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38

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40

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41

8. o)1:niTI OTOY MutrTpo. To TPlllAlYOpl OUTOU TOU onlTIOU elvOI 6~olo ~t TO TPIKAIVOPI TWV omTlwv "TOU "'pOVKOnOU"OU~KOi"TOuAaOKO· PI1H. IloIOKpivOVTOI Ta TOIXOp~aPIO ~no~u TWV nopo9upwv.

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AOU" KOt LO coxovnso "LOU I\nOKO· prl" (ElK. 7). MeplKn 6K0I111 ooeovevia 11£ ouo oooeouc, xwpfe; iOlofn:pT] tpPOVLtOO crqv ot!Jn n MAo rno orrAa omv KUTOOKE:Ul') TOUe;, OIVOUV TO Ile· TPO Tile; otsovouucnc KUT6O"Toone; TWV iOlOKTnTWV LOUe; (elK. 8-12).

"Evn onm OTl')V Kcvcrovnvourtoxq, nou KOT6 TOV L. de Bayne elver au~ovnvo, c!lo(veTOI TWV xpovwv Lile; TOUPKOKpUTIOe;, av Koi l') 1l0p¢lTl TOU nxncncccr curnv nou lxouv TO omnc TOO Muotpo (e(K. 13).

'E~tTaal1 nilv tm~tpouc; aTOI· XEiwv tv6c; pu~avTlvOO

'H np6aoiJill: LTO XPOVlO rnc uKllfie; oi ncooowerc rtcensr v6 TlTOV tcrorrcoc ooovncuevec. T6 noudAo cucmucTO 03ol1f]e;, o! ooeoucoucoocerc, Ta XPWIlUTO, T6 t!JntplowLa, 80 tOIVOV eUxnplO"T11 ElKOVa O"TOUe; 5p0I10ue;. 'H ncoczocn o(lTTl ouveXIO"TI1Ke KO( ueT6TO 1000, O¢lOO 6 toropucoc NIKTlTOe; XWVlaTI1e; (1150-1213) ypatpel OTl ot TOIXOI TWV orntuov nrcv «XPWI100l 031- IlVS"IOj.ltVOl>l. ··IXVIl XPWj.l0110Tf]C; 0310- K60j.l1l01lC; ce rrcocouerc crnrucv TOO MuoTPo rteteoov Yl' oUT6 (elK. 14).

i: :Il ~~~n~:~:;~v:c;u~ee~~~A~~~KKIl~~O~

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42

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11.1:niTI navwona i5polloToU MUOTpO."H i5io i5o.;; OVOIIO~6Tov .. i510jlOTII'OV"

12. MIKp6 emn TOU MUOTpO.

13.l:niTl OTr\V KWVUTOvTIVOunoAf].

npWToxplanaVIKIl rteolooo, elver t,..eovnc. Aerroupvct DK611T1 T'j eccneorKIl aUAi) 11£ TOUe; xwpoue; yupw 1T)e; Kaf 6. «nnoc. <H aUYK£vTPWa'l, 0I1WC;, TOO nA'l8ua1100 ere DanKO. «evtcc, at uercvevectecn enom, Mv enerpcwe mv noxvrexerc \.Uo.e; rerorcc 6.. v6muST]e; ,00 xwpou (MUOlp6.e;). Ol6pOcfJol: rio. ,0 rouccooo, rerpcopoco Kof nevrcooocc ornnc tXOUI1E: ij5'l «ever i\6yo. '0 «uoroc OI1We; nxn- 8ua116c; zouce at cnmv xa,..oyewv Ii OTIlV KOi\lJTep'l rteotrrnoon. at cnmv Smcrov Ii OVWyeoKo.TWYOV.

Oi t~waTtc;: AUTOVO'lLD civet on ,6 "Xol1oyewv ortmv» Mv £Txe aUTi) TIlV noxutexerc, onwe; T6 omorc Kai rptnero crnnc. rTOV MUOTPo. txoulle KQM. OelYl1mo ti;WOTWV, T'jAlaKwv 11£ TO pu~avnvo ope, rrou «cxurrrouv urtoxetuevcuc xwpoue; TOO cnrnoc.

