bacteria all suffer virus diseases.
The lifestyle of every virus is to
invade a living cell and hijack its
genetic machinery. The cell is taken over
and forced to make more virus particles to infect more cells.
Viruses are NOT cellular. Each is a very small capsule of
protein containing either DNA or RNA.
Many serious and common human diseases are caused by
viruses, including AIDS, influenza (flu), measles, polio, rabies
and the common cold. Some, such as polio, have been brought
under control by immunization programs.
FLU VIRUS RABIES VIRUS
Nucleic acids
Protein capsule and attachments
for entering host cell
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7
Case Study of an
Infectious Disease: Tetanus
Tetanus, also known as Lock-jaw , has been
known since ancient times, but only
understood since about 1890 when the cause
and method of infection was discovered.
Since early in the 20th century it has
become curable and preventable
by the use of immunization.
Host Response
The infected persons defence mechanisms react in
all the usual ways:
Inflammation of the wound, serves to partly seal off the
infected area and raise the temperature to try to speed
healing and inhibit heat-sensitive pathogens.
Phagocytes (white blood cells which eat bacteria) are
attracted to the wound area and destroy bacteria and
clean up dead tissue. However, they can only operate
at the edges of the wound where conditions are
aerobic. Further in, the C. tetani can be thriving in the
anaerobic areas.
The immune system reacts to the exotoxin by
beginning the process of producing an antibody to
destroy the toxin molecules. However, this process
may take weeks, and the disease is likely to kill the
person well inside this time, if untreated.
Cause
Pathogen: Cl ost r i di um t et ani ,
a rod-shaped bacterium.
This bacterium is common in soil, especially if
there is a lot of animal manure, such as around
farmyards. The bacterium is anaerobic (lives
where there is no oxygen) and normally feeds
on dead organic matter in the soil.
C. tetani produces heat-resistant spores
which can survive in soil for many years.
Major Symptoms
The tetanus exotoxin affects nerve cells
causing them to keep firing when they
shouldnt. This stimulates muscles to go into
spasms and seizures.
Jaw and throat muscles are usually the
first affected... hence Lock-jaw .
High temperature, elevated blood pressure and
heart rate. Sudden, powerful and painful
muscular seizures may be so strong as to
break bones and tear muscles in the abdomen
and chest. Seizures can interrupt breathing,
causing brain damage and suffocation.
Untreated, between 30-60% of patients will die,
and survivors may take months to recover.
Prevention and Control
Tetanus is completely preventable by immunization. The vaccine contains tetanus toxoid ;
tetanus toxin which has been treated chemically to render it harmless, but it still sets off
the immune system to actively produce antibodies. Immunity lasts about 12 years,
so booster shots are recommended every 10 years.
The world-wide death toll from tetanus is approximately 200,000 per year, but only a few
hundred of these are in developed countries like Australia because of the immunization programs.
Virtually all Australian cases occur in older people who have forgotten to get a booster shot,
or from self-tattooing, or drug-users using dirty needles.
Treatment
Antibiotics to kill bacteria in the wound.
Surgical exploration and cleaning of the wound.
Treat spasms with muscle-relaxant drugs.
The maj or treatment i s the use of tetanus
anti toxi n. The Anti toxi n i s Tetanus Immune
Globulin (TIG). Basically this is a concentrate of
antibodies from a person (or other animal) who has
developed immunity to tetanus. TIG binds to the
tetanus toxin in the bloodstream so it becomes
harmless and is destroyed by phagocyte cells.
Transmission
The disease is not contagious. You cannot catch
it from someone else.
The normal manner of infection is from a deep
wound, such as when someone steps on a nail,
but even being pricked by a plant thorn could be
enough. The essential requirement is that the
wound is deep enough to provide anaerobic
conditions in dead tissue.
If spores of C. tetani enter the wound, they may
germinate and the bacteria grow, feeding on the
dead cells within the wound. If thats all that
happened, it would not be a serious problem,
but C. tetani produces an exotoxin which
happens to be one of the most potent nerve
poisons ever discovered.
In the human body it is life-threatening!
Heal th i s a state of a).............................
........................................ Di sease i s any
condi ti on b)....................................................
Infecti ous di sease i s caused by a
c)............................... If the disease can be caught
from another infected person then it is said to
be d)............................. Some infectious diseases
are transmitted by another organism, called a
e)...........................
Differentiation is the process by which body
cells become f)............................. Every cell in a
mul ti cel l ul ar organi sm i s geneti cal l y
g)..............................., but di fferenti ated cel l s
have switched on different h)........................ in
order to function correctly.
Microscopic organisms are found in every part
of our environment. This is why it is essential to
follow i)............................. procedures for storage
of j).................... and personal k)...........................
Water supplies are routinely l)...............................
and m)........................ to remove or kill microbes.
Any organism can become a n)............................
if it causes o)...........................
The man most responsi bl e for hel pi ng us
understand the Germ Theory of Disease was
p)..................... .............................
Tetanus Case Study.
The pathogen is called v)...................................
Tetanus w)....................... (is or is not) contagious.
Transmission usually occurs by x).........................
........................ The pathogen grows in
y)....................... conditions in a wound, feeding on
z).................... It produces a powerful aa)..................
which affects ab)........................ cells.
The host reponses include inflammation, which
attempts to ac)............................... Also, white cells
called ad)............................... gather at the wound
site. The immune system begins making
ae).................................. but the disease progresses
faster than this.
The major symptom is sudden, violent
af)........................ which can break bones, and even
interrupt ag).......................... leading to brain
damage and suffocation.
Patients are treated with an antitoxin containing
ah)....................... from an immune person or animal.
Prevention of tetanus is achieved by
ai)............................ This involves a toxoid which
is aj)............................................................ Booster
injections are needed every ak)............. years.
Antibiotics are especially effective against
al)........................... but have no effect on
am)........................ A modern problem is pathogens
that have an)......................................................
8
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COMPLETED WORKSHEETS
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES
Worksheet 1 Basic Definitions & History
Fill in the blank spaces Name....................................
Worksheet 2 Pathogens & Disease Name....................................
His famous experiment of 1862 proved that
decay was caused by q)........................... and not
just due to r).................................... His work
sti mul ated others to begi n searchi ng for
mi croscopi c pathogens. The great German
scientist s)................................. discovered the
bacteria which caused t).............................., but
more i mportantl y he devel oped a set of
procedures whi ch al l ow u)..........................
..................... .....................................
Malaria is caused by a v)....................... pathogen,
transmitted by a vector, the w)..........................
The pathogen, called x).................................., was
discovered in patients blood in 1880. The link to
mosquitoes was proven by y)................................
in 1898. Many strategies have been used against
Mal ari a, i ncl udi ng drugs such as
z)................................ These were successful, but
the pathogen has evolved aa)...............................
to drugs in many places. Attempts to kill the
mosquito vector have failed, and attempts to
develop a ab).............................. have not yet
succeeded. Mal ari a remai ns a maj or worl d
health problem, killing ac).....................................
people each year.
There are 6 different categories of pathogen:
Macro-parasites include the a).................-parasites
which feed on the outside of the body, such as
b)..................... These rarely cause any serious problems
themselves, but can be c)...................... for other
pathogens. Endoparasites live d)................... the body.
An example is e)....................... (tapeworm disease)
caused by the flatworm f).......................................
Fungi are responsible for some diseases of the skin,
such as the highly contagious g)...................... caused by
the fungus h)........................................... (scientific name)
i)............................ are single-celled, eucaryotic
organisms. Not many cause disease, but Malaria,
caused by various species of j)............................... is one
of the worlds greatest health problems.
Bacteria are a varied group of k).........................
organisms with very l)................ (size) cells of various
shapes. They are responsible for many diseases
including m).................... caused by n)................................
