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Technical textiles and nonwovens account for
EDITORS over one-quarter of all textile consumptions in weight
terms. Despite slackening growth rates since the start
YEAR) of the Millennium, technical applications have a far
more positive outlook than most other fibre, textile and
P. MANIKANDA PRIYA (IV clothing markets. Volume growth in developing
countries will average between 4% and 5% per annum
T. SUJENDRA (IV YEAR) to 2010.

JOINT EDITORS Within the total, some application areas will
grow faster than others. Although forecasts have been
downgraded from earlier studies, world demand for
SABAREESH (II YEAR ) geotextiles is forecast to grow at a compound annual
D. VANDANA ( III YEAR ) growth rate of 5.3% between 2005 and 2010, with
China a major source of both consumption and
production. Construction applications are also forecast
to grow strongly, at a compound annual growth rate of
CO-ORDINATORS 5.0%, over the same period, driven by new products
and the increasing textile content of building.

In contrast, textile components for shoes,
clothing, furniture, carpets and interior textiles exhibit
SARADHAMBIGA (III YEAR) annualised growth rates of less than 3% on average
SINDHU BHAIRAVI through the current decade. This is in response to
relatively modest forecast growth in demand for
apparel and household goods, but also a switch in
SIVA SUBRAMANIAM many products to lighter weight nonwoven materials.






India sees cotton output at 310-lakh bales 800,000 bales of cotton in 2009/10 season,
in 2009 - 2010 double the estimated exports last year, on
India’s cotton output is estimated at hopes of economic revival, a top official
305-310 lakh bales during 2009-10 said.
(October-September) despite a poor The 10-bln-rupee firm exported nearly 1
monsoon, a top government official said. million bales in the year ending September
"Following the late arrival of rains, we now 2008, and estimates exports of 400,000 bales
expect 305-310 lakh bales of cotton in year ending September 2009, as global
production this year, largely because of demand declined after an economic crisis.
increase in cultivation area," Joint Textile
Secretary J N Singh told PTI here. India’s MRPL to develop 440,000 ton
The country had produced 295 lakh bales of polypropylene plant with $312 million
cotton in 2007-08. This will be certainly a investment
very good year and India will be among very Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals
few countries which have an additional Limited (Mangalore, Karnataka), a fully
cotton production this year as compared to owned subsidiary of Indian energy major Oil
the previous year, Singh said. The total and Natural Gas Corporation Limited, has
acreage for 2009-10 is now estimated at proposed a polypropylene plant with a
96.55 lakh hectares and is likely to go up to capacity of 440,000 tons per year. The
100 lakh hectares compared with 94. $371.9 million plant will be integrated with
the phase-III expansion of the refinery
complex, which is under construction at
Gill and Co to double cotton exports in
Mangalore. About 450,000 tons per year of
propylene will be required as input for the
Gill and Co Pvt Ltd, India's largest private
polypropylene unit.
cotton exporter, expects to ship up to
About 50% of the polypropylene produced


at this plant is expected to be sold to buyers to invest Rs 100 crore in next two years for
in western and central Maharashtra and expanding its footprints across the country.
South India. The location of the Siyaram Silk Mills vice president Ashok
polypropylene plant in Mangalore, which is Torka told ET that the company is planning
considered to be strategically situated in to roll out 60 more retail showroom across
comparison to competing producers in the the country by this fiscal. “We currently
Middle East, will help MRPL increase its have 40 showrooms in the country. We plan
share of exports to northeast Asian to open 100 showrooms by this fiscal. The
countries. company sells J Hampstead, Oxembourg,
Siyaram MSD and its flagship brand Fabric
to Fashion (F2f) brands through both
India - Hosiery goods prices may rise
company owned and franchisees,” he said.
With the city dyeing unit owners
The company is also planning to launch two
deciding to increase the rate of colouring
new products – Moretti Italy and Genesis –
yarn, the basic raw material for hosiery
by next month. “Moretti Italy is ammonia
industry, hosiery goods prices may see an
treated 100% fine cotton shirtings while
upward swing.
Genesis is 100% cotton suitings. We are
With a Rs 5 rise for colouring a kilogram of
expecting to clock Rs 50 crore from the sale
yarn of PC cloth (a mixture of polyester and
of these two fabrics in the first year itself.
cotton), and pure cotton, the dyeing industry
is trying to recover the losses it suffered in
Indian textile firms come looking for
the past couple of weeks due to power
Twenty six Indian firms introduced
The industry has also increased rates for
fabrics and yarn to Vietnamese textile
dyeing polyester and acrylic yarns by Rs 3
companies who now import mainly from
per kilogram. The new rates came into force
China at a textile exhibition held in Ho Chi
on September 1.
Minh City on August 25 and 26.

