You are on page 1of 35














SKYShade’s Powerbrella is featuring tension-membrane
fabric and photovoltaic thin-film technologies to provide power
for a range of applications. people lounging by the hotel pool will
soon be able to run their laptop computers or recharge their cell
phones and other portable electronic devices via solar power
generated by the umbrella overhead. SKYShades is integrating
Lowell, Mass.-based Technologies for Power Plastic organic
photovoltaic (OPV) thin-film technology into its SKYShades
retractable and fixed architectural membranes to create the
Powerbrella, with the first application being umbrellas and
awnings that can provide remote power for such purposes.
Konarka's OPV technology based on a photo-reactive
polymer material developed by Nobel laureate Dr. Alan Heeger --
SABAREESH (II YEAR ) can be printed or coated onto a lightweight, flexible substrate
using traditional roll-to-roll manufacturing. Power Plastic offers
certain advantages over traditional silicon-based solar
CO-ORDINATORS technologies in that it collects energy up to 70° off axis both from
KARTHIKEYAN the sun and from artificial light, and is tunable to absorb light
from specific wavelengths to broad spectrum; in addition to being
inexpensive and made using all recyclable materials. They are
working in improving the efficiency of its technology, but for now
SINDHU BHAIRAVI it is sufficient for the remote, off-grid applications SKYShades is
developing. As that efficiency increases, it will be possible to
provide power for more substantial needs and even feed electricity
back into the power grid.



Silk exporters target exports of $800 (about $1.5 billion) by 2012.
million in FY10 Meanwhile, to diversify the textiles
exports and reduce dependence on the
With early signs of recovery in EU and the US, new markets like Latin,
the US and Europe, the traditional America, Africa and Oceania regions are
markets for Indian goods, silk traders being explored by the Indian exporters.
have stepped up the export target at $800
million for this fiscal. This was despite Silk park planned at Kancheepuram
the fact that the 2008-09 silk export Union Textiles Minister
target of ISEPC of $753 million could Dayanidhi Maran on Wednesday said
not be achieved due to contraction in the government would consider setting
global demand. Silk exports, including up of an integrated textile park
items like garments, natural silk yarn, exclusively for the silk industry at
fabrics, scarves and carpets, stood at Kancheepuram.
$704.6 million in last fiscal. The government has so far
However, with the fall in sanctioned 40 textile parks in different
contraction of exports to 19 per cent in parts of the country and 15 more are in
August from a high of about 33 per cent the pipeline. Of the sanctioned parks, 10
in March trade experts feel that demand are in Maharashtra, seven in Gujarat, six
is picking up in the western markets. each in Tamil Nadu and Andhra
The US is the major export market of Pradesh, four in Rajasthan and two each
silk items, contributing about 16 per cent in Punjab and West Bengal and one each
in India's earnings from the product, in Karnataka, Assam and Madhya
followed by the UK, the UAE, Italy and Pradesh.
Germany. The parks are intended to provide
Earlier, the Textiles Minister the industry with world-class
Dayanidhi Maran had said India's silk infrastructure to meet international
export is likely to touch Rs 7,000 crore environmental and social standards and.


India - Banarasi silk sarees get Brocades and Sarees fall in four classes
copyright cover
(13-26) that include silk brocades, textile

Banaras silk products have now goods, silk saree, dress material and silk

joined the league of Pochampalli, embroidery. The registration is for 10

Tirupati laddu and Darjeeling tea under years and it may be further renewed.

the registered name of ‘Banaras Kant also said full support has been

Brocades and Sarees’ by securing received from organizations like UK-

Geographical Indication (GI) rights. The based Find Your Feet, Department for

GI rights are the intellectual property International Development and United

rights that restrict others from marketing Nations Conference on Trade and

or processing a product in the same Development (UNCTAD) India in

name. securing the GI status.

The office of assistant director
(handloom) and other applicants have Government may give more funds to

received the GI certificate for Banarasi CoE for technical textiles

silk products. "We dedicate this The government may provide

achievement to lakhs of handloom more funds to the centres of excellence

weavers in the region. It will not only (CoE) for technical textiles which

benefit the handloom weavers, but also provide facilities for testing and human

exporters and consumers," said Rajni resource development."We would be

Kant, Human Welfare Association able to provide much more funding in

(HWA) president and one of the the future (to the centres)," Textiles

applicants confirming the GI status to Secretary Rita Menon said at a workshop

the famed products of the region. onandaposTechnotex-2009andapos,

He said the GI status would jointly organised by the Textiles

benefit about 12 lakh people associated Ministry and FICCI.

directly or indirectly with the handloom The government has set up

silk industry of the region because it centres of excellence in different parts of

would restrict the misuse of Banarasi the country including Mumbai and

saree brand. As per the GI certificate Ahmedabad for meditech, agrotech,

issued by the registrar of GI, the Banaras geotech and protech group of technical


textiles. Under the Bharat Nirman
These centers would be equipped component of the Pradhan Mantri
with modern laboratories and will be Gramin Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), 24,000
accredited to National Accreditation km of roads will be laid in 2009-10 and
Board for Testing and Calibration Geotech will have a market potential
Laboratories (NABL).The government is Rs868 crore, Singh said. He said the
also considering setting up a regulatory government has proposed spending to
framework to promote specialized the tune of Rs3,76,500 crore ($78.5
textiles which are used in various sectors billion) for development of road
like health care, defence and agriculture infrastructure during the 11th Plan
technology.The market size of technical period and the government expects the
textiles is expected to cross Rs 50,000 technical textile industry to shape up to
crore in 2011-12 from Rs 26,000 in exploit the potential.
2006-07. Textile Park planned at Howrah mill
India - Road projects to create a The management of Siddheswari
Rs2,128-crore market for geotech Cotton Mills in Howrah has plans to set
industry by 2012 news up a textile park on its premises. A
The textile ministry expects the proposal will be submitted to the Union
national highway projects and the ministry of textiles. This was announced
Pradhan Mantri Gramin Sadak Yojana by Navneet Kumar Dujari, director of
(PMGSY) together to give a potential the Dujari Group, on Thursday.
market of Rs2,128-crore for the "We plan to manufacture yarn
country's geotech industry.The geotech and dye at the textile park. The park will
industry, which includes geo textiles, generate 500 new jobs. We have
geogrids, geonets, geo-membranes, geo- requested the minister to help us by
composites, etc, will have a business developing infrastructure. Movement of
potential of Rs1,260 crore in the goods may be possible along the nearby
upgradtion of the 21,000km national Rupnarayan river. There is also a need to
highway, Bhupendra Singh, joint develop road infrastructure around the
secretary in the ministry of textiles, said mill," Dujari said. A number of cotton
in New Delhi. mills in Bengal have fallen on hard