Viruses are non-cellular. Each is a capsule of
o)................... containing p)....................... A virus invades
living cells and forces the cell to
q)............................................ Examples of virus diseases
include r)....................and ..........................
s)...................... are non-cellular protein molecules which
cause diseases of the t)................................. system. A
human example is u)................................
Multiple Choice
1.
A disease could NOT ever be:
A. infectious and contagious
B. hereditary and carried by a vector
C. non-infectious and hereditary
D. pathogenic and contagious
2.
Di fferenti ati on occurs when cel l s become
specialized because:
A. they contain different genetic information.
B. they contain the same genes, but mutations
occur.
C. new combinations of genes have been
produced by meiosis.
D. they follow different parts of the same total
set of genes.
3.
The sci enti st responsi bl e for devel opi ng a
system for positively identifying the pathogen
responsible for a disease was:
A. Pasteur
B. Laveran
C. Koch
D. Ross
4.
A pathogen was described as:
Non-cellular and microscopic. Composed of a
protein capsule containing nucleic acid
This pathogen is a:
A. Fungus
B. Bacteria
C. Virus
D. Prion
5.
The pathogen responsi bl e for the di sease
Mal ari a, and i ts vector woul d be cl assi fi ed
(respectively) as:
A. protozoan and insect.
B. bacterium and macro-parasite.
C. insect and virus.
D. macro-parasite and bacterium.
6.
Antibiotics are not an effective treatment for a
disease caused by a:
A. fungus
B. bacterium
C. protozoan
D. virus
Longer Response Questions
Mark values given are suggestions only, and are to
give you an idea of how detailed an answer is
appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space.
7. (5 marks)
Write a brief definition for each of the following.
a) Infectious disease
b) Non-infectious disease
c) Pathogen
d) Contagious
e) Vector
8. (3 marks)
It i s essenti al for publ i c heal th that water
supplies are made as safe as possible. Outline
the processes that are typically used to treat our
water supplies.
9. (3 marks)
Give a brief account of the main strategies that
have been made to control the disease malaria,
commenting on the effectiveness of each.
10. (6 marks)
List the 6 categories of pathogen responsible for
infectious disease. For each, name a disease
caused by a pathogen of that type.
11. (8 marks)
For a named, i nfecti ous di sease you have
studied:
a) give the name of the pathogen
b) describe the major symptoms
c) describe how the disease is transmitted
d) describe the host response to the infection
e) outline the treatment given to a patient with
the disease
f) outline any measures to control & prevent the
disease
9
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10
2. BODY DEFENCES AGAINST DISEASE
Flushing Mechanisms
Regular emptying of the bladder
flushes microbes from the
bladder and urethra.
Production of tears, and regular
blinking wash and wipe
microbes from the eyes.
Reflex Actions
Coughi ng and sneezi ng refl exes move dust,
mucus and trapped pathogens, etc out of the
breathing passageways.
Vomi ti ng removes stomach contents that are
making you nauseous, removing pathogens which
have been swallowed.
Skin
The outside surface of skin is layers of
dead, dry cells, virtually impossible for
microbes to penetrate.
It is a difficult environment for a pathogen
to grow on (no water).
Skin constantly flakes off, carrying
microbes away.
Your body is not defenceless against invading
pathogens. You are equipped with 3 lines of
defence:
The 1st Line of Defence:
Barriers to Invasion
There are a number of physical and chemical
barri ers whi ch prevent most potenti al
pathogens from entering your body. The most
important ones are:
Skin
Mucous Membranes
Chemical Barriers & Secretions
Flushing Mechanisms & Reflexes
Secretions
such as the tears from the
eyes, contain an anti-bacterial
enzyme Lysozyme .
Chemical Barriers
Stomach is highly acidic.
This kills most pathogens
that are swallowed with
food, or in mucus.
Urinary and reproductive
openings are mildly
acidic... enough to inhibit
the growth of many
microbes.
MICROFLORA
Living in, and on, the human body are many friendly microbes which share a symbiotic relationship with us.
Some live in the intestines and manufacture vitamins for us. Others live on skin and mucous membranes
where they normally act as competitors to potential pathogens. They keep the population in check by out-
competing the pathogens, or by creating chemical conditions that pathogens cannot tolerate.
MICROFLORA IMBALANCE CAN LEAD TO DISEASE
The female reproductive system is largely protected by its normal microflora. Taking medications,
such as antibiotics, can upset the normal balance. The yeast Candida albicans, which is always
present in low numbers, can take advantage and multiply rapidly. This results in a disease called
Thrush , with symptoms of itching, a white discharge and general discomfort.
Mucous Membranes
These membranes line the
natural body openings of
mouth and throat, and the
urinary and reproductive
tracts.
The mucous membranes
secrete mucus, a sticky fluid
which traps pathogens.
In some places the
membranes are lined with cilia.
These are microscopic hairs
which beat in a rhythmic
way to move mucus (and
trapped pathogens) along
for disposal.
For example, mucus in the
breathing tubes is moved
upwards, until it can be
swallowed into the acid
of the stomach.
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11
Antigens and the
Immune Response
Sooner or later, pathogens manage to get past
the 1st line of defence and invade the body.
Once the barriers are penetrated there are 2
more lines of defence to combat the pathogens,
but first the body has to recognise that foreign
cells or toxins are present. It is the special cells
of your immune system which do this.
Each of your own body cells has on the outside
of i ts cel l membrane, speci al protei ns and
glycoproteins (combinations of carbohydrate
wi th protei n) whi ch act as i denti fi cati on
markers, proclaiming SELF . Your immune
system constantl y checks everywhere, but
ignores anything labelled as self .
Any foreign cell, cell fragment, or even just a
protein molecule or toxin will act as an Antigen .
It will not be recognised as self , and therefore
must be foreign. This will set off a range of
defence responses by the immune system.
Organ Transplants and
Tissue Rejection
When a person receives an organ transplant
such as a kidney transplant, the new organ is, of
course, from another person. The cells will have
di fferent marker protei ns on thei r cel l
membranes.
Therefore, the cells of the new organ will act as
antigens and set off the immune responses. The
immune system reacts to the new organ as if it
were a foreign invader and attempts to kill it. The
result is called Tissue Rejection and can
quickly lead to the failure of the transplant.
To try to prevent this happening, the transplant
doctors:
use only organs from donors who closely
match the patient in their tissue type . This
means their cell markers will be similar and will
not act as antigens quite as strongly.
treat the patient with immuno-suppressant
drugs to reduce their immune response. Their
immune system is partially shut-down and does
not attack the transplant. However, this also
makes the patient more vulnerable to pathogens
and they must be protected from infection.
ANTIGENS are chemicals
recognised as NOT-SELF
(such as proteins on foreign cells)
which trigger the immune response
BEFORE STUDYING THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
YOU NEED TO KNOW MORE ABOUT BLOOD CELLS
BLOOD CELLS
ERYTHROCYTES
Red Blood Cells
Carry oxygen
LEUCOCYTES
White Blood Cells
Immune System
BASOPHILS
involved in
inflammation
B-CELLS
(2 types)
produce
Antibodies
T-CELLS
(4 types)
Kill infected
body cells
LYMPHOCYTES
form the
3rd Line of Defence
EOSINOPHILS NEUTROPHILS
MACROPHAGES
These 3 types carry out
Phagocytosis
All these types are part of the
2nd Line of Defence
Notice that
there are
many different
kinds of
white cells
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When pathogens penetrate the 1st-Line barrier
defences thei r anti gens wi l l rapi dl y set off
counter-attack responses of the 2nd-Line of
Defence. This is non-specific , meaning that
the exact identity of the foreign invader does not
matter... the response is the same.
Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis means literally to eat cells and
thats exactly what some of the white blood cells
are desi gned to do. The Eosi nophi l s,
Neutrophi l s and Macrophages are al l
phagocytes and abl e to eat and destroy
foreign cells such as invading bacteria.
