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STCP

The CUTE project in STCP

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STCP’s Short history

• 1872 – First line with American cars

• 1878 – Use of steam power traction

• 1895 – 1ª line with electric tramway in all Iberian Peninsula

• 1904 – End of animal traction

• 1914 – End of steam traction

• 1948 – Begin of buses utilization

• 1959 – Begin of trolley buses utilization

• 2000 – Begin of CNG buses utilization

• 2003 – Test of Fuel Cell buses

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STCP

Porto Metropolitan Area

Demography: Total Population
1,256 (103)
PÓVOA DO
VARZIM
inhabitants/Ha
]0,10]
]10,30]
]30,60]
]60,100]
>100
VILA DO
CONDE

MAIA

MATOSINHOS
VALONGO

PORTO

GONDOMAR

GAIA

ESPINHO

The Company in Figures
Activity
PASSENGERS

109 million

VEHICLE-KILOMETRES TRAVELLED

30 million

NET REVENUE FROM TRAFFIC

46.7 million Euros

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STCP

The Company in Figures
Network

AREA COVERED 6 Councils
52 Communities

NETWORK KM 533
STOPS 2,712
NUMBER OF LINES 83
Buses 80
Trams 3

The Company in Figures
Resources

NUMBER OF VEHICLES 501
Buses 493
Trams 8
TOTAL STAFF AT
DECEMBER 31ST, 2007 1,645
EQUITY CAPITAL 79.6 million Euros

INVESTMENTS 25 million Euros

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STCP

The Company in Figures
Bus Fleet

Bus fleet - 493
Standard buses - 463 (225 CNG buses)
Articulated buses - 30 (CNG buses)

Annual diesel consumption - 6,9 million litres
(2007)

Annual NG consumption - 9,1 million m³ (2007)

Clean Urban Transport for Europe

The use of hydrogen
The CUTE project

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Why – CUTE: Needs for the Fuel Cell Technology

 Lack of field experience with fuel cell systems and electric
engines in mobile applications

 Operability of on-site hydrogen production facilities and referring
high pressure filling stations

 Country specific certification of fuel cell systems and high
pressure hydrogen storage systems

 Acceptance tests of the new technology and of hydrogen as a fuel

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Vision: Clean and quiet urban transport.

CUTE ECTOS
 Public
transportation:
Stockholm
 Icelandic New
London
Amsterdam Energy
Luxembourg  EU
Hamburg  Shell,
Stuttgart  NorskHydro
Porto
Barcelona
 DC/EvoBus
Madrid  and many more
 EU
 BP, Shell, ...
 DC/EvoBus
 and many more

Each city is operating three
Mercedes-Benz Fuel Cell Citaro

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Vision: Clean and quiet urban transport.

Beijing
STEP CUTE ECTOS
FC Trial
 Western Australian  9 Public
transportation  Icelandic New
 CICETE/MOST Government Energy
 BP, BOC agencies
 UNDP  EU
BP  Path Transit  BP, Shell, ...
  Shell,
 DC/EvoBus  DC/EvoBus  DC/EvoBus  NorskHydro
 and many more  and many more  and many more  DC/EvoBus
 and many more

Beijing
Perth

Each city is operating three
Mercedes-Benz Fuel Cell Citaro

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

The CUTE partners companies Clean Urban Transport for Europe

Ballard Power Systems
GVB Amsterdam TMB Barcelona Busslink
bp
DaimlerChrysler EvoBus
EvoBus

HHA Hamburg London Transport Environment &
First Group Health Protection
agency
Shell
Hydrogen

AVL Luxembourg Gas Natural Hamburger
EMT Madrid
Elektrizitätswerke
Air Liquide

Norsk Hydro
INE Reykjavik STCP Porto Milieudienst
Amsterdam Fortum Xcellsis

Neckarwerke
SL Stockholm SSB Stuttgart Stuttgart

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Hydrogen Supply Pathways in CUTE, ECTOS and STEP