times. It is believed such projects could difficulties faced by many Typhoon
work towards their revival. Morakot victims who were trapped in
Taiwan - Local textile industry is remote areas, the two organizations
making strides making alternative donated 450 of these portable power
energy packs to the Ministry of the Interior for
Taiwan's textile industry has establishing an emergency relief
made remarkable advances in telecommunications network in remote
developing green energy, the latest mountainous regions, last week.
example of which is a portable energy
source for 3C electronic product under
six volts that has been successfully
developed locally. The portable power
bank developed jointly by Taiwan
Textile Research Institute and Taiwan
Technical Textile Association combines
the power generating capability of the
flexible solar battery, the conversion
ability of the flexible super capacitor, the
storage and supply mechanism of the
power bank and the system integration
technology of the textile product.
The new flexible solar battery can
convert sunlight to electricity even when
the sunlight is weak and can generate
more power for a longer length of time
using breakthrough carbon fiber
The product is the world's first
textile-based flexible super capacitor that
can be commercially produced.
In light of the communications



The Bermuda Triangle, also somewhere on the Atlantic coast of
known as the Devil's Triangle, is a Miami, San Juan, Puerto Rico; and the
region in the western part of the North mid-Atlantic island of Bermuda, with
Atlantic Ocean in which a number of most of the accidents concentrated along
aircraft and surface vessels are alleged to the southern boundary around the
have mysteriously disappeared and Bahamas and the Florida Straits.
cannot be explained as human error,
piracy, equipment failure, or natural
disasters. Popular culture has attributed
some of these disappearances to the
paranormal, a suspension of the laws of
physics, or activity by extraterrestrial
The area is one of the most
heavily-sailed shipping lanes in the
A substantial body of
world, with ships crossing through it
documentation reveals, however, that a
daily for ports in the Americas, Europe,
significant portion of the allegedly
and the Caribbean Islands. Cruise ships
mysterious incidents have been
are also plentiful, and pleasure craft
inaccurately reported or embellished by
regularly go back and forth between
later authors, and numerous official
Florida and the islands. It is also a
agencies have stated that the number and
heavily flown route for commercial and
nature of disappearances in the region is
private aircraft heading towards Florida,
similar to any other area of ocean.
the Caribbean, and South America from
The Triangle area
points north.
The boundaries of the triangle
cover the Straits of Florida, the Bahamas
and the entire Caribbean island area and
The earliest allegation of unusual
the Atlantic east to the Azores; others
disappearances in the Bermuda area
add to it the Gulf of Mexico. The more
appeared in a September 16, 1950
familiar triangular boundary in most
Associated Press article by E.V.W.
written works has as its points


Jones. Two years later, Fate magazine revealed a number of inaccuracies and
published "Sea Mystery At Our Back inconsistencies between Berlitz's
Door", a short article by George X. Sand accounts and statements from
covering the loss of several planes and eyewitnesses, participants, and others
ships, including the loss of Flight 19, a involved in the initial incidents. Kusche
group of five U.S. Navy TBM Avenger noted cases where pertinent information
bombers on a training mission. Sand's went unreported, such as the
article was the first to lay out the now- disappearance of round-the-world
familiar triangular area where the losses yachtsman Donald Crowhurst, which
took place. It was claimed that the flight Berlitz had presented as a mystery,
leader had been heard saying "We are despite clear evidence to the contrary.
entering white water, nothing seems Another example was the ore-carrier
right. We don't know where we are, the recounted by Berlitz as lost without trace
water is green, no white." Sand's article three days out of an Atlantic port when it
was the first to suggest a supernatural had been lost three days out of a port
element to the Flight 19 incident. In the with the same name in the Pacific
February 1964 issue of Argosy, Vincent Ocean. Kusche also argued that a large
Gaddis's article "The Deadly Bermuda percentage of the incidents which have
Triangle" argued that Flight 19 and other sparked the Triangle's mysterious
disappearances were part of a pattern of influence actually occurred well outside
strange events in the region. The next it. Often his research was simple: he
year, Gaddis expanded this article into a would go over period newspapers of the
book, Invisible Horizons. dates of reported incidents and find
Larry Kusche reports on possibly relevant events like
Lawrence David Kusche, a research unusual weather that were never
librarian from Arizona State University mentioned in the disappearance stories.
and author of The Bermuda Triangle Kusche concluded that:
Mystery: Solved (1975) argued that The number of ships and aircraft
many claims of Gaddis and subsequent reported missing in the area was not
writers were often exaggerated, dubious significantly greater, proportionally
or unverifiable. Kusche's research


