The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinationaltechnology

and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware and software, and offers infrastructure, hosting and
consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.

The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR)
through a merger of three companies: the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time
Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. CTR adopted the name International
Business Machines in 1924, using a name previously designated to CTR's subsidiary in Canada
and later South America. Securities analysts nicknamed IBM Big Blue in recognition of IBM's
common use of blue in products, packaging, and logo.

IBM has 12 research laboratories worldwide and, as of 2013, has held the record for most patents
generated by a company for 20 consecutive years.
Its employees have garnered five Nobel
Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of
Notable inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk,
the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the Universal Product Code
(UPC), the financial swap, the RDBMS and SQL, SABRE airline reservation system, DRAM, and
Watson artificial intelligence.
The company has undergone several organizational changes since its inception, acquiring
companies such as Kenexa (2012) and SPSS (2009) and organizations such as PwC's consulting
business (2002), spinning off companies like Lexmark (1991), and selling off product lines
likeThinkPad to Lenovo (2005).

 Respect for the Individual
 Service to the Customer
 Excellence Must Be a Way of Life
 Managers Must Lead Effectively
 Obligations to Stockholders
 Fair Deal for the Supplier
 IBM Should Be a Good Corporate Citizen


The following responsibilities apply in varying degrees to all management positions.
1. Develop and recommend long- and short-range objectives, policies and plans designed to
produce the most profitable results attainable from his assigned area.

2. Understand and comply with established corporate policies, procedures and instructions and
ensure that subordinates do likewise; recommend changes when it appears that existing policy is no
longer appropriate; direct day-to-day operations of his organization to attain established objectives.

3. Submit realistic budgets, as required, reflecting the anticipated income and/or expenditures of his
activity; administer his activity within approved budgets.

4. Detect the need for and propose modifications in plans and operating methods which will result in
5. Staff his organization with capable people; train subordinates in the competent performance of
their duties; periodically appraise their performance and develop suitable replacements, including a
successor for himself.

6. Assign responsibility clearly so that subordinates know what they are expected to do, the extent of
their authority, and the standards by which they will be judged; provide adequate guidance, counsel
and supervision but give them sufficient authority to carry out their assignments and make decisions.

7. Create an atmosphere conducive to management development by encouragement and praise for
initiative, imagination and resourcefulness, and by advice and example in the exercise of judgment.

8. Coordinate the activities of organizational units under his supervision to ensure performance on an
integrated basis.

9. Keep informed of developments affecting his products, service or area of specialization and to the
extent possible, utilize these to the benefit of IBM.

10. Institute adequate safety measures in the work areas under his control through elimination of
potential hazards and safety education of subordinates in work practices and use of equipment.

11. Cooperate actively with his associates, both line and staff, to further the attainment of IBM’s

12. Establish and maintain regular two-way communications with all of his employees on policies,
procedures or changes; hold regular meetings with his people; keep them informed and give them an
opportunity to bring up matters which concern them; be a good source of information about IBM and
a good listener when employees come to him with questions, problems or ideas.

IBM Practices

To help your business improve how it develops and delivers software and systems, IBM® Rational®
has developed a set of best practices called IBM Practices. The IBM Practices are techniques for
achieving technology and business goals, and for solving common problems along the way. IBM
Practices are geared toward Agile development teams, and include guidance on how to adopt each
practice and customizable assets to get you started. Each practice can be adopted on its own, or in
concert with other practices. Each practice targets specific business objectives, such as time-to-
market or increased productivity. Selecting a practice to adopt is as simple as deciding what
business objectives you want to address. The IBM Practices are designed to be tool-independent:
They do not require that you use Rational software. However, Rational software products are
designed to promote and support IBM Practice adoption. In relevant places in Rational product
help, you will find references and links to information about corresponding practices.