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VT L I CNG 1 (C - NHIT)
PHN 1: C HC
C hc nghin cu dng vn ng c (chuyn ng) tc l s chuyn i v tr
ca cc vt v m. C hc gm nhng phn sau:
- ng hc nghin cu nhng c trng ca chuyn ng v nhng dng chuyn
ng khc nhau.
- ng lc hc nghin cu mi lin h ca chuyn ng vi s tng tc gia cc
vt. Tnh hc l mt phn ca ng lc hc nghin cu trng thi cn bng ca cc vt.
Phn c hc c trnh by y ch yu l nhng c s ca c hc c in ca
Newton; ni dung ch yu ca n bao gm: cc nh lut c bn ca ng lc hc; cc
nh lut Newton v nguyn l tng i Galil; ba nh lut bo ton ca c hc
(nh lut bo ton ng lng, bo ton mmen ng lng v nh lut bo ton
nng lng); hai dng chuyn ng c bn ca vt rn (chuyn ng tnh tin v
chuyn ng quay). Cui cng l phn gii thiu v thuyt tng i ca Einstein.
Bi m u
1. i tng v phng php nghin cu Vt l hc
Vt l hc l mt mn khoa hc t nhin nghin cu cc dng vn ng tng
qut nht ca th gii vt cht, t suy ra nhng tnh cht tng qut ca th gii vt
cht, nhng kt lun tng qut v cu to v bn cht ca cc i tng vt cht; mc
ch ca Vt l hc l nghin cu nhng c trng tng qut v vn ng v cu to
ca vt cht.
Vt l hc nghin cu tnh cht, bn cht, cu to v s vn ng ca cc vt th
ng thi cng nghin cu tnh cht, bn cht v qu trnh vn ng ca cc trng
Vt l (trng in t, trng hp dn, trng lng t, ).
Vt l hc trc ht l mt mn khoa hc thc nghim. Gn y trong qu trnh
pht trin ca Vt l hc, bn cnh phng php thc nghim truyn thng, cn ny
sinh phng php tin ca mn Vt l L thuyt.
Do mc ch l nghin cu cc tnh cht tng qut nht ca th gii vt cht, Vt
l hc ng v mt kha cnh no c th coi l c s ca nhiu mn khoa hc t
nhin khc.
Nhng kt qu ca Vt l hc c dng lm c s gii thch cu to
nguyn t, phn t, lin kt ho hc trong ho hc. Vt l hc cng cung cp
nhng c s kho st cc qu trnh ca s sng. Mn k thut in c xy dng
trn c s l thuyt in t trng trong Vt l.
Vt l hc c tc dng ht sc to ln trong cuc cch mng khoa hc k thut
hin nay. Nh nhng thnh tu ca ngnh Vt l, cuc cch mng khoa hc k thut
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tin nhng bc di trong cc lnh vc sau:
- Khai thc v s dng nhng ngun nng lng mi c bit l nng lng ht
nhn.
- Ch to v nghin cu tnh cht cc vt liu mi (siu dn nhit cao, vt liu
v nh hnh, cc vt liu c kch thc nang ).
- Tm ra nhng qu trnh cng ngh mi (cng ngh mch t hp, cng ngh
nang ).
- Cuc cch mng v tin hc v s xm nhp ca tin hc vo cc ngnh khoa hc
k thut.
- Mc ch vic hc mn Vt l trong cc trng i hc k thut cng nghip:
Cho sinh vin nhng kin thc c bn v Vt l trnh i hc.
- Cho sinh vin nhng c s hc v nghin cu cc ngnh k thut.
- Gp phn rn luyn phng php suy lun khoa hc, t duy logic, phng php
nghin cu thc nghim, tc phong i vi ngi k s tng lai.
- Gp phn xy dng th gii quan khoa hc duy vt bin chng.
2. H o lng quc t SI, n v v th nguyn ca cc i lng Vt l
+ n v Vt l.
o mt i lng Vt l l chn mt i lng cng loi lm chun gi l n v
ri so snh i lng phi o vi n v , gi tr o s bng t s: i lng phi
o/i lng n v.
Mun nh ngha n v ca tt c cc i lng Vt l ngi ta ch cn chn
trc mt s n v gi l n v c bn - cc n v khc suy ra c t cc n v c
bn gi l n v dn xut.
Tu theo cc n v c bn chn trc s suy ra cc n v dn xut khc nhau.
Tp hp cc n v c bn v n v dn xut tng ng hp thnh mt h n v.
Nm 1960 nhiu nc trn th gii chn h n v thng nht gi l h SI.
H n v o lng hp php ca nc ta ban hnh t 1965 cng da trn c s
H n v c bn:
H SI:
- di mt (m)
- Khi lng kilogram (kg)
- Thi gian giy (s)
- Cng dng in ampe (A)
- sng candela (C)
- Nhit (tuyt i) kelvin (K)
- Lng cht moi (moi)
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n v ph:
- Gc phng Radian (rao)
- Gc khi Steradian (SI)
Mt s n v dn xut:
- Din tch Mt vung (m
2
)
- Th tch Mt khi (m
3
)
- Chu k Giy (s)
- Tn s Hc (Hz)
- Vn tc Mt trn giy (m/s)
- Gia tc Mt trn giy bnh phng (m/s
2
)
- Lc Ngun (N)
- Nng lng Jun (J)
- Cng sut Ot (W)
- p sut Pascal (Pa)
- in tch Cu lng (C)
- Hiu in th Vn (V)
- Cng in trng Vn/mt (V/m)
- in dung Fara (F)
- Cm ng t Tesla (T)
- T thng Vbe (Wb)
- T cm Henry (H)
+ Th nguyn: T cc n v c bn, ta nh ngha c cc n v dn sut. Vic
nh ngha ny da vo mt khi nim gi l th nguyn.
Th nguyn ca mt i lng l quy lut nu ln s ph thuc ca n v o i
lng vo cc n v c bn.
cho cch vit n gin ta k hiu:
[ di] = L
[thi gian] = T
[khi lng] = M
[din tch] = L
2

[th tch] = L
3

[vn tc] = LT
-1

[gia tc] = LT
-2

[khi lng ring] = ML
-3


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[lc] = MLT
-2

[cng] = ML
2
T
-2.

Khi vit cc biu thc, cc cng thc Vt l, ta cn ch cc quy tc sau:
- Cc s hng ca mt tng (i s) phi c cng th nguyn.
- Hai v ca cng mt cng thc, mt phng trnh Vt l phi c cng th nguyn.
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CHNG 1. NG HC CHT IM
1.1 Chuyn ng c hc, H quy chiu
1.1.1. nh ngha chuyn ng c hc
Chuyn ng c hc l s chuyn di v tr trong khng gian ca cc vt hay l s
chuyn ng ca mt b phn ny so vi b phn khc ca cng mt vt.
V d: chuyn ng ca cc thin th trn bu tri, chuyn ng ca xe t trn
ng, chuyn ng ca con thoi trong mt my dt,
Ni mt vt chuyn ng hay ng yn th iu ch c tnh cht tng i v
iu ny cn ph thuc vo vic ngi quan st ng v tr no. Tht vy, nu ta
ng bn ng quan st th ta thy cc cy ng yn, nhng nu ta ngi trn mt ci
t ang chuyn ng th ta thy ci cy chuyn ng. iu tng t xy ra khi chng
ta quan st cc ngi sao trn bu tri: ta thy qu t ng yn cn mt tri, mt trng
v cc ngi sao u quay quanh tri t.
Tm li, chuyn ng c tnh cht tng i v ph thuc vo v tr m ta
ng quan st chuyn ng. Thc ra trong v tr khng c vt no ng yn mt cch
tuyt i, mi vt u chuyn ng khng ngng. V vy, khi ni rng mt vt chuyn
ng th ta phi ni r l vt chuyn ng so vi vt no m ta quy c l ng yn.
1.1.2. H quy chiu
Vt hay h vt m ta quy c l ng yn khi nghin cu chuyn ng ca mt
vt khc c gi l h quy chiu.
Vi cng mt chuyn ng nhng trong cc h quy chiu khc nhau s xy ra
khc nhau.
V d: xt chuyn ng ca mt im M nm trn vnh xe ang chy, nu chn
h quy chiu l xe p th ta thy chuyn ng ca im l chuyn ng trn u,
cn nu h quy chiu l mt ng th im M s tham gia mt chuyn ng phc tp
l tng hp ca hai chuyn ng: chuyn ng trn i vi xe v chuyn ng thng
ca xe i vi mt ng.
Khi xt mt chuyn ng c th ta thng chn h quy chiu sao cho chuyn
ng c m t n gin nht.
m t cc chuyn ng trn mt qu t, ta thng chn h quy chiu l qu
t hoc cc vt gn lin vi qu t.
V d: khi nghin cu chuyn ng ca qu n pho th ta chn h quy chiu l
mt t hay chnh qu pho.
Khi nghin cu chuyn ng ca cc hnh tinh th h quy chiu qu t ta thy
chuyn ng ca cc hnh tinh phc tp n ni trong nhiu th k cc nh thin vn
khng th no tm c cc quy lut chuyn ng ca cc hnh tinh. Mi n u th
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k 17, nh s dng h quy chiu mt tri (h quy chiu Copemic), Kepler mi tm
c quy lut ng n m t chuyn ng ca cc hnh tinh trong h mt tri.
Cn ch rng chuyn ng tuy c m t khc nhau trong cc h quy chiu
khc nhau nhng nu bit chuyn ng tng i ca cc h quy chiu i vi nhau
th c th t cch m t chuyn ng trong h quy chiu ny c th suy ra cch m t
chuyn ng trong h quy chiu kia.
V d: Khi bit chuyn ng trn u ca mt im trn vnh xe p v bit
chuyn ng ca xe p i vi mt ng ta c th m t chuyn ng ca im trn
vnh xe i vi mt ng.
V chuyn ng xy ra trong khng gian v theo thi gian nn m t chuyn
ng trc tin phi tm cch nh v vt trong khng gian. Mun vt ta phi a thm
vo h quy chiu mt h to . Trong Vt l ngi ta s dng nhiu h to khc
nhau. y, s gii thiu hai h to hay dng l h to -cc (Descartes) v
h to cu.
a. H ta Descartes
H to Descartes gm 3 trc Ox, Oy, Oz
tng ng vung gc vi nhau tng i mt, chng
to thnh mt tam din thun. im O gi l gc
to . V tr ca mt im M bt k c hon
ton xc nh bi bn knh vect
r
r
, hay bi tp hp
ca 3 s (x,y,z) trong
r
r
l hnh chiu ca im
mt M ca vect ln cc trc Ox, Oy, Oz tng
ng, c gi l 3 to ca im M trong h to
Descartes.
b. H ta cu
Trong h to cu, v tr ca mt im M bt k c xc nh bi 3 to r,
, . Trong , r l di bn knh vect, l gc gia trc Oz v r
r
, cn l gc trc
Ox v tia hnh chiu ca t trong mt phng xOy. Bit ba to cu ca im M, ta c
th tnh c to Descartes ca im M theo cng thc sau:
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Trong h to cu: 0 180
0
v 0 360
0
. Cc ng trn ng vi cng
mt gi tr ca e gi l Cc ng v tuyn, cn cc ng trn ng vi cng mt gi
tr ca gi l cc ng kinh tuyn. H to cu rt thun tin khi nh v cc a
im trn qu t.
1.1.3. Cht im v Vt rn
m t chuyn ng ca cc ht c kch thc, cn phi bit r chuyn ng
ca mi im ca vt. Tuy nhin, khi kch thc ca vt l nh so vi khong cch
dch chuyn m ta xt th mi im trn vt dch chuyn gn nh nhau, khi c th
m t chuyn ng ca vt nh chuyn ng ca mt im. Trong trng hp ny ta
coi vt l mt cht im, tc l mt im hnh hc nhng li c khi lng bng
khi lng ca vt (khng c kch thc nhng c khi lng).
V d: Khi xt chuyn ng ca qu t quanh mt tri ta xem chuyn ng nh
l chuyn ng ca cht im. Tri li, khi xt chuyn ng t quay quanh mnh ca
qu t th ta khng th xem chuyn ng l chuyn ng ca mt cht im.
Trong nhiu trng hp nh c khi nim cht im m vic nghin cu chuyn
ng ca cc vt tr nn n gin hn rt nhiu.
Mt tp hp cht im c gi l h cht im. Vt rn l mt h cht im
trong khong cch tng h gia cc cht im ca h khng thay i.
1.1.4. Phng trnh chuyn ng v phng trnh qu o ca cht im
a. Phng trnh chuyn ng
xc nh chuyn ng ca mt cht im chng ta cn bit v tr ca cht
im ti nhng thi im khc nhau. Ni cch khc, chng ta cn bit s ph thuc
theo thi gian ca bn knh vect r ca cht im:

Phng trnh ny biu din v tr ca cht im theo thi gian v gi l phng
trnh chuyn ng ca cht im.
Trong h to Descartes, phng trnh chuyn ng ca cht im l mt h
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gm 3 phng trnh:

Tng t trong h to cu, phng trnh chuyn ng ca cht im l:


V d: phng trnh chuyn ng ca mt cht im trong h to Descartes:

b. Phng trnh qu o
Khi chuyn ng, cc v tr ca cht im cc thi im khc nhau. vch ra
trong khng gian mt ng cong lin tc no gi l qu o ca chuyn ng.
Vy qu o ca cht im chuyn ng l ng to bi tp hp tt c cc v tr ca
n trong khng gian, trong sut qu trnh chuyn ng. Phng trnh m t ng
cong qu o gi l phng trnh qu o.

Trong f l mt hm no ca cc to x, y, z v C l mt hng s.
V nguyn tc, nu bit phng trnh chuyn ng (1.1) th bng cch kh tham
s t ta c th tm c mi lin h gia cc to x, y, z tc l tm phng trnh qu
o. V vy, i khi ngi ta cn gi phng trnh chuyn ng (1.1) l phng trnh
qu o cho dng tham s.
V d: chuyn ng ca mt cht im cho bi phng trnh

Ta kh tham s thi gian t bng cch sau:

Ta suy ra qu o ca cht im l mt ng trn bn knh A v tm nm gc
to . ng trn ny nm trong mt phng xOy.
1.2. Vn tc
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Vn tc l mt i lng c trng cho phng, chiu, v s nhanh chm ca
chuyn ng.
1.2.1. Khi nim vn tc
Chuyn ng ca cht im trn qu
o c th lc nhanh lc chm, do c
th m t y trng thi nhanh hay chm
ca chuyn ng, ngi ta a vo mt i
lng vt l gi l vn tc.
Trong i sng hng ngy chng ta
thng gp khi nim vn tc di dng thut
ng tc .
Xt chuyn ng ca mt cht im trn mt ng cong (C): trn (C) ta chn
mt gc A v mt chiu dng. Gi thit ti thi im t, cht im v tr M xc nh
bi:
AM = s
Ti thi im t' = t + t cht im v tr M' xc nh bi:
AM = s' = s + s
Qung ng cht im i c trong khong thi gian t = t' - t s l:
MM'= s' - s = s
Qung ng trung bnh cht im i c trong khong n v thi gian
t
s


theo nh ngha, gi l vn tc trung bnh ca cht im trong khong thi gian t, v
c k hiu l:

Vn tc trung bnh ch c trng cho nhanh chm trung bnh ca chuyn ng
cht im trn qung ng MM'; trn qung ng ny nhanh chm ca chuyn
ng cht im ni chung mi ch mt khc ngha l ti mi thi im l khc nhau.
c trng cho nhanh chm ca chuyn ng ti tng thi im, ta phi tnh t s
t
s

trong nhng khong thi gian v cng nh. Theo nh ngha: khi cho t0 (t't),
t s
t
s

dn ti mt gii hn, gi l vn tc tc thi (gi tt l vn tc) ca cht im


ti thi im t, v c k hiu l:
v =
t
s
t

0
lim
Theo nh ngha ca o hm ta c th vit:
10
v =
dt
ds

Vy: Vn tc ca cht im c gi tr bng o hm qung ng ca cht im
i vi thi gian.
Vn tc v cho bi biu thc (1.4) l mt i lng i s c:
- Du xc nh chiu chuyn ng: v > 0, qu o chuyn ng theo chiu dng
ca qu o; v < 0, cht im chuyn ng theo chiu ngc li.
- Tr tuyt i ca v xc nh nhanh chm ca chuyn ng ti tng thi im.
Vy: Vn tc l i lng vt l c trng cho chiu v nhanh chm ca
chuyn ng cht im.
c trng mt cch y v c phng, chiu v nhanh chm ca chuyn
ng cht im, ngi ta a ra mt vect gi l vect vn tc.
Theo nh ngha, vect vn tc ti mt v tr M l mt vect v
r
c phng nm
trn tip tuyn vi qu o ti M, c chiu theo chiu chuyn ng v c gi tr bng
gi tr tuyt i ca v (hnh 1.3).