speaking, than in any other part of the misconceptions, faulty reasoning, and
ocean. sensationalism.
In an area frequented by tropical Supernatural explanations
storms, the number of disappearances Triangle writers have used a
that did occur was, for the most part, number of supernatural concepts to
neither disproportionate, nor mysterious; explain the events. One explanation pins
furthermore, Berlitz and other writers the blame on leftover technology from
would often fail to mention such storms. the mythical lost continent of Atlantis.
The numbers themselves had been Sometimes connected to the Atlantis
story is the submerged rock formation
known as the Bimini Road off the island
of Bimini in the Bahamas, which is in
the Triangle by some definitions.
Followers of the purported psychic
Edgar Cayce take his prediction that
evidence of Atlantis would be found in
1968 as referring to the discovery of the
exaggerated by sloppy research. A boat
Bimini Road. Believers describe the
listed as missing would be reported, but
formation as a road, wall, or other
its eventual (if belated) return to port
structure, though geologists consider it
may not have been reported.
to be of natural origin.
Some disappearances had in fact,
Charles Berlitz, grandson of a
never happened. One plane crash was
distinguished linguist and author of
said to have taken place in 1937 off
various additional books on anomalous
Daytona Beach, Florida, in front of
phenomena, has kept in line with this
hundreds of witnesses; a check of the
extraordinary explanation, and attributed
local papers revealed nothing.The
the losses in the Triangle to anomalous
Legend of the Bermuda Triangle is a
or unexplained forces.
manufactured mystery, perpetuated by
writers who either purposely or
unknowingly made use of


Natural explanations have been checked for numerous losses;
Compass variations while many sinking have been attributed
Compass problems are one of to surface raiders or submarines during

the cited phrases in many Triangle the World Wars and documented in the
various command log books, many
incidents. While some have
others which have been suspected as
theorized that unusual local
falling in that category have not been
magnetic anomalies may exist in the
proven. It is suspected that the loss of
area, such anomalies have not been USS Cyclops in 1918, as well as her
shown to exist. Compasses have sister ships Proteus and Nereus in World
natural magnetic variations in War II, were attributed to submarines,
relation to the Magnetic poles. For but no such link has been found in the

example, in the United States the German records.
Piracy, as defined by the taking
only places where magnetic
of a ship or small boat on the high seas,
(compass) north and geographic
is an act which continues to this day.
(true) north are exactly the same are
While piracy for cargo theft is more
on a line running from Wisconsin to common in the western Pacific and
the Gulf of Mexico. Navigators Indian oceans, drug smugglers do steal
have known this for centuries. But pleasure boats for smuggling operations,
the public may not be as informed, and may have been involved in crew and

and think there is something yacht disappearances in the Caribbean.
Piracy in the Caribbean was common
mysterious about a compass
from about 1560 to the 1760s, and
"changing" across an area as large
famous pirates included Edward Teach
as the Triangle, which it naturally
(Black beard) and Jean Lafitte.
will. Gulf Stream
Deliberate acts of destruction The Gulf Stream is an ocean
Deliberate acts of destruction can current that originates in the Gulf of
fall into two categories: acts of war, and Mexico, and then through the Straits of
acts of piracy. Records in enemy files Florida, into the North Atlantic. In


essence, it is a river within an ocean, and including the Blake Ridge area, off the
like a river, it can and does carry floating southeastern United States coast.
objects. It has a surface velocity of up to However, according to another of their
about 2.5 metres per second (5.6 mph). papers, no large releases of gas hydrates
A small plane making a water landing or are believed to have occurred in the
a boat having engine trouble can be Bermuda Triangle for the past 15,000
carried away from its reported position years.
by the current. It should also be noted that other areas of
Methane hydrates undersea methane hydrates are not
An explanation for some of the reported to give rise to similar incidents
disappearances has focused on the as the Bermuda Triangle, also that
presence of vast fields of methane bubbles of underwater gas would not
hydrates (a form of natural gas) on the account for aircraft disappearances.
continental shelves. Laboratory
experiments carried out in Australia
have proven that bubbles can, indeed,
sink a scale model ship by decreasing
the density of the water; any wreckage
consequently rising to the surface would
be rapidly dispersed by the Gulf Stream.
It has been hypothesized that periodic
methane eruptions (sometimes called
"mud volcanoes") may produce regions
of frothy water that are no longer
capable of providing adequate buoyancy
for ships. If this were the case, such an
area forming around a ship could cause
it to sink very rapidly and without
Publications by the USGS describe large
stores of undersea hydrates worldwide,



Description reinforcement, filtration and drainage,
Geotextiles are porous fabrics and erosion control.
also known as filter fabrics, road rugs, Some geotextiles are made of
synthetic fabrics, construction fabrics, or biodegradable materials such as mulch
simply fabrics. Geotextiles are matting and netting. Mulch mattings are
manufactured by weaving or bonding jute or other wood fibers that have been
fibers made from synthetic materials formed into sheets and are more stable
such as polypropylene, polyester, than normal mulch. Netting is typically
polyethylene, nylon, polyvinyl chloride, made from jute, wood fiber, plastic,
glass, and various mixtures of these paper, or cotton and can be used to hold
materials. As a synthetic construction the mulching and matting to the ground.
material, geotextiles are used for a Netting can also be used alone to
variety of purposes such as separators, stabilize soils while the plants are
growing; however, it does not retain
moisture or temperature well. Mulch
binders (either asphalt or synthetic) are
sometimes used instead of netting to
hold loose mulches together. Geotextiles
can aid in plant growth by holding seeds,
fertilizers, and topsoil in place. Fabrics
are relatively inexpensive for certain
applications. A wide variety of
geotextiles exist to match the specific
needs of the site.
Geotextiles can be used alone for erosion
control. Geotextiles can be used as
matting, which is used to stabilize the
flow of channels or swales or to protect
seedlings on recently planted slopes until


they become established. Matting may might blow away if not firmly anchored.
be used on tidal or stream banks, where Depending on the type of material used,
moving water is likely to wash out new geotextiles might need to be disposed of
plantings. They can also be used to in a landfill, making them less desirable
protect exposed soils immediately and than vegetative stabilization. If the fabric
temporarily, such as when active piles of is not properly selected, designed, or
soil are left overnight. Geotextiles are installed, the effectiveness may be
also used as separators; for example, as a reduced drastically.
separator between riprap and soil. This
"sandwiching" prevents the soil from
being eroded from beneath the riprap
and maintains the riprap's base.
Siting and Design Considerations
There are many types of
geotextiles available. Therefore, the
selected fabric should match its purpose.
State or local requirements, design
procedures, and any other applicable
requirements should be considered.
Effective netting and matting require
firm, continuous contact between the
materials and the soil. If there is no
contact, the material will not hold the
soil, and erosion will occur underneath
the material.
Geotextiles (primarily synthetic types)
have the potential disadvantage of being
sensitive to light and must be protected
prior to installation. Some geotextiles
might promote increased runoff and