India - Siyaram to invest Rs 100 cr in “We come … in the role of a partner but not
expansion a competitor to Vietnamese garment and
Textile firm Siyaram Silk Mills is planning textile enterprises. We want to be another


source and offer competitive prices for project, and will be used in future
Vietnamese firms,” said Srijib Roy, joint therapeutic applications.
director of the Synthetic and Rayon Textiles The prototype that was developed
Export Promotion Council, at a press consists of cotton fibers that have been
conference on August 21. refined with silicon oxide particles by using
Indian exports to Vietnam include nanosol technology. Bonded into this matrix
embroidery, acrylic, viscose, filament and is a substance that functions as a dispenser
other mixed yarn, and fabric for making for nitrogen monoxide (which is also known
shirts, suits, dresses, curtains, and tablecloth. as nitric oxide). It releases the gas under
Export of yarn, cotton and other products to physiological conditions.
Vietnam was worth US$7.03 million in Scientists at the Hohenstein Institute
2004-05 and rose to US$27.5 million in used nitric oxide coating techniques
2008-09, according to the council. primarily in the development of anti-
bacterial textiles for use in dentistry.
Germany - Hohenstein Institute Develops Publications of other working groups,
Textile That Releases Medicinal Gasses however, suggest that coatings which release
The Institute for Hygiene and Biotechnology nitric oxide could also be used for implants
(IHB) at Hohenstein has developed the first such as catheters, prostheses, or in vivo
textile that can release medically effective sensors, where they could prevent the
gasses. The textile was developed at IHB adhesion of bacteria.
under the auspices of a broader research



Graphene to replace silicon in electronics, electricity better than any other sample of
large scale manufacture expected to graphene produced in the past. Until
commence by 2013: recently, high-quality graphene has been
hard to make on a large scale. To produce
their graphene, the team used a technique
that is well known in the semiconductor
industry-chemical vapour deposition. This
involves exposing a substrate to a number of
chemicals, often at high temperatures. These
chemicals then react on the surface to give a
thin layer of the desired product. The results
were relatively large; high-quality films of
graphene just a few atoms thick and several
Graphene is nature's thinnest elastic centimeters wide. The team made the
material and displays exceptional electrodes by using nickel as a catalyst on
mechanical and electronic properties. Its which to react methane and hydrogen.
one-atom thickness, planar geometry, high Nickel usually catalyses the formation of
current-carrying capacity and thermal thick layers of graphite. But, by using a
conductivity make it ideally suited for layer of nickel less than 300 nanometers
further miniaturizing electronics through thick and by cooling the sample quickly
ultra-small devices and components for after the reaction, the researchers could
semiconductor circuits and computers. produce up to ten single-atom layers of
carbon in graphene's signature honeycomb
A new research could lead to the
pattern. The samples aren't perfect, as each
development of transparent and stretchy
layer covers only around two-thirds of the
electrodes made from graphene, which could
sample, but the team is working to improve
result in bendy displays. The research is
this. The graphene samples can be
being undertaken by Byung Hee Hong from
chemically etched into specific shapes, and
Sungkyunkwan University in Suwon, Korea
when stamped onto the polymer, they can be
and his colleagues. They transferred a
bent or stretched by as much as 11% without
wafer-thin layer of graphene, etched into the
losing their conductivity. Because the layers
shape needed to make an electrode, onto
of graphene are so thin, the resulting
pieces of polymer. The polymers they used
electrodes are transparent, and that makes
are transparent, and one-polyethylene
the material ideal for use in applications
terephthalate (PET)-can be bent, whereas the
such as portable displays. It could, for
other-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-is
instance, be used to replace indium titanium
stretchable. The resulting films conduct


