You are on page 1of 23

# CHAPTER THREE

THE DATA COLLECTING AND ANALYZING

3.1 Research Design

To get the data of this research, the writer used some methods. In collecting data the

writer chooses two classless; one class for experimental group and the other for control group.

The data are collected by giving the tests. There are pre-test and post-test. Pre-test is a set of test

which was given at pre-teaching process and post-test is a set of test which was given at post-

teaching process, to find out how far the second year students of MTsS Simpang Mulieng know

the translation of English nouns into Indonesian language. The tests were administered to the

both of the classes; experimental and control group. The tests consisted of 20 items. Each item

has score 5. Thus if they answer all correctly, then they will get score 100.

3.2 The Location and the situation of the research

Before the research conducted, permission of doing research was firstly asked from the

principal of the school. The school openly welcomed the writer to do the research at this school.

All English teachers at the school also took part and supported the writer in doing this research.

The school that was taken as the place where the research conducted is MTsS Simpang Mulieng

which is located in North Aceh District. It has library as the main facility, the library has

regulation to be obeyed by students who was using it, and the students can freely used the library

during school hours. Besides having the library the school also has a laboratory, administration

service, the head master’s room, the teacher’s room and student’s organization room.
3.3 The Population and Sample.

085260052583 kak cut. A population is a total number of subjects which are going to

be observed for the sake of research. A sample is a portion of population. According to Wiersma

(1969: 247), a sample is a subset of the population to which the researcher intends to generalize

the result. The population of the research is the whole students of the school. The sample of this

research was the second year students of the school. There are two classes at the second year

students. VIIIA class was selected as (EG) and VIIIB class as (CG). VIIIA class consisted of 39

and the other one consisted of 39.

3.4 Procedure and Analysis of Data Collection

3.4.1 Procedure of Data Collection

As stated earlier in the introduction, the purpose of the study is to explain effectiveness

and the advantages of picture in teaching present continuous tense, and to know the picture can

improve their ability in mastering present continuous tense. In order to obtain the data for this

study, the writer conducted an experimental teaching at Junior High School, SMP Negeri 1
Peusangan. The eight years students were taken as the subject of this study. There were six

classes for the second grade students but only two of them were taken, before teaching the

material the writer divided the students into two groups, class V111/1 name experimental group

(EG) and class V111/2 is control group (CG). The experimental group consists of 39 students and

the control group consists of 39 students.

Before the experiment, the writer has been already prepared the test to both control and

experimental group. It test consists of 20 items of multiple choice. For each answer they get 4

point. Each items has score 5. Thus, total score is 100 if they are able to answer well all correct

questions of the test.

The experiment was conducted after the administration of pre-test. In the experimental

group was taught by using pictures, while in the control group the students only to present the

materials by applying the conventional method when the learning process.

The activities during the treatment were briefly described as follows: In the

experimenting group, the students were treated by using pictures as medium of teaching.

In the first meeting, the writer introduced herself to the students and explained about

the reason of her coming. The writer also asked about the condition of the students, their

experience during learning English and other related to the teaching and learning process. After

that, she gave pre- test to the students about 40 minutes. In the second meeting, the writer was

greeting to the class and then called the name of students one by one. After that we discussed

about the pre-test result and then she gave explanation about grammar, the English verb form,

such as the change of the verb form by the tense, the change of the verb form by person, and the

change of the verb form by voice. The third meeting, she explained about the continuous tense

especially present continuous, after the student understand about the present continuous she gave
students the example about it. And pictures were used as media in teaching present continuous

tense . Some action pictures were showed and students make the sentence related to the pictures.

The next meeting, the writer used the pictures to carry out her teaching about present continuous

tense. The writer gave more explanation and more exercise to the students to see their ability in

mastering present continuous tense. The last meeting the writer gave the students post-test for 40

minutes. After the post-test was given, and asked them to forgive all of mistakes during her

experimental teaching.

