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Government Polytechnic

Palanpur

Certificate
This is a to certify that Mr.Ashish K.Mudithiya (S-131607030),
Mr.Keval B.Prajapati (S-131607020),Mr.Ashok B. Chauhan (S-
131607022), Mr.Bhavesh K.Prajapati (S-131607005) of pragramme DECE
has satisfactorily complete the term work in code no. EC-506 within four
walls of G.P.Palanpur.
.

GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC,
PALANPUR.

DATE OF SUBMISSION :

STAFF IN CHARGE :

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT :
AKNOWLEDGEMENT
In this sincerely, there are many inventions found by scientists in
all type of fields. Communication is one of these field which can erase
our load of work as a good working device. Today communication
must be present in all type of terms. Our project of INFRA-RED
SECURITY ALARM is same about that information in electronic &
communication.

It is great pleasure for us to place our project on the hand of
Shri.D.S.Ahir & Shri.J.J.Parmar under whose valualable guidance and
teaching abilities we are able to prepare this project. We here by
express our sincere gratitude to them for sparing their valuable time
and providing us help at every stage of the project.
We wish to pay special Thanks to Prof. N.M.Santoki(HOD-
EC),Shri D.S.Ahir And J.J.Parmar sir for the guidance & granting us
the Project.

YOURS SINCERELY:
Mudethiya Ashish K.
Prajapati Keval B.
Chauhan Ashok B
Prajapati Bhavesh K.
INTRODUCTION
Engineering means making what we need from what
we have got. We have to think over the equipment Surrounding us
and their proper sue .A project means it is a students activity
design. planned performed by a student or group of students to
achieve declared learning objective with in than framework of
educational project.
It is used for communication between transmitter &
receiver. When we speak in microphone it transmitted by laser
touch and this signal is received by sensor. This will be listen by
loudspeaker.
TRANSMITTER

Transmitter circuit uses 74LS14 IC. Which is a smitch
trigger IC. It is used to generate 40 KHz. Signal IR transmit 40
KHz. Signal register R2, capacitor C1 and diode D1 is used to exact
40KHz signal. Adjust P1 four maximum range. Red LED shows
that power supply is on when the brightness of LED decreases.
Change the battery for power proper operation.
RECEIVER
Receiver circuit operated at 5Vdc and it is derive from
power supply circuit. Transformer converts 230Vac to 12Vac and the
12Vac is converted into dc by diode D1 and D2 bit filtered by
capacitor C1.IC3 gives regulated 5Vdc to other ckt. INFRA-RED rec.
module detected 40 KHz signal that is transmitted from transmitter ckt.
When transmitter is on IR sensor gets 40 KHz signal and output is low
when some breaks the signal IR sensor does not get signal & its o/p go
to high level. This o/p level is used to drive the transmitter. Green LED
shows the ON time period. Output is available means buzzer is ON for
approximately 10 sec. After 10 sec. ckt is reset automatically & it is
ready to detect other object.
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD

PCB is piece of plastic insulating board on the one side of
which a complete layout diagram of an electronics circuit consisting of
copper conducting path is printed by a special photo engraving
process. On other side PCB electronic components like register ,
capacitor ,transistor, diode etc. are mounted. Suitable holes are
provided in the PCB for mounting the components. These components
are connected to the conducting path by soldering. PCB’s are used for
assembling electronic circuit, assembly more compact, uniform and
stable. Before mounting the PCB should be examined conducting path.
In this infra-red security alarm 2 PCB are used , one for transmitter
and another for receiver.
APPLICATION OF PCB

1. PCB’s are used in consumer electronic item’s like
amplifier, multivibrator, siren circuit’s etc.
2. For telecommunication, instrument and control and in
microprocessor kit
3. In power electronic ,industrial electronic instrument’s.
4. For aerospace and military instrument to get maximum
perfection.
5. In medical electronic for manufacturing X-Ray machine
echo circuit etc.
6. Very low power consumption :

• Wide supply voltage range : 3V to 15V.
• Noise margin : 1V.
• High noise immunities : 0.45Vcc
• Low power compatibility : fan out of two driving 74l.
DISADVANTAGE OF PCB

Manufacturing of PCB requires special practice. It also requires
particular instrument.