The control room of the customs "This is the Sight. This had better be
platform at Vega 3 Colony Station was a good, Salvador."
quiet place. Moses Salvador was the first "Cut the crap," Moses was not in the
to tell you this. The Core Systems, so mood for this "We got an incoming
boring, so predictable. Most of the ships wormhole on gravimetrics. We're
they got through here were Navy, rewed looking at ?bout 6 incoming ships, ETA
by arrogant sons-of-bitches who thought 15 minutes."
they were better than everyone else, just "Roger that, Lagrange 1. We're on it,"
?cause they got the breaks and joined the Commander Klaus Dreiss, commanding
Navy. officer of the Firm Sight listened with
"Hey, Mos! There any ships due in interest to the reports coming in from the
today?" That came from Paul Kirnon, various stations. It was clear they had
Salvador's superior. He glanced down at unauthorised and unidentified ships on
his chart, sighing. the way in. NAV reported the wormhole
"No, Paul. You ask this every..." probably originated about 13 light years
"Then we got a problem. Check the away in open space, nowhere near any
gravimetrics." Salvador glanced down inhabited systems. A worry in itself.
sluggishly, expecting a glitch, or Still, it was more than likely just a
something that the moronic Kirnon civilian convoy recovering from a badly
would get excited over. He sat up with a calculated jump. God knows he had seen
start: incoming wormhole, a large enough of them in his time.
one."Shit!" He grabbed the radio from "Sir, event horizon in 4 minutes", one of
the console. "Platform Lagrange 1 to the NAV crew reported.
destroyer Firm Sight." "Very well. Signal the corvettes to form
The UENS Firm Sight, and her 4 with us. Bring us within 1500 kilometres
corvette escorts, were the local customs of the horizon, and arm the Rail
enforcement vessels assigned to the Drivers."
backwater that was Vega 3. The comm. The Sight was a Deimos-Class destroyer,
Officer on the destroyer was clearly and could bring a lot of firepower to bear
peeved at being disturbed from his rest. on an unsuspecting enemy. Her 3


RailDriver turrets could waste a hostile controlled energies of the wormhole
from over 100km away in seconds. unleashed on the local space. The event
Dreiss was quite prepared to use them. horizon was easily 50km in diameter.
He heard the rumble of the massive ion Dreiss never grew tired of that sight.
engines powering up, and he settled into However, this time the events
his padded chair as the acceleration surrounding this glorious event would be
began to build, slowly easing them burned into his mind forever.
towards the wormhole's exit point. The "What do we have?" Dreiss asked his
familiar whine of the RailDriver's TAC officer.
capacitors charging up was confirmed by "Just one contact for now. One metre
the turret status lights winking from red diameter, metallic composition,
to green on the TAC map. A general approaching fast. Looks like a standard
buzz seemed to sing through the ship. fuel pod. Wait..." A sudden expression
Finally, the crew thought, maybe a little of horror crossed his face. "SIR! I'm
break to the boredom. picking up-"
Commander, all stations report ready." His voice was cut off as the anti-proton
Dreiss' First Officer reported. warheads contained within the fuel pod
"Good. NAV, time to wormhole?" exploded, overwhelming even the light
"Event horizon in 1 minute, sir." from the wormhole, blinding all those
"EM Sensors to active. I want to know watching. The massive pulse of radiation
what we have as soon as it appears" blew out the sensors on the ship, and
He could see where the wormhole was short circuiting most of the major
going to appear. Minute flashes of light electronic systems. Less than a second
could be glimpsed ahead, indications of later the shockwave hit. The hellish
the massive outpouring to come. He felt energies vaporised the hull plating,
the drives shut off as they brought the turning the warship into a twisted hulk
ship to a relative halt. of slag. Ultimately, the ship's fusion
"10 seconds... here they come. 5... 4... reactor breached, cracking what
3... 2... 1..." remained of the hull like an egg, adding
A brilliant blossom of light bloomed into it's own energy, pathetic in comparison,
existence, the fury of the barely to the maelstrom outside.


Katherine Adams stared idly out seconds, and she crashed to the floor,
the view port at the Navy ship as the screaming in pain as objects crashed into
blue-white glare of its engines carried it her.
away from the station. She and her After what seemed like an eternity, the
husband had moved here only 6 months violent shaking stopped. Loud wailing
ago from Earth, to work in the stations klaxons sounded from outside her room.
hydroponics labs. Life on a space station Frightened, Katherine cautiously picked
was so different from the home they left herself up, wincing at bruised muscles,
behind. Only a couple of hundred and forced herself to look outside.
million people remained on Earth. There She froze again, in sheer terror. Bearing
was so much space; they had felt down on the station with an abominable
isolated and alone. number of guns were five giant
Here, however, it was a totally different. warships, painted red, like demons from
Nearly 500,000 people were living in a Hell itself.
space station a little over 3 km long. "ALL PERSONNEL! GET TO THE
Space was a luxury no one could afford ESCAPE PODS! REPEAT, ALL
up here. Katherine loved it, though. PERSONELL, GET TO THE ESCAPE
Everyone seemed to know everyone, the PODS IMMEDIATELY!" a voice
air was clean, work was fulfilling. She screamed over the intercom.
would never go back to the way things She backed towards the door, unable to
were. take her eyes of the certain death those
She gasped in amazement as a wormhole ships brought with them. She heard
appeared outside, a bright speck in the people shouting, screaming, and running
far distance. The sheer beauty alHer in the corridor outside. Wrenching the
mind froze. The massive explosion door open, she joined them as through
happened so suddenly, and so silently. the deck plates she felt impacts, surely
As if in slow motion, the wave of the weapons from those demonic
destruction spread out, seeming to come starships.
towards her, and only her. The deck The last thing she saw was a blinding
heaved underneath her as the wave of storm of energy as the area in front of
destruction hit the station after a few