1.2.2. Vect vn tc trong h ta Descartes
Gi thit ti thi im t, v tr cht im xc nh bi bn knh vect (hnh 1.4):
OM = r
r

thi im t + dt, v tr cht im c xc nh bi bn knh vect:
ON = r r
r r
+
R rng l khi dt v cng nh th vect
chuyn ri: MN ON MN = =
r
r

= r d
r
c di
r d
r
= MN MN= ds
Ngoi ra,
r d
r
v
s d
r
cng chiu nn ta c:
r d
r

s d
r
(1.6)
ngha l biu thc (1.5) c th vit thnh:

Vy: vect vn tc bng o hm ca bn knh vect i vi thi gian.
Kt qu ba thnh phn
Z Y X
V V V
r r r
, , ca vect vn tc v
r
theo ba trc s c di
i s ln lt bng o hm ca ba thnh phn tng ng ca bn knh vect v
r
theo
ba trc ngha l:
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ln ca vn tc s c tnh theo cng thc:

1.3. Gia tc
Gia tc l mt i lng vt l c trng cho s bin thin ca vn tc.
1.3.1. nh ngha v biu thc ca vect gia tc
Trong qu trnh chuyn ng, vn tc ca cht im c th thay i c v ln
cng nh v phng v chiu. c trng cho s thay i ca vn tc theo thi gian,
ngi ta a vo thm mt i lng vt l mi, l gia tc.
Gi s sau mt khong thi gian t, vn tc ca cht im thay i mt lng l
v
r
theo nh ngha gia tc trung bnh, gia tc trung bnh
tb
a
r
t trong khong thi gian
t l:

Ta thy rng mun c trng cho t bin thin ca vect vn tc tng thi
im, ta phi xc nh t s
t
v
r
r

trong khong thi gian t v cng nh, ngha l cho


t 0, ta c biu thc ca gia tc tc thi a
r
ti mt im trn qu o:

Vy: Vect gia tc bng o hm ca vect vn tc i vi thi gian.
Theo (1.11) v (1.8) ta c th tnh ba to ca vect gia tc theo ba trc to
Descartes:

ln gia tc c tnh theo cng thc:

1.3.2. Gia tc tip tuyn v gia tc php tuyn
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Vect gia tc c trng cho s bin thin ca vect vn tc. S bin thin ny
th hin c v phng, chiu v ln. Trong phn ny ta s phn tch vect gia tc ra
lm hai thnh phn, mi thnh phn c trng cho s bin thin ca vect vn tc
ring v mt mt no .
n gin, gi thit cht im chuyn ng trn mt ng trn tm O, ti thi
im t, cht im v tr M, c vn tc MA = v, ti thi im t ' = t + t cht im v
tr M' (MM ' = s), c vn tc ' ' A M = v
r
' = v
r
+ v
r
.
Theo nh ngha, vect gia tc ca cht im ti thi im t (ng vi v tr M) l:
a
r
=
t
v
t t
r
'
lim hnh (1.14)
Mun tm
v
r
, t M ta v vect
MB
=
' ' A M
.
Ta c:

v
r
=
v
r
' -
v
r
=
' ' A M
-
MA
=
MB
-
MA

Hay
v
r
=
AB


Ly trn phng ca MA mt on MC = v', theo hnh v ta c:
v
r
= CA AC AB + =
Thay v
r
vo (1.14) ta c:

ngha c th ca tng thnh phn trong v phi ca (1.15):
Thnh phn th nht c k hiu l:

Phng ca
t
a
r
l phng ca AC , tc l phng ca tip tuyn vi qu o ti
M: v vy
t
a
r
c gi l gia tc tip tuyn.
Chiu ca
t
a
r
l chiu ca AC ngha l cng chiu vi chuyn ng khi: v' > v
(vn tc tng), v ngc chiu vi chiu chuyn ng khi: v' < v (vn tc gim).
ln ca
t
a
r
cho bi:

Ngha l theo nh ngha ca o hm:

Vy: Gia tc tip tuyn c trng cho s bin thin ca vect vn tc v gi tr,
vect ny c: Phng trng vi tip tuyn ca qu o ti im M, chiu l chiu
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chuyn ng khi v tng v chiu ngc li khi v gim, v ln bng o hm ln
vn tc theo thi gian.
- Thnh phn th hai trong v phi ca (1.15) l:

Phng ca
n
a
r
l phng ca CB khi t ' t. Mun xc nh n, ta t:
' MOM = CMB =

Trong tam gic cn CMB:
- CMB
MCB =
2 2 2
Khi t t th M ' M ngha l 0, do MCB
t 2


Vy n gii hn CB vung gc vi AC phng ca
n
a
r
vung gc vi AC , ngha
l vung gc vi tip tuyn ca qu o ti im M, hay ni cch khc phng ca n l
phng ca php tuyn ca qu o ti M, v vy
n
a
r
c gi l gia tc php tuyn.
Chiu ca
n
a
r
l chiu ca CB, lun lun quay v tm ca vng trn ngha l quay
v pha lm ca qu o, do
n
a
r
cn gi l gia tc hng tm.
ln ca
n
a
r
cho bi:

Vy: Vect gia tc php tuyn c trng cho s bin thin v phng ca vect
vn tc, vect gia tc ny c: Phng trng vi phng php tuyn ca qu o ti
M, chiu hng v pha lm ca qu o v c ln bng
R
V
a
n
2
= .
Tm li, ta c th phn tch vect gia tc ra lm hai thnh phn:
14

Vect gia tc tip tuyn c trng cho s bin thin ca vect vn tc v ln,
cn vect gia tc php tuyn c trng cho s bin thin ca vect vn tc v phng.
Mt s trng hp c bit:
-
n
a
r
lun lun bng khng: vect vn tc khng thay i phng, cht im
chuyn ng thng.
-
t
a lun lun bng khng: vect vn tc khng thay i chiu v gi tr, cht
im chuyn ng cong u.
- a lun lun bng khng: vect vn tc khng i v phng, chiu v gi tr,
cht im chuyn ng thng u.
1.4. Mt s chuyn ng n gin ca cht im. Bi ton ng dng
Ta s p dng cc kt qu thu c cc mc trn kho st mt s dng
chuyn ng n gin ca cht im.
1.4.1. Chuyn ng thng thay i u
Chuyn ng thng thay i u l mt chuyn ng vi vect gia tc khng i
a
r
= const. V l chuyn ng thng nn a
n
= 0, do :

Kt qu: Sau nhng khong thi gian bng nhau, vn tc thay i nhng lng
bng nhau. Nu trong khong thi gian t 0 n t, vn tc bin thin t v
0
n v th
theo nh ngha ca gia tc ta c:

Gi thit trong khong thi gian t 0 n t, cht im i c qung ng s,
tch phn 2 v ca (1.23) ta c:

Kh t trong (1.22) v (1.24) ta c h thc thng dng sau:

1.4.2. Chuyn ng trn
15
Trong chuyn ng trn, ta dng vn tc gc v gia tc gc c trng cho
chuyn ng y.
a. Vn tc gc
Gi thit qu o l vng trn tm O bn knh R


Trong khong thi gian t = t' - t gi s cht
im i c qung ng s =
' MM
ng vi
gc quay ca bn knh MOM ' = (hnh 1.6).
Theo nh ngha i lng
t

gi l vn tc gc
trung bnh trong khong thi gian t v c k
hiu l:


Gi tr ca
tb
biu th gc quay trung bnh ca bn knh trong n v thi gian.
Nu cho t 0 theo nh ngha
t
t



0
lim gi l vn tc gc ca cht im ti thi
im t, v c k hiu l:

Vy: Vn tc gc c gi tr bng o hm ca gc quay i vi thi gian. Vn
tc gc o bng radian trn giy (rad/s).
i vi chuyn ng trn u ( = const), thi gian m cht im i c mt
vng hay l chu k ca cht im:

v tn s l chu k trong mt n v thi gian:

16
Ngi ta biu din vn tc gc bng mt vect

r
gi
l vect vn tc gc, nm trn trc ca mt vng trn qu
o, thun chiu i vi chiu quay ca chuyn ng v c
gi tr bng
a
r
(hnh 1.7).
H qu 1: Lin h gia vect vn tc gc

r
v vect
vn tc di
v
v
ca chuyn ng.
Ta c: MM' = s = R.





Cho t 0, theo (1.4) v (1.27) ta c:
v = R. (1.28)
Theo nh hnh 1.7 ta thy rng: ba vect R v
r
r r
, , (theo th t ny) to thnh mt
tam din thun ba mt vung, vy ta c:
R v
r
r r
=
H qu 2: Lin h gia a
n
v .
T (1.18) v (1.28) ta suy ra

b. Gia tc gc
Gi thit trong khong thi gian t = t' - t, vn tc gc ca cht im chuyn
ng trn bin thin mt lng = ' - , theo nh ngha th - l gia tc gc trung
bnh trong khong thi gian t v c k hiu l:

gi tr ca
tb
biu th bin thin trung bnh ca vn tc gc trong n v thi gian.
Nu cho t 0, khi ny gia tc gc ca cht im ti thi im t l:

Vy: Gia tc gc c gi tr bng o hm ca vn tc gc i vi thi gian v
bng o hm bc hai ca gc quay i vi thi gian. Gia tc gc o bng radian trn
giy bnh phng (rad/s
2
).
Khi > 0, tng, chuyn ng ca cht im l chuyn ng trn nhanh dn.
< 0, gim, chuyn ng ca cht im l chuyn ng trn chm dn.
17
= 0, khng i, chuyn ng ca cht im l chuyn ng trn u.
= const, chuyn ng ca cht im l chuyn ng trn thay i u.
Tng t nh gia tc v vn tc di, i vi gia tc gc v vn tc gc ta cng c
cc h thc:


Ngi ta biu din gia tc gc bng mt vect gi l vect gia tc gc, vect ny c:
- Phng nm trn trc ca qu o trn
- Cng chiu vi chiu ca vect vn tc
gc khi > 0 v ngc chiu vi chiu ca
vect vn tc gc khi < 0.
- C ln bng

Nh vy, ta c th vit h thc vect gia tc gc nh sau:
dt
d
=
r
(1.36)
H qu: Lin h gia vect gia tc gc v vect gia tc tip tuyn.
Thay v = vo biu thc tnh gia tc tip tuyn ta c

Do , theo biu thc tnh gia tc gc (1.32) ta c:

Do quy c v chiu ca cc vect
r
v
t
a
r
, (hnh 1.8), trong mi trng hp ba
vect
t
a
r
,
r
v R
r
(theo th t ny) lun lun to thnh mt tam din thun ba mt
vung, v da vo biu thc vect gia tc gc, ta c th kt lun rng:

18
1.4.3. Chuyn ng vi gia tc khng i:
Thc nghim chng t rng trong mt
phm vi khng ln lm, mi cht im u ri
vi cng mt gia tc g theo phng thng ng
hng xung di vi gi tr khng i.
Ta s kho st chuyn ng ca mt cht
im xut pht t mt im O trn mt t vi

vect vn tc ban u (lc t = 0 l
0
v
r
hp vi mt nm ngang mt gc (hnh 1.9). (bi
ton nm xin).
Chn mt phng hnh v l mt phng thng ng cha v
0
; cng l mt phng
cha qu o cht im, trong h trc to xOy. Ti thi im t, cht im v tr M
c to x, y; c gia tc l vect a
r
= g
r
song song vi Oy hng xung di. Do vy,
hai thnh phn ca a
r
trn hai trc l:

Ly nguyn hm hai v ca biu thc trn ta c:


Theo cng thc tnh vn tc ta c th vit (1.40) nh sau:


Ly nguyn hm theo t biu thc (1.41) ta c:
19

Suy ra cc phng trnh chuyn ng ca cht im l:



Vy qu o ca cht im M l mt hnh Parabol OSA, nh S, trc song song
vi trc tung, quay phn lm v pha di hnh v (hnh 1.9).
By gi ta i tnh to nh S (v tr cao nht ca cht im). T biu thc
(l.40) ta c th suy ra:

Ti S vect vn tc nm ngang v
y
= 0, nn khi ta c v = v
x
= cos
0
v , thay vo
biu thc (1.44) ta c:

Cht im n S vo lc t, ng vi v
y
= 0 cho bi

Khi ny honh ca S l:

T y ta c th tnh c tm xa ca chuyn ng ca cht im M (khong
cch t khi nm n lc ri)

1.4.4. Dao ng iu ha thng
Mt cht im chuyn ng thng c gi l mt dao ng iu ho thng nu
ng i x ca n l mt hm s sin (hoc cosin) ca thi gian t. Thng thng
phng trnh chuyn ng ca mt cht im dao ng iu ho c dng sau:
20
x = Acos (cot+(p)
Vi A>0, ( >0 v l nhng hng s. Ta nhn thy rng:

Vy c sau mi khong thi gian T =

2
qung ng i x (hay di) li tr
v gi tr c, hay ta c th ni l di x l mt hm tun hon theo thi gian vi chu
k T =

2
, hng s A l gi tr ln nht ca X c gi l bin dao ng ( X A).
Vn tc v gia tc ca cht im dao ng iu ho c tnh theo cc cng thc sau:

Gia tc a lun lun ngc chiu vi di x. Ta nhn thy v v a cng l nhng
hm tun hon ca thi gian t vi chu k T =

2
. Nghch o ca chu k:
2

T
1
V = =
c gi l tn s ca dao ng, cn hng s c gi l tn s gc ca dao ng.

21
CHNG 2. NG LC HC CHT IM
ng lc hc nghin cu chuyn ng ca cc vt v mi lin h ca chng vi
tng tc gia cc vt. C s ca ng lc hc v m l cc nh lut Newton v
nguyn l Galil.
2.1. Khi nim v lc v khi lng
Khi nim v lc
Khi nghin cu chuyn ng, ta thy rng cc vt ch bt u chuyn ng hay
thay i trng thi chuyn ng ca chng khi chu tc ng ca vt khc. Tc dng
ca mt vt ln mt vt khc c c trng bi mt i lng vt l gi l lc.
V d: on tu ch chuyn ng khi chu tc dng ca lc ko ca u tu, chic
xe ang chuyn ng ch dng li khi chu tc dng ca lc hm,
Vy: Lc l nguyn nhn Vt l gy ra s chuyn ng cng nh s thay i
chuyn ng ca cc vt. Lc th hin mc tng tc gia cc vt.
Tng tc gia cc vt xy ra theo hai cch:
- Khi chng tip xc vi nhau.
V d: lc n hi, lc ma st,
- Khi chng khng trc tip tip xc vi nhau. D vy chng vn tc dng ln
nhau thng qua trng.
V d: lc hp dn, lc in t,
Lc l mt i lng vect (trong c hc thng c k hiu bng ch F), do
cn lu n cc c im sau ca vect lc:
- im t ca lc nm ti vt chu tc dng ca lc.
- ln (cn gi l cng ) ca lc c biu din mt cch hnh hc bng
di ca vect lc.
- Phng ca lc.
- Chiu ca lc.
Do , nu hai lc c gi l bng nhau nu chng c cng di, cng
phng v cng chiu. Quy tc cng lc l quy tc cng vect.
Khi nim v khi lng
Khi lng l o v lng (nhiu hay t) vt cht cha trong vt th, c th
tnh t tch phn ton b th tch ca vt:
m = dV (vi l khi lng ring)
n v o khi lng trong h SI l kilgam (kg).
Trong Vt l, khi lng ca mt vt l mt i lng vt l c trng cho mc
qun tnh ca vt . Vt c khi lng ln s c sc ln hn v cn c lc ln hn
22
lm thay i chuyn ng ca n. Mi lin h gia qun tnh vi khi lng c
Newton pht biu trong nh lut II Newton. Khi lng trong chuyn ng thng u
cn c m rng thnh khi nim mmen qun tnh trong chuyn ng quay.
Khi lng ca mt vt cng c trng cho mc vt hp dn cc vt th
khc, theo nh lut vn vt hp dn Newton. Vt c khi lng ln c to ra xung
quanh trng hp dn ln.
Khi lng hiu theo ngha ln ca qun tnh, khi lng qun tnh, khng
nht thit hiu theo mc hp dn vt th khc, khi lng hp dn. Tuy nhin, cc
th nghim chnh xc hin nay cho thy hai khi lng ny rt gn nhau v mt tin
ca thuyt tng i rng ca Einstein pht biu rng hai khi lng ny l mt.
Khi lng tng i tnh
Trong vt l c in, coi khi lng ca mt vt l mt i lng bt bin, khng
ph thuc vo chuyn ng ca vt. Tuy nhin, vt l hin i li c cch nhn khc v
khi lng, khi lng c th thay i tu theo h quy chiu. Theo quan im ny th
khi lng gm hai phn, mt phn l khi lng ngh, c gi tr bng vi khi lng
c in khi vt th ng yn trong h quy chiu ang xt, cng vi khi lng km
theo ng nng ca vt.
nh lut bo ton khi lng
Khi lng ton phn ca mt h vt l kn, xt trong mt h quy chiu c nh
l khng i theo thi gian.
Cc nh lut Newton
Cc nh lut Newton nu ln quan h gia chuyn ng ca mt vt vi tc
dng bn ngoi v quan h gia cc tc dng tng h ca cc vt.
nh lut Newton I
Pht biu: Khi mt cht im c lp (khng chu mt tc ng no t bn ngoi)
nu ang ng yn n s tip tc ng yn, nu ang chuyn ng th chuyn ng
ca n l thng u.
Cht im ng yn c vn tc v = 0 ; cht im chuyn ng thng u c vn
tc v
r
khng i; trong c hai trng hp , vn tc v
r
u khng thay i; ta cng ni
trng thi chuyn ng ca n c bo ton.
Vy: Mt cht im c lp bo ton trng thi chuyn ng ca n.
Tnh cht bo ton trng thi chuyn ng gi l qun tnh, v vy nh lut I cn
c gi l nh lut qun tnh.
Khng ging nh cc nh lut khc, ta khng th kim nghim nh lut ny
mt cch trc tip bng thc nghim v trn tri t khng th c bt k vt no hon
ton c lp (khng chu bt k mt lc no). Do vy, ta coi nh lut ny nh mt
nguyn l m khng chng minh. Ta ch c th xc nhn s ng n ca nh lut
ny khi kim nghim cc h qu ca nh lut ny m thi.
23
V d: Khi y mt vt nng trt trn sn nh ta c th thy vn tc ca vt
gim dn v cui cng dng li hn. Nhng nu sn nh nhn th vt c th trt rt
xa. S d nh vy l v, ngoi trng lc ca vt v phn lc ca sn nh l hai lc trit
tiu ln nhau th vt cn chu tc dng ca lc ma st v lc cn ca khng kh, l hai
lc ngc chiu chuyn ng ca vt v cn tr chuyn ng ca vt. Nu bng cch
no c th lm gim cc lc ny th vt s chuyn ng c rt xa mc d ta ch
y vt trong mt thi gian ngn. Nu lm trit tiu hon ton cc lc ny th vt s
chuyn ng thng u mi mi trn sn nh.
nh lut Newton II
nh lut Newton II xt cht im trng thi khng c lp, ngha l chu tc
dng ca nhng lc t bn ngoi.
Pht biu: 1. Chuyn ng ca mt cht im chu tc dng ca cc lc c tng
hp F
r
# 0 l mt chuyn ng c gia tc.
2. Gia tc chuyn ng ca cht im t l vi tng hp tc tc dng F
r
v t l
nghch vi khi lng ca cht im y:

k l mt hng s t l ph thuc vo cc n v s dng; trong h SI: k = 1 v

Phng trnh c bn ca c hc cht im Phng trnh Newton:

l phng trnh c bn ca c hc cht im. Phng trnh ny l phng trnh
tng qut cho c hai nh lut Newton I v II.
Vi nh lut Newton I:
F
r
= 0 a
r
= 0 v
r
= const
Vi nh lut Newton II:

H quy chiu qun tnh
chng I, chng ta bit rng, i vi cng mt chuyn ng nhng s xy ra
khc nhau trong cc h quy chiu khc nhau. Vy, t nhin s ny sinh cu hi sau: nh
lut I Newton khng nh nu mt vt khng chu tc dng ca mt lc no th n s
ng yn hay chuyn ng thng u i vi h quy chiu no? Thc nghim chng
t rng, nh lut Newton I ch nghim ng i vi nhng h quy chiu qun tnh.
Vy: H quy chiu qun tnh l mt h quy chiu m trong nu mt vt khng
chu tc dng ca mt ngoi lc no th n hoc l ng yn hoc l chuyn ng
thng u.
24
nh lut Newton III
Thc nghim chng t rng, khng bao gi c tc dng mt pha. Khi vt A
tc dng ln vt B th ngc li vt B cng tc dng ln vt A. Ta ni chng tng tc
vi nhau.
nh lut Newton III xt mi lin h gia cc tng tc ca hai vt.
Pht biu: Khi cht im A tc dng ln cht im B mt lc F th cht im B
cng tc dng ln cht im A mt lc F ': hai lc F v F' tn ti ng thi cng
phng, ngc chiu v cng cng .
Ni cch khc, tng hnh hc cc lc tng tc gia hai cht im bng khng:
F + F ' = 0.
Ch : Tuy tng ca hai lc F v F' bng khng nhng tc dng ca chng khng
kh nhau v im t ca chng khc nhau.
Trong trng hp tng qut: ta xt mt h cht im c lp, ngha l mt h
khng chu tc dng ca cc ngoi lc: trong h ch c cc ni lc tng tc gia cc
cht im ca h. Khi nu xt tng i cht im ca h th tng hai lc tng tc
gia chng bng khng. By gi nu ly tng ca tt c cc lc , ta c kt qu:
Tng cc ni lc ca h cht im c lp (hay h kn) bng khng.
Cc nh l v ng lng
T phng trnh Newton, ta c th suy ra mt s pht biu tng ng, l
cc nh l v ng lng.
Thit lp cc nh l v ng lng
Theo nh lut Newton II, nu mt cht im khi lng m chu tc dng ca
mt lc F
r
(hay ca nhiu lc, lc tng hp l F
r
) th s c gia tc a
r
cho bi:
ma
r
=F
r

T biu thc ca gia tc ta c th vit li biu thc trn nh sau:

v m khng i nn ta c th vit li l:

Vect K
r
= mv
r
gi l vect ng lng ca cht im (hnh 2.1). Vy biu thc
(2.3) c th vit thnh:

inh l 1: o hm ng lng ca mt cht im i vi thi gian c gi tr
bng lc (hay tng hp cc lc) tc dng ln cht im .

