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rTl'(v TOlo OUTI'( tnoXI'( xoovoxovetrcr 1.110 AOKWVIKft KUAIKO. cnueoc (]TO BeTIKOVO, TOO ~WVpoepou TaU 'APK£oiAO, nou £lKovi~el tva iOIOiT£PO 0IlIlOVTlKO «ct uovcetso 8tfJO (elK, 1), xoovoxovetrcr OTO 550 neplnou n.x., Ot']AOor; OTl'(V 'iOlo neotrtou neotozo nee a 'Ava~illoVOpOe; BPIOKOTOV o-m rncoTTl, L"rl']v KUAIKO OUTft unoollJ..WvOVTal TO cue neocrc TOO KOO\.JOU: rtccc TO oe~la, crnv 'AVOTOJ..l'j. OTOV xccscoo. elva! eeuevoc a rtoouneecc at Eva stove. Koi npoe; TO OPIOTEPO, OTT'( nuOTl, 6 "ATAOe;. OTlKWVEI OTOUe,; W)lOUe; TOU TOV OUPOVIO 86AO. 'AMo u' aUTO otv t~OVTAeiTOI ft ",ovaOIKOTIlTO Trie; elKOVOe;' YIOTI OAOKAI1P11 Ii cuveeon t6po<eTOI ere avw TIlTiIlO E:VOe; OWPIKOU K[OVO, 'H KOOIlIKr'j OUTTl OUAA11!.jJ11, TOOO anp0006KIlTI1 YIO E:Ke!VTl TTlV t.nOXt;, KaapEq>Tl~£1 E:VTOlIlOle; TO rtveuuo Kat T[e; 4JIAOOOq>IKte; Ova~IlTfjcere TaU KOlPOO

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3. 'H nu~ilio T~<:; :ruAAovij~ 1:oS0UpW'9 OTO aceoALvo tlvo,ono TI<:; noAa,oTtpt<:; ont'KavioE'~ Tij~ OOTOI'OTI)TI)<:; EvoAAoyij<:; Tij~ ~lltpO<:; Ilt TI'\ vii· )(TO, (,Ap,a, F 251,9 S. R, Rob'!rts, "The Attic PrJlL;S», Chicago 1978, ~,146 nI~,B7,1, L. Lacro,., -atuees d'Archllolog,e Num!smatlque~, Paris 1974 nLv, 3181

nnorvc rteroxo- (nim}.o ntipiVo

• wom:p (wyp0ipr,/loTO) (Diels, 1,93,26 K.t). KOTO TOV nOPIlCV(OIl, TO cctoc elver "m}.r7J.iOm noooc- (cuurueoueVCC; l.lo<CC; nuooc) (Diets. 1,146,25). rno OtoKpl6wjJ£VIl elver Ii anol.JJll TaU 'Apxthaou, uoenrn TOO 'Avctovooc oxeTlKO ue TO OXr;110 TWV OOTPWV' TO neorevocce ccv Sronupec fJo~ec: Ai- 8wv ii I-IcTohhwv -uceoovc olantipouc» (Diels I, 146,23), rexoc o6.1l1l6- KPlTOC:; aecoet erucnc TOV iihlo oov utc I5LonuPfl Ila<o IlCToMwv ii hi8wv "I-'titipov fj nctoav oumupov- (Dlels II 105,9),

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46

S. 'AnIK'; ~tAoVDIIOP<P'l AriKUOO<;OTrj BOOTWV'l (apIa. FA 99.33) TOi) l;wyp6,.,ou Til<; rHo<; Toii liaTtpou6ouol.KoTWanOTrjouvwpI6oTOiiovo_ liHol'la ·HAiou. ~WV'I DPI~OVTla, TO olEptw~a, )ltT060Tpa.oovKap<pII:'~nIJY)livOOToin;m:oo artpt",~a (Haspels. KAHle Black-figured leky· lhol»,nrv.23.1).

ororxc. B6.aoe; TWV cvveucv aUTWV. MEy6.Aoe; etvc. 6 6pla~6e; ncocpouov crucnucrcv cornztov. OAWV TWV TUruov nou cvcceocue me ncrv. at 6vVEla Kai OAAO eovc TEXVf]e; TOO 60u KO[ TOO npdnuou Sou 01. TO. t~BAt'J~oTO OlIT6 exouv auxv6 rrrnv neoupePElo.1"OUe; 6.KTivEe;, nee «carcrocv 00- tpton:pT] Tt'JV 6.VOYVWPloi) TOUe; 06'1 ompwv (et«. 8, 9).