The phagocyte cells detect the antigens of a
foreign cell, recognise it as not-self and attack it.
Phagocyte cells are shape-changers and not
only can they wrap around a pathogen to engulf it,
they can also squeeze their way out of the
bloodstream and move among the tissue cells.
Whenever they encounter antigens that signal
NOT-SELF they will carry out phagocytosis to
destroy it.
When large numbers of phagocytes gather at a
site of infection, they form pus . Pus is rather
nasty stuff (its full of infectious pathogens) but is
a healthy sign... it means your phagoctes are on
the job!
Inflammation
Inflammation is the way the body reacts to any
cell damage, such as a cut, abrasion, crushing
or burn. When cells are damaged they release
chemi cal s whi ch the i mmune system
recognises as a distress signal.
In response, the whi te bood cel l s cal l ed
Basophils release the chemical histamine.
Effects of Histamine
dilation (widening) of the blood capillaries
around the injury site. This allows more blood to
flow in, bringing more clotting factors and more
phagocyte cells to destroy pathogens.
This also brings more body heat to the site. Heat
can inhibit some pathogens, and speeds up all
chemical reactions for faster repairs.
capillaries to become more permeable,
allowing fluids to escape from blood into the
tissues. This causes swelling. The extra fluid in
the tissues brings more phagocytes to fight
i nfecti ons, and the extra pressure causes
drainage of fluid into the Lymph System. This
washes dead cell debris towards the lymph
nodes for disposal, thus clearing the area for
repairs to begin.
Features of an inflammed wound
Hot and red, from extra blood & body heat
Swollen, from extra tissue fluid
Pus formation, from millions of phagocytes
Cell Death... Apoptosis
Sometimes at an infection site, the tissue cells
may become so thoroughly infected by viruses,
or infiltrated by so many bacteria, that the best
defence is to seal off the area and sacrifice all
the body cells within.
Immune system cells can start the process of
Apoptosis, in which cells are given a chemical
instruction to commit suicide . The suicidal
cell produces enzymes which chop the cells
DNA to pi eces, the energy-produci ng
mitochondria swell and burst, and the cell self-
destructs.
More importantly, special antigens appear on
the cell membrane which attract phagocytes to
destroy the cell, and its load of pathogens.
In some cases, an infected site will be walled-
off by a layer of cells forming a capsule or cyst,
inside which all the cells have been ordered to
suicide. This isolates an infection and stops it
spreading. Later, the dead debris inside the cyst
will be destroyed by phagocytes, and the tissue
repaired.
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PHAGOCYTOSIS
Phagocyte
Cell
Lysosomes
(contain digestive
enzymes)
Bacterial
Cell
Phagocyte engulfs
foreign cell.
Pathogen wrapped in a
membrane inside Phagocyte.
Lysosomes fuse with the
package.
Pathogen destroyed by
lysosomes chemicals
The 2nd Line of Defence: Non-Specific Immune Responses
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13
The Lymphatic System
As the blood circulates through the
tissues, some of the blood plasma always
seeps out of the capillaries and bathes
the cells in tissue fluid . The body is
equipped with a system of drains
to collect this fluid and return it to
the blood. This drainage system is
the Lymphatic System.
Lymph tubes form a one-way
drainage system from all body
extremities, back to a point near the heart
where tissue fluid is dumped back into a
vein to re-join the blood. Tissue fluid
is squeezed through
lymph vessels
by the surrounding
muscles, and the tubes have
valves to prevent back-flow.
At various points along the lymph
vessels there are special chambers
called lymph nodes . These are
important sites for the immune
system to defend against disease.
If there is an infection in any body tissues,
it is likely that pathogens will be carried
along by the flow of lymph fluid.
The 3rd Line of Defence: Specific Immunity
The 3rd line of defence said to be specific because the lymphocyte cells are able to identify
particular pathogens by their antigens and set up defences which will accurately target each one.
The pathogen will be destroyed not only in the current infection, but in future infections as well...
you become immune to the disease.
The cells responsible are the white blood cells known as T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes .
B-Lymphocytes produce protein molecules called antibodies which can lock-on to a foreign
antigen rather like an enzyme fitting its substrate... i.e. it is a key-in-lock situation, with each
antigen needing a specific antibody to fit it.
T-LYMPHOCYTES
are produced in bone marrow, but mature and
multiply in the Thymus Gland (hence T cells).
Cell-Mediated Immune response.
T-cells attack body cells that are
infected by pathogens,
or growing abnormally as cancers.
B-LYMPHOCYTES
are produced and mature in bone marrow
(hence B cells). Produce ANTIBODIES.
Antibody-Mediated Immune response.
Antibodies attack pathogens (and their toxins)
which are NOT inside body cells,
but in the blood, lymph or tissue fluid.
The 3rd Line of Defence
To help you remember which is which,
think of B for Bomber... B-cells are
like bomber aircraft which drop
bombs (antibodies) on the enemy
without ever getting close to them.
This could spread pathogens throughout the
body, but the lymph nodes
generally prevent that.
Lymph nodes contain many
phagocytes to eat foreign
cells, and also contain
lymphocyte cells (below)
which are able to target
specific pathogens and
destroy them.
When fighting a serious infection
the lymph nodes become swollen
and painful. This is often a sign
of infection and an indication of
where it is. For example, swollen
lymph nodes in one armpit
indicate that an infection is
travelling up the arm, possibly
from an infection site in the
hand.
There are also several
glands of the body which are
associated with the lymphatic
system, and have a role in body
defences. These include the
adenoids and tonsils, the thymus gland in the
upper chest, and the spleen. All act as
reservoirs for immune sytem cells.
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
showing some of the drainage
Lymph Nodes
neck
armpit
groin
Lymph fluid
returned to
bloodstream
near heart
Drainage pattern
from arm
and legs
You also need to know about how T-cells and B-cells interact
with each other, and how they destroy pathogens.
This is also described on the next page.
There are 2 categories of B-cells,
and 4 categories of T-cell.
Some details about these are
shown on the next page.
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14
The 3rd Line of Defence
LYMPHOCYTES
B-Cells T-Cells
Plasma
Cells
Produce
Antibodies
to fight
the current
infection
Memory
B-Cells
Remain in the
system to
respond to future
infections by the
same pathogen
Helper
T-Cells
Interact with
Phagocytes
to set off
the specific
immune
responses
Cytotoxic
(Killer)
T-Cells
Attack body
cells which
are infected
by
pathogens
Suppressor
T-Cells
Suppress
the immune
response
(turn it off)
after an
infection is
defeated
Memory
T-Cells
Remain in
the system to
respond to
future
infections by
the same
pathogen
How White Blood Cells Interact with Each Other
Step 1
Phagocyte Displays an Antigen
A Phagocyte
eats a
pathogen.
Part of the
pathogen
(an antigen)
is displayed
on MHC
molecule.
WHAT IS MHC?
MHC stands for Major Histocompatibility Complex.
This is a glycoprotein molecule which acts like
an egg-cup to hold an antigen out for
inspection by a lymphocyte cell.
Phagocyte Cell
MHC
molecule
Antigen
being
displayed
Pathogen has
been destroyed
Step 2
Antigen is Inspected by a Helper T-Cell
Helper T-Cells will dock
with a phagocyte and inspect
the antigen. The T-Cell
then releases
chemical messages
which
stimulate the
production of huge
numbers of specific
Plasma (B) Cells
and Cytotoxic (T) Cells,
each keyed to
that specific antigen shape.
Phagocyte Cell
Helper
T-Cell
Antigen
MHC
T-Cell
receptor
Step 3
Killer
T-Cells
Antigen
receptor
Infected body cells.
Antigens appear on
cell membranes
T-Cells dock with
antigens on infected
body cells.