25
T (2.4) ta suy ra:

Tch phn 2 v ca biu thc (2.5) trong khong thi gian t t
1
n t
2
ng vi s
bin thin ca ng lng t K
1
n K
2
ta c:

Theo nh ngha tch phn ca lc F theo t t t
1
n t
2
gi l xung lng ca F
trong khong thi gian . Vy biu thc (2.6) c th pht biu nh sau:
nh l 2: bin thin ng lng ca mt cht im trong mt khong thi
gian no c gi tr bng xung lng ca lc (hay tng hp lc) tc dng ln cht
im trong khong thi gian .
Trong trng hp F khng i theo thi gian, (2.6) tr thnh:
K = F
r
.t (2.7)
Hay
t
K
r
= F
r
(2.8)
Theo (2.8) ta c th pht biu:
bin thin ng lng ca cht im trong n v thi gian c gi tr bng
lc tc dng ln cht im .

Cc nh l v ng lng (2.4) v (2.6) l nhng pht biu tng ng ca
phng trnh Newton, khi ra khi phm vi c hc c in Newton, cc cng thc (2.3)
v (2.4) vn ng. V vy, ta c th ni rng: v mt mt no cc nh l v ng
lng tng qut hn nh lut Newton.
ngha ca ng lng v xung lng
a. ngha ca ng lng
Nh ta bit trong chng I, vect vn tc l mt i lng c trng c bn
cho chuyn ng v mt ng hc. Nhng v mt ng lc hc, khi kho st chuyn
ng ca cc vt, ta khng th xt ring vn tc m khng n khi lng ca
chng, v vn tc c lin quan cht ch vi khi lng (i vi mt lc tc dng nht
nh). Ni cch khc, vn tc khng c trng cho chuyn ng v mt ng lc hc.
Chnh ng lng, i lng kt hp c khi lng v vn tc, mi c trng cho
chuyn ng v mt ng lc hc.
V d: Gi thit c mt qu cu khi lng m
1
chuyn ng vi vn tc
1
v
r
n
p thng vo mt qu cu c khi lng m
2
ban u ng yn. Gi thit sau va chm,
26
qu cu th hai chuyn ng vi vn tc
1
v
r
. Thc nghim chng t rng, ni ch1ung
1
v
r
#
2
v
r
v
2
v
r
khng nhng ph thuc vo
1
v
r
m cn ph thuc vo m
1
, ni chnh xc l
ph thuc vo ng lng
1 1 1
v m K
r
r
= ca qu cu th nht. Nh th ngha l s truyn
chuyn ng do va chm ca qu cu th nht n qu cu th hai ph thuc vo ng
lng qu th nht (
2
v
r
cng ln th
1 1 1
v m K
r
r
= cng ln).
Vy: Trong cc hin tng va chm ng lng l mt i lng c trng cho
kh nng truyn va chm.
b. ngha ca xung lng
Xung lng ca mt lc trong khong thi gian t c trng cho tc dng ca
lc trong khong thi gian . Thc vy, theo (2.6) hay (2.7) ta thy rng tc dng ca
lc khng nhng ph thuc vo cng lc m cn ph thuc thi gian tc dng.
Cng mt lc nhng thi gian tc dng lu th ng lng ca vt bin thin nhiu v
ngc li, nu thi gian tc dng rt ngn th d lc ln, ng lng cng bin thin t.
Cc nh l v ng lng v xung lng thng dng gii quyt cc bi ton
va chm.
Cc lc c hc trong t nhin. Hai bi ton c bn ca ng lc hc Cc lc c
hc trong t nhin
Do lc ch xut hin thnh tng cp v mi cp c cng mt tnh cht nh nhau
(c to ra t mt tng tc) cho nn ngi ta phn chia cc loi lc thng qua cc
dng tng tc ca chng. C bn dng tng tc ch yu: 1. Tng tc hp dn, 2.
Tng tc in t, 3. Tng tc mnh v 4. Tng tc yu.

Trong phm vi chng ny ch yu phn tch cc tnh cht ca lc n hi v lc
ma st xut hin do lc tng tc in t.
27
a. Lc n hi
- iu kin xut hin lc n hi
Khi mt vt b mt lc ko dn hay nn li
lm cho vt b bin dng th bn thn vt tc
dng mt lc n hi ln vt tc dng n buc
vt ny tr li cho n hnh dng c.

- Tnh cht
Chiu ca lc n hi lun ngc chiu bin dng ca vt.
Treo mt l xo ln mt im c nh trn trn nh. im B ca l xo mc vo vt
c khi lng M. Di tc dng ca trng lc vt M cc phn t l xo dn ra mt
on x, chng to ra lc n hi k ca l xo v bin dng x ca n lun lun l
hng s, hng s ny c gi l cng ca l xo.

Cng thc ny c nh Vt l ngi Anh Rober Hooke tm ra nn cn c gi
l cng thc ca nh lut Hooke.
n v ca cng l: N/m. cng K ph thuc vo vt liu lm l xo v
chiu di ca l xo.
- Phn lc
L mt dng lc n hi xut hin khi vt A nn
ln mt tip xc vi vt B lm cc phn t b mt B
b bin dng sinh ra phn lc N tc dng vo vt A.
Phng ca phn lc bao gi cng vung gc vi mt
tip xc ca hai vt.
Chiu t tm ca vt A i ra xa mt tip xc.

ln bng hnh chiu lc nn vung gc ca A ln mt tip xc.
Lc cng dy treo:
Lc cng dy treo xut hin khi hai u dy b ko dn hoc mt u dy c nh
cn u kia b ko dn (trng hp c hai u u b ko phi cng phng, ngc
chiu).
Phng ca lc cng nm dc theo si dy.
Chiu ngc chiu lc ko dn.
Ch : Cc lc ny c im t ln vt tc dng ln n. ln thng thng
rt kh xc nh trc tip thng qua s bin dng ca dy nn n c xc nh qua
cc lc khc v gia tc m lc t c.
b. Lc ma st
- iu kin xut hin
Dng th hai ca lc n hi l lc ma st.
28
Lc ma st xut hin khi c s chuyn ng tng i ca hai hoc nhiu vt vi
nhau. Nu hai vt chuyn ng tip xc l vt rn ngi ta gi l lc ma st kh.
Nu mt hoc c hai vt l cht lu (kh hoc lng) th c gi l ma st nht.
- c im
c im ca cc lc ma st l lun lun c phng tip tuyn vi mt tip xc
ca hai vt chuyn ng tng i, chiu lun ngc vi chiu chuyn ng tng
i. ln ca lc ma st kh t l vi phn lc thng qua h s ma st.
- Ma st ngh v ma st trt
Xt vt A t tip xc ln vt B, lc N l phn lc ca vt B tc dng ln vt
A. Dng mt lc F
r
ko vt A, nu ln ca F
r
c gi tr nh th vt A cha
chuyn ng. Vt A ng yn v lc ma st ngh cn bng vi lc ko F
r
.
Lc ma st ngh xut hin khi cha c s chuyn ng tng i ca 2 vt tip
xc nhng mt trong hai vt chu tc dng ko ca ngoi lc. ln ca lc ma st
ngh thay i theo ln ca lc ko F
r
, khi lc ko t n gi tr F
0
no sao cho
vt A bt u chuyn ng tng i so vi vt B: Lc ny lc ma st ngh chuyn
sang ma st trt.
- Vai tr ca lc ma st
C hi: Trong cc my ang hot ng bao gi cng xut hin ma st, cn tr
chuyn ng lm hao ph nng lng v ch. Lc phi lm gim ma st.
C li: Nh c ma st m my mc xe
c ang hot ng c th dng li c, con
ngi, xe c mi di chuyn c.

V d: Mt h gm hai vt khi lng m
1
v m
2
c ni vi nhau bng mt si
dy mnh khng co dn. C hai trt khng ma st trn mt phng nm ngang di
tc dng ca lc ko F
r
t vo m
1
. Xc nh lc cng ca dy. B qua tc dng ca
ma st.
Trc tin ta tnh gia tc a ca h. V h chuyn ng nh mt vt c khi lng
(m
1
+ m
2
) di tc dng ca lc F
r
. Nn ta c:

Mun tnh lc cng ti A, ta gi thit l ct dy ti A. m bo cho m
1
v m
2

gi nguyn chuyn ng vi gia tc a th ti hai on dy A s chu tc dng ca cc
lc cng T
r
v T' .
Xt ring vt m
1
. Lc tc dng ln n gm: lc ko F
r
v T
r
lc cng. Do vy,
phng trnh chuyn ng ca m
1
s l:
m
1
a = F-T
29

Xt vt m
2
. Lc tc dng ln vt l lc cng ' T
r
v do phng trnh chuyn
ng ca m
2
l:

Hai bi ton c bn ca ng lc hc
Vn dng cc nh lut Newton, chng ta c th d dng gii cc bi ton c hc
a dng theo 4 bc c bn sau:
- Bc 1: Phn tch bn cht cc lc tc dng ln tng vt (theo nh lut
Newtton III, cc lc ny ch xut hin thnh tng cp).
- Bc 2: Vit cc phng trnh nh lut Newton II cho tng vt c th.
- Bc 3: Chn h quy chiu qun tnh v h trc to sao cho bi ton tr nn
n gin, chn chiu chuyn ng gi nh cho h, sau chiu phng trnh vect
(vit c bc 2) ln cc trc to c cc phng trnh i s.
- Bc 4: Gii h cc phng trnh i s tm cc nghim s theo yu cu ca
bi, sau bin lun ngha ca cc gi tr.
a. Bi ton thun ca ng lc hc
Bi ton thun ca ng lc hc l bi ton xc nh lc gy ra chuyn ng khi
bt chuyn ng ca cht im.
D gii bi ton loi ny, trc tin phi xc nh gia tc ca cht im, sau
s p dng nh lut Newton II tm lc tc ng ln cht im.
V d: Ko mt gu nc t di ging ln cao nhanh dn vi gia tc l a
r
.
Hy xc nh lc ko.
Ta bit lc tc dng tng cng ln gu gm lc ko k F
r
v trng lc g m P
r
r
= ca
gu. Theo nh lut Newton II v rng hai lc ny ngc chiu nhau, nn ta c:
Fk- mg = ma
T : Fk = m(g + a)
Ta thy lc ko phi ln hn trng lng ca gu, c bit l Fk cng ln khi gia
tc a cng ln.
h. Bi ton ngc ca ng lc hc
Bi ton ngc ca ng lc hc l bi ton xc nh chuyn ng ca cht im
khi bit cc lc tc dng ln cht im v nhng iu kin ban u ca chuyn ng.
gii bi ton ngc cn xc nh c th cc lc tc ng ln tng trn im.
Sau p dng cng thc tnh gia tc xc nh gia tc m cht im thu c. Nu
30
bit vn tc v v tr ban u ca cht im th bng cch ly tch phn ca gia tc a, ta
c th xc nh c vn tc v ta ca cht im theo thi gian, ngha l c th
bit c phng trnh chuyn ng v phng trnh qu o ca cht im.
V d: Mt h gm hai vt c khi lng
m
1
v m
2
c ni nhau bng mt si dy
khng co dn. u kia ca m
1
ni vi mt si
dy khc vt qua mt rng rc v ni vi mt
qu nng m. Gi s h chuyn ng khng ma
st, khi lng dy ni v rng rc khng ng
k. Hy xc nh chuyn ng ca h.

Gi T
r
l lc cng ca si dy ni qu nng m vi m
1
. Lc m si dy ko m
1
l
T
r
cn ko qu nng m l - T
r
.
i vi qu nng m ta c phng trnh:
mg -T = ma
Gi
1
T
r
l lc cng ca on dy ni m
1
vi m
2
. i Vi m
1
ta c phng trnh:
T - T
1
= m
1
a
i vi vt m
2
ta c phng trnh chuyn ng:
T
1
= m
2
a
Cng ba phng trnh trn li vi nhau, ta tm c gia tc a ca h:

Cng c th tm ngay c gia tc a ca h nu rng do si dy khng co
dn nn c th xem chuyn ng ca h nh l chuyn ng ca mt vt th thng
nht vi khi lng l (m+m
1
+m
2
) v lc duy nht tc ng ln h l g m
r
.
Theo nh lut Newton II ta c:
2 1
m m m
mg
a
+ +
=
Chuyn ng ca h l nhanh dn u vi gia tc a. Do vy, phng trnh chuyn
ng ca h l:

Mmen ng lng
nh l v ng lng (2.3,2.4)

31
l mt trong nhng nh lut c bn ca c hc cht im. Trong nhiu trng hp
(nht l khi xt chuyn ng ca mt cht im chu tc dng ca mt trng lc
xuyn tm) ngi ta din ta nh lut ny di dng khc, l nh l v mmen
ng lng.
2.5.1. Momen ca mt vect i vi mt im
Cho mt vect MA V =
r
gc ti M v mt im
O c nh trong khng gian v OM r =
r
(hnh 2.3).
Theo nh ngha: mmen ca V
r
i vi O l mt
vect k hiu l:
V r V M O ) V (O, M
r
r
r r r r
= = (2.9)
Theo nh ngha (1) th mmen ng lng
) V (O, M
r
l mt vector:
- gc ti O

- c phng vung gc vi mt phng xc nh bi O v V
r

- c chiu thun vi chiu quay t OMsang MA
OMA
2S ) rV rVsin( ) MA . OM .sin( MA . OM ) V (O, M = = = =
r

Cc tnh cht ca mmen ca mt vector: t biu nh ngha (1) ta c th d
dng suy ra cc tnh cht ca mmen ca mt vector sau:
- tnh cht 1: khi V
r
= 0
r
hay V
r
c phng qua 0
r
th ) V (O, M
r
= 0
r

- tnh cht 2: M(O,
2 1
V V +
r
= ) V (O, M
1
r
+ M (O,
2
V
r
)
2.5.2. nh l v mmen ng lng
Mt cht im M chuyn ng trn mt qu
o (C) di tc dng ca mt lc F
r
(hnh bn).
Theo nh l v s bin thin ng lng ta c:
F
dt
) v d(m
dt
K d
r
r
r
= =
Nhn hu hng c hai v ca (4) vi t = OM
(O l gc ta ) ta c:


M
32
Trong K r L
r
r
r
= = l mmen ng lng ca cht im M i vi im O v
M( F O,
r
) = F r
r
r
l mnmen ca lc F
r
i vi im O.
Phng trnh (2.13) cng chnh l biu thc ca nh l v mmen ng lng,
nh l c pht biu nh sau:
"o hm theo thi gian ca mmen ng lng i vi im O ca mt cht
im chuyn ng bng tng mmen i vi im O ca cc lc tc dng ln cht
im".
H qu: Trong trng hp cht im chuyn ng lun lun chu tc dng ca
mt lc xuyn tm ( F
r
lun c phng i qua im O) th M F O,
r
= 0 v do :

T (2.14) ta thy L
r
khng i. Mt khc, L lun vung gc vi mt phng to
bi O v K
r
= mv
r
, do , mt phng cha O v K
r
l mt mt phng c. nh. iu
c ngha l cht im M lun lun chuyn ng trong mt mt phng c nh.
2.5.3. Trng hp chuyn ng trn
Mmen ng lng t ca cht im M
chuyn ng trn qu o trn (O,R) c th
tnh nh sau:
) (Rm Rm OM.m L
2
r
r
r
= = =
y I = mR
2
c gi l mmen qun
tnh ca cht im i vi im O.