1.PCB manufacturing for small scale is very costly.
2.Designing of PCB is very time consisting.
3.Trouble shooting of PCB is very difficult.
SOLDERING
It is easy to make a good solder CONNECTION IF YOU
FOLLOW THESE SIMPLE RULES.

1. Use right type of soldering iron. A small efficient
soldering iron is ideal for circuit board work pencil bit
tone model STC 101 soldering iron works best. The
soldering iron will reach to its operating temp. within 3-
5 minute after it is switched ON during the working
period.
2. Keep the hot tip of the soldering iron on the piece of
metal so that excess heat is dissipated.
3. Make sure that the connection to be soldered is clean
wax trapped insulation.
4. Use just enough ,solder to cover the lead and the copper
foil area of the connection to be soldered.
5. Remember large metal surface take longer time to heat
e.g. clamp of IFTs gang logs etc.
CIRCUIT
DESCRIPTION
CIRCUIT
COMPONENT
PART LIST (TRANSMITTER UNIT)
Resistor Capacitor Semiconductor Miscellaneous
R1: 680Ω C1:10ųF 50 VOLT T1:2N2222A 14 PIN SOCKET
R2:100KΩ C2:1KPF(102) IC 1:74LS14 L1:RED LED
C3:100KPF(104)
R3:47Ω C4:100KPF(104)
L2:INFRA-RED
R5,R11:18KΩ C5:2.2ųF 50VOLT LED
R6,R10:10KΩ 2 CELL HOLDER
R7:27KΩ
R12:47Ω
P1:10KΩ
(PRESET)
R4,R8,R9:NOT
USE

PART LIST (RECEIVER UNIT)
Receiver Capacitor Semiconductor Miscellaneous
R1:220KΩ C1:1000ųF 25V D1,D2,D3:IN4007 14 PIN IC SOCKET
R2:10KΩ C3:100ųF 25V D4:IN4148 INFRA-RED
R3:100KΩ C2,C4,C5: 0.1 D5:GREEN LED RECEIVER MODULE
R4:1KΩ (104) IC 1:74LS93 TRANSFORMER 12-
P1:1MΩ C6:10ųF 50V IC 2:74LS14 0-12/500mA
IC3:7805 BUZZER
T 1:CL100
RESISTOR

Resistor is a property of conductor that depends upon upon of it
dimension, material temperature and with determine the current
resolution from given potential difference across resistance.

It is the voltage, which makes resistance value can fall or
increased due to temperature time, moisture and hit dissipation.
Resistor are available in many times, but in our case we use a carbon
cracked film resistor.

This resistor in different voltage ranges the value normally range
between 10 ohms to 20 Mega ohms.

At here resistor is used to reduce a voltage or reduce power. the
value of resistor’s calculated by color codes.
COLOUR CODE OF RESISTORS

COLOUR VALUE
BLACK 0
BROWN 1
RED 2
ORANGE 3
YELLOW 4
GREEN 5
BLUE 6
VIOLET 7
GRAY 8
WHITE 9
APPLICATION OF RESISTORS

1. To establish power values of circuit.
2. To limit the current.
3. To provide load.

* CAPACITOR:
These capacitors are called electrolyte because they use
electrolyte as negative plates.