In the control group the teacher taught present continuous to the students by using

conventional method to conduct her teaching

In the first meeting, the writer introduced herself to the students and explained about

the reason of her coming. After that, she gave pre- test to the students about 40 minutes. In the

second meeting, the writer was greeting to the class and then called the name of students one by

one. After that we discussed about the pre-test result and then she gave explanation about

English verb form, such as the change of the verb form by the tense, the change of the verb form

by person, and the change of the verb form by voice. The third meeting she explained about the

continuous tense especially present continuous, after the students understand about the present

continuous she gave students the example about it. Coming to the next meeting. The writer gave

more explanation and more exercise to the students to know their ability in mastering present

continuous tense. The last meeting the writer gave the students post-test for 40 minutes. After the

post-test was given, and asked them to forgive all of mistakes during her experimental teaching.

3.4.2 Analysis of Data Collection

From the data gathered, a calculation was made to find out whether there are any

significant differences between the students who learnt present continuous by using picture and
those who learnt present continuous without picture. And to prove the hypothesis the writer used

()
the simple statistical formula such as mean score x , Standard Deviation (SD) and T-Score were

used in this research.

()
The mean score x is used to find the average score of the students Winarsunu, (2002:

88) gives the following formula below:

x=
∑ fx
N

()
Where : x = Mean score

∑ fx = Total score of all students
N = The number of samples

Standard deviation (SD) was the magnate of deviation from the mean score draws the

formula as follow:

∑ fx 2

()
− x
2

SDx = N

Where : ∑ fx 2
= The total score of multiplying f times x
N = Numbers of student
( x) = Mean score
The significance of the test between the two means, the writer uses T- score statistic.

Analysis the T- score as the following formula:

x1 − y 2
SDx1 SDy 2
+
T= N1 − 1 N 2 − 1

Where :
T = The significance different between two means
X 1 andX 2 = The mean scores of the groups
SDxandSDy = Refer to standard deviation of the two groups
N 1 andN 2 = Number of students in each group

3.1 The population and samples

Population is all cases, situations, individuals who share one or more characteristics and

the samples are the representative of population. The population of this research is the whole

second year student of SMPN 5 Peusangan. As the samples of this research, the writer randomly

takes one class to make it easier for the writer to collect the data by teaching, observation and

testing. The samples of this research can be given as below. -

TABLE 1

THE NAMES AND REGISTERED NUMBER OF THE SAMPLES

No Students’ registered number Names Sexes
1 1449 Muhammad Male
2 1450 Anwar Male
3 1451 Junaidi Male
4 1452 Wahyuni Female
5 1453 m.saleh Male
6 1454 zuraida Female
7 1455 m.reza Male
8 1456 Khairullah Male
9 1457 Susanti Female
10 1458 Ismail Male
11 1459 wahyudi Male
12 1460 Saputra Male
13 1461 Hermansyah Male
14 1462 Fauzi Male
15 1463 Rouzah Female
16 1464 Lisma wati Female
17 1465 Mawardi Male
18 1466 afarina Female
19 1467 Heri saputra Male
20 1468 Azizah Female
21 1469 Wardiah Female
22 1470 Nursyidah Female
23 1471 Zubir Male
24 1472 Safrima Female
25 1473 Masrura Female
26 1474 m.alhudari Male
27 1475 Asmaul husna Female
28 1476 Zulfakri Male

3.2 The Data Tabulation
After doing this research, the writer obtained the data and the data should be shown by

using table below.

TABLE

THE RAW SCORE OF PRE TEST (MULTIPLE CHOICE)

NO Correct answer Wrong answer Score
1 6 9 36
2 5 10 30
3 6 9 36
4 4 11 24
5 7 8 42
6 8 7 48
7 6 9 36
8 5 10 30
9 4 11 24
10 7 8 42
11 8 7 48
12 6 9 36
13 8 7 48
14 10 5 60
15 9 6 54
16 7 8 42
17 6 9 36
18 7 8 42
19 10 5 60
20 9 6 54
21 10 5 60
22 9 6 54
23 9 6 54
24 8 7 48
25 6 9 36
26 5 10 30
27 7 8 42
28 8 7 48
200 222 1200

Based on the data in the table above, the total correct answers of multiple choice pre-

test is 200. by using the mathematical formula of Mean (average) given by Surakhmad

(1985:288) which says that:

∑x
M= N

Where M= Mean or average score; X = Score; ∑ = Total; N= Total sample.