Li c, vn tc gc
R


= cng c biu din di dng vector
r
v
r
c
cng phng chiu vi L
r
. Do ta c th vit mmen ng lng ca cht im M
chuyn ng trn qu o trn di dng: L
r
= I
r
(2.16) Theo nh l v mmen ng
lng ta c:

Trong
n n'
F F F F
r r
r
r r
+ = lun lun hng tm v
1
F
r
l thnh phn lc tc dng theo
phng tip tuyn vi qu o.
Phng trnh (2.17) chnh l biu thc ca nh l v mmen ng lng ca
cht im chuyn ng trn.
33
CHNG 3. NG LC HC H CHT IM
NG LC HC VT RN
Khi xem xt chuyn ng ca mt vt hay mt h bt k, ta c th m hnh vt
nh l mt tp hp cc cht im v p dng cc nh lut c hc ca cht im i
vi tng cht im trong h. Vt rn l h cht im, nhng l mt h cht im c
bit trong khong cch gia cc cht im lun lun gi nguyn khng i trong
qu trnh chuyn ng ca vt rn. y l mt i tng c hc quan trng v ph
bin nn ta ch trng kho st c th chuyn ng vt rn vi phng php lun p
dng cc quy lut chuyn ng ca h cht im vo chuyn ng ca vt rn.
Trong chng ny chng ta kho st cc nh lut c bn v chuyn ng ca
mt h cht im, c bit kho st chuyn ng ca mt vt rn.
3.1. C h. Khi tm ca c h
3.1.1. Khi nim c h
C h l tp hp cc cht im tng tc vi nhau, hay ni cch khc c h
chnh l h cht im.
3.1.2. Khi tm ca c h
a. nh ngha
Khi tm ca mt h cht im M
1
, M
2
,.. M
n
. M ln lt c khi lng m
1
, m
2

m
n
m l mt im G xc nh bi ng thc:

b. Ta khi tm: Chn h trc ta c gc ta O, chng ta tin hnh tm
ta ca G trong h ta chn. Ta c:

Nhn 2 v ca (3.2) vi m
1
ri cng cc phng trnh theo i t 1 ti n v s

t OG = R vi ba ta X, Y, Z v OM
i
= r
r
vi ba ta x
i
, y
i
, z
i
th (3.3)
34

Cc ng thc (3.5), (3.6) cho php ta xc nh ta khi tm ca mt h cht
im. By gi chng ta i kho st cc tnh cht ca khi tm v mt ng lc hc.
c. Vn tc ca khi tm

Trong ,
i
i
v
dt
r d r
r
= vector vn tc ca cht im v m p M
i i i
r r
= = ng lng ca
cht im M
i
.
Nu thay

=
=
n
1 i
i
p p
r r
= tng ng lng ca h cht im, th biu thc (3.6) tr
thnh:

Vy: Tng ng lng ca h bng ng lng ca mt cht im t ti khi
tm ca h, c khi lng bng tng khi lng ca h v c vn tc bng vn tc
khi tm ca h.
d. Phng trnh chuyn ng ca khi tm
Gi thit cc cht im m
1
, m
2
,,m
n
ca h ln lt chu tc dng ca cc lc
n 2 1
F ..., F , F
r r r
v chuyn ng vi nhng vect gia tc
n 2 1
a ,... a , a
r r r
tha mn cc phng
trnh:
n n n 2 2 2 1 1 1
F a m ,... F a m . F a m
r
r r
r
r r
r
r
= = =
Mun tm phng trnh chuyn ng ca khi tm, ta c o hm (3.6) theo t:
35

Trong
dt
V d
a
r
r
= l vect gia tc ca khi tm. T (3.9) ta c th kt lun rng:
Khi tm ca mt h chuyn ng nh mt cht im c khi lng bng tng
khi lng ca h v chu tc dng ca mt lc bng tng ngoi lc tc dng ln h.
Ch :
- Trong (3.9), v phi ch l tng hp cc ngoi lc tc dng v theo nh lut
Newton III, tng hp cc ni lc tng tc ca h bng khng.
- Chuyn ng khi tm ca h c gi l chuyn ng ton th ca h.
3.2. nh lut bo ton ng lng
3.2.1. Thit lp
i vi mt h cht im chuyn ng, ta c nh l v ng lng:

trong F
r
l tng cc ngoi lc tc dng ln h (theo nh lut Newton III th
tng cc ni lc tng tc trong h bng 0).
Nu h ang xt l mt h c lp (F = 0) th:

Pht biu: Tng ng lng ca mt h c lp l mt i lng bo ton.
Mt khc, ta bit rng vn tc chuyn ng ca khi tm ca h (3.7) cho bi:

Vy i vi mt h cht im c lp:

Khi tm ca mt h c lp hoc ng yn hoc chuyn ng thng u.
36
3.2.2. Bo ton ng lng theo phng
Trong trng hp mt h cht im khng c lp ngha l F
r
# 0 nhng hnh
chiu ca F
r
ln mt phng x no lun lun bng 0, khi nu chiu phng
trnh vect

ln phng x ta c:
const v m ..., v m v m
vx n 2x 2 1x 1
= + +
Vy, hnh chiu ca tng ng lng ca h ln phng x l mt i lng bo
ton.
3.2.3. ng dng
a. Gii thch hin tng sng git li
Gi s c mt khu sng c khi lng
M t trn mt gi nm ngang; trong
nng sng c mt vin n c khi lng m. Nu khng c ma st th tng hp ngoi
lc tc dng ln h (sng + n) tc l tng hp ca trng lng (sng + n) v phn
lc php tuyn ca gi s trit tiu, do tng ng lng ca h bo ton.
Trc khi bn tng ng lng ca h bng 0. Khi bn, n bay v pha trc
vi vn tc v, sng git li v pha sau vi vn tc V. Do , ng lng ca h sau
khi bn s l: V M v m
r
r
+ . V ng lng ca h bo ton nn ta c:

Du tr chng t V
r
ngc chiu vi v
r
. V gi tr V t l vi m v t l nghch
vi M.
b. Chuyn ng phn lc
nh lut Newton III F
r
cng nh nh lut bo ton ng lng l c s gii
thch cc chuyn ng phn lc. Chng ta hy vn dng cc nh lut ny gii thch
chuyn ng phn lc ca cc tn la.
Gi thit c mt vt cha mt hn hp kh nng, ban u ng yn. Nu hn hp
kh c pht ra pha sau th theo nh lut bo ton ng lng vt s tin ln pha
trc. l nguyn tc ca tn la.
Ta gi khi lng tng cng ban u ca tn la l M
0
. Trong qu trnh chuyn
ng, tn la lun lun pht kh ra sau, khi lng ca n gim dn, vn tc ca n
tng dn. Ta hy tnh vn tc v
r
ca tn la khi khi lng ca n l M. ng lng
ca tn la lc l: K
r
= Mv
r
.
Qua mt khong thi gian i, tn la pht ra sau mt khi lng kh bng dM
1
.
37
Nu vn tc pht kh i vi tn la lun lun khng i v bng u
r
th vn tc pht
kh i vi h quy chiu ang quan st bng v u
r r
+ v ng lng ca kh pht ra l:
dM
1
( v u
r r
+ ). Sau khi pht kh khi lng tn la bng M + dM (vi dM = - dM
1
), vn
tc ca n tng ln thnh v d v
r r
+ . Vy ng lng ca tn la sau khi pht kh l: (M +
dM)( v d v
r r
+ ). ng lng ca h sau khi pht kh l:
) v d v dM)( (M ) v u ( dM K
1 2
r r r r
+ + + + = vi
1
dM - dM =
Gi s khng c thnh phn lc tc dng theo phng chuyn ng, theo nh
lut bo ton ng lng ta c:
2 1
K K
r r
=
Hay ( v M ) v d v dM)( (M ) v d v dM(
r r r r r
= + + + + )
Khai trin cc php tnh trong biu thc trn v b qua s hng v cng b bc
hai - v dM.d
r
ta c:
Mdv = - udM (v v d
r
v u
r
ngc chiu

Cng thc (3.12) gi l cng thc Xincpxki. Theo cng thc ny, mun cho
vn tc tn la ln th vn tc pht kh (i vi tn la) phi ln v t s - cng phi
ln.
3.3. Chuyn ng ca vt rn quanh mt trc c nh
Vt rn l mt h cht im trong khong cc gia cc cht im lun lun
khng i. Chuyn ng ca mt vt rn ni chung phc tp, nhng ngi ta chng
minh c rng mi chuyn ng ca vt rn bao gi cng c th quy v tch ca hai
chuyn ng c bn: chuyn ng tnh tin v chuyn ng quay.
3.3.1. Bc t do ca vt rn
Khi m t chuyn ng ca mt vt rn, ta phi xc nh c chuyn ng ca
bt k im no ca vt. xc nh v tr ca vt rn ta cn phi xc nh v tr ca
ba im bt k khng thng hng ca n, ngha l cn v ch cn xc nh v tr ca
mt tam gic bt k gn lin vi vt rn. xc nh v tr ca mt im trong khng
gian cn phi xc nh ba ta , do v tr ca ba im bt k c xc nh bi
chn ta . Tuy nhin, do tnh cht ca vt rn, ba im chnh l ba nh ca mt
tam gic xc nh nn chn ta khng c lp i vi nhau m lin h vi nhau
bng ba phng trnh xc nh di khng i ca ba cnh tam gic, thnh th ch
cn c su ta l c lp. Do xc nh v tr ca vt rn ch cn 6 ta hay 6
tham s c lp.
Vy: S tham s c lp cn bit xc nh hon ton v tr ca vt rn gi l
s bc t do ca n.

38
Vt rn hon ton t do c 6 bc t do. Nu vt rn khng hon ton t do th bc
t do ca n gim xung. V d vt rn c mt im hon ton c nh th ba ta
ca im l hon ton xc nh v vt rn ch cn ba bc t do. Vt rn c hai im
hon ton c nh ch c mt bc t do: n ch c th quay quanh trc i qua hai im
trn v bc t do cn li ca n s xc nh v tr ca vt quanh trc .
Nghin cu chuyn ng ca vt rn tc l phi xc nh hon ton v tr ca vt
rn ti mi thi im, ni cch khc cn phi xc nh c qui lut bin thin theo
thi gian ca cc tham s c lp. R rng l s phng trnh cn phi bit bng s
tham s c lp hay l bc t do ca vt rn.
Vy: bc t do ca vt rn cho bit s phng trnh chuyn ng c lp cn
phi bit c th hon ton xc nh chuyn ng ca vt rn.
3.3.2. Chuyn ng tnh tin
Khi mt vt rn chuyn ng tnh tin mi cht im ca n chuyn ng theo
nhng qu o ging nhau, vy chuyn ng tnh tin ca vt rn l chuyn ng m
trong AB xc nh bi hai im bt k A v B ca vt rn lun song song vi
chnh n.
Ti mi thi im cc cht im ca vt rn
tnh tin u c cng vect vn tc v gia tc.
Vy:- trong chuyn ng tnh tin ca vt
rn, qu o ca mi im l nhng ng cong
nh nhau, mi nhau.

Gi thit a
r
l vect gia tc chung ca cc cht im M
1
, M
2
,, M
i
;, ca vt rn,
cc cht im ny ln lt c khi lng l m
1
, m
2
,, m
i
;, v ln lt chu cc ngoi
lc tc dng l F
1
, F
2
,, F
i
. Theo nh lut II Newton ta c:
3 3
2 2
1 1
F a m
F a m
F a m
r
r
r
r
r
r
=
=
=

Cc phng trnh ny chng t rng cc ngoi lc tc dng ln vt rn F
1
, F
2
,,
F
i
song song v cng chiu, y l mt iu kin cn mt vt chuyn ng tnh tin.
Cng cc phng trnh (3.13) v theo v ta c:

y l phng trnh chuyn ng ca vt rn tnh tin; n ging nh phng
trnh chuyn ng ca mt cht im c khi lng bng khi lng tng cng ca vt
rn v chu tc dng mt lc bng tng ngoi lc tc dng ln vt rn. y cng chnh
l phng trnh chuyn ng ca khi tm ca vt rn.
39
Nh vy, mun kho st chuyn ng tnh tin ca mt vt rn ta ch cn xt
chuyn ng ca khi tm ca n.
3.3.3. Chuyn ng quay
Xt mt vt rn quay quanh trc quay vi vn tc gc
0
khi bc t do ca
vt rn ch cn bng mt. V tr ca vt rn c xc nh bi mt ta duy nht l
gc quay . Ta c nhng nhn xt sau:
Mi im ca vt rn vch nn nhng vng trn c tm nm trn trc quay. Trong
cng mt khong thi gian, mi im ca vt rn u quay c mt gc nh nhau.
Ti cng mt thi im, mi im ca vt rn u
c cng vn tc gc:
dt
d

0
= v gia tc gc
2
2
dt
d
=
Ti mt thi im, vect vn tc di v
r
v gia tc
tip tuyn ca mt cht im bt k ca vt rn lin h
vi vn tc gc v gia tc gc bi cc h thc sau:

) r ( a
) r x ( v
1
0
r r
r r
=
=

y l nhng tnh cht ng hc ca chuyn ng
quay ca vt rn xung quanh mt trc c nh.

3.4. Phng trnh c bn ca chuyn ng quay ca vt rn
Trong bi ny ta s thit lp nhng phng trnh c bn m t chuyn ng quay
ca vt rn xung quanh mt trc.
3.4.l. Mmen lc
a. Tc dng ca lc trong chuyn ng quay
Gi thit c mt lc F tc dng ln mt vt rn quay quanh trc , t ti mt
im M. Trc ht ta phn tch F ra hai thnh phn:
2 1
F F F
r r r
+ =
Trong
1
F
r
trc v F
2
|| trc. Lc
1
F
r
, nm trong mt phng vung gc vi trc
i qua M li c phn tch thnh hai thnh phn:

n 1 1
F F F
r r r
+ =
Trong
1
F
r
bn knh OM, ngha l nm theo tip tuyn ca vng trn tm O
bn knh OM, cn
n
F
r
nm theo bn knh OM. Kt qu ta c:
2 n 1
F F F F
r r r r
+ + =
40
Trn hnh (3.1) ta thy rng:
- Thnh phn
2
F
r
khng gy ra chuyn ng
quay, ch c tc dng lm vt rn trt dc theo
trc quay, chuyn ng ny khng th c v theo
gi thit, vt rn ch quay xung quanh trc
- Thnh phn
n
F
r
khng gy ra chuyn ng
quay, ch c tc dng lm vt rn ri khi trc
quay, chuyn ng ny cng khng th c.
- Nh vy, trong chuyn ng quay, tc
dng ca lc F
r
tng ng vi tc dng ca
thnh phn
t
F
r
ca n.

Kt lun: Trong chuyn ng quay ca mt vt rn xung quanh mt trc ch
nhng thnh phn lc tip tuyn vi qu o ca im t mi c tc dng thc s.
V vy trong cc phn sau, n gin, ta c th gi thit rng, cc lc tc dng
ln vt rn chuyn ng quay u l lc tip tuyn.
b. Mmen ca lc i vi trc quay
Xt tc dng ca mt lc tip tuyn
t
F
r
t ti mt im M ng vi bn knh
OM=r. Thc nghim chng t rng, tc dng ca lc F, khng nhng ph thuc cng
ca n m cn ph thuc khong cch r: khong cch ny cng ln th tc dng ca
lc cng mnh. c trng cho tc dng ca lc trong chuyn ng quay, ngi ta
a ra mt i lng gi l mmen lc.
nh ngha: Mmen ca lc F
r
, i vi trc quay l mt vect M xc nh bi
(hnh 3.1)

Theo nh ngha ny, vect c phng vung gc vi mt phng cha r
r
v
t
F
r

ngha l phng ca trc quay, c chiu thun vi chiu quay t r sang F
t
c tr s:

Ch : v trong chuyn ng quay tc dng ca lc
1
F
r
tng ng vi tc dng
ca lc
t
F
r
nn ngi ta cng nh ngha M l vect mmen ca
t
F
r
i vi trc . Ta
c th d dng chng minh c rng: Mmen ca mt lc
1
F
r
i vi trc s bng
khng khi lc bng khng hoc khi ng phng vi .
- Ta cng thy rng mmen M ca
t
F
r
i vi trc l mmen ca
t
F
r
i vi
im O, giao im ca v mt phng cha
t
F
r
vung gc vi .

41
3.4.2. Thit lp phng trnh c bn ca chuyn ng quay
Thc nghim chng t rng: tc dng ca cc
ngoi lc lm thay i trng thi chuyn ng ca vt
rn quay, c th l lm cho n quay c gia tc. Chng
ta s thit lp phng trnh nu ln mi lin h .
Gi M
i
l mt cht im bt k ca vt rn, cch
trc mt khong l ri ng vi bn knh vect r OMi
r
=
c khi lng mi v chu tc dng ca ngoi lc tip
tuyn
ti
F
r
(tng hp cc ni lc tc dng ln cc cht
im ca vt rn bng khng, do vy chng khng nh
hng g n chuyn ng quay).

Cht im M
i
s chuyn ng vi vect gia tc tip tuyn
ti
a
r
; cho bi:
i i t i
F a m
r
r r
= Nhn hu hng hai v biu thc trn vi bn knh vect
i
i r OM
r
= ta c:

Khai trin ngoi tch kp hai v ca (3.17) ta c:

vy (3.18) tr thnh:

cng cc phng trnh (3.19) v vi v theo i (cng theo tt c cc cht im ca
vt rn) ta c:

Trong phng trnh (3.19)

=
i
i M M = tng hp mmen cc ngoi lc tc dng
ln vt rn

i
2
i i
.r m = I gi l mmen qun tnh ca vt rn i vi trc (bng tng
mmen qun tnh ca cc cht im ca vt rn). Vy ta c th vit li biu thc (3.20)
nh sau:

Phng trnh (3.21) gi l phng trnh c bn ca chuyn ng quay ca vt rn
xung quanh mt trc. T (3.21) ta cng c th vit li nh sau:
42


V c th pht biu nh sau: Gia tc gc trong chuyn ng quay ca vt rn
xung quanh mt trc t l vi tng hp mmen cc ngoi lc i vi trc v t l
nghch vi mmen qun tnh ca vt rn i vi trc.
Phng trnh (3.21) nu ln mi lin h gia tc dng ngoi lc i vi vt rn
quay, c trng bi vect mmen M v s thay i trng thi chuyn ng ca vt rn
quay, c trng bi yect gia tc gc
r
. Phng trnh ny tng t nh phng trnh
ca nh lut II Newton i vi chuyn ng tnh tin F a m
r
r
= , trong I c ngha
tng t nh khi lng m. Vy, I l i lng c trng cho mc qun tnh ca vt
rn trong chuyn ng quay.
3.4.3. Tnh mmen qun tnh
Mmen qun tnh I ca vt rn i vi mt
trc c tnh theo cng thc:

Trong m
i
,.r
2
i
l mmen qun tnh ca cht
im M
i
ca vt rn i vi trc v php cng ly
cho tt c cc cht im ca vt rn.
Nu khi lng ca vt rn phn b mt cch lin tc, mun tnh mmen qun
tnh I, ta chia vt rn thnh nhng phn t v cng nh, mi phn t c khi lng vi
phn dm v cch trc mt khong r; khi php cng v phi ca (3.23) tr thnh
php ly tch phn:

V d 1: Tnh mmen qun tnh I ca mt thanh ng cht chiu di 1, khi
lng M i vi trc
0
i qua trung im G ca thanh v vung gc vi thanh. Ta xt
mt phn t ca thanh khi lng dm, chiu di dx cch G mt on x. Mmen qun
tnh ca tm i vi trc
0
l:
dI = x
2
.dm (3.25)
V thanh l ng cht nn khi lng ca cc on trn thanh t l vi chiu di
ca cc on :

43
Mmen qun tnh I ca thanh i vi trc
0
l:

V d 2: Tnh mmen qun tnh ca mt a ng cht bn knh R, khi lng M
i vi trc
0
ca a:
Ta phn tch a thnh nhng phn t hnh vnh khn bn knh x, b rng dx.
din tch vnh khn l:
dS = d (x x
2
) = 2xdx
Gi khi lng ca phn t hnh vnh khn l md,
mmen qun tnh ca n l:
dI = x
2
dm (3.27)
V a ng cht nn khi lng ca cc phn t
trn a t l vi din tch ca cc phn t:



Do , (3.27) tr thnh:

Mmen qun tnh I ca a i vi trc
0
bng:

Ch : Biu thc ca I trong (3.29) khng ph thuc chiu dy ca a, v vy,
cng thc (3.29) cng p dng c tnh I ca mt vt ng cht hnh tr trn khi
lng M, bn knh R.
Bng nhng php tnh tng t, ta c th tm c mmen qun tnh ca nhng
vt ng cht c hnh dng i xng i vi trc ca chng.