To TPlKAlV6pl Koi Toliw1J6TIO: T6 tplKi\lVO Ii CPIKAlv6.PI limv T'j KUPIO atBouoc TOU ortrnou, rtou crto 10V 120 ct. Kai lleTa cvoceoerot Kat we; ccxc. 'Av6i\oya Ilt Ii) 8ta'l10U at KanOIOV cnc TOUe; ooccouc TOU cnmoa, cvolla~010V XOllolpiKi\lvoe; Ii avwYE:WV lPIKAIVOpIV. "Hrov xlOpoe; llOV cvTPWV, f;VW vto lie; vcvctcec umipxov OWl1ono "de; TO evzorcoc nov OiKT]- 1101WV>l, TO xevoucvc IlOTpWVtKla. roceo crro 10 CPlKAlVOPI umipxav 10 owIlona Ii Kou!3ouKAla Ii KOLTWVee; Kal ci unoxomor XlOPOI, (euc. 15, 16) i5T]i\oi51l 10 l1aY£lp£IOV, T'j rpcnetccrc, 10 coraTIlPIOV Ii OUl1nOOIOV KOTO TOUe; Buzcvnvouc. Kal 6 crtonoroc. 'ApYOT£po, Olav 10!3ul;ovnvo onltt cuurrrucccrur, TO TPlKi\IVOPl urrosoercrc TOUe; neorccoreoouc cno TOUe; ncocrtcve xwpoue;. Flvctut Ko8l0nKO, uttvooci- 116no Kal «ouzjvc.

I

Bll3AloypacfJia

L DE BAYLIE. L'habitatlon byzantine. ea. ris1902

CH. BOURAS. ·City and Village: Urban De sing and Architecture", AKten des XVI lnternationalen Byzantlnistenkongress. Jahrbuch dar oesterrercntscnen Byzanli nistik. 31/2 (1981). 0&11. 611·653

<P. KOYKOYf\El:, Bu~avTLvwv ptoc scr noIILTLo\.loC;, T.!>''' 'A6!lva 1951

V. LEVTCHENKO, Byzance des origines a 1453. Paris 1949

A, OPIIANl!.Ol: .• To. <lOTLKo. on(TLO TOU Mu 01po.., 'APXeiov Bl1t;ovlLVWV MVl1\.lelwv 'EIIM.i'io~, F" (1937), 0&11, 53 Kt

G. OSTROGORSKY. eescntcnte des ovzantinischan sraates. Munchen 1963

N. l:BOPONOl:. 'Ernoxonqon TnC; vecex II11VIKn<; i010p(0';;. 'AEI!,]va 1981.

43

15. Xwpo<; onoxwPIlTIlPiou ("ononoTo<;"~. KaTO' II'Il Koi TOl-'Il·

44

16.'EoTio(ijnopooTioijnupoOTio),OnOHAoii· oe TOV ~wT!K6 XWPOTOU anmau anl 611'11-'0 j!u· ~OVT!Va XPOVIO. 'E~oo",oAI~& Tf) 6tpI-'0VOIl Koi TO lI'f)o'~o TOU "'OYlllOU.

The Urban Byzantine House

The foundation of A.D. by Constantine I nomic and political symbolized the official recognition of the economic supremacy of the East. Already in the 6th century Constantinople had become a universal economic center, a position kept until the 12th century. The wealth accumulated in the byzantine capital was incredible for its time

As a result, the display of wealth and po wer found its best expression in luxurious houses.

The cities. as far as we know, display in general, the strict town.otanntnq of the rcman tradition. The urban houses had often two, three or even four stories. The recent discovery of an early christian hcuse in Thessaloniki (Jig. I), which aooording to the present data must have been used from the 5th to the 9th century, proves valid the above remark.

A quite complicated legislation decreet Ihe building regulations as far as the tormalion of the facade and the relation of neighbouring houses were concerned. The construction materials must have been cheap, that is stones. mud and WOOd, since fire has perished almost eve· rythinginthesebuildings

The cheap urban buildings reflected the bad economic situation. The facade: in the years of prosperity special attention must have been paid to the house tacades. The various construction methods and the marbles colours and mosaics emplayed for the decoration of facades must have created a pleasant view forthe pea pie. The yard: judging from the plan of the Thessaloniki house. the roman conception of space prevailed in Ihe early chrtstian years. The interior yard surrounded by rooms and the garden were still in use Later. however. the concentration of too many people in the cities made such an expansion in space a luxury. The stories: most people lived in simple houses, while the two, three or rour-stortec houses reo metnec the privilege of the rich and tne aristocracy. The rooms: the "trlulinum" was the main room of the house and it was used only by the males of the family Around Ihis core were arranged the other rooms of the house. Some of them were exclusively used by women, other served tne everyday needs of the people, like the kitchen, the dininq-rcom. the closet etc Later. when the space of the byzantine house shrank, the Iriclinum became the substitute for more of the above rooms and their functions.

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