'H eounvetc Hi>v KOo~T]~6Twv OllTWV we; ccrjxov erueeecrevcrcr KOI crto TO vevovoc on cvcueoo c' OUn} clxovl<tTOt Koi TO tll110EAflVO f'] 6 ctcsoc T1'[e; Itht'JVfle; ii TO(} 'Hh[OU (£IK_ 10).

KO~IO (fIOP6. cvrt VIC] TOUe; ncocncvc ronovc ectoev XPIlOl~OnOltiTal VIC EnioT1Il0 60nl00e; ~ rtevrcxcc. entonc omplKe OO~BOAO. ii 6 «O(fl90AI10C;" Eva oMo ccrorsc ccuaoxo - elver 6 oCjlBahl1oe; rnc vUXTae;. orncc cnoxcM:I Tt'J :hht')VT] 6 A1OXuAoe; OWl,' rteptVpoQl£1 rrt')v 60nioo TOO Tut'itwe;. 510- «ocunaevn Ilt ru xcprtcpc ampa Kai TTi Id'lvf] 010 ueoov «AoJ-lnpa tit navatAlJvoC; ev ~Ita'-!J OaK&!. VUKTOC;

orpBa),J-lOc;" (AiOXUA. 'Enr6 em 0r;6au:; 388).

'Avrtcrorrc 6.,\AOO 6 wHhme; ovoucceTOt «ixp8oA}J0c; Tr7C; r7}Jtpoc;" ii «novoTTTIJC; KUK),OC; 'HAiou» (Aloxuh. Flcou. 88) ii oK6~o "xpuotm:; aueooc BUeaoov» (IO(flOKh. ·AVT. 104) Ti rexoc moue; 'OptpIKOUe; UI-IVOUe; (714) «KO+ O}JOU TO neotsoouov 611}JO". Kat TO. 0500 aUTO OU~BOhO etcovrtovrcr 010 uexcvouoocc 'ATTIKO cpeccec TOO Movaxou (tiK. 11)

KQTe. niv neotoeo aOTt') - 60e; Kat rtccnuoc Soe; ctevcc - TO. Btl-lOTO vupw 6n6 TO OUp6VlO OWI.IOTa ViVOVTOI

9. flOIIWVIII?~ IIPOTrjpO<; OTO floii6pojCampana 448). Tai).uOTtpau 60u III. n.X.-Evo aarpo 110- OIlEi TO ~oiipo 8000<; Toii Dyyelou (CVA Louvre No 1 (France l)n;v.l G).

nOAU OT]I-IO(fllhrl Koi oi ncoccrccerc TOUe; KaTQKAU<OUV TO. epva TIle; i;hh'1- vIKTie; TEXVlle;. rtpo nOVTWV O~Wt; 06v f.1.I8,).,fl~0 contccc. 'AK61-10 «ot T'J ecru- 60 TTie; 'A8fJvae; K09we; Kat T'J ctvtoc rnc K00l100VTOI ~t coree. nou OT]hWVOVTOI 06v iSt6nupee; ~a~ee; onwe; 010. epvc rtou cvcocccvroi me rtcve (elK 12 - 14).

Iuxv6 TO ccrcucc aUTO cuusoxc rrepl60Mouv TO. rl~IOthIlVO' OTrlV aiylCio ucxrcrc TTi~ 'ABflV6e; TO. ~~IOthT]VO exel rtopei 'm aeon TOO VOPVOV£lOU (eiK.14).