Hnh 3.5. Mmen qun tnh ca m s vt rn.
44
nh l Stein-Huygen:
trn ta tm c mmen qun tnh ca cc vt i vi trc i xng
0
i qua
khi tm G ca chng. Trong nhiu trng hp ta phi tm mmen qun tnh i vi
mt trc bt k. Khi ta c th p dng nh l Stein-Huygen sau:
Mmen qun tnh ca mt vt rn i
vi mt trc bt k bng mmen qun tnh
ca vt i vi trc
0
song song vi i
qua khi tm G ca vt cng vi khong
cch d gia hai trc: I = I
0
+ Md
2
(3.30)
Di y s chng minh nh l ny cho mt trng hp n gin: trng hp
ca thanh ng cht chiu di 1 khi lng M.
Gi thit hai trc v
0
cng vung gc vi thanh (hnh 3.6). Ly mt phn t
chiu di dx, khi lng dm ca thanh, cch G mt khong x (x > 0 nu tm bn phi
G v x < 0 nu tm bn tri G). Mmen qun tnh ca tm i vi trc l (d+x)
2
dm;
mmen qun tnh ca thanh i vi trc l:
2
d) dm(x I + = (tch phn theo cc phn t ca thanh)
Khai trin cc php tnh ta c:
dm d xdm 2d dm x ) d 2dx dm(x I
2 2 2 2
+ + = + + =
Nhng
0
2
I dm x = = mmen qun tnh ca thanh i vi trc
0
; dm = M = khi
lng ca thanh; xdm = 0, v trong tng c mi phn t bn phi dx (c x > 0) li
ng vi mt phn t i xng bn tri dx (c x > 0), do hai s hng tng ng c x
ngc du nn kh nhau. Cui cng ta c:
I = I
0
+Md
2

3.5. Mmen ng lng ca mt h cht im
3.5.1. nh ngha
Mt h cht im M
i
, M
2
,,M
i
, ln lt c khi lng ,... m ,..., m , m
i 2 1
v
chuyn ng vi nhng vn tc ,... v ,..., v , v
i 2 1
r r r
i vi mt h quy chiu gc O. Ti
thi im t v tr nhng cht im y c xc nh bi cc vector bn knh
,... r ,..., r , r
i 2 1
r r r

Mmen ng lng ca h cht im i vi im O c nh ngha bi:

bng tng cc mmen ng lng ca cc cht im trong h vi O.

45
Chng ta hy xt mt s trng hp ring
a. H cht im quay xung quanh mt trc c nh
Khi , theo chng minh phn trc ta c mmen ng lng ca mt cht
im (
i i
r , m
r
):
i i i
I L
r
= (3.32)
trong
2
i i
r m I = l mmen qun tnh ca cht im i vi trc quay ,
i
l
vn tc gc ca cht im trong chuyn ng quay xung quanh .
Khi mmen ng lng ca h c xc nh bi:

b. Trng hp vt rn quay xung quanh mt trc c nh .
Khi mi cht im ca vt rn quay u c cng vn tc gc.

trong

= =
i i
2
i i i
r m I I l mmen qun tnh ca vt rn i vi trc quay
3.5.2. nh l v mmen ng lng ca mt h cht im
i vi cht im (m;, r) ca h khi p dng nh l v mmen ng lng ta
c:

M (O,
i
F
r
) l tng mmen i vi gc O ca cc lc tc dng ln cht im (m
i
).
Cng cc phng trnh trn theo I ta c:

V tri (3.37) = L
dt
d
r
l o hm theo thi gian ca mmen ng lng ca h.
V phi ca (3.37) biu th tng mmen i vi gc O ca cc lc tc dng ln cc
cht im ca h. Cc lc tc dng ln cc cht im ca h bao gm cc ngoi lc tc
dng v cc ni lc tng tc ca cc cht im trong h. Ch rng cc ni lc
tng tc ca cc cht im trong h tng i mt i nhau (cng phng, ngc
chiu v cng ln), do , tng mmen i vi O ca nhng lc ny s bng 0.
Vy v phi ca (3.37) ch cn l tng mmen i vi O ca cc ngoi lc tc dng
ln h. Kt qu ta thu c cng thc sau:
46

nh l: o hm theo thi gian ca mmen ng lng ca mt h chm im
bng tng mmen cc ngoi lc tc dng ln h (i vi mt im gc O bt k)
Chng ta hy xt mt trng hp ring: h cht im l mt vt rn quay xung
quanh mt trc c nh . C: I L
r
r
=
2
i i
r m I = , do nh l v mmen ng lng c
th vit:

trong M l tng mmen cc ngoi lc tc dng ln vt rn quay.
Tch phn phng trnh (3.39) t thi im t
1
n thi im t
2
tng ng vi s
bin thin ca t t L
1
n L
2
ta c:

i lng

2
1
t
t
M
dt
c gi l mmen xung lng ca mmen lc M trong khong
thi gian t = t
2
t
1
:
Nu M = khng i th ta c:

Ch : i vi vt rn quay xung quanh mt trc c nh, mmen qun tnh
I = const. V vy, ta c th vit

trong
dt
d

r
= l gia tc gc v phng trnh (3.42) l phng trnh c bn ca
chuyn ng quay ca vt rn xung quanh mt trc m ta bit.
3.6. nh lut bo ton mmen ng lng
3.6.1. Thit lp
Gi s c mt h cht im khng chu tc dng ca cc ngoi lc (h cht im
c lp) hoc c chu tc dng ca cc ngoi lc nhng tng mmen ca cc ngoi lc
y i vi im gc O bng 0. Khi theo nh l v mmen ng lng ta c:

Vy: i vi mt h cht im c lp hay chu tc dng ca cc ngoi lc nhng
tng mmen ca cc ngoi lc y i vi im gc O bng 0, th tng mmen ng
lng ca h l mt i lng bo ton.
47
3.6.2. Trng hp h quay xung quanh mt trc c nh
nh l v mmen ng lng i vi h trong trng hp ny:

Cn ch rng cc vector vn tc gc v vector mmen lc u nm trn trc
quay. Khi M ta c kt qu: const .... I I I
i i 2 2 1 1
= + + +
r r r

3.6.3. Mt vi ng dng ca nh lut bo ton mmen ng lng
i vi mt h quay xung quanh mt trc vi vn tc gc , nu tng hp
mmen ngoi lc tc dng bng khng th mmen ng lng ca h bo ton:
I = const
Nu v mt l do no mmen qun tnh I ca h tng th gim, h quay chm
li; ngc li nu I gim th tng, h quay nhanh ln. Ta c th nu mt vi th d
minh ha tnh cht .
48
CHNG 4. NNG LNG
4.1. Cng v cng sut
4.1.1. Cng
Xt mt vt nm yn trn bn. N chu tc dng ca hai lc: trng lc v phn
lc ca mt bn, tng hnh hc ca cc ngoi lc bng khng. Do , theo nh lut
bo ton ng lng th ng lng ca vt bo ton. Suy ra, vt phi gi nguyn
trng thi nm yn trn bn.
Li xt mt t chuyn ng thng u trn ng, m chu tc dng ca lc ko
ca ng c, lc cn ca khng kh, lc ma st ca mt ng, trng lng ca m
phn lc ca mt ng. V t chuyn ng thng u, nn theo nh lut I Newton
th tng hnh hc ca tt c cc lc tc dng ln t phi bng 0. Do , theo nh lut
bo ton ng lng th ng lng ca t khng thay i theo thi gian. Nh vy,
trng thi chuyn ng ca t v vt nm trn mt bn l nh nhau. Tuy nhin, ng
c ca t phi hot ng lin tc, tiu tn nhin liu sn sinh ra lc ko nhm duy
tr trng thi chuyn ng c hc khng thay i theo thi gian, tri li vt nm trn
mt bn li khng cn tiu tn mt t nng lng no c.
Nghin cu k, ta thy c s khc nhau rt c bn gia hai v d nu ra trn,
l: im t ca cc lc tc dng ln vt nm trn mt bn khng dch chuyn, cn
im t ca lc ko ca ng c t lin tc dch chuyn cng t.
Vy, ta c th ni rng: mt lc sinh cng khi im t ca n chuyn di.
Th nghim chng t rng, lng nhin liu tiu th bi ng c t t l vi tch
s ca lc ko F
r
v qung ng dch chuyn x ca im t ca lc ko (qung
ng dch chuyn ca t).
i lng c o bng tch s ca lc v qung ng dch chuyn ca im
t ca lc gi l cng.
V d trn cho thy rng nng lng nhit
cha trong nhin liu khi b t chy trong ng
c t chuyn thnh cng c hc lm cho t
chuyn ng. Vy cng chnh l i lng c
trng cho phn nng lng chuyn i t dng
nng lng ny sang dng nng khc, hay chnh
l phn nng lng trao i gia cc vt.

Di tc dng ca lc F
r
gi s cht im dch chuyn c mt on ng vi
phn s d
r
. Cng vi phn dA m lc F
r
thc hin c trn on ng s d
r
l tch v
hng ca hai vect:
.ds.cos F = .ds F = dA
r r
(4.1)
49
Nu: < /2 th dA > 0: cng hu ch
< /2 th dA = 0: lc tc dng vung gc vi chuyn ng nn khng sinh
cng.
> /2 th dA < 0: cng cn (v d cng ca lc ma st)
T biu thc (4.1) ta suy ra n v ca cng l Jun (J): 1J = 1Nm.
Biu thc ny ch ng cho trng hp
lc F
r
khng i v chuyn di ca s l thng.
Trong trng hp tng qut im t ca lc
F
r
chuyn di t im P n im Q trn qu
o, trong qu trnh ny lc thay i. tnh
cng trong trng hp ny ta chia on ng
PQ thnh nhiu on con d, ri
p dng cng thc (4.1) tnh cng vi phn dA trn on s d
r
, ri cng tt c cc
cng vi phn li ta s tnh c cng m lc F
r
thc hin c trn on ng PQ:

Nu phn tch vect F
r
v s d
r
thnh cc thnh phn theo cc trc to ca h
to Descarst th ta c th biu din cng A di dng:

4.1.2. Cng sut
Khi nh ngha cng m lc F
r
thc hin c trn mt on ng no ta
khng tnh n thi gian thc hin cng. c trng cho kh nng sinh cng nhanh
hay chm ca mt my sinh cng (V d: mt ng c) ngi ta a vo mt i lng
vt l mi gi l cng sut.
Cng sut trung bnh P
tb
ca mt my sinh cng l t s ca cng A v thi
gian t thc hin cng , ta c:

V mt ngha, cng sut trung bnh c gi tr bng cng trung bnh ca lc sinh
ra trong n v thi gian.
tnh cng sut ti tng thi im, ta cho t 0. Gii hn ca
t
A
khi t 0
theo nh ngha gi l cng sut tc thi (gi tt l cng sut) ca lc, c k hiu l:

Vy: cng sut c gi tr bng o hm ca cng theo thi gian.
50

Vy: cng sut bng tch v hng ca lc tc dng vi vect vn tc ca
chuyn ri.
n v ca cng sut l Watt (W), 1w = 1J/s = 1 Nm/s.
4.1.3. Cng v cng sut ca lc tc dng trong chuyn ng quay
Trong trng hp mt vt rn quay xung
quanh mt trc cc lc tc dng u l lc
tip tuyn (hnh 4.3). Cng vi phn ca mt
lc tip tuyn
t
F
r
cho bi:
ds F dA
t
r
=
(gi s
t
F
r
hng theo chiu chuyn ng)
nhng ds = rd, d l gc quay ng vi
chuyn ri s d
r
, vy:
dA = rF
t
da

Theo nh ngha: rF
t
= M mmen ca lc
t
F
r
i vi trc quay do :
dA = MdA
T y, ta c th suy ra biu thc ca cng sut:

4.2. Nng lng
4.2.1. Khi nim nng lng v nh lut bo ton nng lng
Tt c cc dng c th ca vt cht vn ng u c nng lng. Nng lng l
mt i lng c trng cho mc vn ng ca vt cht.
Mt vt trng thi nht nh th c mt nng lng xc nh. Khi mt vt
khng c lp ngha l c tng tc vi mi trng bn ngoi th vt s bin i
trng thi v trao i nng lng vi cc vt bn ngoi. S trao i ny c th thc
hin bng nhiu cch. Nu ch xt chuyn ng c, th s trao i nng lng thc
hin nh sau: vt ang kho st tc dng nhng lc ln cc vt bn ngoi v nhng lc
ny sinh cng. Nh vy, cng l mt i lng c trng cho qu trnh trao i nng
lng gia vt ny v vt khc. Ni cch khc, khi mt h thc hin cng th nng
lng ca n bin i. Ta s xem xt c th cc qu trnh trong chng ny.
Gi thit trong mt qu trnh no h bin i t trng thi 1 (c nng lng
W
1
) sang trng thi 2 (c nng lng W
2
); qu trnh ny h nhn t bn ngoi mt
51
cng A (cng A l mt lng i s c th dng hay m tu theo h thc s nhn
cng t bn ngoi hay thc s sinh cng cho bn ngoi). Thc nghim chng t rng
bin thin nng lng W
2
W
1
ca h c gi tr bng cng A:
W
2
W
1
= A (4.9)
Ta c th pht biu: " bin thin nng lng ca mt h trong qu trnh no
c gi tr bng cng m h nhn c t bn ngoi trong qu trnh ". Nu h
thc s nhn cng t bn ngoi A > 0 nng lng ca h tng, nu thc s sinh cng
cho bn ngoi, A < 0 nng lng ca h gim.
Trong trng hp mt h c lp (tc khng tng tc vi bn ngoi, khng trao
i nng lng vi bn ngoi) ta c A = 0, khi (4.9) cho ta:
W
2
= W
1
= const (4.10).
Nng lng ca mt h c lp c bo ton.
Cc pht biu (4.9) hay (4. 10) chnh l ni dung ca nh lut bo ton nng
lng; nh vy c ngha l: Nng lng khng t mt i m cng khng t sinh ra,
nng lng ch chuyn t h ny sang h khc.
Cn phn bit hai khi nim cng v nng lng. Mt trng thi ca h tng
ng vi mt gi tr xc nh ca nng lng ca h; ta ni rng nng lng l mt hm
trng thi, cn cng c trng cho bin thin nng lng ca h trong mt qu
trnh no . Cng bao gi cng tng ng vi mt qu trnh c th. Ta ni rng cng
l hm qu trnh.
Mi hnh thc vn ng c th tng ng vi mt dng nng lng c th.
Chng hn nh: vn ng tng ng vi c nng; vn ng nhit tng ng vi
ni nng; vn ng in t tng ng vi nng lng in t. Tuy nng lng c
bo ton v s lng nhng do tng tc gia cc h, do s trao i nng lng gia
h ny v h khc, nn nng lng lun lun chuyn ho t dng ny sang dng khc.
nh lut bo ton v chuyn ho nng lng l s phn nh v mt khoa hc t
nhin tnh khng th tiu dit c s vn ng ca vt cht. nghen gi nh lut
l "quy lut c bn v i ca s vn ng".
T nh lut bo ton v chuyn ho nng lng chng ta c th rt ra mt kt
lun c tnh thc tin. Theo (4.9) ta thy rng mt h khi sinh cng thc s th nng
lng ca h gim i. V nng lng ca h l hu hn nn bn thn h khng th t
sinh cng mi mi c. Mun cho h tip tc sinh cng, nht thit phi cung cp
thm nng lng cho h b li phn nng lng b gim trong qu trnh lm
vic. Nh vy, theo nh lut bo ton v chuyn ho nng lng khng th c mt h
sinh cng mi mi v khng nhn thm nng lng t ngun bn ngoi. Mt h sinh
cng mi mi m khng cn nhn thm nng lng bn ngoi gi l mt ng c vnh
cu. nh lut bo ton v chuyn ho nng lng khng nh s khng tn ti ca
ng c vnh cu.
52

4.2.2. ng nng
a. nh l v ng nng
ng nng l phn c nng tng ng vi
s chuyn ng ca cc vt. Mun xc nh
biu thc ca ng nng ta hy tnh cng ca
lc ngoi tc dng ln vt.
Xt mt cht im khi lng m, chu tc dng ca mt lc F
r
, v chuyn ri t
v tr 1 sang v tr 2 (hnh 4.4). Cng ca lc F
r
trong chuyn ri t 1 sang 2 l:

Trong v
1
v v
2
l vn tc ca cht im ti cc v tr 1 v 2, thc hin php
tch phn ta c:

Theo (4.9) cng A c tr s bng bin thin c nng ( y l ng nng). Vy
ta c nh ngha:
2
mv
2
1
=ng nng cht im ti v tr 1 = Wd
1
2
mv
2
2
= ng nng cht im ti v tr 2 = Wd
2
Tng qut, biu thc ng nng ca cht im c khi lng m, vn tc v
r
cho bi:

nh l v ng nng: bin thin ng nng ca mt cht im trong mt
qung ng no c gi tr bng cng ca ngoi lc tc dng ln cht im sinh ra
trong qung ng .
Kt lun: Khi ng nng ca mt vt gim th ngoi lc tc dng ln vt sinh
mt cng cn; nh th ngha l vt tc dng ln vt khc mt lc v lc sinh
cng dng.
b. ng nng trong trng hp vt rn quay
Phng trnh biu th nh l v ng nng trn ch p dng i vi mt cht
53
im hay mt vt rn chuyn ng tnh tin. Cn i vi mt vt rn quay quanh trc
phng trnh biu th nh l v ng nng. c mt dng khc.
Trong chuyn ng quay quanh mt trc, biu thc ca cng vi phn l:
dA = ds F
r
= M dt
r

theo phng trnh c bn ca chuyn ng quay

Tch phn hai v ca biu thc trn trong mt khong thi gian hu hn, trong
vn tc gc bin thin t
1
n
2
ta c cng ca cc ngoi lc tc dng ln vt
rn quay trong khong thi gian l:

Ta suy ra biu thc sau ca ng nng ca vt rn quay l:

Ch : Trong trng hp tng qut vt rn va quay, va chuyn ng tnh tin,
ng nng ton phn ca vt rn bng tng ng nng quay v ng nng tnh tin:

Trng hp ring: vt rn i xng trn xoay, ln khng trt; khi vn tc
tnh tin lin h vi vn tc quay bi h thc v = R (vi R l bn knh tit din vt
rn im tip xc vi mt phng trn vt rn ln khng trt). Vy, ta c th vit
biu thc ng nng ton phn nh sau:

4.2.3. Trng lc th
Mt cht im c gi l chuyn ng
trong mt trng lc nu ti mi v tr cc cht
im u xut hin lc F
r
tc dng ln cht
im y.
Lc F
r
tc dng ln cht im ni chung ph thuc vo v tr ca cht im: ni
cch khc F
r
l mt hm ca cc to ca cht im v cng c th l mt hm ca
thi gian t. Trong bi ny, ta khng xt trng hp F
r
l hm ca t. Vy ni chung ta c:

54
Khi cht im chuyn ng t v tr M n v tr N bt k (hnh 4.5) th cng ca
lc F
r
bng:

Nu cng A
MN
ca lc F
r
khng ph thuc ng dch chuyn MN m ch ph
thuc vo v tr im u M v im cui N th ta ni rng: F
r
( r
r
) l lc ca mt
trng lc th.
Ta c th d rng chng minh c trng trng u v trng tnh in Culng
l nhng trng lc th.
4.2.4. Th nng
a. nh ngha
Khi mt cht im dch chuyn t v tr M sang v tr N trong trng lc th th
cng A
MN
ca trng lc ch ph thuc vo hai v tr u v cui M, N. Tnh cht ny
ta c th nh ngha:
Th nng ca cht im trong trng lc th l mt hm W
t
ph thuc vo v tr
ca cht im sao cho:
A
MN
= W
t
(M) - W
t
(N) (4.18)
T nh ngha ta thy rng: nu ng thi cng W
t
(M) v W
t
(N) vi cng mt
hng s th h thc nh ngha trong (4.18) vn c nghim ng, ni cch khc: "th
nng ca cht im ti mt v tr c nh ngha sai khc mt hng s cng".
V d 1: Trong trng trng u, biu thc cng trong trng lc ny l: A
MN
=
mgz
1
mgz
2
, ta suy ra biu thc ca th nng cht im ti v tr c cao z l L:
W
t
(z) = mgz + C (4.19)
V d 2: Trong in trng Cu lng, biu thc cng trong trng lc ny l:

suy ra biu thc tnh th nng ca in tch q
0
ti v tr cch q mt on r l:

b. Tnh cht
- Th nng ti mt v tr c xc nh sai khc mt hng s cng nhng hiu th
nng gia hai v tr th hon ton xc nh.
Gia trng lc v th nng c h thc sau:

Nu cho cht im ch chuyn theo mt vng kn (M N) th h thc trn y
tr thnh
55


c. ngha ca th nng
Th nng l dng nng lng c trng cho tng tc.
V d 1: Dng th nng ca cht im trong trng trng ca qu t l nng
lng c trng cho tng tc gia qu t vi cht im; ta cng ni l th nng
tng tc gia qu t v cht im.
V d 2: Th nng ca in tch q
0
trong in trng Culng ca in tch q l th
nng tng tc gia q
0
v q.
4.2.5. nh lut bo ton c nng
Khi cht im khi lng m chuyn ng t v tr M n v tr N trong mt
trng lc th th cng ca trng lc cho bi:
A
MN
= W
t
(M) - W
t
(N)
Nu cht im ch chu tc dng ca trng lc th th theo nh l v ng nng,
ta c:
A
MN
= W
d
(N) - W
d
(M)
Vy: W
t
(M) - W
t
(N) = W
d
(N) - W
d
(M)
Hay W
d
(M) + W
t
(M) = W
d
(N) + W
t
(N) (4.23)
Vy tng: W
d
(m) + W
t
(M) = const (4.24)
Tng ny c gi tr khng i, khng ph thuc vo v tr ca cht im.
Tng ng nng v th nng ca cht im c gi l c nng ca cht im.
Khi cht im chuyn ng trong mt trng lc th (khng chu tc dng ca mt lc
no khc) th c nng ca cht im l mt i lng bo ton. y chnh l nh lut
bo ton c nng trong trng lc th.
V du: Khi cht im khi lng m chuyn ng trong trng trng u th:

H qu: V W = W
d
+ W
t
= const nn trong qu trnh chuyn ng ca cht im
trong trng lc th nu ng nng W
d
tng th th nng W
t
gim v ngc li; ch
no W
d
t gi tr cc i th W
t
cc tiu v ngc li.
Ch : Khi cht im chuyn ng trong trng lc th cn chu tc dng ca
mt lc khc F
r
(v d lc ma st) th ni chung c nng ca cht im khng bo
ton: bin thin ca c nng cht im s bng cng ca lc F
r
.
4.3. Bi ton va chm
Ta hy kho st bi ton va chm ca hai qu cu nh chuyn ng trn ng
thng ni lin hai tm ca chng (va chm xuyn tm).
56
Gi thit hai qu cu c khi lng ln lt l m
1
v m
2
Trc va chm chng c
vect vn tc l
2 1
v v v
r r
(cng phng); sau va chm, chng c vect vn tc l
2 1
v v v
r r
.
Trc ht ta hy vit phng trnh biu din s bo ton ng lng ca h trc
v sau va chm:
m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
= m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
(4.26)
(ta ch vit phng trnh i vi tr i s ca cc vect vn tc v chng cng
phng).
tm c vn tc
2 1
v v v
r r
ta phi tm thm mt phng trnh na, mun vy
ta phi xc nh iu kin va chm. Ta xt hai trng hp:
4.3.1. Va chm n hi
ng nng ca h (m
1
+ m
2
) trc v sau Va chm bo ton. Khi ta c:

T (4.26) v (4.27) ta rt ra:

Theo kt qu (4.28) ta thy rng: trong trng
hp c bit m
1
= m
2
th v
1
= v
2
v v
2
= v
i
; ta ni
rng hai qu cu trao i vn tc vi nhau.
Nu ban u qu cu 2 ng yn (v
2
= 0), ta s c:

Trong trng hp m
1
- m
2
th v
1
= 0 v v
2
= v
1
, nh ni trn chng trao i
vn tc vi nhau, qu cu 1 s ng yn, qu cu 2 s chuyn ng vi vn tc bng
vn tc ca qu cu 1 trc va chm.
Trong trng hp m
1
<<< m
2
theo (4.30) ta c:
v
1
-v
2

v
2
0
ngha l qu cu 2 vn ng yn, qu cu 1 bn ngc tr li vi vn tc bng vn tc
tc thi (v gi tr) ca n trc va chm.
57
4.3.2. Va chm mm
Sau va chm hai qu cu dnh vo nhau chuyn ng cng vn tc. Khi ta c:
Vy (4.26) tr thnh:
(m
1
+ m
2
) v = m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2

T y ta suy ra:

Trong va chm mm, ni chung ng nng khng c bo ton m b gim i.
gim ng nng ca h c tr s bng:

gim ng nng ny c gi tr bng cng lm bin dng hai qu cu.
58
CHNG 5. TRNG HP DN
Nhiu hin tng trong t nhin chng t rng cc vt c khi lng lun lun
tc dng ln nhau nhng lc ht. Trng lc l lc ht ca qu t i vi cc vt xung
quanh n. Qu t quay xung quanh mt tri l do lc ht ca mt tri; Mt trng quay
xung quanh qu t l do lc ht ca qu t. Gia cc v sao trong v tr cng c lc
ht ln nhau v.v... Cc lc ht gi l lc hp dn v tr. Gia nhng vt xung
quanh ta cng c lc hp dn v tr nhng gi tr ca nhng lc ny qu nh nn ta
khng th quan st c. Nh bc hc Newton l ngi u tin nu ln nh lut c
bn v lc hp dn v tr.
5.1. nh lut vn vt hp dn
5.1.1. nh lut vn vt hp dn - nh lut Newton
Pht biu: Hai cht im khi lng m
v m' mt cch nhau mt khong r s ht
nhau bng nhng lc c phng l ng
thng ni hai cht im , c cng t l
thun vi hai khi lng m v m' v t l
nghch vi bnh phng khong cch r:


Trong cng thc trn, G l mt h s t l, ph thuc vo s chn cc n v v
gi l hng s hp dn v tr.
Trong h n v SI, thc nghim cho ta tr s ca G l:

V d: Cho m = m
1
= 1kg; r = 0,1m, ta tnh c:

Tr s ny nh qu khng pht hin c.
Ch :
+ Cng thc (5.1) ch p dng cho trng hp nhng cht im. Mun tnh lc
hp dn v tr gia cc vt c kch thc ln, ta phi dng phng php tch phn.
+ Ngi ta chng minh rng v l do i xng cng thc (5.1) cng p dng
c cho trng hp hai qu cu ng cht, khi r l khong cch gia hai tm ca
qu cu .
5.1.2. Khi lng qun tnh v khi lng hp dn
Khi lng l o v lng (nhiu hay t) vt cht cha trong vt th, c th
59
tnh t tch phn ton b th tch ca vt:
pdV m =
Vi p l khi lng ring.
n v tiu chun o khi lng Vit Nam, tun theo h o lng quc t, l
kilgam. Cc quc gia khc trn th gii c th s dng n v o khc. Tham kho
thm ti trang n v o khi lng.
Khi lng ca mt vt l mt i lng vt l c trng cho mc qun tnh
ca vt . Vt c khi lng ln c sc ln hn v cn c lc ln hn lm thay i
chuyn ng ca n. Mi lin h gia qun tnh vi khi lng c Isaac Newton pht
biu trong nh lut 2 Newton. Khi lng trong chuyn ng thng u cn c m
rng thnh khi nim mmen qun tnh trong chuyn ng quay. Khi lng ca mt
vt cng c trng cho mc vt hp dn cc vt th khc theo nh lut vn vt
hp dn Newton. Vt c khi lng ln c to ra xung quanh trng hp dn ln.
Khi lng hiu theo ngha ln ca qun tnh, khi lng qun tnh, khng
nht thit trng vi khi lng hiu theo ngha mc hp dn vt th khc, khi
lng hp dn. Tuy nhin cc th nghim chnh xc hin nay cho thy h khi lng
ny rt gn nhau v mt tin ca thuyt tng i rng ca Albert Einstein pht
biu rng hai khi lng lng ny l mt.
5.1.3. Mt vi ng dng
a. S thay i ca gia tc trng trng theo cao
Lc ht ca qu t i vi mt cht im khi lng m (lc trng trng) chnh
l lc hp dn v tr.
Nu m ngay trn mt t th theo (5.1), lc hp dn do qu t tc dng ln m
bng:

trong M l khi lng ca qu t. Nhng lc trng trng P
0
cng bng P
0
=
mg
0
(5.4) vi g
0
l gi tr ca gia tc trng trng ngay trn mt t. So snh (5.3) v
(5.4) ta c:

Ti mt im cch mt t cao h (hnh 5.2), lc trng trng tc dng ln cht
im khi lng m tnh bi:

suy ra gi tr ca gia tc trng trng cao h l:
60

T (5.4a) v (5.6), ta c:

Ta chi xt cc cao hai, do h << R, v ta c th vit gn ng:

(5.7) l s ph thuc ca gia tc trng trng theo cao h. Theo (5.7) th cng
ln cao, g cng gim.
b. Tnh khi lng ca cc thin th
T biu thc (5.3), ta c th tnh khi lng M ca tri t:

vi R l bn knh tri t, c gi tr trung bnh l 6370km = 6,370.106m; g l gia
tc trng trng trn mt t, ly gi tr trung bnh bng 9,8m/s
2
. vy:

Nh cng thc v lc hp dn v tr, ta cng c th tnh c khi lng mt
tri. Tri t quay xung quanh mt tri l do lc hp dn ca mt tri i vi tri t
lc ny ng vai tr lc hng tm:

Trong M' l khi lng Mt tri, R' l khong cch t qu t n mt tri;
nu qu o ca qu t quay xung quanh Mt tri coi nh qu o trn (R' coi nh
khng i v ly bng khong cch trung bnh t qu t n Mt tri) th lc hng
tm F
r
cho bi cng thc:

v l vn tc chuyn ng ca qu t trn qu o. Vn tc v ca qu t c lin
h vi chu k quay T ca n:

61
Thay (5.10) vo (5.9) ri so snh vi (5.8) ta c:

T suy ra khi lng Mt tri

Tnh c th bng s ta tm c M ' = 2.1030kg
5.2. Tnh cht th ca trng hp dn
gii thch lc hp dn, ngi ta cho rng xung quanh mt vt c khi lng,
tn ti mt trng hp dn. Biu hin c th ca trng hp dn l: bt k mt vt no
c khi lng t ti mt v tr trong khng gian ca trng hp dn u chu tc dng
ca lc hp dn.
5.2.1. Bo ton mmen ng lng trong trng hp dn
Ta kho st chuyn ng ca mt cht im khi lng m trong trng hp dn
ca mt cht im khi lng M t c nh ti mt im O. Chn O lm gc ta ,
nh l v mmen ng lng p dng i vi cht im m cho ta:

Nhng lc F
r
l lc lun hng tm O nn
( F (O, M
r
) = 0 v ) F (
dt
d
r
= 0 hay const L =
r
.
Vy khi mt cht (m) chuyn ng trong
trng hp dn ca mt cht im (M) th mmen
ng lng ca (m) l mt i lng bo ton.
H qu: (m) chuyn ng trn mt qu o
phng, mt phng qu o ca (m) vect L (c
phng khng i).

5.2.2. Tnh cht th ca trng hp dn
Ta hy tnh cng ca lc hp dn F
r
tc
dng ln cht im (m) chuyn ng trong
trng hp dn ca cht im (M), khi (m)
chuyn di t mt im A n mt im B trn
qu o ca n. Cng ca lc F
r
trong chuyn
di vi phn PQ s d =
r
l:

cos PQ F PQ . F dA
r r
= =
Nu ta v QH OP th theo hnh v ta c: PH ( PH PQcos = l di i s
62
vi quy c chiu dng l chiu O P).
Vy .PH F dA
r
=
Nhng v PQ l mt chuyn di vi phn nn nu ta t OP = r th

dr r dr r OP OH PH v dr r OQ OH = + = = + =
Vy dr
r
Mm
G Fdr dA
2
= =
Cng ca lc F
r
trong chuyn di ca (m) t A n B cho bi tch phn:

cng ca lc hp dn F
r
khng ph thuc ng dch chuyn AB m ch thuc v tr
im u A v im cui B.
Vy trng hp dn ca cht im (M) l mt trng lc th.
Tng qut, ngi ta chng minh c rng: trng hp dn Newton l mt
trng th.
H qu: Ta c th nh ngha th nng ca cht im (m) trong trng hp dn
ca cht im (M). Th nng ca (m) ti v tr A:

Tha mn h thc A
BA
= W
1
(A) - W
t
(B)
Tng qut: th nng ca (m) ti v tr cch O mt khong r:

C l mt hng s ty chn, c gi tr bng th nng ti v cng: W
t
(Q
0
) = C
(5.14)
5.2.3. Bo ton c nng trong trng hp dn
V trng hp dn l mt trng th nn khi cht im (m) chuyn ng trong
trng hp dn, c nng ca n c bo ton

63
(chn C = 0)
H qu: khi r tng th nng tng th ng nng gim v ngc li.
5.3. Chuyn ng trong trng hp dn ca qu t
Nu t mt im A no trong trng hp dn ca qu t, ta bn i mt vin
n khi lng m vi vn tc u l v
0
th l thuyt v thc nghim chng t rng ty
theo tr s ca v
0
c th xy ra mt trong nhng trng hp sau:
- Vin n ri tr v mt t;
- Vin n bay vng quanh qu t theo mt qu o kn (trn hay cp);
- Vin n bay ngy cng xa qu t.
Tr s vn tc ban u vo cn thit bn vin n bay vng quanh qu t theo
mt qu o trn gi l vn tc v tr cp I.
Tr s ti thiu ca vn tc ban u vo cn thit bn vin n bay ngy cng
xa qu t gi l vn tc v tr cp II.
5.3.1. Vn tc v tr cp I
Ta tnh vn tc v tr cp I khi vin n
chuyn ng trn xung quanh qu t.
Gi thit vin n bay cch mt t khng
xa lm ta c th coi bn knh qu o ca n
bng bn knh R ca qu t.
Vn tc v
1
ca vin n trong chuyn ng
trn c lin h vi gia tc hng tm (gia tc
trng trng) bi:

Tnh c th bng s ta c: v
1
= 7,9km/s = 8km/s
Nu bn vi vn tc ban u v
0
< 8km/s, vin bn s ri tr v qu t, nu bn
vi vn tc ban u 8km/s < v
0
< V
II
th vin n chuyn ng xung quanh qu t
theo qu o hnh elip.
5.3.2. Vn tc v tr cp II
Gi s vin n xut pht t A cch tm ca qu t mt khong bng bn knh
qu t R, vi vn tc ban u v
0
v bay ngy cng xa qu t n . nh lut bo
ton c nng p dng i vi vin n cho ta:
64



Gi tr ti thiu ca v
0
chnh l vn tc v tr cp II:
R 2g v
0 II
= (5.17)
Gi tr c th l:
v
II
= 11,2 km/s.
65
CHNG 6. THUYT TNG I HP EINSTEIN
6.1. Khng gian v thi gian theo c hc c in. Nguyn l Galille
6.1.1. Khng gian v thi gian theo c hc c in
C hc c in xy dng trn c s nhng quan im ca Newton v khng gian,
thi gian v chuyn ng.
c th chng ta hy xt hai h ta :
mt h Oxyz ng yn, mt h O', x', y', z'
chuyn ng so vi O; n gin ta gi thit
chuyn ng ca h O' thc hin sao cho O'x'
lun lun trt dc theo Ox; Oy' song song v
cng chiu vi Oy, O'z' song song v cng
chiu vi Oz (hnh 6.1). Vi mi h ta
gn thm mt ng h ch thi gian.
Ta hy xt mt im M bt k: ti thi im t ch bi ng h ca h O, M c ta
trong h O l x, y, z; cc ta thi gian v khng gian tng ng ca M trong h
O' l t', x', y', z'. Theo cc quan im ca Newton:
- Thi gian ch bi cc ng h trong hai h O v O' l nh nhau: t = t' (6.1) Ni
cch khc: thi gian c tnh tuyt i khng ph thuc h quy chiu.
- V tr ca M trong khng gian c xc nh ty theo h quy chiu: c th l
cc ta khng gian ca M ph thuc h quy chiu; ta c:
z' z , y' y , ' OO x' x = = + = (6.2)
Nh vy: v tr khng gian c tnh cht tng i ph thuc h quy chiu. Do :
chuyn ng c tnh tng i, ph thuc h quy chiu.
- Khong cch gia hai im bt k trong khng gian l mt i lng khng ph
thuc h quy chiu. Gi thit c mt ci thc AB t dc theo trc Ox gn lin vi h
O'. Chiu di cuar thc o trong h O' cho bi:
l
0
= x
b
- x