Cells are killed by being
burst open by enzymes
from T-Cell
Chemical Signals stimulate
production of millions of
specific Lymphocytes
Produce Antibodies
Antibodies lock onto
pathogens so they are
neutralized and immobilized.
Phagocytes then destroy them.
Antibodies are
proteins with a
shape to fit
antigens on
each pathogen
exactly
Plasma B-Cells
Killer T-Cells
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Immunity
Once a person has been infected by a particular
pathogen and then recovers from the disease,
the immune system stops producing T-Cells and
B-Cells for that pathogen. (This is done by
Suppressor T-Cells )
However, Memory T-Cells and Memory
B-Cel l s remai n i n the system for years
afterwards, possi bl y for l i fe. If that same
pathogen invades the body again, the 3rd Line of
Defence is already primed and ready. It reacts
rapidly with a flood of T-Cells and antibodies so
that the pathogen is usually destroyed before
any disease symptoms are produced. The person
cannot be affected by that pathogen ever again...
he or she is immune to that disease.
This is why many diseases, such as childhood
measles, are only ever caught once. At the first
infection it takes time for the immune system to
begin producing specific lymphocytes, so the
disease takes hold and symptoms appear. Later
in life many re-infections with measle virus may
occur, but the primed immune system destroys
the pathogen so symptoms do not occur again.
The Success of Vaccination
It was mentioned in a previous section how the use
of antibiotics was a tremendous step forward in our
ability to cure certain infectious diseases. Even
more important has been the prevention (always
better than cure) of disease by programs of mass
immunization by vaccination.
Smallpox is a viral disease which, if untreated,
has a hi gh death rate and survi vors are l eft
di sfi gured and scarred for l i fe. In the 1950s
smal l pox was targetted by the Worl d Heal th
Organization as public enemy No.1 . A world-wide
effort of vaccination resulted in the disease being
totally eliminated by 1977... the most outstanding
success against any disease in history.
Poliomyelitis ( Polio ) is a viral disease
which results in paralysis of limbs, causing the
victim to be disabled for life. It used to kill or cripple
hundreds of Australian children every year.
Si nce the 1950s, the use of pol i o vacci nes
(ori gi nal l y i nj ected, now taken oral l y) has
eliminated the disease from Australia, and almost
from the world. The disease still occurs in a few
African nations only.
Diphtheria is a disease caused by a highly
contagious bacterium. It can lead to permanent
nerve and heart problems, even when patients are
cured of the infection. Therefore, prevention is
definitely far better than cure.
In the 1920s, several thousand Australian children
di ed from Di phtheri a, or were permanentl y
weakened by it. Vaccination programs had virtually
eliminated it by the 1970s.
It is now compulsory in Australia for all children to
be vaccinated against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Polio,
and another one-ti me chi l d-ki l l er, Whoopi ng
Cough . Other diseases for which successful
vacci nati on programs exi st i ncl ude Rubel l a,
Hepatitis, Measles and Influenza.
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However, some pathogens keep altering the
antigens on their cell membranes or viral capsules.
This means the memory lymphocytes from the
previous infection are useless, and the immune
system must re-learn to recognise the pathogen.
This is why diseases such as the common cold can
be caught over and over again.
Vaccination comes from the Latin word
vacca which means cow.
Edward Jenner
(English, 18th century)
had noticed that milkmaids always
caught a mild disease cowpox from
the cows, but never suffered the
deadly smallpox.
Jenner used pus from a cowpox sore to deliberately
infect people with cowpox. This caused later immunity
to smallpox. (We now know that the viruses are so
similar that antibodies for one, work against the other).
So, vaccination literally means cow-ation.
Vaccination
The problem with becoming immune to a disease
the natural way is that a person has to actually
suffer the disease in order to gain immunity.
Vaccination is the process of deliberately putting
antigens into a persons body so that the immune
system reacts, and the person becomes immune,
but without danger from the actual disease.
The vaccine might be injected, or taken orally, to
introduce one of the following into the body:-
Live pathogens that are attenuated ... harmless
strains of the pathogen which have been bred.
Pathogens that have been ki l l ed by heat or
chemicals.
Fragments of pathogens, such as part of the cell
wall of a bacterium, or the capsule of a virus.
A toxoid , which is a toxin molecule from the
pathogen, but rendered harml ess by some
treatment.
The antigens in the vaccine set off the immune response,
eventually giving the person immunity to that disease.
Antigens are chemicals which trigger
the o)............................ ..............................
Antigens are proteins which the body
recognizes as p)......................... After an
organ transplant, the patients immune
system must be q)....................................
by drugs, otherwi se thei r i mmune
system will r)..................................... the
transplanted organ. The immune system
is made up of a variety of types of white
blood cells, or s).................................
The 2nd Li ne of Defence i s
t)...................... (specific or non-specific).
Three types of l eucocyte (cal l ed
u).............................., .......................... and
.........................) carry out phagocytosis.
Thi s i s when the phagocyte cel l
envelopes a foreign cell and digests it
with enzymes from the v).........................
(organelle)
Another type of l eucocyte cal l ed
w)........................ set off the
x)............................ response whenever
the body has suffered damage.
Basophi l s rel ease the chemi cal
y)...................... which z)..........................
blood capillaries, resulting in swelling,
hotness and redness around the injured
site.
Sometimes body cells can be given
instructions to commit suicide . This
process is called aa)...........................
The Lymphatic System is a system of
ab).......................... which return tissue
fluid to the blood. If an infection is
present, pathogens could rapidly spread
via the lymph tubes. To prevent this
there are Lymph ac)..............................
at various points such as the neck,
ad).......................and ............................
Each lymph node has many phagocytes
and l ymphocytes to destroy any
pathogens.
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Worksheet 4 Non-Specific Body Defences
Fill in the blank spaces Name....................................
The 1st Li ne of Defence are the
a)...................... to infection. The skin is
made of layers of b).............................
cel l s whi ch are very di ffi cul t for a
pathogen to c)...............................
d)............................... membranes l i ne
the body openi ngs. They secete
e).................. which traps pathogens.
Some mucous membranes are lined
wi th f).......................... whi ch beat
rhythmi cal l y to remove mucus and
trapped pathogens.
The g)............ conditions of the stomach
are a h)........................... barrier which
kills microbes that are swallowed.
Emptying the i)................................ and
bl i nki ng the eyel i ds both serve to
fl ush mi crobes away. Tears al so
contai n an enzyme cal l ed
j ).................................. whi ch can ki l l
bacterial cells.
Reflex actions, such as k).......................
or vomiting helps to remove microbes
that have been breathed i n or
swallowed.
It is normal for the body to have many
friendly microbes living in and on it.
These are cal l ed the bodys
l ).................................... These
organi sms hel p control potenti al
pathogens by competing with them. If
there is an imbalance of microflora, a
m).......................................... may result.
An example is the fungal disease called
n)............................................
WHEN COMPLETED,
WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES
WORKSHEET 6 COVERS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM & VACCINATION
Multiple Choice
1. An exampl e of a chemi cal barri er to
infection is:
A. mucus in your breathing tubes
B. acid in your stomach
C. dead, dry skin cells
D. cilia in a mucous membrane
2. An antigen is:
A. a protein that can lock-on to a pathogen
and neutralise it.
B. a chemical which can kill pathogen cells.
C. a foreign protein which sets off an immune
response.
D. a blood cell which releases antibodies.
3.
The white blood cells Eosinophils, Neutrophils
and Macrophages are all:
A. phagocytes
B. lymphocytes
C. antibody producers
D. part of the 1st line of defence
4. Apoptosis is the process of:
A. programed cell suicide .
B. enveloping and eating a foreign cell.
C. pus formation at a site of infection.
D. red swelling of infected tissue.
5.