oxide, which is expensive and inflexible. sizes and reproducibility needed by the
The team is also looking at using the semiconductor industry is not possible yet.
graphene electrodes in photovoltaic cells. The new innovation is based on the idea that
The electrodes are likely to be incorporated replicating graphene's structure on a
in niche applications such as individual different material might endow it with
ultra-high-frequency transistors. The large graphene's extraordinary properties. And
scale manufacturing process can be this is exactly what that scientists at NEST
commercialized by 2013 if not earlier. tried with the help of gallium-arsenide
semiconductors, objects widespread in the
production of transistors and lasers. They
The first artificial graphene has been carved a semiconductor with the help of an
created at the NEST laboratory of the Italian ion beam, creating a nanopattern on its
Institute for the Physics of Matter (INFM- surface that replicates the exact graphen's
CNR) in Pisa. It is sculpted on the surface of structure. And the idea proved to be a
a gallium-arsenide semiconductor, to which complete success: modified in this way, the
it grants the extraordinary properties of the nanosculptured semiconductor exhibits the
original graphene. The "artificial graphene", properties of the famous material it imitates,
the very first ever created, seems ready to thus becoming the very first artificial
raise the interests of both industry and graphene. With an added advantage: the
research. This amazing copy promises to overall procedure does not rely on exotic
render available the incredible electronic equipments, but on tools and instruments
qualities of graphene, and thus, it offers a that the nanofabrication industry already
way to overcome the closing physical limits possesses and masters, meaning that the
that plague silicon. artificial graphene can already enable the
development of high-mobility transistors
Natural graphene is an interesting and lasers.
but elusive material, observed for the first
time in 2004. It has a very peculiar structure, One of graphene's intrinsic features
being composed of a single layer of carbon is ripples, similar to those seen on plastic
atoms (only one atom thick) arranged in a wrap tightly pulled over a clamped edge.
grid which resembles common chicken wire. Induced by pre-existing strains in graphene,
This structure grants graphene its exciting these ripples can strongly affect graphene's
electronic properties: over this two- electronic properties, and not always
dimensional carbon nanoworld, electrons favorably. If the ripples can be controlled,
move almost freely at very high speeds, however, they can be used to advantage in
acting like massless particles. For the nano scale devices and electronics, opening
electronic industry, this means more up a new arena in graphene engineering:
efficient devices that will be able to be built strain-based devices. UC Riverside's Chun
a lot smaller than what silicon allows. Such Ning (Jeanie) Lau and colleagues have
an innovation, however, is yet far away to reported the first direct observation and
come, because production of graphene with controlled creation of one- and two-


dimensional ripples in graphene sheets. physics and a member of UCR's Center for
Using simple thermal manipulation, the Nanoscale Science and Engineering, and her
researchers produced the ripples, and colleagues examined the ripples'
controlled their orientation, wavelength and morphology using a scanning electron
amplitude. When the graphene sheets are microscope and an atomic force microscope.
stretched across a pair of parallel trenches, They found that almost all the graphene
they spontaneously form nearly periodic membranes underwent dramatic
ripples. When these sheets are heated up, morphological changes when heated,
they actually contract, so the ripples displaying significant alterations in the
disappear. When they are cooled down to ripple geometry, a buckling of the graphene
room temperature, the ripples re-appear, membrane, or both. Their experimental
with ridges at right angle to the edges of the system, which involved a stage inside a
trenches. This phenomenon is similar to scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a
what happens to a piece of thin plastic wrap built-in heater, thermometer and several
that covers a container and heated in a electrical feed-through, enabled them to
microwave oven. The unusual thermal image graphene while it was being heated
contraction of graphene had been predicted and explore the interplay between
theoretically, but Lau's lab is the first to graphene's mechanical, thermal and
demonstrate and quantify the phenomenon electrical properties. The result has
experimentally. Because graphene is both an important implications for controlling
excellent conductor and the thinnest elastic thermally induced stress in graphene
membrane, the ripples could have profound electronics. Ability to control and
implications for graphene-based electronics. manipulate the ripples in graphene sheets
This is because graphene's ability to conduct represents the first step towards strain-based
electricity is expected to vary with the local graphene engineering. The suspended
shape of the membrane. The ripples may graphene is almost invariably rippled, and
produce effective magnetic fields that can be this may need to be considered in the
used to steer and manipulate electrons in a interpretation of a broad array of existing
nanoscale device without an external and future research.
magnet. Lau, an associate professor of




Bulletproof vests are modern light polymers that is composed of many layers of
armor specifically designed to protect the either Kevlar, Spectra Shield, or, in other
wearer's vital organs from injury caused by countries, Twaron (similar to Kevlar) or
firearm projectiles. To many protective Bynema (similar to Spectra). The layers of
armor manufacturers and wearers, the term woven Kevlar are sewn together using
"bulletproof vest" is a misnomer. Because Kevlar thread, while the nonwoven Spectra
the wearer is not totally safe from the impact Shield is coated and bonded with resins such
of a bullet, the preferred term for the article as Kraton and then sealed between two
is "bullet resistant vest." sheets of polyethylene film.

