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I'll PW!lOlKr'] tnoXIl KCVOUV mv tll<pOVIcn; rove Zilc<popee; ncocxxcvec . "TOO ljJ'ltpI6w"T00, ri K08e IJIC!lt ,0 ZiIKO ''le; ovouc. 'Eow 86 ttc cvooeoooue GnAO Kat UTO EnO!leVO cceco 86 IlIATicouue vro "TOlle; rsvvrrec nee KO,Ocxeccznv ,0 tIJ'ltpli5w,6 aUTO.

1. Opus alexandrium: 'H ~6Ae~avoplvii" ,exvIKi] OUVtUTa,Ol ern XPrlOTJ Ku61KWV tIJ'l<Piowv. In;v 'Avovevvncn. c opoe; au,6e; unoi5'lAWVel ljJ'ltpli5w,6 EPYO «crccxeuccuevo ue noucxtc OKA'lPWV nercoucncv {nopouptrn AlSo, vpuvltn K.O.)

2. Opus tessenatum: np6KEI"Tai vrc qrn<pIOW,O oantZiou «crccssuccuevo ue

jJey6.Aee; l\J'llPtoee; (crto 0,5 EK. we; 2 f::K.)

3. Opus vermrcuratum: nOAllXPW!lO l\J'l- 41IZiwHJ ocnezou !.It l\J1l<PiI5Ee; rev ortouov ,0 ueveeoc 5tv f,enepva rc 0,5 f::K. IUlltjlWVa Ili.: !.Ita aeeotc 6 opec vermlculatum Exel «errore oxtail ue -rqv «Ivnon nco elxe Kat T') onolc OKOAouSoOoe ,0 rteptvocupc ,Tie; cuvescnc (vermleuli, OKouA[Kla), kcrc ,T') oeu,ep'l aeciorc. Ii eruuoxovtc TOO coou OUTOO npener vc 6.vO~Il''l8EI OTT')V nOAUxpW!.ItO rev cuvaeoeev (verscoiores. nOlKlMXPwIlO).

4. Opus secule (uccucooeemuc): ucpudpiveo nA6.Kee; «ouuevec OUIJqnovu ue eva octcuevo OXf)jJa, em; vecuerpuco stre exeuaeoo. 6VOAOYO ue ,Ie; av6YKeC; "TOO eovou. (elK. 9).

5. Opus musivum: . Ev,oiXIO ljJ'l<Plow,6 Ylc Ti]v KmaoKeuli TOO ortolou XPIlOtportoroooov ljJ'ltpi5eC; cno uoA6!lo~o. 6. Opus signinum: rlcoxerrcr Via ouvaecerc 6nou !') tlJll<pii5a XPlloqlonOteITOl VIC TO OXllllmlOj.lO neowocuuc'rtov. T6 <p6VTO crtorexsrrcn 6.n6 KOKKIVO «ovrcuc. 'H ,exvIKT') OUTT') o<pelAel TO ovouc Tile; ornv n6A1l Signae rnc IIKeAiae; noli i')Tav <PllIJIO!lEVil Via rnv KOKKIVIl iiPVIAO Tile; (eiK. 10).

7. ·'E!l8All).lO: l/JlltpIOWTO lJe «evroncn nap6OTOOTJ (nccoxxnxovocuun T') raTpaywvll) KaTaOKf:UaO!lEV'l ue Tr,V n:xvlKTi "TOO opus vermieulatum (emblema vermieulatum). To EIJ6ATlIla mho necucxercrov one Eva nAO[OlO IJt 6.nM VEW,"U;TpIK6. OXt1510 il crto opus tessellatum (elK. 11).

MOSAICS

This article. the Hrst 01 a series under lhe same title, which will examine the origin, the technique and the restoration 01 the mosaic, is dealing with the appearance of the mosaic in Greece, its development during the roman period and Its technical terms

By the term 'mosaic' we usually mean an architectural surface (floor, walls, ceiling) coveredbyadecorativelayeroftesseraefixed on a bed ot a specialrncrtar.

The term 'mosaic' first appears in latin texts and its origin must be probably related to a sacred cave dedicated to the muses and decorated with mosaics (muses-musaicmosaic),

The questions of its origin has net as yet been answered but tne prevailing opinions suggest either the east (Mesopotamia) or Greece Important mosaics have survived in Greece dating from the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. The decoralive themes in these mosaics are rendered with an astonishing precision but their chromatic scale is limited since the reseerae used for them are pebbles in natural colours

In the 3rd century B.C. not only rounded peb bles but also cubictesserae are employed,a technique Which probably derives from the heltenisticAlexandrla

The repertoire used for the mosaic originally consisted of geometric motives, then it was enriched with isolated figures and later with complex compositions

Pliny and vitnrvnrs describe in detail thetechnique of mosaics. The tesserae are tayec on a thick bed of mortar consisting of successive layers and constructed in various modes, depending on the time and place

The wan mosaics become especially popular in the art of Byzantium. Again.Ihe construction 01 the bed on which the tesserae lay varies depending on the time, the place. the workshops responsible for the mosaic work and also on the location Of Ihe mosaic in the building

The number of floor mosaics that has survived is bigger lhan that of wall mosaics, the tatter being quite etten destroyed by fall due to the enormous weight of the mortar bed 01 the mosaic. For the elimination of this defect the bed of the mosaic was sometimes praotically nailed on the wall.

Pergamon, the native city of the celebrated artist Sossos. was famous for ils mosaics. Pliny describes the works of Sossos so precisely that we are able 10 recognize their copies in Italy.

Although the art 01 the mosaic originates, in all probability, from Greece, it was the Romans who made II widely known lrom Britain to Asia and Norlh Africa and applied it as a decorative element not only in public but also In private architecture

A wide variation 01 mosaic techniques is formed during the roman period such as:/hs opus tessellalum; a floor mosaic made of large tesserae (0,5-2 cm), the opus alexandrlum: a mosaic made of various, hard. stony tesseree. the opus vermicula/um: an especially rich in colour mosaic, (he opus secme: marble slabs arranged according to a certain plan, the opus musivum: a wall mosaic made 01 glass tesserae, Ihe opus signinum: on a red background of mortar, tesserae are used to form Ihe outline of the representation, the emb/ema mosaic exhibiting a central representation framed by geometric motives or by an opus tesselatum

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