her was ripped to shreds by the bastards shot, and every last one of their
unstoppable force of the cannons. followers hunted down like the dogs
(2 Days Later) they are!"
"Good afternoon. As I am sure you are The Senate erupted with violent
all aware, on the 19th August, at 1650 applause and angry cheers. The senator
hours standard, the Vega 3 Colony knew he had them, knew that, like him,
Station was attacked and destroyed by they would not stop until every last one
the terrorist organization ?Fires of of the goddamn terrorists lay dead or
Change'." Senator Liam Aldritch stares dying at their feet. ways left her
up at the sea of sober faces in the Senate breathless. The small Navy starships
chamber before continuing. were just distinguishable a short distance
"Over 500,000 people lost their lives in away. She wondered what they could
this savage and brutal act of genocide. find interesting about a wormhole. They
Five Hundred Thousand INNOCENT certainly saw enough of them in their
PEOPLE!" He hears angry murmurs work; surely they were used to them by
circulating among his audience. now.
"This is a tragedy the likes of which we
have not seen in 200 years. A crime of
this audacity, of this magnitude, cannot
go unpunished."
"This so-called revolutionist movement
has proven itself to be a malignant
cancer on what remains of our fragile
stability. That is why, in conjunction
with Fleet Admiral Bausch, I have
ordered the 2nd Task Force to hunt
down the ?Fires of Change' leaders and
bring them to justice. I will see those



Introduction whose structures are modified at
From their first appearance as between two and four different levels of
sutures more than 4000 years ago to organization.
their present use in products ranging Of the many different types of
from gowns and wound dressings to polymers, only a few can be made into
arterial and skin grafts, fibers and fabrics useful fibers. This is because a polymer
have been explored as potential must meet certain requirements before it
materials for novel applications in
medicine and surgery. This continuous
interest has its basis in the unique
properties of fibers—which in many
respects resemble biological materials—
and in their ability to be converted into a
wide array of desired end products.
This article will provide a brief
introduction to polymer fibers, textiles,
and related structures used in medicine
and will discuss the principles governing
the performance of these materials.
Current product concerns and
developmental activities will also be can be successfully and efficiently

reviewed. converted into a fibrous product. Some

Manufacturing Medical Fabrics of the most important of these

Medical textile products are requirements are:
 Polymer chains should be linear,
based on fabrics, of which there are four
types: woven, knitted, braided, and long, and flexible.
 Side groups should be simple,
nonwoven (see Figure 1). There is,
therefore, a hierarchy of structure: the small, or polar.
 Polymers should be dissolvable
performance of the final textile product
is affected by the properties of polymers or meltable for extrusion.


 Chains should be capable of absorbed faster (e.g., polyglycolic acid,
being oriented and crystallized. polyglactin acid) and others more slowly
(e.g., polyglyconate). Semi absorbable
Common fiber-forming polymers materials such as cotton and silk
include cellulosics (linen, cotton, rayon, generally cause less reaction, although
acetate), proteins (wool, silk), the tissue response may continue for an
polyamides, polyester (PET), olefins, extended time. Nonabsorbable materials
vinyls, acrylics, polytetrafluoroethylene (e.g., nylon, polyester, and
(PTFE), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polypropylene) tend to be inert and to
aramids (Kevlar, Nomex), and provoke the least reaction. To minimize
polyurethanes (Lycra, Pellethane, tissue reaction, the use of catalysts and
Biomer). Each of these materials is additives is carefully controlled in
unique in chemical structure and medical-grade products.
potential properties. For example, among Fibers
the polyurethanes is an elastomeric As discussed, of the many types
material with high elongation and elastic of polymers, only a few can be made
recovery, whose properties nearly match into useful fibers that can then be
those of elastin tissue fibers. This converted into textile products. To make
material—when extruded into fiber, fibers, polymers are extruded by wet,
fibrillar, or fabric form—derives its high dry, or melt spinning and then processed
elongation and elasticity from alternating to obtain the desired texture, shape, and
patterns of crystalline hard units and size. Through careful control of
noncrystalline soft units. morphology, fibers can be manufactured
The reactivity of tissues in with a range of mechanical properties.
contact with fibrous structures varies Tensile strength can vary from textile
among materials and is governed by both values of 2—6 g/d (gram/denier) up to
chemical and physical characteristics. industrial values of 6—10 g/d. For high-
Absorbable materials typically excite performance applications, such as body
greater tissue reaction, a result of the armor or structural composites, novel
nature of the absorption process itself. spinning techniques can produce fibers
Among the available materials, some are with strengths approaching 30 g/d.