The diagram shows part of the
A. Circulatory system.
B. Immune system
C. Nervous system
D. Lymphatic system
6. Antibodies are produced by:
A. killer T-cells
B. basophils
C. plasma cells
D. phagocytes
7.
Before the specific immune response can be
mounted by lymphocytes for the first time:
A. killer T-cells need to lock-on to
infected body cells.
B. helper T-cells need to inspect an antigen
presented by phagocytes.
C. memory B-cells need to activate
antibody production.
D. antibodies need to combine with an antigen.
8.
Which of the following would NOT be suitable to
use as a vaccine?
A. live, attenuated pathogens
B. fragments of pathogen cells
C. active toxin from a pathogen
D. killed pathogen cells
Longer Response Questions
Answer on reverse if insufficient space.
9. (3 marks)
Describe the location and features of the bodys
mucous membranes i n hel pi ng to protect
against disease.
10. (4 marks)
Explain how the natural microflora of the body
help protect against disease and, using a named
example, how an imbalance in the microflora
can result in disease.
11. (4 marks)
One of the responses to infection or tissue
damage is inflammation .
a) Name the type of leucocyte responsible for
initiating inflammation.
b) Expl ai n how the typi cal features of
i nfl ammati on (namel y hot, red and swol l en
tissue) are brought about.
12. (4 marks)
Compare and constrast B-cells and T-cells
and their methods of attack against invading
pathogens.
13. (4 marks)
There are 4 vari eti es of T-l ymphocytes ...
helper , killer , suppressor and memory
cells.
Briefly outline the function of each.
14. (5 marks)
a) Explain how vaccination can make a person
immune to a disease, possibly for life, without
them ever getting sick from that disease.
b) Name a previously serious disease which has
been brought under control by vaccination.
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Worksheet 5 Test Questions section 2 Name....................................
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18
Epidemiology
Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence of
diseases. It is very much about collecting data and
analysing it statistically to look for patterns and
correlations between the incidence of disease and
the many factors that may be involved in the
cause(s) and the spread of disease.
The data collected by epidemiologists includes
information from:
The results of an epidemiological study might
include:
Such fi ndi ngs al l ow heal th authori ti es and
governments to plan and allocate resources to
better meet the health needs of a community.
For example, epidemiology results might point
out the need for a new hospital to be built in a
certain place, or for a law to be made to ban the
advertising of products that endanger health,
such as tobacco products.
A classic example which shows the value of
epidemiology is the case of the drug thalidomide.
In the 1960s this drug was commonly prescribed
to pregnant women to prevent morning
sickness . Throughout history there have always
been some children born with deformities, and
no-one noticed that there had been a slight
increase in these cases. However, an
epidemiology study revealed a correlation
between the use of thalidomide and an increased
risk of babies being born without arms or legs.
The drug was quickly banned, saving many more
people from its terrible effects.
Case Study
Epidemiology of Lung Cancer
Now that many infectious diseases are more or
less under control, the major causes of death in
our society are heart disease and cancer. In the
USA in 1996, of all the many deaths by cancer,
those due to lung cancer amounted to 25% in men
and 14% i n women. Epi demi ol ogy has now
established beyond doubt that there is a very
strong link between lung cancer and smoking.
The correlation between smoking and a number of
heal th probl ems, i ncl udi ng l ung cancer, was
suggested by epidemiology data as early as the
1950s. The powerful and i nfl uenci al tobacco
companies were able to argue that...
Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the
epidemiology studies kept collecting data and
compiling evidence showing that smoking was
linked to lung cancer. Experiments to try to prove
the causati on were done too. For exampl e,
thousands of l aboratory rats were forced to
breathe tobacco smoke for long periods of time
and the incidence of lung cancer compared with
non-smoki ng rats. Eventual l y the evi dence
became overwhelming:
Annual deaths from lung cancer are about 5 times
higheramong smokers than non-smokers.
Quitting smoking immediately begins reducing
the chance of developing lung cancer
Since the banning of tobacco advertising and
public awareness programs, the percentage of
smokers i n the popul ati on has decl i ned. The
incidence of lung cancer (and other smoking-
related problems) has declined exactly in parallel.
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3. NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Hospitals and health-care
workers who
report on their
patients and the
treatments given.
Government studies such as
the national census, which
measures the size and age
distribution of the
population, where people
live, what they do for a living
and so on.
Case studies of particular diseases, in
which detailed information is gathered
about those people suffering the
disease, and compared to a control
group of similar people
without the disease.
Identifying that a
new disease has
appeared.
Discovering that an
existing disease has
changed in its
occurrence.
Identifying the
possible
causes or risk
factors of a
disease.
Assessment of the
effectiveness of public
health systems and
vaccination programs.
...correlation doesnt prove causation
This is quite true. Just because 2 things
occur together doesnt prove that one
causes the other. As the ancient Romans
knew, malaria is more common around
swamps. They thought it was the bad air.
Now we know its because of the mosquito
vector breeding in the swamps.
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19
An Inherited Disease
Haemophilia
Occurrence
Haemophilia occurs in males only, at a rate of 1
in every 5,000 male births.
Symptoms
The persons bl ood l acks certai n bl ood
factors involved in blood clotting, so their
body is unable to stop the bleeding from minor
injuries. Even gentle activity can cause minor
bleeds at joints and in muscles.
With haemophilia, there is continued internal
bleeding, extreme pain in joints, and this leads
to joint damage and disability. Untreated, it is
usually fatal during childhood.
Cause
Haemophilia is caused by a recessive, sex-
linked gene. The recessive gene is carried on
the X chromosome and so is inherited more
commonly in males than females.
In fact, i t i s vi rtual l y unknown i n femal es
because to have haemophilia a female must be
the daughter of a haemophiliac father. Until
recently no haemophiliac males survived long
enough to father children.
Treatment/Management
Modern treatment allows haemophilia sufferers
to lead a fairly normal life. Treatment involves 2-
3 injections per week of blood clotting factors
extracted from donated blood.
A Nutritional Deficiency Disease
Scurvy
Occurrence
In modern Australian society, scurvy is
virtually non-existant because of the
generally high quality diet available. (We eat
too much... but thats another story.)
In history, scurvy was a significant disease,
especially on long sea voyages. A British
report in 1600 indicated that 10,000 sailors
had died of scurvy in the previous 20 years.
Symptoms
The main protein of skin, bone and hair is
collagen . In scurvy, the collagen cannot be
made properly by the body, so
hair falls out
skin erupts, flakes and discolours
teeth loosen and fall out
blood capillaries leak blood, so bruising
spots appear all over the body
Cause
Lack of Vitamin C in the diet.
Vitamin C is found in citrus fruits
such as oranges, and in some
vegetables such as tomatoes.
The enzyme responsible for a critical step in
making collagen requires ascorbic acid
(vitamin C) for its correct functioning.
Treatment/Management
A balanced diet including fresh fruits and
vegetables, will prevent scurvy.
Occurrence
Melanoma is the 3rd or 4th most common cancer
in Australia, and approximately 2,000 Australians
die from it each year. Between 1950 and 1990 its
occurrence tripled, and Australia has the highest
incidence of melanoma in the world, per capita.
Symptoms
Dark, irregular-shaped moles appear on the skin.
These may become raised, and later bleed and
become ulcerated.
This primary tumour may shed cells which can
spread in the blood and establish secondary
tumours in vital organs such as lungs, kidneys,
liver or brain.
Cause
Mel anoma i s cl assed as an envi ronmental
disease because its major cause is a factor of
the Australian environment... ultra violet (UV)
rays from the Sun.
Cause (cont)
Exposure to UV damages skin cells, causes
mutations in the DNA and greatly increases the
risk of a melanoma developing.
It can also be considered a lifestyle disease
si nce i ts occurrence i s rel ated to outdoor
lifestyles, and activities such as sunbaking.
People with fair skin are more at risk.
Treatment/Management
The primary tumour can be removed by surgery.