Ballistic nylon was the standard The panel provides protection but
cloth used for bulletproof vests until the not much comfort. It is placed inside of a
1970s. In 1965, Stephanie Kwolek, a fabric shell that is usually made from a
chemist at Du Pont, invented Kevlar, polyester/cotton blend or nylon. The side of
trademark for poly-para-phenylene the shell facing the body is usually made
terephthalamide, a liquid polymer that can more comfortable by sewing a sheet of some
be spun into aramid fiber and woven into absorbent material such as Kumax onto it. A
cloth. Originally, Kevlar was developed for bulletproof vest may also have nylon
use in tires, and later for such diverse padding for extra protection. For bulletproof
products as ropes, gaskets, and various parts vests intended to be worn in especially
for planes and boats. In 1971, Lester Shubin dangerous situations, built-in pouches are
of the National Institute of Law provided to hold plates made from either
Enforcement and Criminal Justice advocated metal or ceramic bonded to fiberglass. Such
its use to replace bulky ballistic nylon in vests can also provide protection in car
bulletproof vests. Kevlar has been the accidents or from stabbing.
standard material since. In 1989, the Allied
Signal Company developed a competitor for Various devices are used to strap the
Kevlar and called it Spectra. Originally used vests on. Sometimes the sides are connected
for sail cloth, the polyethylene fiber is now with elastic webbing. Usually, though, they
used to make lighter, yet stronger, are secured with straps of either cloth or
nonwoven material for use in bulletproof elastic, with metallic buckles or Velcro
vests along-side the traditional Kevlar. closures.

Raw Materials The Manufacturing Process

A bulletproof vest consists of a panel, a Some bulletproof vests are custom-
vest-shaped sheet of advanced plastics made to meet the customer's protection


needs or size. Most, however, meet standard polyethylene film. The vest shape
protection regulations, have standard can then be cut from the material.
clothing industry sizes (such as 38 long, 32
short), and are sold in quantity. Cutting the panels

Making the panel cloth  Kevlar cloth is sent in large rolls to
the bulletproof vest manufacturer.
 To make Kevlar, the polymer poly- The fabric is first unrolled onto a
Para-Phenylene Terephthalamide cutting table that must be long
must first be produced in the enough to allow several panels to be
laboratory. This is done through a cut out at a time; sometimes it can be
process known as polymerization, as long as 32.79 yards (30 meters).
which involves combining molecules As many layers of the material as
into long chains. The resultant needed (as few as eight layers, or as
crystalline liquid with polymers in many as 25, depending on the level
the shape of rods is then extruded of protection desired) are laid out on
through a spinneret (a small metal the cutting table.
plate full of tiny holes that looks like  A cut sheet, similar to pattern pieces
a shower head) to form Kevlar yarn. used for home sewing, is then placed
The Kevlar fiber then passes through on the layers of cloth. For maximum
a cooling bath to help it harden. use of the material, some
After being sprayed with water, the manufacturers use computer graphics
synthetic fiber is wound onto rolls. systems to determine the optimal
The Kevlar manufacturer then placement of the cut sheets.
typically sends the fiber to  Using a hand-held machine that
throwsters, who twist the yarn to performs like a jigsaw except that
make it suitable for weaving. To instead of a cutting wire it has a
make Kevlar cloth, the yarns are 5.91-inch (15-centimeter) cutting
woven in the simplest pattern, plain wheel similar to that on the end of a
or tabby weave, which is merely the pizza cutter, a worker cuts around
over and under pattern of threads that the cut sheets to form panels, which
interlace alternatively. are then placed in precise stacks.
 Unlike Kevlar, the Spectra used in
bulletproof vests is usually not Sewing the panels
woven. Instead, the strong
polyethylene polymer filaments are  While Spectra Shield generally does
spun into fibers that are then laid not require sewing, as its panels are
parallel to each other. Resin is used usually just cut and stacked in layers
to coat the fibers, sealing them that go into tight fitting pouches in
together to form a sheet of Spectra the vest, a bulletproof vest made
cloth. Two sheets of this cloth are from Kevlar can be either quilt-
then placed at right angles to one stitched or box-stitched. Quilt-
another and again bonded, forming a stitching forms small diamonds of
nonwoven fabric that is next cloth separated by stitching, whereas
sandwiched between two sheets of box stitching forms a large single
box in the middle of the vest. Quilt-


stitching is more labor intensive and are then sewn together with
difficult, and it provides a stiff panel accessories (such as straps) to
that is hard to shift away from form the finished vest.
vulnerable areas. Box-stitching, on
the other hand, is fast and easy and
Finishing the vest
allows the free movement of the
 The shells for the panels are sewn
 To sew the layers together, workers
together in the same factory using
place a stencil on top of the layers
standard industrial sewing machines
and rub chalk on the exposed areas
and standard sewing practices. The
of the panel,
panels are then slipped inside the
shells, and the accessories—such as
o After the cloth is made, it
the straps—are sewn on. The
must be cut into the proper finished bulletproof vest is boxed
pattern pieces. These pieces and shipped to the customer.