Likewise, breaking extension can be strength, stiffness, abrasion resistance,
varied over a broad range, from 10— and mechanical patency.
40% for textile to 1—15% for industrial Strength:
and 100—500% for elastomeric fibers. Among the many factors
Fabrics affecting a fabric's strength is the
The three prevalent fabric variability in properties—especially
structures used for medical implants or elongation—of its constituent elements.
sutures are woven, knitted and braided. Usually, greater the variability in
Knitted fabrics can be either weft or elongation at break, the lesser the
warp knit, and braided products can strength. Products requiring high
include tubular structures, with or strength (e.g., artificial ligaments) must
without a core, as well as ribbon. incorporate elements whose properties
There are also numerous medical range within a narrow limit.
uses for nonwoven fabrics (wipes, Stiffness
sponges, dressings, gowns), made Bending stiffness which governs
directly from fibers that are needle- the handling, comfort, and
felted, hydro entangled, or bonded conformability of a fabric is a critical
through a thermal, chemical, or adhesive parameter in a number of medical
process. Nonwovens may also be made applications. A low value is usually
directly from a polymer. For example, desirable. Generally, higher the denier or
expanded polytetrafluoroethylene the modulus or lower the specific
products such as sutures and arterial gravity, the higher the bending stiffness.
grafts and electro statically spun In addition, a trilobal or tubular structure
polyurethane used as tubular structures produces a stiffer product than does a
are examples of medical applications of solid circular structure of the same area
polymer-to-fabric nonwovens.2 or linear density.
Textile Performance Principles Monofilament materials are
Textile materials for medical much stiffer than multifilament. With all
applications typically have specific other factors constant, the bending
performance requirements relating to stiffness of a monofilament product such
as a suture of denier T will be


roughly n times greater than a surfaces, and highly oriented materials
multifilament structure with n filaments generally exhibit low abrasion resistance.
of denier T/n each. The use of However, coating a bundle of fibers with a
multifilament yarns and/or fine-denier low-friction polymer can enhance its
fibers in the yarn produces a more resistance to abrasion.
flexible and supple end product. Knot Surgical Sutures:
efficiency—the ratio of the tensile For surgical sutures, the
strength of knotted to unknotted predominant areas of concern are
thread—is affected by elongation at strength, capillarity, sliding and
break and bending stiffness. Most often, positioning of knots, knot security, and
greater the elongation, or the lower the handling characteristics. The recent
stiffness, the greater the knot efficiency. focus of suture research has been on
Abrasion Resistance: improving the structure of the braids
Whenever fibers, yarns, or (two recently proposed products are
fabrics rub against themselves or other spiral- and lattice-braided
structures, abrasion resistance assumes materials), reducing the difference in the
an important role. A high value is elongational properties between the core
usually desirable, especially in and the sheath yarns, using finer-denier
applications such as artificial ligaments filaments in the sheath yarns, and
or tendons. The abrasion resistance of a improving knot security and
yarn is influenced by several factors: performance by exposing a two-throw
 The denier of the fiber (the lower the square knot to laser-beam energy. In a
denier, the lower the resistance). recently conducted experiment, it was
 The amount of twist in the yarn that shown that exposing a two-throw square
binds the fibers together knot tied in a 3-0 Mersilene suture to
 The orientation of molecules in the energy from a CO2 laser beam for a brief
fibers period of time not only made the knot
 The surface coefficient of friction fully secure but also led to an increase in
knot strength of appoximately 16% .The
Therefore, one can conclude that micro effect on knot-breaking strength of
denier fibers, low-twist yarns, rough exposing a two-throw square knot tied in


3-0 Mersilene to energy from a containing albumin, gelatin, or
CO2 laser beam. collagen are also ongoing.
Vascular Grafts
Regarding vascular grafts, the
lack of healing, compliance, and suture-
line patency continue to be concerns,
especially in small-caliber (< 6 mm
diam) grafts. Three important efforts that
highlight global developmental activities
in this area are:
 The use of semi absorbable
structures, with absorbable
components, woven or knitted, in Ligaments and Tendons.
the inner tube wall. Finally, in the area of artificial
 The use of spray technology in ligaments and tendons, desirable
conjunction with elastomeric properties include high strength, high
polymers to produce collagen- elasticity, low abrasion, low creep, and
like fiber structures with low stiffness. Current research
biomechanical compliant endeavors are examining the use of
properties.2 ultra-high-strength fibers (e.g., Spectra
 The incorporation of elastomeric from AlliedSignal), threads containing
components in the weft threads layers of both absorbable inelastic and
of woven prostheses. Using this nonabsorbable elastic fibers, and
technique, woven grafts of 4- to coatings with biocompatible polymers to
6-mm diam could be produced, reduce abrasion and restrict escape of
with transverse compliance abraded particles from within the
comparable to that of canine and structure.
other similarly sized arteries. Conclusion
 Experiments with endothelial cell Textile materials continue to
seeding and with coated grafts serve an important function in the
development of a range of medical and


surgical products. The introduction of
new materials, the improvement in
production techniques and fiber
properties, and the use of more accurate
and comprehensive testing have all had
significant influence on advancing fibers
and fabrics for medical applications. As
more is understood about medical
textiles, there is every reason to believe
that a host of valuable and innovative
products will emerge.









Introduction activated sludge process. An advance

Discharge of untreated dye process Submerged Aerated Fixed Film
Reactor (SAFF) has been developed to
effluents not only impact colour to
overcome various operational difficulties
the receiving water but also
arising during the operation of
interferes with its intended
conventional activated sludge process. A
beneficial use. Development of schematic of the experimental system is
effective treatment technology for illustrated in figure 1.
colour removal from dye wastes has Submerged Aerated Fixed Film
been rather baffling. This is Reactor (SAFF) unit

primarily due to their diverse and A three compartment rectangular
unit made of plexiglass used for
continuously changing character,
continuous-flow studies. The unit is 135
complex chemical nature, persistent
cm long and 30 cm wide. The depth of
colour, inhibitory and non-
the unit is 60 cm. The liquid depth in the
biodegradable nature and toxicity. unit reaches 50 cm though inlet and
Dyes used in the plant are mainly outlet pipes provided at the level. This
reactive, Vat, Acid and Basic dyes. SAFF reactor is mainly based on the
1. Characterization of wastewater principle of „ATTACHED GROWTH
from the textile finishing plant; PROCESS” and comprises mainly of
2. Establishment of the treat ability following components which includes:
parameters of textile effluents; 1. PLASTIC MEDIA – which
and provides surface area for the
3. Assessment of alternative for the micro-organisms to grow
treatment of textile wastewater. 2. DIFFUSED AERATION
Materials and Methods SYSTEM – Membrane type air
Laboratory experiment was diffusers are provided to ensure
performed at room temperature (25-30 high oxygen transfer efficiency
Celsius) in experimental unit for