Therefore, We can see the average of correct answer by dividing 200 with 28 (the number of

samples). Thus, Thus, the average of correct answer is 7.14 (seven point one four). The total

score of the whole samples is 1200. if we divide it with 28, the average score is 48.86 (forty two

point eight six)

TABLE.3

THE RAW SCORES OF POST TEST (MULTIPLE CHOICE)

No Correct Answer Wrong Answer Scores
1 10 5 60
2 11 4 66
3 10 5 60
4 12 3 72
5 13 2 78
6 11 4 66
7 12 3 72
8 13 2 78
9 11 4 66
10 13 2 78
11 14 1 84
12 11 4 66
13 12 3 73
14 13 2 78
15 10 5 60
16 9 6 54
17 8 7 48
18 10 5 60
19 11 4 66
20 12 3 72
21 11 4 66
22 12 3 72
23 11 4 66
24 12 3 72
25 13 2 78
26 11 4 66
27 12 3 72
28 11 4 66
296 101 1914

The post test of multiple choice questions can be calculated by dividing the total score

(1914) with the number of samples (28). Then, we know that the average of post test is 68.36

(sixty eight point three six).

TABLE. 4

THE SCORES OF PREE TEST (TRANSLATION SENTENCES)

No Wrong translation Correct Translation Scores
1 7 3 30
2 5 5 50
3 6 4 40
4 6 4 40
5 5 5 50
6 7 3 30
7 4 6 60
8 4 6 60
9 5 5 50
10 6 4 40
11 7 3 30
12 5 5 50
13 4 6 60
14 6 4 40
15 7 3 30
16 6 4 40
17 6 4 40
18 7 3 30
19 6 4 40
20 5 5 50
21 5 5 50
22 4 7 70
23 5 5 50
24 6 4 40
25 7 3 30
26 8 2 20
27 6 4 40
28 5 5 50
160 121 1210

The average score of translating sentence pre-test is 1210 and the total sample is 28.

Therefore, the average score is 43.21 (forty three point two one).

TABLE. 5

THE SCORES OF POST TEST (TRANSLATING SENTENCES)

No Wrong Translation Correct Translation scores
1 3 7 70
2 4 6 60
3 5 5 50
4 4 6 60
5 2 8 80
6 3 7 70
7 4 6 60
8 4 6 60
9 5 5 60
10 3 7 70
11 2 8 80
12 2 8 80
13 4 7 70
14 4 6 60
15 3 7 70
16 3 7 70
17 4 6 60
18 4 6 60
19 3 7 70
20 2 8 80
21 5 5 50
22 6 4 40
23 5 5 50
24 5 5 50
25 6 4 40
26 6 4 40
27 4 6 60
28 3 7 70
107 173 1730

However, the total scores of translating sentences post test is 1730 and the total sample

is 28. thus, the average score is 61.78 (sixty one point seven eight). When we add the average

score of multiple choice pre-test and translating sentence pre-test, we can calculate by adding

42.86 with 43.21 and the result is 86.07. then, we divide it with 2, so that the result is 43.03

(students’ average score of the two types of pre-test)

Furthermore, we can calculate the average scores of the post test by adding 68.36 with

61.78 equals 130.14 (one hundred thirty point one four). Then, it is divided with 2 equal 65.07

(sixty five point zero seven). Thus, the average score of two kinds of post test is 65.07.

3.3 The Data of students’ Errors’ in Translations

The second type of translation test asked by the researcher consisted of 10 simple

sentences to be translated into English. The researcher may show the wrong translation done by

the students both in pre test and post test as in the following:

1. Saya pergi ke sekolah

• I goes to school

• Going to school

• Ay rening scokol

• I am go to shease

• Going to school

• I going to school

• I am to going to school
2. Ibu sedang Memasak

• My father is cooking

• Mayer is coking.

3. Kakakku menyiram bunga

• My sister wortening

• My sister wortyening flower.

• I like flower.

4. adikku sakit

• My brother ill

• My young sick

• My sister ell

• My brother sik

5. Ayahku pergi bekerja di kantor.

• My fahheroo

• My mother go to working the office

• My father go

• My father going go to

• My Father going to office.