Mr.S.P.RAVI, vice president, power link systems Pvt.Ltd, presented a
seminar on vortex spinning and link coner. This seminar was organized
in Raman auditorium on 28.08.09. Pre final year and final year students
of Apparel & textile attended the lecture



There was no sign of sleep in Dr. controlled affective area - up to the tip of a
Roger Stevenson’s eyes, where as his pin!
assistant, Dr. David Straw had left for his On the contrary to the nuclear
home hours ago. Dr. Roger was busy devices, this machine could demolish a
checking the systems of a strange machine. specific area in absolute controlled manner -
It was a long cylindrical structure four feet no bizarre, no radiations. It had the potency
above the ground, with a thick barrel and a to change a satellite, in apogee of 317 miles,
chair to sit behind a dashboard that consisted into ashes within seconds.
lots of buttons and a lever.
But hitherto, only two persons knew
Roger’s fingers were frequently about this machine, Dr. Roger and Dr David
running on the key board of the computer, Straw. David had prepared all papers related
which was attached to the machine. His eyes to this machine. They all were stored safely
sparkled with delight to see the gratifying in an isolated computer of this lab, which
results on the monitor. All the results were was situated in an outskirts of Nevada.
as per his expectation - which concluded
that his strange machine was completely Having fully satisfied with his tests,
ready for its use. Roger made a glance at his watch, it was
0230 hours. He shut down the computer, and
But what was that strange machine? proudly looked at his Harpy then turned on
Dr. Stevenson had been working his heel and rushed out of the room. A blue
hard for past fifteen years to develop this Sedan was waiting for him in the porch. He
machine. He had strenuously worked on the sat behind the wheel and drove it towards
lethal ultra violet radiations, and the results the main gate. A security guard saluted him
of his breathless labor and high commitment and cranked the gate open.
appeared in the shape of this machine, or, Next morning, when David reached
Harpy, as he named it. the lab, he found that Roger was already
Dr. Roger had invented a machine there, waiting for him. "Good morning Dr.
which was, perhaps, the most destructive How are you?" said David. Roger
weapon ever made in the world. The U.V completely ignored David’s greeting and
radiations emitted by this machine were said, "I have made all the arrangements for
capable of producing energy hundred times the test, I was waiting for you, now please
greater than that of an atomic bomb. And its take your seat.’ David didn’t mind Roger’s
advantage over nuclear bomb was the behavior. He knew Roger very well – he


was not Roger’s assistant only, he was his rise on his feet and reached the place where
closest friend too. He grinned and took his David sat. He looked down at the ashes, his
place. Roger had taken his chair on the eyes overwhelmed with astonishment and
Harpy. He looked at David, who nodded his fright and tear.
head. Roger started to push the buttons on It was quite impossible to assimilate all that
the dash board. Harpy whirred and clattered, had happened there in just a fraction of
its barrel turned towards a huge four-cubic- second. He was completely puzzled. He just
meter square block made of tungsten- stood there, perplexed, staring at the ashes
titanium alloy placed at some 20 meter of his friend. Helplessly, he turned back
distance. Then Roger jabbed a green button only to find a green spot flickering on his
on the console. A beam of green light jacket. In a great astonishment he looked up
appeared out of the barrel and fell on the and the moment he saw that object his
huge metallic block. Roger made some more mouth fell open in dismay. He could clearly
adjustments to focus the green spot at the see the dreadful Harpy in the shining, well
centre of the block. When he was finished polished surface of the shield fitted on the
he gripped the lever in his fist. He looked at wall- to cease U.V. rays from going further.
David who gave him a thumbs-up signal. Immediately he realized their biggest
Roger’s entire body was filled with mistake. They had forgotten that shield
excitement. might reflect the radiation back.
He smiled back at David and, with a quick And exactly the same had happened.
jerk, pushed the lever down. Once the block of alloys was destroyed, the
The block of tungsten-titanium alloy rays found their way ahead. They moved,
showered in the U.V. rays sprayed by the collided with the shield, and by its perfectly
Harpy. It lit like a faint sun and then polished surface got reflected at a definite
dissolved into the thin air as if it never angle. And, unfortunately, David was in
existed. This whole process had completed their way, and they devoured him hungrily.
in just quarter of a second. But, suddenly, a David was all alone in the world. His
shrill scream made Roger realize that some family had died in a mid air crash years ago,
thing acutely wrong had happened. He he was all on his own. After much
quickly pulled the lever up, but it was too pondering, Roger found it useless to inform
late. At some five meter’s distance, in the police about this matter. Firstly he would
right direction, where seconds ago David have to tell them that what had happened
sat, now there was nothing but a tiny heap of there – revealing everything about Harpy,
ashes. There was a large hole in the wall as which he would never do. Secondly, there
if there wasn’t any concrete wall ever was no remnant of David’s body, so
before. possibly, police would never believe on his
Roger felt his throat choking, he story.
tried to scream but he couldn’t. His body Quietly, he returned home. Lying in
was trembling. He somehow managed to his bed, his body was still but a whirlpool


was erupting inside his mind. Eventually his life, gave some instructions and took his seat
experiment had succeeded. His dream had on Harpy. He pushed some buttons on its
come true. dash board. The Monster moved .The beam
of the green light appeared and made a