to fulfill from oxygen demand media face. As a result of having no
exerted by micro-organisms. external organic source available,
3. BAFFLES – To facilitate smooth bacteria near the media face enters into
flow of effluent from one an endogenous phase of growth (i.e.
compartment to another. Micro-organisms starts consuming
Experimental procedure organic matter of their own cells and of
1. The organic matter present in the other cells) and lose their ability to get
waste water is degraded by a population attach to the media surface. The liquid
of micro-organisms attached to the then washes the slime off the media and
plastic media. Organic matter from the new slime layer starts to grow.
liquid is absorbed onto the biological Results and Discussion
film (Slime) developed on the media. As per the results given in the
This biological film contains aerobic, table 1, the average values of raw
anaerobic and facultative bacteria, fungi,
effluent parameters (BOD & COD)
algae and protozoan which are
present in larger amount on
responsible for degradation of organic
comparing with permissible limits
matter in the effluent.
2. When waste water passes though of ISI: 2490: 1982 standard (Table
SAFF reactor, nutrients and oxygen 3). It has been shown in the figure 2.
diffuse into the slime, where assimilation In general, the higher the BOD, the
occurs and byproducts and CO2 diffuse water sample is most polluted. The more
out of the slime into the flowing liquid. oxygen consumed by micro-organisms
As oxygen diffuses into the biological in degrading organic compounds and
film, it is consumed by microbial organic pollutants may contribute
respiration, so that defined depth of towards objectionable odor and taste of
aerobic activity is developed. Slime drinking water. As per results given in
below this depth is anaerobic. the table 2, the average values of treated
3. The slime layer increase in thickness, effluent parameters (BOD & COD)
the adsorbed organic matter is present in smaller amount on comparing
metabolized before it can reach the with permissible limits of ISI: 2490:
micro-organisms near the bio-reactor 1982 standard (Table 3). BOD and


COD could be reduced more than 85 %. Characteristics of
Characteristics Limits
of Raw Effluent S. Parameters Permissible
Month pH BOD COD No limits (mg/L)

January 8.10 162.3 732.3 1 pH 5.5 to 9.0

February 7.95 154.3 728.0 2 BOD 30

March 7.98 146.0 451.6 3 COD 250

April 7.91 133.1 632.6

May 7.97 138.6 724.3

June 7.95 128.6 814.7

July 8.12 115.7 764.6 Conclusion
The characteristics of the textile waste
August 8.08 132.3 762.3
water are typical of industrial wastes.
Activated sludge treatment was
demonstrated to be a variable means of
of Treated
effective treatment of textile waste
waters. The performance of the activated
Month pH BOD COD sludge system for treating textile
January 7.71 15.2 78.5 wastewater could be improved by the

February 7.82 13.7 92.4 application of lower organic loadings
(0.1-0.2 Kg BOD5 / Kg MLSS / day).
March 7.68 11.4 110.1

April 7.84 14.8 88.5

May 7.80 9.4 79.4
June 7.63 12.7 92.7

July 7.92 13.6 82.4

August 7.81 11.8 68.3



Introduction alumina, beryllia, magnesia, thoria,

During the last decade, zirconia, silicon carbide, quartz and high

Continuous Fiber-reinforced Ceramic silica reinforcements. Although glass is

matrix Composites (CFCCs) have gained also a ceramic material, glass fibers are
substantial interest for high temperature not generally included. Ceramic fibers

applications in high-performance space are produced by chemical vapor

and military domains, such as heat deposition, melt drawing, spinning and

shields, aircraft exhaust flaps and rocket extrusion. Their main advantage is high
nozzles. They advantageously replace strength and modulus.

metallic materials which are not Polmer Derived Ceramic Fibers
sufficient for use in devices that are Preparation:
being subjected to harsh environments Usually, polymer-derived ceramic
requiring a tolerance to high temperature fibers are defined as materials in
and a resistance to corrosion. The range elongated form with a circular section
of fibers suited for this applications is having a small diameter (,20 mm), a
limited. With respect to their light high length-to-diameter ratio, a good
weight, thermal shock resistance, creep tensile strength (s ¼ 2 GPa) and a low
resistance and relatively high tensile density (d=3). In a typical PDCFs
strength and modulus values, only non- process, the molecular precursors
oxide ceramic fibers in appropriate prepared from commercially available
compositions make them useful for such compounds are subjected to a chemical
applications. Nowadays these ceramic process with linking reagents and/or
fibers find wide range of application in thermolysis to form the polymers which
apparel industries. are composed of the basal monomeric
Ceramic fibers structural units. It is required that the
These are continuous fibers of preceramic polymers are composed of
metal oxides or refractory oxides which the elements of the ceramics in a desired
are resistant to high temperatures (2000- chemical environment, preferentially in
3000°F). This class of fibers includes the same stoichiometry in order to (i)


avoid segregation of elements during In their initial state, the fiber-forming
conversion, (ii) limit structural polymers are preferentially solids and
rearrangements, and therefore (iii) retain therefore must be first converted into a
a structural homogeneity in the final fluid state for extrusion. The preferred
material. Besides, polymers should be method of spinning is melt spinning,
synthesized in such a way that they primarily because
exhibit defined rheological properties in (i) there is no solvent to be
order to form a thick, viscous liquid at a recovered as in solution
reasonable temperature which can be spinning,
forced through spinneret thus forming (ii) the spinning rates are high,
continuous filaments during the further (iii) it is the most economical
spinning step.While extruded fibers are method.
solidifying, the filaments are stretched The spinning of preceramic
into fine-diameter green fibers. polymers is generally far from
A schematic representation of the conventional mainly due to the viscosity
PDCFs route is reported in Fig. PDCFs which is considerably more temperature-
process sensitive than most of the classical
spinnable materials. As-spun fibers are
then cured to prevent the loss of fiber
integrity through a heating procedure in
which can be included an optional
chemical processess.