Chiu di ca thc o trong h O cho bi:
l = x
b
- x

Nhng theo (6.2), ta c:

+ =
+ =
x ' OO x
x ' OO x
B
A

Do :
XB
x
A
= x
B
x
A
hay l = l
0
66
Ni cch khc, khong khng gian c tnh tuyt i, khng ph thuc h quy chiu.
Xt trng hp ring: chuyn ng ca h O' l chuyn ng thng u. Nu ti
t = 0, O' trng vi O, th:
vt ' OO =
v l vn tc chuyn ng ca h O'. Theo (6.1) v (6.2) ta c:
x = x'+vt', y = y', z = z', t = t' (6.3)
V ngc li
x' = x - vt', y' = y, z '= z, t' = t (6.4)
Cc cng thc (6.3) v (6.4) gi l cc php bin i Galille: chng cho ta cch
chuyn cc ta trong khng gian, thi gian t h quy chiu O' sang h quy chiu O
v ngc li.
6.1.2. Tng hp vn tc v gia tc
V chuyn ng c tnh cht tng i, nn vn tc v gia tc chuyn ng ca
mt cht im ph thuc h quy chiu. Chng ta hy tm nhng cng thc lin h vn
tc, gia tc ca mt cht im M i vi hai h ta Oxyz v O'x'y'z' khc nhau. Gi
thit h O'x'y'z' chuyn ng tnh tin i vi h Oxyz sao cho ta lun lun c:

O'x' Ox; O'y' Oy; O'z' Oz
t ' r ' OM , r OM
r r
= =
theo hnh (6.1) ta c:
' OM ' OO OM + =
Hay ' OO ' r r + =
r r
(6.5)
o hm hai v ca (6.5) theo thi gian t, ta c:


Nh vy, biu thc (6.6) tr thnh:
V ' v v
r
r r
+ = (6.7)
Vect vn tc ca mt cht im i vi mt h quy chiu O bng tng hp vect
vn tc ca cht im i vi h quy chiu O ' chuyn ng tnh tin i vi h quy
chiu O v vect vn tc tnh tin ca h quy chiu O ' i vi h quy hiu O.
67

Ly o hm hai v ca biu thc (6.7) theo thi gian t ta c:

Hay A a a
r
r r
+ = ' (6.8)
Trong : a
r
l gia tc ca M i vi h O;
' a
r
l gia tc ca M i vi h O' ;
A
r
l gia tc tnh tin ca h O' i vi h O.
Vy: Vect gia tc ca mt cht im i vi mt h quy chiu O bng tng hp
vect gia tc ca cht im i vi h quy chiu O ' chuyn ng tnh tin i vi
h quy chiu O v vect gia tc tnh tin ca h quy chiu O ' i vi h quy chiu O.
Hai cng thc (6.7) v (6.8) gi l cng thc tng hp vn tc v gia tc.
6.1.3. Nguyn l tng i Galill
Trong mc ny chng ta hy xt chuyn ng ca mt h cht im trong hai h
quy chiu khc nhau: h Oxyz quy c l ng yn, h O'x'y'z' chuyn ng tnh tin
i vi h Oxyz. Ta gi thit rng h O l mt h qun tnh, trong cc nh lut
Newton c nghim ng. Nh vy, phng trnh chuyn ng ca cht im trong
h O cho bi nh lut Newton l:
F a m
r
r
= (6.9)
a
r
l gia tc chuyn ng ca cht im i vi h O, F
r
l tng hp lc tc dng
ln cht im.
Gi ' a
r
l gia tc chuyn ng ca cht im i vi h O', theo (6.8) ta c:
a ' a a
r r r
+ = .
Trong A
r
l gia tc chuyn ng ca h O' i vi h O.
Nu h O' chuyn ng thng u i vi h O th A
r
= 0 v
' a a
r r
= (6.10)
vy, (6.9) c th vit thnh:
' a m
r
=f (6.11)
l phng trnh chuyn ng ca cht im trong h O', phng trnh ny
cng mt dng nh (6.9). Ni cch khc nh lut Newton cng tha mn trong h O,
kt qu h O' cng l mt quy chiu qun tnh. Ta c th pht biu nh sau: Mi h
quy chiu chuyn ng thng u i vi mt h quy chiu qun tnh cng l mt h
quy chiu qun tnh; hay l: Cc nh lut Newton c nghim ng trong h quy
chiu chuyn ng thng u i vi h quy chiu qun tnh. iu c ngha l: Cc
phng trnh ng lc hc trong cc h quy chiu qun tnh c dng ging nhau.

68
l nhng cch pht biu khc nhau ca nguyn l tng i Galille. V cc
phng trnh ng lc hc l c s m t v kho st cc hin tng c hc nn ta
cng c th pht biu:
Cc hin tng, cc qu trnh c hc trong cc h quy chiu qun tnh khc nhau
u xy ra ging nhau.
Do nu c ngi quan st v th nghim cc hin tng, cc qu trnh c hc
trong mt h quy chiu qun tnh no th ngi s khng th pht hin c h
quy chiu ng yn hay chuyn ng thng u, v trong c hai trng hp nhng
kt qu thu c nh nhau.
Nguyn l Galille v php bin i Galill:
Chng ta bit rng php bin i Galille (6.3) v (6.4) thc hin s chuyn cc
ta khng gian thi gian t h quy chiu O sang h quy chiu O' chuyn ng thng
u i vi O. By gi chng ta hy xt s lin h gia php bin i Galille v
nguyn l tng i Galille.
Theo nguyn l Galille, nh lut Newton trong h O' c biu din bng
phng trnh:
F ' a m
r
r
=
Hay, nu chiu ln ba trc O'x', Oy', O'z' ta c:
ma
x
= F
x
; ma
y
= F
y
; ma
z
= F
z
.
Hay, theo cc h thc trong chng ng hc:

Nhng phng trnh ny c cng dng nh nhng phng trnh biu din nh
lut Newton trong h quy chiu qun tnh O:
ma
x
= F
nhng ta nhn thy h cc phng trnh (6.9) c th suy ra (6.11) qua php bin
i Galille (6.3) v (6.4).
Vy phng trnh biu din nh lut Newton gi nguyn dng qua php bin i
Galille.
Ni cch khc: cc phng trnh c bn bt bin i vi php bin i Galille.
Pht biu ny tng ng vi nguyn l Galille. Qu vy, nu h O l h qun
tnh th h O' chuyn ng thng u i vi h O, cng l h qun tnh. Nh vy,
php bin i Galille thc hin s chuyn cc ta khng gian thi gian t h qun
tnh ny sang h qun tnh khc. Kt qu qua php bin i Galille, cc phng trnh
biu din nh lut Newton gi nguyn dng khi chuyn t h qun tnh ny sang h
qun tnh khc. chnh l ni dung ca nguyn l tng i Galille.

69
6.1.4. Lc qun tnh
By gi ta hy xt cc nh lut ng lc hc trong mt h quy chiu O
1
tnh tin
c gia tc A
r
i vi h quy chiu qun tnh O. Gi '
1
a
r
l gia tc chuyn ng ca cht
im i vi h O
1
th:
A a a
1
r
r r
+ =
nhn hai v vi m:
A a m a m
1
r
r r
+ =
V O l h qun tnh nn trong nh lut Newton nghim ng
F a m
r
r
=
Do : A m a m F
1
r
r
r
+ =
Hay ) A m ( F a m
1
r
r
+ = (6.12)
Ta thy phng trnh ny khng cng dng nh (6.9), ni cch khc: khi kho st
chuyn ng cht im trong mt h O
1
tnh tin c gia tc i vi h qun tnh O,
ngoi cc lc tc dng ln cht im phi k thm lc:
A m F
qt
r r
= .
Lc A m F
qt
r r
= gi l lc qun tnh. H quy chiu O
1
gi l h khng qun tnh.
Phng trnh ng lc ca cht im trong h O
1
c vit l:
qt 1
F F a m
r r
r
+ =
Nh vy, lc qun tnh l mt lc o ch quan st c trong h quy chiu khng
qun tnh. Lc qun tnh lun lun cng phng v ngc chiu vi gia tc chuyn
ng ca h quy chiu khng qun tnh.
Nh khi nim lc qun tnh ta c th gii thch nhiu hin tng trong thc t,
chng hn nh gii thch hin tng tng trng lng trong con tu v tr lc xut
pht.
6.2. Nhng tin ca thuyt tng i hp Einstein
xy dng nn thuyt tng i ca mnh, nm 1905 Einstein a ra hai
nguyn l sau:
6.2.1. Nguyn l tng i
Mi nh lut Vt l u nh nhau trong cc h quy chiu qun tnh.
6.2.2. Nguyn l v s bt bin ca vn tc nh sng
Vn tc nh sng trong chn khng u bng nhau i vi mi h qun tnh.
N c gi tr bng c = 3. 10
8
m/s v l gi tr vn tc cc i trong t nhin.
y cn phn bit vi nguyn l tng i Galille trong c hc c in.
70
Theo nguyn l ny ch cc nh lut c hc l bt bin khi chuyn t mt h
qun tnh ny sang mt h qun tnh khc. iu c ngha l phng trnh m t mt
nh lut c hc no , biu din qua ta v thi gian, s gi nguyn dng trong tt
c cc h qun tnh. Nh vy, nguyn l tng i Einstein m rng nguyn l
Galille t cc hin tng c hc sang cc hin tng Vt l ni chung.
Trong c hc c in Newton, tng tc c m t da vo th nng tng tc
l mt hm ca cc ta nhng ht tng tc. T suy ra cc lc tng tc gia
mt cht im no vi cc cht im cn li, ti mi thi im, ch ph thuc vo
v tr ca cc cht im ti cng thi im . S tng tc s nh hng ngay tc thi
n cc cht im khc ti cng thi im. Nh vy, tng tc c truyn i tc thi.
Nu chia khong cch gia hai cht im cho thi gian truyn tng tc t (t = 0), v
l truyn tc thi) ta s thu c vn tc truyn tng tc. T suy ra rng trong c
hc c in vn tc truyn tng tc ln v hn.
Tuy nhin, thc nghim chng t, trong t nhin khng tn ti nhng tng
tc tc thi. Nu ti mt cht im no ca h cht im c xy ra mt s thay i
no , th s thay i ny ch nh hng ti mt cht im khc ca h sau mt
khong thi gian t no (t > 0). Nh vy, vn tc truyn tng tc c gi tr hu
hn. Theo thuyt tng i ca Einstein vn tc truyn tng tc l nh nhau trong tt
c cc h qun tnh. N l mt hng s ph bin. Thc nghim chng t vn tc khng
i ny l cc i v bng vn tc truyn nh sng trong chn khng (c = 3.10
8
m/s).
Trong thc t hng ngy chng ta thng gp cc vn tc rt nh so vi vn tc nh
sng (v << c) do trong c hc c in ta c th coi vn tc truyn tng tc l v
hn m vn thu c nhng kt qu chnh xc. Nh vy, v mt hnh thc c th
chuyn t thuyt tng i Einstein sang c hc c in bng cch cho c trong
cc cng thc ca c hc tng i tnh.
6.3. Php bin i Lorentz
6.3.1. S mu thun ca php bin i Galille vi thuyt tng i Einstein
Theo cc php bin i Galille, thi gian din bin ca mt qu trnh Vt l trong
cc h quy chiu qun tnh K v K' u nh nhau.
Khong cch gia hai im 1 v 2 no trong cc h K v K' u bng nhau
l = x
2
x
1
= l'= x
2
x
1

(cc i lng c du phy u c xt trong h K').
Vn tc tuyt i v ca cht im bng tng vect cc vn tc tng i v' v
vn tc theo V ca h qun tnh K' i vi K
v = v' + V
Tt c cc kt qu u ng i vi cc chuyn ng chm (v << c). Nhng r
rng l chng mu thun vi cc tin ca thuyt tng i Einstein. Thc vy, theo
thuyt tng i, thi gian khng c tnh cht tuyt i, khong thi gian din bin
71
ca mt qu trnh Vt l ph thuc vo cc h quy chiu. c bit cc hin tng xy
ra ng thi trong h qun tnh ny s khng xy ra ng thi trong h quy chiu
qun tnh khc.
6.3.2. Php bin i Lorentz
Qua trn ta nhn thy, php bin i Galille khng tha mn cc yu cu ca
thuyt tng i Einstein. Lorentz tm ra php bin i cc ta khng gian v
thi gian khi chuyn t h quy chiu qun tnh ny sang h quy chiu qun tnh khc
tha mn cc yu cu ca thuyt tng i, v c gi l php bin i Lorentz.
Xt hai h quy chiu qun tnh K v K' nh trn. Gi s lc u hai gc O v O'
ca hai h trng nhau, h K' chuyn ng so vi h K vi vn tc V theo phng x.
Gi xyzt v x'y'z't' l cc ta khng gian v thi gian ln lt xt trong cc h K v
K '. V theo thuyt tng i thi gian khng c tnh cht tuyt i m tri li ph
thuc vo h quy chiu nn thi gian tri i trong hai h s khc nhau, ngha l:
t # t'
Gi s ta xe lin h vi x v t theo phng trnh:
x' = f (xt) (6.14)
tm dng ca phng trnh f (x,t) chng ta vit phng trnh chuyn ng ca
cc gc ta O v O' trong hai h K v K'. i vi h K, gc O' chuyn ng vi
vn tc V. Ta c:
x - Vt = 0 (6.15)
trong x l ta ca gc O' xt vi h K. Cn i vi h K' gc O' l ng
yn. Ta xe ca n trong h K' bao gi cng bng khng. Ta c: x' = 0.
Mun cho phng trnh (6.14) p dng ng cho h K', ngha l khi thay x' = 0 vo
(6.14) ta phi thu c (6.15), th f (x,t) ch c th khc (x - Vt) mt s nhn no :
x' = (x - Vt) (6. 16)
i vi h K' gc O chuyn ng vi vn tc - V. Nhng i vi h K gc O l
ng yn. Lp lun tng t nh trn ta c:
x = (x' + Vt') (6.17)
trong l h s nhn.
Theo tin th nht ca Einstein mi h qun tnh u tng ng nhau,
ngha l t (6.16) c th suy ra (6.17) v ngc li bng cch thay th V-V, x' x, t
t Ta rt ra c: = .
Theo tin th hai, ta c trong h K v K': nu x = ct th x' = ct', thay cc biu
thc ny vo trong (7.16) v (7.17) ta thu c:
72


V h K' chuyn ng dc theo trc x nn r rng l y = y' v z = z'. Tm li, ta
thu c cng thc bin i Lorentz nh sau:

Cho php bin i ta v thi gian t h K sang h K' v

Cho php bin i ta v thi gian t h K' sang h K. Cc cng thc (6.19),
(6.20) c gi l php bin i Lorentz. Qua ta thy c mi lin h mt thit
gia khng gian v thi gian.
T cc kt qu trn ta nhn thy rng khi c hay khi 0
c
V
th cc cng
thc (6.19) v (6.20) s chuyn thnh:
x' = x - Vt ; y' = y ; z' = z ; t = t ;
x = x' + Vt'; y = y', z = z', t = t'
ngha l chuyn thnh cc cng thc ca php bin i Galille. iu kin c
tng ng vi quan nim tng tc tc thi, iu kin th hai 0
c
V
tng ng vi
s gn ng c in.
Khi V > c, trong cc cng thc trn cc ta x, t tr nn o, iu chng t
khng th c cc chuyn ng vi vn tc ln hn vn tc nh sng c. Cng khng th
dng h quy chiu chuyn ng vi vn tc bng vn tc nh sng, v khi mu s
trong cc cng thc (6.19), (6.20) s bng khng.