It was inevitable that his invention
would write his name in golden letter on the bright spot on the shielded wall. The wall
pages of human history. His invention reflected the beam. Roger adjusted the
would lead human race towards a new era of direction of barrel, by feeding some more
power, because the source of energy that he commands. Now, the beam was re-entering
had discovered, was incomparable, the barrel’s nozzle.
unbeatable and unaccountable. The pictures What the hell Roger was going to do?
were running in front of his eyes like some
movie: Dr. Roger Stevenson receiving the His fingers clutched the lever tightly.
Noble Prize for his contribution to mankind. He began to sweat, eyes were filled with
The whole world would accept his tears. Gradually his fingers began to push
ingenuity. Name, fame, money everything the lever down. For a second his fingers
would flow towards him. Suddenly, the stopped, a tiny drop fell out of his eye and
ingenious face of David appeared; every rolled down his cheeks, but next moment his
where peoples were dying; dead human face turned solid like rock. His fingers
bodies scattered everywhere. His Harpy had pushed the lever down to its full extent.
become the ultimate weapon of death and Harpy showered the annihilator rays at its
termination. target. First they collided with shielded wall
then accelerated back. Just after a quarter of
He felt his throat dry. Should man second the room echoed in a dry scream.
use his Harpy for war then its consequences But there were no relics left of Dr. Roger
would be more disastrous than Nagasaki and Stevenson, except some grains of ashes
Hiroshima. Once again men’s cruelty, spread here and there all over the floor and
selfishness and meanness would reach its on Harpy’s body.
peak. Roger’s sensitive heart was shaken by
this thought. But it was not the end. Harpy’s
mechanism was still active; the
He asked himself was his invention a gift to consequences were contingent. Finally, a
humanity or a curse. terrible explosion tore the Harpy in
Presumably, it was a curse. fragments, along with the entire building of
lab, dissolving all the information about
Roger had taken a decision. He got
Harpy into clouds of dust and ashes.
up of bed, put on his cloths and rode for the
lab. He parked his Sedan in the porch and Dr. Roger had buried himself, with
headed for the Harpy room. He entered the his invention, deep in the pit of time and
room and found Harpy standing erect to anonymity just to give the humanity some
welcome him. He put the computers back to more time to realize the value of life. He


preferred his death to that of Humanity’s. May be someday his dream will really come
With this hope that may be some day human true…
would cease all the wars and destruction. End
Someday human would realize the value of
every single life. That may be some day (by Arnie swapnil Bhartiya)
human would learn to let others live, to let
others survive.


Prof.SELVAM, director CUIC, is taking informal classes for our final year
students of B.Tech on “Soft skills “. Classes had conducted on 11.08.09
and 27.08.09. This program will continue in the future too (every week)
and will be of great benefit for the students in attending placement. This is
an opportunity for them to gain confidence and develop their skills in this



(uses super-heated steam, boiling acids,
etc.), the process is sensitive to energy
Dyes currently used for dyeing
prices and also generates greenhouse gases.
textile material are classified as soluble,
disperse, and pigments. These are all
3. Hazardous Waste Generation: Since
synthetic compounds, which are
synthetic production of dyes needs very
environmentally unfriendly compounds, as
toxic and hazardous chemicals, it also
their degradation by organisms is not carried
generates a hazardous waste, the disposal of
out naturally. The industry has to design
which is a major environmental and
expensive ways to remove these harmful
economic challenge.
compounds from the environment.
4. Increasing Transportation Costs: Since
Availability of natural dyes is a desired
dyes are hazardous materials and are
technology for dyeing fabrics with naturally
produced at
produced compounds.
A central facility, transportation of dyes
The textile industry produces and
from manufacturing plants to textile dyeing
uses approximately 1.3 million tonnes of
and printing facilities is a major cost item
dyes, pigments and dye precursors, valued at
and a logistic challenge.
around $23 billion, almost all of which is
5. Toxic and Allergic Reactions: There are
manufactured synthetically.
occupational safety issues involved since
However, manufacturing of synthetic
production processes use the toxic and
dyes suffers from the following limitations
hazardous materials and conditions
1. Environmentally Unfriendly: The
described above. Hence researchers
production of synthetic dyes requires strong
have been concentrating in producing
acids, alkalis, solvents, high temperatures,
natural dyes to overcome the above
and heavy metal catalysts.
mentioned limitations of the synthetic dyes.
2. Increase in Cost of Feedstock or
In spite of their limitations, the key reasons
Energy: Petroleum is the starting material
why synthetic dyes are preferred over
for all synthetic dyes and thus the price of
natural dyes are
dyes is sensitive to the price of petroleum.
Also, since synthesis is energy intensive  They are simple to produce in large