6. Ibu membeli pulpen.

• My father boy pen

• My father bum pen

• My mother is buy pen
• Mother is by pulpen

• We write by pen

7. Dia (laki-laki) sedang melompat.

• Hi is jumping

• Si is Jamping

• He jump

• He is jumps

8. Dia (perempuan) sedang duduk.

• She is seak

• She is seat

• She is running on the street.

9. Guruku sedang mengajar

• Is ticher tiching

• The cer is thecing

• The cer is leceng

• The cer is treeng.

• Ticer is ticing

• My techer is tiching

10. Temanku sedang bernyanyi

• My frend is singing

• My fren is sising

• My frien is sising
• My freen ist fsising

• Hi is on the floor

• My friend is standing.

• He is standing on the floor.

However, the expected translation of the sentences are as in the following:

1. I go to school

2. Mother is cooking

3. My sister is watering flowers.

4. My younger sister/brother is sick

5. My father goes to work at the office

6. Mother buys pen.

7. He is jumping.

8. She is sitting.

9. My teacher is teaching.

10. My friend is singing.

The types of errors made by students as shown above can be summarized in the table

below:

TABLE 6

THE SUMMARY OF STUDENTS’ ERRORS IN TRANSLATION

No Types of Errors Frequencies of Occurrences
1 Grammar 27
2 Spelling/vocabulary 28
55

It should be noted that the grammar errors include tenses, plural or singular, verb forms

and the spelling or vocabulary error is defined as the mistakes made by students in using words

and writing the spelling of the words.

TABLE 7

THE SUMMARY OF OBSERVATION DATA

No The behavior to be Observed Frequencies
1 Asking questions to the teacher 8

2. Answer Question 7

3. Smiling 10

4. Asking Permission to get out of class 5

5. Looking seriously 13

6. Coming late 2

3.4 The Data Analysis

The total correct answer of multiple choice pre-test is 200. we can see the average of

correct answer by dividing 200 with 28 as the total of samples. Thus, the average of correct

answer is 7.14. The total score of the whole samples 1200. If we divide it with 28, the average

score is 42.86. The post test of multiple choice questions can be calculated by dividing the total
score (1914) with the number of samples (28).

Then, we know that average of post test is 68.36. The average score of translating

sentence pre-test is 1210 and the total sample is 28. therefore, the average score is 43.21.

However, the total scores of translating sentences post test is 1730 and the total sample is 28.

Thus, the average score is 61.78. When we add the average score of multiple choice pre-test and

translating sentence pre-test, we can calculate by adding 42.86 with 43.21 and the result is 86.07.

Then, we divide it with 2, so that the result is 43.03.

Next, we can calculate the average scores of the post test by adding 68.36 with 61.78

equals 130.14. Then, it is divided with 2 equals 65.07. Thus, the average score of two kinds of

post test is 65.07.

When we see table 8, it is clear that the students look enjoyable in learning during the

time of experimental teaching because there were 13 students who seriously pay attention on the

teacher’s explanation. Beside that, 10 students looked smiling when the researcher was teaching

and 8 students who asked questions to the teacher and 7 students answered questions. However,

5 students asked permission to go outside and 2 students coming late.

TABLE 8

THE RANKING OF STUDENTS’ ACIEVEMENT

No Average Scores of two Types of test Remarks
1 00 - 34 Poor
2 35 - 56 Insufficient
3 56 - 69 Sufficient
4 70 - 85 Very Good
5 86 - 100 Distinction
3.5 The Hypothesis Testing

In testing the hypotheses which have been formulated in the chapter one, the writer

needs to see the problems again. The problems of this research were written as in the followings:

(a) To what extent can the second year students SMPN 5 Peusangan translate English word into

Indonesia? (b) how is the classroom atmosphere when the teacher is using pictures in teaching

translation?

The writer has hypothesized that (a) The second year students of SMPN 5 Peusangan

can sufficiently translate English word into Indonesia ; (b) The classroom atmosphere may be

interesting and enjoyable when pictures being used.

Dealing with the first hypothesis, it is proved that before the teaching experiment was

done, the achievement was 43.03 that is said to be “insufficient”. But, after the teaching process,

the achievement increased to be 65.07 that was classified as “Sufficient”.

The second hypothesis seems to be accepted of the fact that there were 13 student who

seriously pay attention on the teacher’s explanation. Beside that, 10 students looked smiling

when the research was teaching and 8 students who asked questions to the teacher and 7 students

answered questions.