Secondary tumours are treated by surgery,
radiation therapy and anti-cancer drugs. Early
detecti on greatl y i ncreases the chances of
survival.
Preventi on (al ways the preferred strategy)
includes avoiding skin exposure to the Sun by
the use of protective clothing, and sunscreen
l oti ons, and changi ng l i festyl e by avoi di ng
deliberate sunbaking.
Case Studies of Non-Infectious Diseases
An Environmental Disease: Melanoma
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20
Plant and Animal Diseases
Plants and animals suffer from diseases caused
by the same range of pathogens as do humans.
In addition, plants suffer a lot of damage from
herbi vorous ani mal s feedi ng on them,
especially from insects.
In your practical work you may have examined
plant shoots and leaves and gathered evidence
of pathogens and insect damage.
Leaf Galls
A common sign of disease in many plants is the
growth of a gall in the plant tissue. A gall is
the plants response to an infection or irritation
caused by a microscopic pathogen or macro-
parasite.
The plant grows layers of tough, woody tissue
around the infection site in an attempt to wall-
off the pathogen and prevent the infection
spreading.
Disease and Pest Control
Austral i as agri cul tural i ndustry not onl y
supplies us with most of our food, but is a major
part of the nations economy.
Disease, or insect pests in crops, could have a
devastating effect on this industry. Therefore,
our governments and industry organizations
use a variety of strategies to control disease
and agricultural pests.
Quarantine
Even in ancient times, people understood the
principle of quarantine... for example, people
suffering the disease leprosy, were isolated in
l eper col oni es to prevent the di sease
spreading through a community.
In modern Austral i a, quaranti ne i s a maj or
strategy used to prevent the entry and spread of
a variety of plant and animal diseases and pests
which could have devastating effects on our
agricultural and pastoral industries.
The government agency responsi bl e i s the
Austral i an Quaranti ne Inspecti on Servi ce
(AQIS). Every airport and other point of entry for
people and goods into Australia is under AQIS
scrutiny. Tourists may not bring plant seeds,
fresh foods, animal skins or soil (even muddy
boots) in from another country.
People who wish to bring in live animals, such
as pets or racehorses, must go through lengthy
and expensive procedures to ensure the animal
is not carrying a disease. The animal will be
quarantined... placed in isolation for possibly
several weeks, and regularly examined by a
veterinarian for any signs of disease.
People entering from certain risky parts of the
world must show proof of vaccination against
some di seases, or el se they too wi l l be
quarantined until it is proven they are not
carrying an excluded pathogen.
The Success of Quarantine
The fact that Australia has remained totally free
of certain human, plant and animal diseases is
evidence of the effectiveness of our quarantine
system. Australia is free of:
Foot-and-Mouth disease which could
devastate sheep & cattle herds.
Malaria and Rabies. (serious human diseases)
Sorghum Downy Mildew, a fungal pathogen
with potential to destroy many cereal crops and
native grasses... and many others.
4. STRATEGIES TO PREVENT DISEASE IN PLANTS & ANIMALS
Leaf damage
from a leaf
miner insect
Fungal
disease
QUARANTINED
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21
Use of Pesticides
A pest species is any plant or animal that we
fi nd troubl esome or destructi ve to our
agriculture and animal husbandry.
In the 20th century many pesticides were
developed in an attempt to control pest species. In
general terms, a pesticide is a chemical which
can kill a pest species without serious harm to the
plant crop or animals we wish to protect.
Genetic Engineering for
Disease & Pest Resistance
Genetic Engineering (GE) is the process of
altering the genetic make-up of a species. Many
of the modern developments in GE are aimed at
modifying our crops and animal herds to make
them resistant to various diseases or pests so
that usage of pesti ci de chemi cal s can be
reduced or eliminated.
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Insecticides
kill insects.
The original
was DDT
Dips & Drenches
are given or applied
to animals to kill
macro-parasites
such as worms &
ticks
Fungicides
kill fungal
pathogens
Herbicides
kill plant weeds
The best known is
Roundup
Originally, the pesticides were thought to be
magic bullets which would keep pest species
under control. This attitude has changed, as
many pesticides either lose their effectiveness,
or create environmental problems.
It is now realised that, although many pesticides
have been effective, it is better in many cases to
look for alternative ways to deal with pests...
once again the principle is all about prevention
and avoidance, rather than cure. Two important
strategies are:
Biological Controls... using natural predators
and pathogens to control a pest, and
Genetic Engineering...
Pests Develop Resistance
In almost every case of a
pesticide, the pest species
show a tendency to
develop resistance. This is
Natural Selection in
action, resulting in
the evolution of
resistant pests.
Pesticides are Indiscriminant
Insecticides, for example, kill
any insects, not just the
target pest species. This
creates even worse pest
problems because the
natural competitors and
predators of the pest are
killed too.
Human Toxicity
Pesticides pose a danger
to the humans who use
them. Residues of
pesticides may be present
in foods and pose a threat
to consumers
Environmental Pollution
Pesticides can wash into
rivers and enter natural
food chains. Fish are
killed by insectides. DDT
had severe impacts on the
reproduction in many bird
species.
Case Study:
Cotton Bollworm (Heliothis caterpillar)
This insect pest chews holes in cotton, maize,
tomatoes and peanut crops. As well as this
damage itself, the crop becomes more prone to
fungal disease.
Insecticides are not the answer, because
Heliothis has evolved resistance, and many
natural enemies
and predators
of Heliothis are
killed by sprays.
In the fi el d of human di sease control , the
emphasis has shifted from treatment and cure,
towards prevention. While antibiotics still have
thei r val ue as treatment drugs, the great
success story of human health has been mass
vaccination to prevent millions of people ever
getting certain diseases.
The same trend, from treatment towards
prevention, is occurring with plant and animal
diseases, and pest control.
Pesticides
GE Strategy
No.1
Scientists have
transferred a
gene from a
bacterium into
cotton plants. The
gene is for the
production of a
toxin, which is
lethal to the
caterpillar if eaten.
Since cotton is not
a human food,
and the toxin is
only produced by
the leaf cells in
the plant, the
presence of the
bacterial toxin is
not a problem for
humans.
GE Strategy No.2
Research is being done with a
virus which specifically infects
Hel i othi s caterpillars only, and
will not infect other species.
The vi rus al ready causes a
disease in the caterpillar, but
scientists are developing ways
to genetically alter the virus to
include a gene for a lethal toxin.
The idea is to produce billions
of GE viruses and then deliver
them in a spray to crops that
have a Hel i othi s infestation. No
other speci es woul d be
affected.
The 3rd Line of Defence is a)...............................
(specific/non-specific) immunity, meaning that
this system targets each antigen specifically.
The whi te bl ood cel l s i nvol ved are cal l ed
b).................................. and are of 2 main types
called c)..........-cells and .........-cells.
T-cells have 4 sub-categories as follows:
Hel per T-cel l s i nteract wi th phagocytes to
learn about a new d)................................... and
then send chemi cal si gnal s to cause the
production of millions of specifically targetted
lymphocytes.
e)......................... (killer) T-cells can recognise
body cells which are infected with a pathogen
and ki l l the cel l by bursti ng i ts cel l
f)............................ with enzymes.
Suppressor T-cells g).................................... the
immune response after an infection has been
defeated.
h)........................ T-cells remain in the system to
respond to future attacks by the same pathogen.
22
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Worksheet 6 Immune System & Vaccination
Fill in the blank spaces Name....................................
Worksheet 7 Non-Infectious Diseases
Fill in the blank spaces Name....................................
There are 2 sub-categories of B-cell:
i)............................ cells produce proteins called
j)....................................... These are able to bind
to a specific antigen (rather like the lock-and-
key system with enzymes and substrates).
By surroundi ng the anti gen, anti bodi es
neutralize it and attract k)....................................
which eat and destroy it. l)...............................