 They can be manufactured at a associated benefits in terms of waste
reasonable price disposal and occupational safety.
 They can provide the variety of 2. Production can be decentralized resulting
colors that are demanded by today’s in savings in transportation costs.
consumers 3. After extraction of the dye, the biomass
 They provide high color-fastness can be used for energy generation (e.g.,
through anaerobic treatment to generate
The major possibilities for the production of methane, which in turn, can be sued as a
green dyes are fuel) and the growth media can be recycled;
 Extraction from plants thus, there are virtually no wastes generated.
 Extraction from arthropods and 4. Possible beneficial aspects such as higher
marine invertebrates (e.g., sea UV absorption by the fabric (which contains
urchins and starfish) natural dye) can result in reduced incidence
 Extraction from algae (e.g., blue- of melanoma.
green algae) But in order to attain the foresaid
 Production from bacteria and fungi advantages, some of the major challenges
that should be dealt with are
Thus if green dyes can be produced  To produce natural dyes in the
at a cost comparable to the synthetic dyes, quantities required
then the following advantages can be  To produce natural dyes at a
achieved reasonable price
1. Reduce the use of toxics since starting  To produce natural dyes that have
materials are environmentally benign with high color-fastness


Indigo Indigoid E. coli

Indigo Indigoid Nocardia globerula

Saffron CI natural yellow6 Crocus sativus L

Chrysophanol Anthraquinone Cuvularia lunata

Helminthosporin Anthraquinone Cuvularia lunata

Cyonodontin Anthraquinone Cuvularia lunata



INTRODUCTION: of aluminum is sealed between two layers of
polyester or acetate film. They are cut
Earlier the entire fabric was made of
lengthwise and wound into bobbins as yarns.
gold threads which are different from the
The metal is colored and sealed in a film,
embroidery techniques in which golden
and later the film is colored before
threads are used to embellish a garment.
laminating. Second way of making a
These garments were made for ecclesiastical
metallic fiber is through the metalizing
uses, and as royal attire. Now, metallic
process. Under this method, the metal is
fabrics are into spotlight, at the high end of
heated until it turns into vapour. Then it is
fashion due to its look and feel. This process
deposited into the polyester film at high
in textile treatment gives a unique
pressure. The metallic fiber made in this
appearance to the fabric making it attractive.
way is thinner, more durable, and flexible
Coated metallic filaments do not tarnish.
then the prior one.
When suitable adhesives and films are used,
they are not affected by salt water, METALLIC YARNS:
chlorinated water in swimming pools or
Metallic yarns start as rolls of films or
climatic conditions. Metallic filaments are
laminations 30" or wider. These wide rolls
used for decorative purposes in apparel,
are slit into narrow rolls 2" to 5" wide.
braids, draperies, laces, military uniform
These narrow rolls are gang slit across their
decorations, ribbons, table linens, and
entire width to micro widths from 1/128"
(.0078") and wider and then taken up on
PRODUCTION METHOD: plastic spools for shipment to textile mills.
There is a rainbow of colors available from
red, blue, green, etc. to gold and silver. And
Two methods are used in the also brilliant, reflective colors which add
manufacturing process of metallic fibers. decorative patterns to fabrics.
One is the laminating process, where a layer
Supported yarns are made by
wrapping single slit yarns with two ends of


nylon. One end of nylon is wrapped yarn or 70d nylon yarn. The yarn has strong
clockwise and the other end is wrapped tensile strength and graceful, lustrous color.
counterclockwise around the metallic yarn. This product is used in sweaters, knit wears,
Each nylon yarn has from 5 to 7 wraps to the tricots, pre-dyed textiles, embroidery,
inch. The most commonly used nylon is stocking, accessories, industrial subsidiary
either 15 denier or 20 denier, but heavier materials, etc.
deniers are used for special purposes.
MX Type Metallic Yarn:
Supported yarns are put up on cones.


M-Type Metallic Yarn:

M-type metallic film (1/69",12
micron) supported by 30D/1f nylon yarn x 2
ends (or 20D/1f X 2 ends), 1 end covered

The film is colored with synthetic clockwise, 1 end covered counterclockwise.

resin and special dyestuff, thus making an The yarn has strong tensile strength and

outstanding effect. The coated film is cut graceful, lustrous color. This product is used

according to the purpose, slit by the micro in sweaters, knit wears, tricots, weaving,

slitter in a fixed size, and then automatically embroidery, stocking, accessories, industrial

wound on the bobbin. subsidiary materials, etc.