CHAPTER FOUR
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

4.1 The Conclusion

Translation is an activity of enormous importance in the modern world and it is a

subject of interest not only to linguists, professional and amateur translators and language

teachers, but also to electronic engineers and mathematicians. Translation theory derives all

questions of semantics relate to translation theory. A translators requires a knowledge of literary

and non literary textual criticism. Technical translator is concerned with content, the literary

translator with form. Successful translation involves one of the most complex intellectual

challenges known to mankind.

The total correct answer of multiple choice pre-test is 200. We can see the average of

correct answer by dividing 200 with 28 as the total of samples. Thus, the average of correct

answers is 7.14. The total score of the whole samples is 1200. If we divide it with 28, the average

score is 42.86. The post test of multiple choice questions can be calculated by dividing the total

score (1914) with the number of samples (28).

Then, we know that the average of post test is 68.36. The average score of translating

sentence pre-test is 1210 and the total sample is 28. Therefore, the average score is 43.21.

However, the total scores of translating sentences post test is 1730 and the total sample is 28.

Thus, the average score is 61.78. When we add the average score of multiple choice pre-test and

translating sentence pre-test, we can calculate by adding 42.86 with 43.21 and the result is 86.07.

Then, we divide it with 2, so that the result is 43.03. Next, we can calculate the average scores of

the post test by adding 68.36 with 61.78 equals 130.40. Then, it is divided with 2 equals 65.07.
Thus, the average score of two kinds of post test is 65.07.

It is clear that the students look enjoyable in learning during the time of experimental

teaching because there were 13 students who seriously pay attention on the teacher’s

explanation. Beside that, 10 students looked smiling when the researcher was teaching and 8

students who asked questions to the teacher and 7 students answered question. Therefore, it is

proved that before the teaching experiment was done, the student’s achievement was 43.03 that

is said to be ”insufficient”. But, after the teaching process, the achievement increased to be 65.07

that was classified as “sufficient”. The second hypothesis seems to be accepted because of the

fact that there were 13 students who seriously pay attention on the teacher’s explanation. Beside

that, 10 students looked smiling when the researcher was teaching and 8 students who asked

questions to the teacher and 7 students answered questions.

4.2 The Suggestion

To end up this thesis, the writer should give some suggestions to whoever concerns on

education especially English subject.

First of all, she would like to say that this research was conducted to the SMP level of

education. Thus, the research with the higher level students should be done in the future.

Secondly, the samples of this research was very limited in number. That is why, she

suggests that other researches with bigger number of samples should be done.

Finally, the researcher experiences that when the teacher should media in teaching (teaching

aids) like pictures, real object and so forth, the students look very motivated. Therefore, she

suggests that English teachers should use various media in teaching.

BIBLIOGRAPHYY
Aikunto, Suharsimi, 1987. Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan. Jakarta : PT Bina Aksara.

Brown, James. 1973. Instruktion, technology, media and method. New York: McGraw Hill

Celce, Murcia. Et.al. 1979. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. USA :
Newbury House Publishers.

Donald L.B & Louis J.S. 1989. A TEFL Antal;ogy. New York : CUP.

Eugene, A. Nida. 1964. Toward a science of translating. Holland: E.J. Brill.

Jumpelt, R.W. 1963. Approaches to scientific Translation. New York: the Macmillan Company.

Leech, G.& Svartvik, J. 1985. A Communicative Grammar of English. London:
Longmans.

Mildred L. Larson. Meaning Based Translation. 1984. New York : University of America.

Muhammad, 1988. Sex Differences in Translation Ability. Banda Aceh : Unsyiah.

Newmark, Peter. 1988. Approaches to Translation. New York : Prentice Hall.

Theodore, H. Savory. 1957. The Art of Translation. London : Jonathan Cape.

Surakhmad, W. 1985. Pengantar Penelitian Ilmiah. Bandung: Tarsito.

Vidal Claramonte, María del Carmen África (1998) ‘Nuevas didácticas de la traducción’, in
Adolfo Luis Soto Vázquez (ed) Insights into Translation, A Coruña: NINO, 61-66,
accessed on June 3rd 2009 )