. Eva eovo rnc uvnusroxnc nhOmlKrl~ 1.I0e; rtoocesoer 6.K61l0 Eva KpiKO rtou ouvocet TO. T'J~IOthllvo T1'[e; npOT]VOUusvnc ncoccrccnc ue TO. voovcvero npeK£ITOI Via TO. ucouccrvc cvrtvocco Tile; 'ABf]vdt; Rospigliosi Ole Palazzo dei Conservatori 01:r; PWllfl (et«. 15). Mt TO rue ncvtc rtccccervucrc 510- corvercr ilia ti,h,\fl unocrcon TTie; 'ABIlVOC; OTr; axtOT] 1:T]e; I.IE 1:0V 001:PlK6 K60110. 'H un60TOOT] OUTI'] Tile; A9f]vde; KoBimOTOI rue ccvepo nwe; rlTOV VVWOTrl h51l OTrlV 6.PXO"iKt') cnoxn. napa rnv cvrtaem we; ncoo crto- 1.JlT] on Citv npenet vc eecccneer nahmOTepT] TOO 40u ai.!>

'OIlWe; ere nOhM o.h,).,O spvc nco 1:6 eeeorevouv noerter vc noocreect Eva csouc: o· Eva ~IKp6 rtovoanvcjxc 011- cooec (ljJeuoonovoBllvOIK6). OTTiv ·O~Ql6p51l. at «cae Eva cnc TOUe; «Io-

47

10. 'AmKOe; tpuOpOIIOp<pOe; oll-lqlOptoe;, TOU ru- 11 MtAovOIIOpqlOe; ol-lqlopta~ TaU Movoxou. Ei-

TlOU Tile; NOAae;. Tou ~bjVpOqlOU KA£oqlp6li~. Kovl(oVTa, TO eoe oU1-l60Ao, i) nEVToA<po Kal <'>

Mouodo Ham Gustav LUbke. 'AvolJ£oO O£ Tpcie; oql6QIJAoe; (CVA Miinchen I (Deutschland 3) erv,

IJEAovte; KOUKKIi5£C; TO "l-IloH~vo (AJA 51, 18,3).

1947,247nlv.63 Beazley ARV·363.300)

12. M£AoVOlIoPqlrJ Ai)Ku60e; • oT~ Villa Giulia (op. 50437). Tau u01"tpOU 60uol. ntvT£ AeUK&C; KOUKK'05&C; KOoIJoUV TtiV oonllio Tiic; ·A0rJvaC;. ITI') O'&UOUVTPIO TOU Mouo&'ou Villa Giulia lli050 PaolaP8IagattitKqlpO~WTIe;Ocpl-I£e;IJOUCUXOp'O1"ICe;YIGTI') i5106torJ "poe;05rJIIOoi&uor] TaU OYyElOUOUTOUKo'Tiie;eiK.4.

13. nov06r]VO',KOe; OllqlOptoe; nou [1II005'05£TOI 01"0 ~"'YPGqlO Tiic; Allilpoe;.ITo BPH .. Mouotio B.144. "Eva OKTlVWTO 001"pO yqll~t, TrJV &TllqlO' V£IO Tile; aoni05oe; Tiie;'AOr]vae; (CVA Britain, British Museum, III HE ntv. 6,2).

14. 'AnIMae; tpuOpOIIOP<POC; OIl<POptoe; TOU ~"'ypo<pou Ttle; NOUoIKflC; oTO Mavoxo.·H oiy,lio Tiic; 'A6'1vflC; KOOII£ITol !-It 1I0upec; KouKKii5£C;

~;~.~~A~:,~~~~eoflra~:~~eVy~II:~e.~O'~~7~f KtV-

48

VE:C; rtou nAalOlWVOUV TTl eec cvtl TOU rterervoc elver crrurevoc crto ~vac; i)AlQKOe; oioKoe; (elK. 16)

H: noerosoorvarcsn Ai)Kuea TOO Seurepou TeT6.pTOu TaO 70u at OTi)V BOOTWVT], exouue eve cno TO naAOIOTepa i'ieiYIJCTO ctnv tAAT]VlK!') rexvn. IJt napaO'TOO'T) Tne; ccvecoucnc 6vaIJ&O'a OTO ate set TOV roccvc. ce~la a i)AlOK6e; OiO'KOe; tn6.vw at 600'11. LT6 i'iIO'Ka tnovw euo OpnaKTlKO nouAla. nooccvec cerot. auutzouv TOUe; OCTOUe; nou cuvovrdrvrot OTOV ouccAO TTie; rile;. moue; CleAQ>aue;. LuyyevlKO elver set T6 BtlJa oro rueoereec cvvetc (sittula) 6PXa"iKWV Xpovwv iWVIKau eovccmotoo (elK. 17)