B-cells remain in the system to respond to
future attacks by the same pathogen.
Once a disease pathogen has been defeated,
the m).............................. lymphocytes remain on
guard, ready to respond to future infection by
the same pathogen. This means the person is
n)....................... to that disease, because the
pathogen wi l l be destroyed before any
symptoms occur.
o)............................ is an artificial method of
maki ng peopl e i mmune to a di sease. The
vaccine contains p)........................... to set off
the i mmune response, wi thout causi ng the
disease. Programs of mass vaccination have
been very successful against some diseases.
For example, q)........................... has been totally
eradicated, diseases such as r)..........................
and ............................. are virtually non-existant.
It is caused by a recessive gene carried on the
p).............. chromosome, so it is said to be
q)...............-linked. The disease was invariably
fatal in the past, but modern treatments involve
the i nj ecti on of r)..............................................
from donated blood.
Scurvy is an example of a s)..................................
defi ci ency di sease. It i s due to a l ack of
t)............................ in the diet and used to be a
si gni fi cant ri sk duri ng u)..........................
................... wi th no suppl i es of fresh frui t
available. Symptoms include hair and teeth
v)............................, and ski n erupti ons and
brui si ng due to l eaki ng of bl ood from
w)..........................................
Mel anoma i s a very dangerous form of
x)................... cancer. It can be classed as an
Envi ronmental Di sease si nce a maj or
causative factor is exposure to y).........................
rays from the Sun. Approxi matel y
z)...................... (number) of Australians die from
mel anoma each year. Thi s i s the
aa)............................. rate in the world, on a per
capita basis.
Epi demi ol ogy i s the study of the
a)........................ of diseases. By collecting and
b)......................... data, the patterns and
c)........................... between various factors can
be used to identify disease risks and assess the
effectiveness of d)................................ programs.
These fi ndi ngs hel p heal th authori ti es and
governments make decisions and laws about
community health, such as banning advertising
for e)......................................
Epidemiology has established the link between
f)............................. and smoking. The death rate
from lung cancer among smokers is g).................
(number) ti mes hi gher than among non-
smokers. Since the ban on tobacco advertising,
and h)........................... programs, the percentage
of smokers has i)........................ and so has the
j)......................... of lung cancer.
Haemophi l i a i s an exampl e of an
k)............................ disease. Its occurrence is in
l)....................... only, at a rate of 1 case every
m)............. (number) male births. The disease
causes internal n)......................... due to the lack
of o)................................... factors in the blood.
Fungicides for n)............................., and Dips and
Drenches to kill o)............................... in animals.
It is now realised that pesticides are not as
wonderful as once thought, because:
pests develop p)..........................................
pesticides are a toxic risk to q)............................
insecticides are indiscriminate, killing not only
pests, but r)........................................ as well.
pesticides can pollute the s)...............................
and affect other life forms such as fish or birds.
One al ternati ve to pesti ci des i s
t)........................................... For exampl e, the
pest caterpi l l ar u)............................... attacks
cotton, maize, tomato and peanut crops and is
one of Australias worst agricultural pests. Two
different G.E. strategies are being researched
and tested to control this pest. One involves
inserting genes from a v)............................... into
cotton pl ants so they produce a
w)............................... which kills any insect that
eats it. Another strategy involves genetically
modifying a x)......................... which attacks only
the caterpillar. The virus will be genetically
modi fi ed to produce a fast-acti ng
y)............................. to kill the caterpillars rapidly.
As for human disease control, the emphasis has
shi fted from z).................................
di seases/pests towards aa).............................
them occurring.
23
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Worksheet 8 Strategies for Plant & Animal Diseases
Fill in the blank spaces Name....................................
Worksheet 9 Test Questions sections 3 & 4 Name....................................
Inspecti on of pl ant fol i age often reveal s
a)........................... due to pathogens and insects.
A gall is a plants response to b).........................
or irritation. A gall is a capsule of woody tissue
that grows around an infection site in an attempt
to c).....................................................................
The importance and economic value of our
agri cul ture demands strategi es to combat
disease and pest species.
A major stategy is d)................................. which
means to isolate potential sources of infection,
to prevent thei r entry and spread. The
government agency responsi bl e i s cal l ed
e).................... (abbreviation) and it checks all
people and goods entering Australia. Prohibited
goods i ncl ude f)..................................,
................................ and .........................................
Animals, such as pets or livestock, must be
placed in g)......................................... for several
weeks and examined and tested to ensure they
are not harbouring h)..................................
Our quarantine system has been successful at
keeping Australia free from animal disease such
as i )............................., human di seases l i ke
j)................................. and .............................. and
plant diseases such as k).......................................
Pesticides include l)............................ to kill
insects, m)....................... to kill weeds,
Multiple Choice
1. The results from an Epidemiology study would
probably NOT be useful for:
A. experiments to extract an antibiotic from a fungus.
B. assessing a vaccination program.
C. identifying risks of an environmental disease.
D. discovering the appearance of a new disease.
2. The di sease whi ch has ri sk factors of an
environmental and lifestyle nature is:
A. malaria . B. melanoma
C. scurvy D. haemophilia
3. The effectiveness of Australias quarantine system
can be seen by the:
A. amount of prohibited articles seized at airports.
B. difficulty of bringing a pet animal into Australia.
C. small number of tourists with diseases.
D. absence of certain diseases and pests in Australia.
4.
Using pesticides against agricultural pests is similar
in principle to the use (in human medicine) of:
A. vaccination
B. quarantine
C. epidemiology
D. antibiotics
Longer Response Questions
5. (3 marks)
Outl i ne some of the epi demi ol ogi cal
correl ati ons that poi nt to the l i nk between
smoking and lung cancer.
6. (4 marks)
You have studied an hereditary disease.
Name the disease you studied and describe:
a) the occurrence
a) the symptoms
b) the cause
c) the treatment or management
... of the disease.
7. (5 marks)
a) Briefly discuss reasons why the widespread
use of pesti ci des agai nst agri cul tural pest
species and diseases is no longer considered as
the best strategy for control.
b) Using a named example of a pest species,
outline an alternative strategy involving Genetic
Engineering.
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24
CONCEPT DIAGRAM ( Mind Map ) OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic
helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts.
Practise on this blank version.
THE SEARCH
FOR BETTER
HEALTH
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25
Answer Section
Worksheet 1
a) complete physical, mental and social well-being.
b) which disturbs the normal functioning of the body.
c) pathogen d) contagious
e) vector f) specialised
g) identical h) genes
i) correct hygienic j) food
k) hygiene/cleanliness l) filtered
m) chlorinated n) pathogen
o) disease p) Louis Pasteur
q) microbes r) contact with air
s) Robert Koch t) anthrax
u) the pathogen of a disease to be identified
v) protozoan w) (Anopheles) mosquito
x) Plasmodium y) Ronald Ross
z) chloroquine aa) resistance
ab) vaccine ac) 2-3 million
Worksheet 2
a) macroscopic b) leeches/ticks/lice
c) vectors d) inside
e) Taeniasis f) Taenia saginata
g) Tinea h) Tinea pedis
i) Protozoa j) Plasmodium
k) procaryotic l) small
m) Tetanus n) Clostridium tetani
o) protein
p) nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)
q) make new viruses r) AIDS, flu, measles, etc
s) Prions t) nervous
u) CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)
v) Clostridium tetani w) is not
x) a deep wound y) anaerobic
z) dead tissue aa) toxin
ab) nerve
ac) seal off/ inhibit pathogens
ad) phagocytes ae) antibodies
af) muscular seizures ag) breathing
ah) antibodies ai) vaccination
aj) tetanus toxin, made harmless by chemical
treatment
ak) 10 al) bacteria
am) viruses an) antibiotic resistance
Worksheet 3
1. B 2. D 3. C 4. C 5. A 6. D
7.
a) Disease caused by a pathogen.
b) Disease that does not involve a pathogen.
c) An organism which invades the body and
disturbs the normal functioning of it.
d) A di sease whi ch can be caught by
transmission from an infected person.
e) An organism (usually animal) which carries a
pathogen from one host to another.