Mh Type Metallic Yarn: Packing: X-type is wounded in
500g per conical cones. 40 cones are packed
in an exporting carton. Carton size:

Mh-type metallic yarn (1/110", 12 micron)
supported by 68d (or 75d) polyester filament


ST Metallic Yarn:  Boiling - Water - 30min-1hr
Acid- 2% Oxalic Acid, 60°C,10min
& 2% Acetic Acid, 60°C,10min
 Scouring For Nylon, PET, Rayon,
Acetate & Cotton - Soda ash, 1g\l
60°C,30 min
Polyester filament yarn (or viscose rayon)
Metallic fibers can be used for
round covered with M-type metallic yarn 12
fabrics with both functional and decorative
micron) at the fully closed regular intervals.
effects. Metallic yarns are woven, braided,
It can be used in various aspects especially
and knit into many fashionable fabrics and
as embroidery thread. To be supplied in
trims. For additional variety, metallic are
twisted with other fibers such as wool,
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS: nylon, cotton and synthetic blends to
produce yarns which add novelty effects to
 Ironing - 110°C,15 sec
the end cloth or trim. They make all textiles
 Dry heat - 180°C,60 sec more attractive by adding sparkle.

 alkali, solution at 1st process - Metallic fabrics also used in tailoring
P.H.4.7, °C,30 min of apparels as they are glamorous and

 Hot water - 90°C,30 min simply irresistible, adding a classic finishing
to the garment. At one time or another,
 Hand Washing - 0.5% soap,0.2% metallic yarns have been used in just about
Sodium Carbonate Anhydride
every form of textiles. Some end uses have
60°C,30 min
been in automotive fabrics, television front
 Rubbing - 200g, 100 times fabrics, bath towels and face cloths, clerical

 Dry Cleaning - Trichloroethylene, vestments, bathing suits, hosiery, upholstery,

Perchloroethylene, petroleum hat bands, etc. Also in theatrical clothing,

Benzene, 25°C,30 min theater back drops, doll clothing, banners
and uniforms.
 Steaming - 100°C,40 min


CARE OF FABRIC with bleach. Fabrics containing metallic
yarns should betreated like all synthetic
Professional dry cleaning with
fabrics. Ironing should be at the lowest
perchlorethylene is preferred to laundering.
setting on the iron. If there is no thermostat
Hand laundering and cold water is the only
on the iron, do not use that iron. Do not use
suggested laundering method and Never
steam when ironing metallic yarns.





3 4 5

6 7

8 9

10 11


13 14



18 19

20 21


23 24




Table 1


ACROSS 26. Fixation of printed color by means of
heat or steam
1. …………… is the act of forcing the
zipper slider down the chain by pulling the 27. An aqueous solution of ……….. has
two apex halves apart powerful affinity for leuco vat dyes

3……. fabric in which the warp or weft is
tie-dyed before weaving is called
……………. DOWN

1. Electronic positive dobby works on the
7. Essential coloring matter of the madder
……… principles.
2. A tightened spun yarn with no air in it is
8. This ring gives more space for the
called ……………
passage of the yarn so that the curvature of
the traveler can also be reduced 4. ………….. is the distortion of filling yarn
from a straight line across the width of a
10. Method of printing in which both sides
of the cloth receive the pattern.

15. This enzyme specifically hydrolyses the 5. .…………. Point grading system is used
ester linkage in fats, such as for determining fabric quality in the
department of defense in US
triglycerides and other fatty esters
6. …………… Connects the outer jack and
16. .………………. is the change of color in inner jack of climax dobby
a fabric due to localized abrasion.
9. The simplest form of drop box
18. This surfactants contain both –ve and arrangement
+ve charges with in the same molecule,
although the particular ionic charge under 11. This machine mechanically performs all
given conditions of Ph the actions of the block printer

20. Another name for the complex revolving 12. 6. In combing ……………… implies
box mechanism. feeding during the forward movement of the
nippers towards the detaching rollers. 13. .
24. These acid dyes do not split in to ………………. is an active dye, which gives
individual molecules when dissolved in blue and black shades with chromium
water compounds

25. …………… is the practice of selling 14 .Cotton furnishing fabric printed with
goods in a foreign country below their floral designs on a white or natural ground.
domestic price


17. Essential coloring matter of the madder 23. ……….. is the roller coaster effect either
root. in the zipper chain or at the sew line

19. A sewing defect arising from too low a
tension or too large a stitch

21. A Javanese word for a resist process of
patterning cloth

22. A fabric which will not lie flat on the
cutting table is called as…..