To Mo OIJIJ6aAC, «Icov Kat i'iloKae;, ot«etc crnv 'AVCTO'A!') ccv KO'OlJlKO O'UIlBOAC, rii OTUAO'e; i1 «tovcc T6 eva «ct i)'\laKoe; i'iiOKoe; TO iih'\a. Ilee; ~avocepvouv 0-1"1'1 IJvtll..l'l TTl eeecto VIa Ti)V KlOVOOX'lIJ'l Kai KUAlVi'iPIKtl fr, TOO 'Avcaucvccou. a cnotoc. onw<:; Kat aMO'I "ncvec crxoooco., 6VT'\T]OOV nO''\,\6. nrto Ttl oaQ>r') 'Avcroxn Yla TTl i'iIOIJOPqlWO'l TWV Q>l'\O'OO'Q>IKWV TOUe; ouMTil\Jewv

LT6v "((510' KUK'\a KCO'lJlKWV O'ulJ80'\wv - «tovoc. OiOKOe; - rtcsner vc oQ>elAel nlV KOTavwvTi Tau Kat eva OhAC rtootcv TTie; coxcrcc TtxV'le;: 10 6Pxa'(KO KaTOmpC. cctvercr nCAu ruecvc 160 scrorrrpc core vc nTOV. cmv 6pXOI01ep'l. rouxcxrcrov, O'UAA'll\J'l «ct XPTlO'l1 TCUe;, BP'lO'KeuTlK6. OOTPlKO O'UIJ60Aa, «ct ccvcreoc crteenocv cvnxetuevc Ka81ll..leplvTie; xpt;O'le;. rr' aUTOV '[OWe; TO Myo T6 neotccoreoc an' CUTO 6pt8'lKCV ce 'teoc. 6.qllepWperc crouc eeouc.

'H '\o6ti TaO «crcrrrcou n6.vw O'Tt;V onofov t6p6~eTOl D Stoeoc ~xel rtoxMe; eocec TO O'XTiIJO, «Iovoc (eiK. 18- 22)

01 uoocec, nee BaoTQ~Qv TO 6iO'KO' TOO «crorrrpou. OTtKavTQl IJt n66lo KQt XtPlQ crtcocxxcxrc o6.v TOV '"ATAOVTO nee KPOTC TOV OupOVO, sot nou tniO'T)e; nccccrctvercr aA'\OTe ccv KOhOVO Koi 6.'\'\OTe I1t cvaocruvn ei6r') rt tVQV KPCtTlPO me Necrtoxnc. TO KeV1"plKO 8tl10 elver 6 'HpoKAfle; OTTi xwpo TWV 'Ecneptourv.

'E~aMau at evcv K6TW-LTQAlWTlKO cueooec 01"0 Bpe'rnvrxo Moocetc (co. F 148) 6 "AT'\ae; 4ltpel TOV ocpcvc OTOUe; WIJOUe; TCU. To OXfll1o TOU oupovoO e!VOl aKOVOVIOTOe; OYKOe;, once rrrf AOKWVIKTi KUAlKa. nou etecue cmv apxTi (elK. 1)

"Oncoc e"t6al..le Mv elver 0 "ATAoe; ti 110- vrt I..lOPl,Jltl crto to opxoio rtcvaec Kat TO OUPOVlQ O'Wl-iaTO rtou i'i'lAwvaVTOl aMOTe I..lt yeWj.JeTPlKO cxrurcrc (KlO-

15. ITfi~ olyi~o T'le; ~ 'AII'lvii EXE, TO yOpyO~EIO nou, 6)1"":;. n£pl60AAtTOI cin~ OOTpO. To OVTI, ypoqlo aUTO ono~i~£, nlllo~oTOTO npwToTuno t)ln~Euo)ltvo ono TOV i~lo KUK).O ono TOV onol0 npo£Pxnol «er " 'AII'l~n TOil ~wypaqlOU Tlic; NOUO'Kn<;OTOayytionoucivo",ipIlI)KEniOnplv.