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8.
Water typically sits in reservoir which allows a
lot of suspended matter, and pathogens, to
settle out.
It i s often fi l tered to remove remai ni ng
suspended solids.
It is chlorinated to kill any pathogens.
9.
Anti-malarial drugs (such as Chloroquine) were
successful treatments, but the parasite has now
developed resistance.
Attempts to eradicate the mosquito vector
using insecticides lowered the incidence of
malaria at times, but overall this strategy failed.
All attempts so far, to develop a vaccine have
failed.
10.
Macro-parasites eg Taeniasis (Tapeworm disease)
Fungi eg Tinea
Protozoa eg Malaria
Bacteria eg Tetanus
Viruses eg AIDS
Prions eg CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease)
11. Disease: Tetanus
a) Clostridium tetani (bacterium)
b) Violent, painful muscle spasms, which can
interrupt breathing.
c) Pathogen enters a deep wound, such as
stepping on a nail. Disease is NOT contagious.
d) Normal responses: i nfl ammati on around
wound, immune system begins to respond to
tetanus toxin, but progress of the untreated
disease is too fast for immune system to cope.
e) Muscl e-rel axant drugs to treat spasms.
Anti bi oti cs to ki l l bacteri a. Cl ean wound
surgically.
Admi ni ster Tetanus anti toxi n, whi ch i s
antibodies from an immune person or animal.
f) Vacci nati on wi th tetanus toxoi d gi ves
immunity and is 100% effective at preventing
disease.
Worksheet 4
a) barriers b) dead, dry
c) penetrate. d) Mucous
e) mucus f) cilia
g) acid h) chemical
i) bladder j) lysozyme
k) coughing l) microflora
m) disease n) Thrush
o) immune response p) foreign
q) suppressed r) reject / attack
s) leucocytes t) non-specific
u) eosinophils, neutrophils & macrophages
v) lysosome w) basophils
x) inflammation y) histamine
z)dilates aa) apoptosis
ab) tubes/vessels/ drains
ac)nodes ad) armpits & groin
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26
Workskeet 5
1. B 2. C 3. A 4. A
5. D 6. C 7. B 8. C
9.
Mucous membranes line all the body openings
at mouth, nose, throat and reproductive and
digestive openings.
Membranes produce mucus, a thick fluid wich
traps dust and microbes. In some places (eg
trachea) there are microscopic hairs ( cilia )
which beat rhythmically to move mucus along
for removal.
10.
The skin, mouth, digestive and reproductive
tracts all have a natural population of microbes
living there, many in a mutualistic relationship.
They control potenti al pathogens by out-
competing them, or by creating conditions that
the pathogens cannot tolerate.
If this natural microflora population becomes
unbal anced or damaged, an opportuni sti c
pathogen may multiply and cause disease. An
example is the yeast Candida albicans which is
usually present in the female reproductive tract,
but kept under control by the microflora. An
outbreak of Candida results in the disease
Thrush .
11.
a) Basophils
b) Basophils release Histamine which causes:
dilation of blood capillaries; more blood and
body heat flows to area... hence hot and red
capillaries become more porous, so more
plasma leaks out causing swelling.
12.
Comparison (similarities): T-cells and B-cells
are both lymphocytes which can defend against
specific pathogens.
Contrast (di fferences): B-cel l s produce
anti bodi es; protei ns whi ch l ock-on to
antigens and neutralize pathogens/toxins which
are free in bloodstream or tissues. Neutralized
pathogens are then destroyed by phagocytes.
T-cells are able to recognise body cells that are
i nfected by a pathogen (eg has a vi rus
mul ti pl yi ng i nsi de i t) and ki l l the cel l by
bursting its membrane with enzymes.
13.
Helper T-cells interact with phagocytes which
present a new antigen to them. Helper cells
then send chemical signals which cause the
cloning and rapid production of millions of
l ymphocytes abl e to target that speci fi c
antigen.
13. (cont)
Killer T-cells are able to identify and lock-on
to body cells which are infected with a specific
pathogen, such as a virus. They destroy the cell
by bursting its membrane with enzymes.
Suppressor T- cells turn off the response after
a pathogen has been defeated.
Memory cells remain in circulation, possibly
for life, ready to quickly re-activate the immune
system against future invasions by that specific
pathogen.
14.
a) Vaccination is the process of introducing into
a persons body an antigen which will set off the
immune response without making the person ill.
For example, a vaccine might contain harmless,
killed bacteria. This will set off the immune
response so that future infection by the living
bacterial pathogen will be destroyed before
symptoms appear. The person is immune to
that pathogen.
Worksheet 6
a) specific b) lymphocytes
c) B-cells & T-cells d) antigens
e) cytotoxic f) membrane
g) suppress h) Memory
i) Plasma j) antibodies
k) phagocytes l) Memory
m) memory n)immune
o) Vaccination p) antigens
q) Smallpox r) Polio & Diphtheria
Worksheet 7
a) occurrence b) analysing
c) correlations d) public health
e) tobacco products (or other dangerous products)
f) lung cancer g) 5
h) public awareness i) declined
j) incidence k) inherited
l) males m) 5,000
n) bleeding o) clotting
p) X q) sex
r) clotting factors s) nutritional
t) vitamin C u) long sea voyages
v) loss w) capillaries
x) skin y) ultra-violet
z) 2,000 aa) highest
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Worksheet 8
a) damage b) infection/ a pathogen
c) prevent the infection spreading
d) quarantine e) AQIS
f) plants, fresh food, soil
g) quarantine
h) pathogens i) Foot-and-Mouth
j) Malaria & Rabies
k) Sorghum Downy Mildew
l) insecticides m) herbicides
n) fungi o) macro-parasites
p) resistance q) humans
r) their predators t) Genetic Engineering
u) Heliothis v) bacterium
w) a toxin x) virus
y) toxin z) treating/killing
aa) preventing
Worksheet 9
1. A 2. B 3. D 4. D
5.
The data shows that the chances of contracting
lung cancer are about 5 times higher among
smokers than among non-smokers.
The i nci dence of l ung cancer among ex-
smokers shows a steady decline against the
time since they quit.
The incidence of lung cancer in society has
shown a decline exactly in parallel with the
decline in the number of smokers, brought
about by the ban on tobacco advertising, and
public awareness programs.
6.
Haemophilia
a) Occurs in males only, at the rate of 1 per 5,000
male births.
b) The blood fails to clot properly, so any activity
can resul t i n i nternal bl eedi ng i nto j oi nts,
bruising etc. This leads to painful joint damage
and disability. If untreated, it is usually fatal in
childhood.
c) Inheritance of a recessive gene, carried on the
X-chromosome. This means it is sex-linked
and appears in males much more commonly
than females.
d) Clotting factors extracted from donated blood
are injected 2-3 times per week. This allows the
patient to lead a relatively normal life, but gentle
exercise and injury avoidance are important.
7.
a) many pests have developed resistance to
the pesticide.
pesticides pose a toxic threat to humans who
use them, and to consumers.
Some pesti ci des cause envi ronmental
problems, such as the widespread effects of
insecticide DDT on bird reproduction up until
the 1970s.
b) The Heliothis caterpillar is a major pest in
cotton crops, but i s now resi stant to
insecticides.
Scientists have genetically engineered cotton
plants by inserting into their chromosomes a
bacterial gene which causes the production of a
toxin. The cotton plant produces toxin which
kills any insects which eat the crop, eliminating
the need to spray pesticides.
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HSC Biology Topic 3 Search for Better Health


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