* CONSTRUCTION:
The electrolyte capacitors classed as polarized capacitor i.e.
they must be connect in the circuit according to the (+)&(-).
* FUNCTION:
The function of this capacitor is filtering when we
apply a planting voltage to this capacitor. This capacitor charges and
remains charged for some time which is the time equal to the RC time
constant by the values of resistor and capacitor of the circuit. Here we
are using time constant is much higher that the capacitor remains
charges until the second pulse comes across it.
In construction of this capacitor the negative terminal
is made short while positive terminal is made long.
In most of electrolyte, the negative terminal is
indicated by negative since.
LIGHT EMITTING DIODE

When PN junction is forward biased electrons in N-region
combine the holes in P-region free electrons are in the conduction band
and holes are in the valence band. Thus electron go to lower energy
level from the higher energy level. So, when combination of electrons
and holes occurs, energy is radiated in the form of heat and LED
arrangement is made such that the energy radiated is in the form of
light, colour of the light radiated depends upon the material of LED.
CONSTRUCTION

N-type special layer is grown on the substrate. P-region is
formed over it by the diffusion process, recombination of the
charge carries take place in P-region is kept on the upper side
lead is taken out from the P-type material such that the light is
not constructed. In the symbol, the arrow point to the outward
side which indicate that the light is emit.

Semiconductor material used in semi-transparent. It is
gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAaS)
or gallium phosphide (GaP). Red or yellow light is radiated when
GaSaP is used green light is radiated with GaP and invisible
Infra-Red radiation corns out when GaSaP is used. Round LEDs
are available with 3mm or 5mm or more in diameter, rectangular
type LEDs are also available which are used in graph indicators.
WORKING

LED is forward biased to bring it into action. Minimum
of 10 mA. Current should be passed through it. Value of current
can be kept between 10 mA to 25 mA due to forward biased.
Electrons from N-type material go from the conduction band and
recombine the holes in the holes in the valence band of P-type
material. So energy in the form of light is radiated.
DIODE
It is to two terminal device consisting of a P-N
junction formed either in Ge or Si crystal.
We have used IN-4007 and zener diode 5.1%.
Here 4007 corresponds to color bands.

• WORKING :
A P-N junction diode is a one way device offering
resistance. When forward biased and having almost as an
insulator is reverse biased hence such diode are mostly use as
rectifiers.

• APPLICATION :
1. As power or rectifier diode they convert AC to DC.
2. As a signal diodes for communication circuit, for
modulation and de-modulation of small signals.
3. As zener diode used in voltage in stabilization
circuits.
4. In logic circuit used in computers.
TRANSFORMER

A transformer is static piece of apparatus by means to
which electric power is one circuit is transformed into electric
power of the same frequency in another circuit.
In brief a transformer is a device that transfers electric
power from one circuit to another circuit.
It does so without a change of frequency, it does without
by electro-magnetic induction. where the to electric circuit are in
mutual inductive influence of each other.
In our circuit we have used 230V, 0-12V transformer,
which is then rectified by rectifier circuit then number of turns
and voltage is determined by
N1/N2HE2/E1
Transformers are available in 230V- 0-6V
230V - 0-9V
230V - 0-12V.
BUZZER
A buzzer or beeper is a signaling device, usually
electronic, typically in used in auto-mobiles, household
appliances such as microwave oven , game shows.
It most commonly consists of number of switches or
sensor connected to control unit that determine if and which
button was pushed or preset time has lapsed, and usually
illuminates a light on the appropriate button or control panel, and
sounds a warning in the form of a continuous or intermittent
buzzing or beeping sound. Initially this device was based on an
electromechanical system was identical to an electric bell without
the metal gang (which makes the ringing noise )
Nowadays, it is more popular to use a ceramic based
piezoelectric sounder like a sonalert which makes a high pitched
tone. Usually these were hooked up to driver circuits which
varied the pitch of the sound or pulsed the sound ON & OFF.
In game show it is also known as a Lock out system,
because one person signals, all other are locked out from
signaling. Several game show have large buzzer buttons which
are identified as “Plungers”.
Some people use the word buzzer as to describe a person
who is able to create a big buzz around a brand, event or a
company.
CONCLUSION

After completing this project work, we are very much
happy and would we thanks to Prof. D.S. Ahir and also our
Principal Shri N. M. santoki, who guide us to made our project
successfully.
We learn same technical knowledge which is important in
selection of electronics component and used instruments in
proper way. We also very much thanks full to TEB for selecting
project work as one of the subject.