73

6.4. Cc h qu ca php bin i Lorentz
6.4.1. Khi nim v tnh ng thi v quan h nhn qu
Gi s rng trung h qun tnh K c hai hin tng (hoc cn gi l bin c) ;
hin tng A
1
(x
1
y
1
z
1
t
1
) v hin tng A
2
(x
2
y
2
z
2
t
2
) vi x
2
# x
1
chng ta hy tm
khong thi gian t
2
t
1
gia hai hin tng trong h K', chuyn ng vi vn tc V
dc theo trc x. T cc cng thc bin i Lorentz ta thu c:

T suy ra rng cc hin tng xy ra ng thi trong h K (t
2
= t
1
) s khng
ng thi h K' v t
2
t
1
# 0. Ch c mt trng hp ngoi l l khi c hai bin c
xy ra ng thi ti nhng im c cng gi tr ca x (ta y c th khc nhau).
Nh vy, khi nim ng thi ch l mt khi nim tng i, hai bin c c th
ng thi trong mt h quy chiu ny ni chung c th khng ng thi trong mt
h quy chiu khc.
Biu thc (6.21) cng chng t rng i vi cc bin c ng thi trong h K,
du ca t
2
t
1
c xc nh bi du ca biu thc (x
2
x
1
)v. Do , trong cc h
qun tnh khc nhau (vi cc gi tr khc nhau ca V), hiu t
2
t
1
s khng nhng khc
nhau v ln m cn khc nhau v du. iu c ngha l th t ca cc bin c
A
1
v A
2
c th bt k (A
1
c th xy ra trc A
2
hoc ngc li).
Tuy nhng iu va trnh by trn khng c xt cho cc bin c c lin h
nhn qu vi nhau. Lin h nhn qu l mt lin h gia nguyn nhn v kt qu.
Nguyn nhn bao gi cng xy ra trc kt qu, quyt nh s ra i ca kt qu. Th
t ca cc bin c cso quan h nhn qu bao gi cng c bo m trong mi h
qun tnh. Nguyn nhn xy ra trc, kt qu xy ra sau.
6.4.2. S co ngn Lorentz
By gi da vo cc cng thc (6.19) hoc (6.20) chng ta so snh di ca
mt vt v khong thi gian ca mt qu trnh trong hai h K v K'.
Gi s c mt thanh ng yn trong h K' t dc theo trc x', di ca n
trong h K' bng
l
0
= x
2
x
1

Gi l l di ca n o trong h K. Mun vy, ta phi xc nh v tr cc u
ca thanh trong h K ti cng thi im. T php bin i Lorentz ta vit c:
74

Vy: di (dc theo phng chuyn ng) ca thanh trong h quy chiu m
thanh chuyn ng ngn hn di ca thanh trong h m thanh ng yn. Ni mt
cch khc, khi vt chuyn ng, kch thc ca n b co ngn theo phng chuyn
ng.
Nh vy, kch thc ca mt vt s khc nhau ty thuc vo ch ta quan st n
trong h ng yn hay chuyn ng. iu ni ln tnh cht ca khng gian trong
cc h quy chiu thay i. Ni mt cch khc, khng gian c tnh cht tng i,
n ph thuc vo chuyn ng. Trng hp vn tc ca.chuyn ng nh (V << c), t
cng thc (6.22) ta tr li kt qu trong c hc c in, y khng gian c coi l
tuyt i, khng ph thuc vo chuyn ng.
Cng t cc cng thc bin i Lorentz chng ta tm c khong thi gian ca
mt qu trnh trong hai h K v K'. Gi s c mt ng h ng yn trong h K'. Ta
xt hai bin c xy ra ti cng mt im A c cc ta x'y'z' trong h K'. Khong
thi gian gia hai bin c trn trong h K' bng t ' = t
2
t
1
by gi chng ta tm
khong thi gian gia hai bin c trn h K. Ta vit c:

Kt qu ny c pht biu nh sau:
Khong thi gian t' ca mt qu trnh trong h K' chuyn ng bao gi cng
nh hn khong thi gian t xy ra ca cng qu trnh trong h K ng yn. Nu
trong h K' chuyn ng c gn mt ng h v trong h K cng gn mt ng h, th
75
khong thi gian ca cng mt qu trnh xy ra c ghi trn ng h ca h K' nh
hn khong thi gian ghi trn ng h ca h K.
Ta c th ni: ng h chuyn ng chy chm hn ng h ng yn. Nh vy,
khong thi gian xy ra mt qu trnh s khc nhau ty thuc vo ch ta quan st
qu trnh trong h ng yn hay chuyn ng.
iu ni ln tnh cht ca khong thi gian trong cc h qun tnh thay i
N ph thuc vo chuyn ng. Trng hp vn tc ca chuyn ng rt nh V << c
t cng thc (6.23) ta c t ' = t, ta tr li kt qu trong c hc c in, y khong
thi gian c coi l tuyt i khng ph thuc vo chuyn ng. Nhng nu v cng
ln th t' cng nh so vi t.
6.5. Phng trnh ng lc hc tng i tnh ca cht im
6.5.1. Phng trnh c bn ca chuyn ng cht im
Theo thuyt tng i, phng trnh biu din nh lut Newton th hai:
dt
v d
m F
r
r
=
Khng th m t chuyn ng ca cht im vi vn tc ln c. m t
chuyn ng, cn phi c phng trnh khc tng qut hn. Theo thuyt tng i,
phng trnh c dng:

trong khi lng m ca cht im bng:

m l khi lng ca cht im trong h m n chuyn ng vi vn tc v
c gi l khi lng tng i; m
0
l khi lng cng ca cht im do trong h
m n ng yn (v = 0) c gi l khi lng ngh.
Ta thy rng theo thuyt tng i, khi lng ca mt vt khng cn l mt
hng s na; n tng khi vt chuyn ng; gi tr nh nht ca n ng vi khi vt ng
yn. Cng c th ni rng: khi lng c tnh tng i; n ph thuc h quy chiu.
Phng trnh (6.24) bt bin i vi php bin i Lorentz v trong trng hp
v << c n tr thnh phng trnh biu din nh lut th hai ca Newton (khi m =
m
0
= const).
6.5.2. ng lng v nng lng
ng lng ca mt vt bng:

76
Khi v << c ta thu c biu thc c in: v m p
0
r r r
= . Nh vy, phng trnh c bn
(6.24) c th vit di dng khc:

Ta hy tnh nng lng ca vt. Theo nh lut bo ton nng lng, tng
nng lng ca vt bng cng ca ngoi lc tc dng ln vt:
dW=dA
n gin, gi s ngoi lc F
r
cng phng vi chuyn di s 0d
c
V r
. Khi :
Fds s .d F dA dW = = =
r
r

Theo (6.24) ta c:

Mt khc, t (6.25) ta c:

so snh hai biu thc trn ta rt ra c:
dw = c
2
.dm
Hay W = mc
2
(6.27)
H thc ny thng c gi l h thc Einstein.
6.5.3. Cc h qu
a. T h thc Einstein ta tm c nng lng ngh:
l nng lng lc vt ng yn (m = m
0
):
W = m
0
c
2

77
Lc vt chuyn ng, vt c thm ng nng W
d

Biu thc ny khc vi biu thc ng nng ca vt thng gp trong c hc c
in. Trong trng hp v << c:

Do :
2
v m
2c
1v
1 c m W
2
0
2
2
2
0 d
=

+ ta li tm c biu thc ng nng trong c


hc c in.
b. Khi bnh phng biu thc m
0
c
2
ta c:

Thay W = m
0
c
2
vo biu thc trn ta s c:

vi p = m-v.
l biu thc lin h gia nng lng v ng lng ca vt.
c. Ta hy ng dng cc kt qu trn vo hin tng phn r ht nhn.
Gi s mt ht nhn phn r thnh hai ht thnh phn. Theo nh lut bo ton
nng lng: W=w
1
+W
2

Vi W l nng lng ca ht nhn trc khi phn r, W
l
v W
2
l nng lng ca
ht nhn thnh phn.
Thay (6.27) vo biu thc trn ta s c:

Trong , ta xem ht nhn nh khng chuyn ng trc khi phn r, cn m,
m
1
, m
2
l khi lng ngh ca cc ht. V
2
2
2
2
2
1 2
1
2
2
2
1
c m
c
v
1
c m
v c m
c
v
1
c m
>

>


Nn t (6.30) ta rt ra: m > m
1
+ m
2
, ngha l khi lng ca ht nhn trc khi
t phn r ln hn tng khi lng ca cc ht nhn thnh phn.
78
Theo cng thc Einstein, phn nng lng tng ng vi ht nng lng ca
khi lng ny bng:
( ) [ ]
2 2
2 1
mc c m m m W = + =
Phn nng lng ny thng c ta ra di dng nhit v bc x.
79
PHN 2: NHIT HC
M u
1. Thuyt cu to phn t ca cc cht
Vt cht c cu to bi cc nguyn t v phn t. Ngy nay ta bit rng phn
t gm nhiu nguyn t, nguyn t gm cc in t v ht nhn.
Cc ht nhn li gm cc proton v neutron.
Cc proton v neutron li c cu to t cc ht "quack".
T th k IV trc cng nguyn Demcrit cho rng vt cht c cu to t
cc nguyn t v phn t, ng quan nim rng: Cc nguyn t, phn t ca cc cht
khc nhau c hnh dng kch thc khc nhau nhng c cng bn cht. n th k
XIIX Lmnxp phc ho: nguyn t, phn t l nhng qu cu v ngoi sn si
v lun chuyn ng tnh tin, hn lon, khi va chm vo nhau chng sinh ra chuyn
ng quay.
Khi cht kh ng trong mt bnh cha, cc phn t kh va p khng ngng ln
thnh bnh. Nh vy, nhit v ni nng ca kh phi lin quan n ng nng ca
cc phn t kh. Thuyt ng hc cht kh bt ngun t nhng lun im ny.
2. i tng, nhim v v phng php nghin cu ca Vt l phn t v nhit
hc
Thc t c nhiu hin tng lin quan n cc qu trnh xy ra bn trong vt; th
d: vt c th nng ln do ma st, c th nng chy hoc bc hi khi b t nng,
Nhng hin tng ny lin quan n mt dng chuyn ng mi ca vt cht, l
chuyn ng nhit. Chuyn ng nhit chnh l i tng nghin cu ca nhit hc.
nghin cu chuyn ng nhit ngi ta dng hai phng php: phng php
thng k ng dng trong phn vt l phn t. Phng php nhit ng c ng trong
phn nhit ng hc.
80
CHNG 7. NHNG C S CA THUYT
NG HC PHN T KH L TNG
7.1. Mu kh l tng
T cc thuc tnh c bn ca phn t v nguyn t ngi ta a ra m hnh c
hc ca cht kh l tng bao gm cc ni dung sau:
- Cht kh l mt tp hp rt nhiu ht, chng chuyn ng hn lon khng
ngng.
- Vn tc chuyn ng trung bnh ca cc phn t t l vi T .
- cng mt nhit (T), ng nng trung bnh ca cc ht l nh nhau v
bng E
d
= m
i
v
i
2
2 = const.
- Cc phn t v nguyn t u tham gia chuyn ng nhit.
l m hnh c hc ca cht kh l tng. Chng tun theo cc nh lut c
bn v cht kh nh: Boiler - Mariotte, Gay - Luytsac....
C th hiu cht kh l tng l cht kh hon ton tun theo cc nh lut Boiler
- Mariotte, Gay - Luytsac. Cc phn t ca chng c coi nh mt cht im v
khng tng tc vi nhau.
7.2. p sut cht kh
p sut l mt i lng vt l c gi tr bng lc nn vung gc ln mt n v
din tch. Nu k hiu F l lc nn vung gc ln din tch S th p sut p cho bi:

Trong h SI n v p sut l Newton trn mt vung (N/m
2
), hay pascal (Pa).
Ngoi ra o p sut ngi ta cn dng cc n v sau:
- atmtphe (ai) l p sut bng 9,80665.104 = 9,81.104 N/m
2

- milimet thy ngn (mmHg, cn gi l Tot bng p sut to bi trng lng ct
thy ngn cao mm.
i cc n v ta dng h thc sau:
1 at = 736mmHg = 9,81.10
4
N/m
2

Gi s c mt cht kh cha trong bnh kn, n s tc dng ln thnh bnh mt p
sut (p) p sut ny do cc phn t kh chuyn ng va chm vo thnh bnh vi vn
tc (v) gy nn. C th tnh p sut theo biu thc sau:

Vi m l khi lng ca cht kh, n
0
l mt phn t kh, v v
i
l vn tc ca
cc phn t kh.
81
7.3. Nhit
Nhit l i lng vt l c trng cho mc chuyn ng hn lon phn t
ca cc vt.
xc nh nhit ngi ta dng nhit biu. Nguyn tc ca nhit biu l da
vo bin thin ca mt i lng no khi t nng hoc lm lnh ri suy ra nhit
tng ng.
Nhit biu thng dung l nhit biu thy ngn. Trong nhit biu ny nhit
c xc nh bi th tch mt khi thy ngn nht nh.
chia mt nhit biu thy ngn ngi ta nhng n vo hi nc ang si
p sut 1,033at (bng p sut kh quyn iu kin bnh thng) v ghi mc thy
ngn l 00. Sau nhng vo nc ang tan (cng p sut 1,033at) v ghi mc
thy ngn l 0. em chia on trn thnh 100 phn bng nhau, mi chia tng ng
vi mt . Nh vy, ta c mt thang nhit gi l thang nhit bch phn (hay
thang nhit Celcius). Trong thang ny, nhit c k hiu l
O
C.
Ngoi thang bch phn, cn dung thang nhit tuyt i (cn gi l thang nhit
Kelvin); mi chia ca thang tuyt i bng mt chia ca thang bch phn
nhng khng ca thang tuyt i ng vi -273,16 ca thang bch phn. Trong
thang ny, n v nhit l Kelvin, k hiu l K.
Gi T l nhit trong thang tuyt i, t l nhit trong thang bch phn, ta c
cng thc:
T = t + 273,16
Trong cc tnh ton n gin ta thng ly:
7.4. Cc nh lut thc nghim v kh l tng
7.4.1. Mt s khi nim
- H nhit ng l mt h vt l bao gm mt s cc ht ln cc ht nguyn t 2
phn t. Cc ht ny lun chuyn ng hn lon v trao i nng lng cho nhau khi
tng tc. Khi kh c th coi l h nhit ng n gin nht.
Mi h u c th chia thnh h c lp v khng c lp.
Thng s trng thi
Trng thi ca h hon ton xc nh c nu ta xc nh c cc tnh cht vt
l ca h. Nhng mi tnh cht c trng bi i lng vt l nh nhit T, khi
lng m, th tch V... => Nh vy trng thi ca h c xc nh bi tp hp cc i
lng vt l. Cc i lng ny gi l thng s trng thi ca h.
Phng trnh biu mi lin h gia cc thng s c lp v thng s ph thuc
gi l phng trnh trng thi ca h.
V d: trng thi ca khi kh c xc nh bi f(P,V,T) = 0.

82
7.4.2. Cc nh lut thc nghim v kh l tng
Nghin cu tnh cht ca cc cht kh bng thc nghim, ngi ta tm ra cc
nh lut nu ln s lin h gia hai trong ba thng s p sut, th tch v nhit . C
th ngi ta xt cc qu trnh bin i trng thi ca mt khi kh trong mt thng
s c gi tr c gi khng i, l cc qu trnh:
- ng nhit: nhit khng i;
- ng tch: th tch khng i;
- ng p: p sut khng i.
a. nh lut Boiler - Mariotte
Boiler v Mariotte nghin cu qu trnh
ng nhit ca cc cht kh, tm ra nhng
nh lut nh sau:
Trong qu trnh ng nhit ca khi kh,
th tch t l nghch vi p sut hay th tch
ca V v P ca khi kh l khng i.
P.V = const
Trn th PV ng ng nhit l
nhng ng Hypecbol, nhit cng cao th
cc ng ny cng xa mc.

b. Cc nh lut Gay - Luytsac
Gay-Luytsac nghin cu qu trnh ng p v ng tch v tm ra cc quy lut:
* Trong qu trnh ng tch ca mt khi kh, p sut t l vi nhit tuyt i
P/T = const
* Trong qu trnh ng p ca mt khi kh, th tch t l vi nhit tuyt i
V/T = const
Cc nh lut Boiler-Mariot v Gay-luytxac ch ng khi cht kh nhit v
p sut thng thng ca phng th nghim. Khi p sut khi kh qu ln hay nhit
ca khi kh qu thp th cc cht kh khng tun theo cc nh lut na.
7.5. Phng trnh trng thi ca kh l tng
7.5.1. Phng trnh trng thi ca kh l tng
p sut ln v gii hn rng ca nhit , cc cht kh hon ton khng tun
theo nh lut Boiler-Mariotte v Gay-luytsac. Tuy nhin, khi P khng qu ln v T
khng qu thp th cc qu trnh tun theo kh ng 2 nh lut . Hay ni cch khc
kh l tng hon ton tun theo cc nh lut Boiler-Marione v Gay- Luytsac.
Cc nh lut thc nghim trn y cho mi lin h gia 2 thng s. Da vo
cc nh lut , ta c th tm mi lin h ca 3 thng s: P, V, T, ngha l tm c
phng trnh trng thi ca kh l tng.
83
i vi 1 kilomol kh Claperon v Mendleep tm ra phng trnh sau:
P.V = R.T (7.3)
Trong P, V, T l p sut, th tch v nhit ca kilomol kh trng thi bt
k. R gi l hng s kh l tng.
i vi mt khi kh c khi lng m, nu v l th tch ca n th: v
M

V = ( l
khi lng phn t).
T (7.3) s suy ra c:

Phng trnh (7.4) c gi l phng trnh trng thi ca kh l tng.
7.5.2. Gi tr ca hng s kh R
Theo nh lut Avgaro, T v P ging nhau, 1 kilmol cc cht kh khc nhau
u chim cng mt th tch. Khi T
0
= 273,16 K, P
0
= 1,033at = 1,013.106 N/m
2
th 1
kilmol kh chim th tch l V
0
= 22,41 m
3
. Trng thi ny chung cho mi cht kh
gi l trng thi tiu chun.
Vi trng thi tiu chun ny ta c:

MC LC

PHN 1: C HC..................................................................................................................... 1
Bi m u.................................................................................................................................. 1
CHNG 1. NG HC CHT IM.................................................................................. 5
1.1 Chuyn ng c hc, H quy chiu...................................................................................... 5
1.2. Vn tc................................................................................................................................. 8
1.3. Gia tc ............................................................................................................................... 11
1.4. Mt s chuyn ng n gin ca cht im. Bi ton ng dng..................................... 14
CHNG 2. NG LC HC CHT IM....................................................................... 21
2.1. Khi nim v lc v khi lng ........................................................................................ 21
CHNG 3. NG LC HC H CHT IM NG LC HC VT RN.............. 33
3.1. C h. Khi tm ca c h ................................................................................................ 33
3.2. nh lut bo ton ng lng .......................................................................................... 35
3.3. Chuyn ng ca vt rn quanh mt trc c nh............................................................. 37
3.4. Phng trnh c bn ca chuyn ng quay ca vt rn................................................... 39
3.6. nh lut bo ton mmen ng lng............................................................................. 46
CHNG 4. NNG LNG................................................................................................. 48
4.1. Cng v cng sut ............................................................................................................. 48
4.3. Bi ton va chm............................................................................................................... 55
CHNG 5. TRNG HP DN........................................................................................ 58
5.1. nh lut vn vt hp dn.................................................................................................. 58
5.2. Tnh cht th ca trng hp dn ...................................................................................... 61
5.3. Chuyn ng trong trng hp dn ca qu t................................................................ 63
CHNG 6. THUYT TNG I HP EINSTEIN......................................................... 65
6.1. Khng gian v thi gian theo c hc c in. Nguyn l Galille...................................... 65
6.2. Nhng tin ca thuyt tng i hp Einstein ............................................................. 69
6.3. Php bin i Lorentz........................................................................................................ 70
6.4. Cc h qu ca php bin i Lorentz............................................................................... 73
6.5. Phng trnh ng lc hc tng i tnh ca cht im................................................. 75
PHN 2: NHIT HC............................................................................................................. 79
M u...................................................................................................................................... 79
1. Thuyt cu to phn t ca cc cht..................................................................................... 79
2. i tng, nhim v v phng php nghin cu ca Vt l phn t v nhit hc ............ 79
CHNG 7. NHNG C S CA THUYT NG HC PHN T KH L TNG80
7.1. Mu kh l tng ............................................................................................................... 80
7.2. p sut cht kh ................................................................................................................. 80
7.3. Nhit ............................................................................................................................. 81
7.4. Cc nh lut thc nghim v kh l tng ....................................................................... 81
7.5. Phng trnh trng thi ca kh l tng........................................................................... 82