The functional groups and structural depending on the composition of initial
motifs which help to the polymer precursors. Additionally, these
spinnability should also allow polymers amorphous states can be crystallized to
to be cross-linked, thereby fibers to be stable or metastable phases by a further
cured.As-cured fibers are finally annealing. It should be mentioned that
transformed into non-oxide amorphous all process stages are carried out in a
ceramic fibers by an appropriate thermal controlled atmosphere (inert or reactive)
treatment keeping in mind that weight and that green fibers should be
loss and gas evolution associated with maintained under tension during the
the polymer-to-ceramic conversion are polymer-to-ceramic conversion to
as low as possible to limit breakage. prevent their crimping caused by the
thermal shrinkage.
Ceramic yarns
Ceramic yarn is one of the man-made
mineral fibers, popularly known as
mineral wool. They are made from
natural or synthetic minerals or metal
oxides. Ceramic yarn is noted for its
high temperature resistance above
The Making of Ceramic Yarn
To make ceramic fibers, chemicals like
silica are heated until they are molten,
and then they are spun into hair-like
Extrusion of polymer melt and
strands. To make ceramic yarns, ceramic
stretching, emerging viscous filament
fibers are carded with a blend of organic
into a finer diameter solid fiber by a
fibers to make rovings. Rovings are soft
rotating spool
strands of fiber that have been twisted,
As-obtained amorphous ceramics have
attenuated, and freed from foreign
an homogenous atomic distribution and,
matters such as dust etc. before
in this state, represent a new class of
converting into yarn. Then a
materials with very interesting properties


reinforcement of glass filament or steel excellent fire protection. Ceramic cloth
wire is introduced to it. This keeps our body cool.
combination is then spun to produce the Characteristics:
ceramic yarns. In applications where  Low coefficient of heat-
tensile strength is significant, textiles conduction ratio, low thermal
manufactured from a glass filament capacity, Thermal shock
reinforced yarn may be used up to resistance,
550ºC. Textiles manufactured from steel  High quality of flexility and tear
reinforced yarn may be used up to resistance. Not include asbestos,
1050°C. Where tensile strength is not so erosion resistance.
important, yarns and textiles may be  High quality of insulation and
used up to 1260ºC. sound insulation.
Ceramic cloth
 Easiness of mechanical
Ceramic fabric or cloth is made by
weaving, knitting, braiding, or extrusion.
 Tough texture and high quality of
Materials can also be needlepunched or
compression resistance.
formed from slurries (wet laid). Fibrous
monofilaments or single-fiber threads
Ceramic fibers are used as
are often used in reinforcement
insulation materials and are a significant
applications. Multi-fiber threads are used
replacement for asbestos. Due to their
in sewing or stitching. The blanket is
ability to withstand high temperatures,
lightweight, flexible, and available in a
they are used primarily for lining
wide variety of thicknesses, widths and
furnaces and kilns. The products
densities. Blanket resists temperature as
produced are in the form of blankets,
high as 2300º. This material is
boards, felts, bulk fibers,
lightweight and has very low thermal
Vacuum-formed or cast shapes, paper,
conductivity, excellent handling
and textile products. Their light weight,
strength, low heat storage, thermal shock
thermal shock resistance, and strength
resistance and corrosion resistance
make them useful in a number of
(commonly used acid and alkali). It also
industries. Ceramic textile products, such
provides excellent sound absorption and
as yarns and fabrics, are used


extensively in such end-products as heat Teflon are used as sewing threads for
resistant clothing, flame curtains for manufacturing high-temperature
furnace openings, thermocoupling and insulation shapes for aircraft and space
electrical insulation, gasket and vehicles. These are also used for repair,
wrapping insulation, coverings for insulation and linings for furnaces, kilns,
induction-heating furnace coils, cable generators, reformers, boilers, etc. and
and wire insulation for braided sleeving, insulation for steam and gas turbines,
infrared radiation diffusers, insulation nuclear applications and power plants,
for fuel lines and high pressure portable and other high temperature equipment.
flange covers. Fibers that are coated with



1 2 3 4





9 10

11 12

13 14

15 16

17 16

19 20 21





1. Nylon 12 is polymerized from this. 2.This is the Coloration process of glass
6. This is a kind of twill with ribs in
both sides.
3. These dyes-change the color of the
clothes on exposure to sunlight.
8. These fillers such as finely divided
carbon black increase the tensile and tear
4. Yarn with flecks of different colored
strength of the mix.
fiber is called as……

9. Initial edge of a knitted fabric is
5. This part of the needle aids the
called as…..
bobbin shuttle to pick up the thread.

13. A type of textile weaving in which a
7. This is a sheer ,crisp cotton fabric
thread is inserted on a primary base.
with either clipped spot or swivel dots-
dotted swiss.
15. Oswal Knit ties up with this Italian
10. In ring spinning, this region is near
the midpoint of front roller.
17. Moisture regain of this fibre is 3.2 to
11. The fabric in which weft or warp is
tie-dyed before weaving.
19. A type of polyester fabric that is
widely used in making clothes like
basketball uniforms & football uniforms. 12. This forms the simplest chain-growth
20. PR Roy is the father of
Indian...industry. 14. This is a mechanical finish used to
produce a compact wool fabric.
21. These fibers in textiles refer to sub-
denier fiber. 16. This is called as golden fibre which
is 100% bio-degradable & recyclable.

22. this type of yarns are produced
from thin sheet or films of polymer that 18 . This is also known as china grass.
is cut into narrow strips or ribbons.

23. In this vat method, ferrous sulphate
and slaked lime are used to reduce and
solubilise indigo.



R A T C H E N I N G Table 1


Related Interests