VOOXlllla) Kci a'\AOTe cveoomoucocc. rUXVo crtc cveoenouoccec rtcoccrcce«; TOUe; i'ilOTllPOOVTOl KCt TO xcPOKTflPlOTlKo TOUe; OOTPlKO OU1l60ha: '0 iiAlOe; ue TO OUIl601l6 TaU. 10V t;'\laKO oIO'KO. neve OTO iiplla TaU, I') LeAI')V'l I-It T6 t;lllOtA'lVO «oecxc oro QhOyO Tr)e; Khn. (elK. 23)

Lt utc uexcvopoocn AI')KuSO, an,! eoOTWVI"j. 6 i'itOKOe; Tau "HAlOU ~xel lJia cnovro tyx6paKTT) i'ilaK6ol-l'lo'l nou SUlJt<el OUTTl TWV 6loKoelEowv 6.KPWtl"jpiwv TWV EowplKwv 6pxo'iKWV vccv. nou r,TOV erttonc tiAlOKO OUl-l60Aa (dK.24)

T6 spvc nco cvcceoenxcv we; ttopc

16. ToayytlOaV~Kt' OTOvnpW')lOSo ctevc. Me TO fpyo aUTO eVIO){UETOI Ii oxto~ Tlie; 'AII'lvnc; OX' )lOVO)lt T~V KoAOvo. nou )l0C; tlvo, v~woTfi ~upl....:; ano TOUC; ncvcenvctsccc o)l",optiC;, 0).· M Kol)ltTaV~).'OKO~loKO,~Uoou)l6o).OMOO)lI· 110 nee. onwc; TWPO KOTO'l'oivtTOI, O~~KO~ OTOV KllK).O AOTp&iO~ Tlie; 9to~. 'AHwOTt 10 lIi~o TOil 6(OMOU no~w. O){I O£ ~iovo. ciAAti oi MOT' OXETlMO, ot )I'li 80(1), tivo, YVWOTti li~'llloTa TOV 70 oi. Koltivolcio'l'o).we;o~oToAIKlic;npot).tuol)C;(As", molean Museum. v. 213A. AM 1972. nl~. 44.2).

crtorexocv rtecroorcuevn apISIl'lTtKI') tmAaYTl TWV nc'\uaplBIJWV crxeTtKWV ncoccrcceov Ilt SE:.lJa TO OUpaVlO OWIlOTa xul 6e60lWVOUV OTl I') Q>lhOO'CCPlKri OKtl\J'l Kai ot iMee; TWV FlpoouiKPOTIKWV Q>l'\OOOq:.WV Yla to oouncv. at 0PIlOVlKt; ouvunopE;T) I1t ttc apnO'KeUTlKte; toeec Koi TO uevcxc rtomri",a «efucvc Yll:'.t TO "[i'ilO StIlO. elrcv 60- ela anI')X'lOT) mDV thAT)VlKO KOO'I10 TOO 60u Kat l-IE:.pOUe; TOO SOU nuevo Kof ~)T( ot KOAAl1txvee; nrcv crtc TOUe; rtocrrouc nou eunveucrqscv orto Tie; Q>IAooacplKE:.e; cUTte; 8ewpiee;. 'H 6nriXT)O'l aUTI') oev rteoroprtorcv IJOVO moue; KUKhOUe; TWV OlCVOOUI-IE:.VWV

17. BptTOVIKa MOUOEio B 1,06 tlMovl<nol TO d~w ~tpoc; Mlovo. o~oTo)'i~oVTOC; Tunou,nouono).fiyt', nlivw, ot ovlle)llo' OTIc; 6110 UIMEC; eeo TO n).o,o,wvouv Kolluo' ono t~o opnoKT'Ko nau).i, lOwe; O£TO~. To lIi)lo d~ol n'lIo~oTOTO t~n~tuo)levo ana ciVTl~I\\jIEI~ M'OVO).OTptloc; Kol ~tv~pOAOTPEjOC;

49

18. KoElpC<PHI" uonpwv 6p){o"iK"1V )(p6vwv OTf) BoOTwv~, 6p. 621189.

21. Ka8ptmn<:; TaU ·E8v. 'Ap){oloAoYIKouMoucefcu 6n6 T~V Koplv80 (op. 7576) TOU e TnopTOu TOU Sou 01. 'H ~oP"'~ OUTi) oiyoupo npctp){t.TOI 6n6 T6v KUKAo T61V nopooT60EWV T~<:; 'A<ppo~IT~<:; ~c TOU<:; CPWTllIti<:; Koi ~E To aPIOTt.po XCPI OTO ~OOTO, tVllt.IKTIKa TIi~ KOUPOTp6- <pou 'A<ppoi5iTIl<:; (I&~VIl Kopoil~ou: "Studies Presented to O.M. Robinson» I (St.louis 1951 oeA.5B4).

50

19. Auo Ao6C<:;K08P&<PTWV.OTO~6vo~OKOiOT" Apcoo~ 6vTioTolXo. "YOTtpWV OpXO.'KWV Xp6· VWV. Tou npuecu Otill;~Tol ~ovo Ii A0811 ot crxl'j~o IwvIKouKiovo"tTI<:;unolloxt<:;YloTi)OTtpt.wOI1 TaU i5loKou TaU Ka8p&<pTI1 (Jantzen, JDI·EH 13 (1937) tiK6v&<:; 122 1101 taa ntv. 29).

22. ",oBi) ii OT~PIYIIO K08pElpTI1 nou oX~IIoTI~ouv i5uo ou~nAeKo~tVO <pii5lo. T6 encte EXOUV 6vTI_ 1I0TOOTlioEI Tliv Klov6oXIll'11 A06f). TI'j<:; IuA},o· yl'j<:; Kopomivou, OTO 'EElVIKO 'APXOIOAoYIKO Mouotio 6p. 614. Tau 8'TETOPTOU TaU Sou 01. n,80V';'<:;TOOTljpIVIIOOUTOt1VOIClJnvtuOlJtvo 6noTO lItA<pIKOTpinoi50,ov081l)J0T';'v'EAAlivwv 1J£T1i T~ vlKIl Oll~ nAOTOlt~ KOTO TWV n&pOWV nI80vOT&PO OIJW<:; Eivol t"nvEUO)Jtvo ene TOV Kl'jno TWV 'Eontpli5wv, OTO ntpTo TaU KOOIJOU, onouo"ATAo<:; KPOTO Tovoilpovli. 'AnOTO i5tvi5pocXouv!'elvtl"oVOTOlpii5lonOU.TU},IY)Jtvo OlOV KOPIIO TOu,lpuAoyov Tli Xpuoli ~I'jAo.

20. Iuxva 0 Kiovo<:;6vTIKo{jiOToTOI6n06v9pwnOliopIp'l9toTIlToiji5oi)lovo.K08pi.lpTI1<:;TOU 'EOVIKOU 'APXOIOAoYIKOU Mouotiou AOKWVIKOii I!:PYOOTIlPiou(7703).

23. 'AUIKIi I'tAovol'oplpl1 AliKU80<:; TOU ~wyp6- <pouTI'j<:; Ion<pw<:; (oro Metropolitan MuseumTI'j" N. 'YOPKI1<:;) TaU npwl)Jou Sou etcve. 'O-HAIO", oToTI:Op",nli TOU,OVoi5i1&TOI On6TOV ·nK£ov6. tvw OTO lI£~l<i Ii 'Hw<:;, npooyytAo<:; TIi<:; ~I'tpo<:;, Ko! OTIi 0plOlcpli i) NilXTO, 6OIlYouv tnloll<:; TO T&9p",n6 TOU<:;. 'EnIYPOlpt<:; 6t60lWvouv Tliv TOUTIlTIlTOIIOOt)J0P<PI'j<:;. ·O·HpoKAI'j<:;aploTtp6. OTO lIpoa6 Tii<:; auy~<:;, fXtl 6v61j1tl <pWTIO Kol tTOI~O~£I TO aou6AC'Kl0 TOU [Haspels, ~Atlic Black-Figured lekylhOi" niv. 22.1 lacroix, od .. 144nlv.12B).

KO[ Il£YOAWV KOAAlT£XVWV' cnxevoTOV ,;:aj crov cnxo A06. Ko8we; Koi TOUe; 6YPOIlIlOTOUC; BlOTtxv£e; KOt OYve.ovoccouc nou esrtoocenoooov Tie; nxcrcrecec 1l0~£C;.

LTa noonuc Xp6VlO TOU Sou ottovc oi ioi:£e; TWV tplAoo6'-Pwv OWIlOl:O t~oKOAou81100V vu touv Alyo rtoxu crnv TtXV'l KOt IllKPOrexvto TaU «mpou. MAO. Ii rteorvpc'-Pli TWV ouocvucv OWIlCt""[WV ourccv £1- VOl TWPO ouxva. OIO(jJOP£TIKIi otto tK£ivll rev OlOVOllTWV TOU 60u ohcvc kcrc TOV 'Avcecvooc. nou cxoxou- 8'l0£ ttc nOAlte; 6vTlAlil\J£lC;, n Yii t~oKOAOu8tI vc elver tnln£o'l Koi -nacTl;ra~ (Diels II. 16,9). "AAhOl 0IlWC; tplAOcotpot Slvouv TWPO OTOV nxcvnm if) cmuc OiOKOU enumcucuevou ii tAAf;Ll.jJOf;lOii Ilt KOlAOTllTO oro uecov ETOI mv napaotXf;lOl a 6rlllOKplTOe;' ,,610KOE:/6rj utv 1:4>. nAciTEI /wiAI"/V 6i; ni) pi;(JqJ". (prers 11,1 06,37). 'AAAOO mv neplypa(jJEl «ocpE:v60VOE:16r7" KOt «npoprjKI"/'" (Diels 11,106,39 K.t.) Kal OAAOO ypO,(jJ8l: "npoprjKI"/r; tOTIv ~ Yr7 r7/.lioAwv TO pfjKor; TOU nAOTOUr; exou- 00". (Dlels 11.145.20).

AAAOI nOAI ctvouv rrrf yi] OXi'll1o -ruunovoa-, 'AvCt1l80a o' ourouc Kol a Aeuemnoc (Diets 11.78,11).

M' coree ttc oVTlAf)l\J81e; 1:OU occvooVOE:IOOOe; ""[i]e; yf)c; flt KOlAO""[lllO oro ueco Kat ot: oxf)lla tuuncvou anOYYIcrpcoverot Ii OKtl\J'l uno TT]V tnim:Oll olOOIOmOl:ll o.vTiAT]l\JT] Tfie; rfie; Koi nooxecet npoc Srcnrcncon ""[fie; TPlOerccrcmc KOt ""[fie; OtpOlplKfie; me llop(jJfie;. Au""[!,) otv covnce vc WPlIlOOEI. 'H iota ""[r,e; o<pmpIKOTT]lOC; ""[r,e; rr,e; oEon6~EI, aeecrc. rrrrjv tnoxli roc rfxo novu (rtxcncv. dlaiowv 109B) MAO cctvercr race £1VOl KOTOKT'lOll coxerc nOAOlOTEPT]' rnecvcrcrc evemux811Ke 6n6 TOUe; rtuecvooetovc (Lesky, «Thatatta- 79). TO""[E: crcrunoVElOI OPIOliKO Kat Ii cvrtxrupn Via TT] 0(jJalpIK6TT]Ta TOO cuuncvroc. nou rrocrroc OIOl:unWOe a 'Avo~iIlOVOpOe;, Ko8we; KOt VIO TT]V KivIlOT] Kai Ti]V rtePl(jJOpa Tiie; yfie; Kai TWV QAhwv ooocVtWV moprrnov (Oiels 11,242.19). Ot rue yvwmoi KOAALTtxvEe; Kai

(\lot ncoouorctouv curve. «ct rue nplv, ""[0 OUPOVlO OW{JOTO npoccononomuevo Ii TO oUfJBOA6 TOUe; (01- OKOe;, ti{JlOEAT]VO, ecrpo), Ii KOt TO. OUO ila~i. ·AAAC.l. TO xuprcrepo cntreuvuc rev 'EAAT]VWV KOTO rnv tnOxi] esetvn OTo8I1KE: ""[0 tinAwilc TOU~ OTOV oxaVT] ctvrvucnxc KOO{JO TOO Zuunnvroc, {JEOO OTOV ortoro nxcvuroi Ii rii· 'H ctxovc TOO Euunavroo Ilt KtVTPO Ttl rr, QtXIlOAWTi~EI T6 voo OXI 1l0VO TWV crovccrov, o.hAo. KO! TWV ouvvpo-

24. 'A~anopacrroOIJ TOU !i'OKOt'!iOU~ aKpWTlJp;OU TaU 'Hpolou 'OAulln;o~ {Tft 01]1100;0 T~~ nccecrcOIJ~ O .... T~~ crrf[ O)(tOI] TI]~ lit ~"'OKa OUll6oAo &)(W avonT .... ~t' noAo,6npa OT~ 1I~"tr'l IIOU y,a TO li'OKOt'!if~ aKPWTftP'O TaU 'Hpoiou Tf[~ 'OAUllnra~: N. Yalourls «nee Akroterlon des Herercne ill Olympia". A.M. 6(1972)96. PI.44,2).

25. "·EO"TI IItv oupovo~ Kof y~ ·ATAo~ ovt)(wv. napfOTI]Ot KoT 'HpOKA~~ tKl>t~oo6ol T61iX6o~ tatAwv Tou·ATAoVTO~".

51

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52

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The celestial Bodies in the Philosophy and Art of the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.

The firs! attempts of the greek mind to understand the nature of the universe date in the 7th century B.C. and are formulated in theories by Ionian philosophers in the 6th century. These Greeks of the coastal Asia Minor traver to the metropolitan Greece transfering there their theories, that not only become well known but also influence the contemporary art, as we will try to show. The column, or the pole, are known as cosmic symbols and at the same time aniconic representations of the deity in the Minoan and Mycenaean world as well as in the East and in later civilizations. The philosopher Anaximandros considers the earth as a column with a flat upper edge inhablted by the humans. A cyllx in the Vatican Museum,dating around 550 B.C., serves as a good example of the

LI]).lE,WOEU;

1.A. Evans, 'MycenaeanTree and PiliarCull",~ JH$ 21 (1901) 99·204. M. Nilsson. Gescntchte oer GriechisGhenReligion I (Munchen 1950). 278

2. "II T1I O1l).laoio TOU steve w~ c:ivE'KOV'~ii<; no-

30. 'H u6,,10 ou~1'j X"ovoAoytiTol aTa 425 n.X ntplnou (Mon.lnst.1847,4 niv. 39,2. S. Reinsch. «necertcue de vases peints» I (paris 1899)129 No 4. 8A. tnjo'1~ Eisler, CVA Unlv. of California nlY. 23, 30. cncu ~ rlOpOO~OOl] tPIll]VO:UETIII w~ "Apotropa;sche Oarslellung elner sceoenunsternls. 8 ..... tnlol)<; N. Yalouris,,,Pegasus,, (Westerham 1976)OEA. XX nlv. 32.).

influence of Anaximandros' theory on the representations decorating the laconic pottery' the composition of the cyllx stands on a doric column and Atlas carries the heaven on his shoulders; the mythic figures symbolise the two ends 01 the world.

The pre-socratic philosophers also consider the other celestial bodies. Thus, the stars are described as fiery cycles (Anaximandros), as nails stuck in the heaven or as fiery horseshoes painted on the sky. Archelaos describes the stars as flaming mass of stones or metals, while Parmenidis as compressed masses of fire. The sun is described by Anaxlmandros as a shining cyrcle, while Democritos considers it to be a flaming mass of stones ormetals.

In the pottery of the 61h and the early 5th centuries the representation of the celestial bodies are very popular: the sun and the moon are indicated with a disc and a crescent respectively. From this same group of cosmic symbols must also originate the archaic disc' shaped mirrors, most of which were found in sanctuaries and were dedicated to the gods. It is highly possible that in concept and use they originally were religious sidereal symbols. That has been mentioned so far shows the strong effect that the ideas of pre-socratic philosophers had on Ihe greek world of the 6th and 5th centuries B.C. and especially on the artists. The philosophic conception and description 01 the celestial bodies change in Ihe 5\h century, but their representation in art remains more or less popular. Anaxagoras conceives the earth flat and wide, while other philosophers. like Democrilos, describe it as an elongated or elliptical disc with a recess in the middle, or as a drum. like Leucippos does. The idea of a globular earth prevails in the time of Plato, but it seems that it has been developed by the Pythagorians.itisthenthat the conception of the spherical univers and of the motion and revolving of Ihe earth are finalIyformulated.

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