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Time Schedule: CUTE / ECTOS and STEP
Decision about
main capital invest Delivery 1st. FC Citaro
(infrastructure, buses) UITP Congress, Madrid
Delivery 3 FC Citaro
Integration of FC in Citaro to Western Australia

18 Month FC-Tests

End
Test
bus Europe
Contract FCE-
Assembly
Signature Assembly
End
Delivery STEP

H2 generation & filling station Demonstration phase

EC-
Decision

I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Fuel Cell Principles
H2 - Hydrogen

t
Anode(-) talys Steam
Ca
Cathode(+)
Electrons
Protons
O2

O2 - H2 H2O
Oxygen
Catalyst Electrolyt (PEM Slide)

H2 + 1/2 O2 -> H2O + Heat + Electric power

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Citaro Fuel Cell Bus -
Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Technical Design
Ballard Fuel
Cell Supply Unit
Ballard Fuel Cell Modules
(> 125 kW fc gross power each)
Modine Convection Cooler Unit
Dynetek Composite
Hydrogen Tanks (350 Webasto Air
Bar, 40 kg H2, Condition Unit
Al-Liner, Carbon Fibre)
Rouland
ZF Automatic Transmission Electric Motor

DaimlerChrysler PTU
distribution gearcase
Auxiliary Components
Saminco Power Inverter, etc.

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe

One of each city‘s
fuel cell bus

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Porto fuel cell bus Clean Urban Transport for Europe

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe

Porto

Natural Gas Bus

Fuel Cell Bus Diesel Euro 3 bus

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Clean Urban Transport for Europe

Fuel Cell Bus Program
TOTAL KILOMETERS
km/h
Madrid
site (per bus)
Hamburg

7%
4% 6% 17% Barcelona Amsterdam 18,7
11% Reykjavik
14%
Stuttgart Barcelona 10,3
Luxembourg
9%
13%
5% Am sterdam
Stockholm
Hamburg 16.9
14%
Porto
London
London 10.3
Fuel Cell Bus Program Luxembourg 13,6
TOTAL HOURS

Madrid Madrid 11,0
Hamburg
6% 7% 20% Barcelona Porto 9,5
9% Reykjavik
Stuttgart Reykjavik 16,3
8% 10% Luxembourg

9% 7%
Amsterdam Stockholm 9,8
13% 11% Stockholm
Porto Stuttgart 13,2
London

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Survey by the cities

Monthly mileage per bus

2500
Km

2000

1500

1000

500

0
BAR POR MAD LON LUX HAM AVE STO REY STU AMS
City

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Feedback from the public

Amsterdam Barcelona Hamburg Stockholm Madrid Stuttgart London Luxembourg Porto

buses in operation since 14-12-2003 24-11-2003 16-09-2003 07-01-2004 19.06./07. 05-11-2003 13-01-2004 October '03 04-02-2004
08./01.10.
03
passengers satisfied with very well very well quite well very well very well very well very well very well very well
buses
feedback from local ambivalent very rather very rather from rather very positive rather very well
media positive positive positive positive negative to positive
very positive

feedback from opinion hardly any positive rather very hardly any if any, rather very positive rather very
leaders and decision yet positive positive yet positive positive positive
makers

On a “good” day up to 10.000 passengers drive on the 33 Fuel Cell Citaro

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Experiences with H2 Infrastructure (I)

 steam reformers displayed considerable start-up problems;
 were expected because these are both prototypes; problems overcome
meanwhile
 several issues with compressors of various suppliers and types;
 most serious: perforation of a diaphragm and dilution of bus gas cylinders
 refuelling algorithms had to be fine-tuned at several sites (software /
parameter adjustments)

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Experiences with H2 Infrastructure (II)

 problems with the refuelling nozzles; sorted out in co-operation with the
component manufacturer
 operators are on the whole satisfied with their hydrogen supply
installations (despite problems at single sites)
 difficulties that have occurred so far mainly considered as “teething
problems”

 operators are satisfied with hydrogen-related adaptations of the
workshops

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Survey by the cities

3.5

3
H2 supply performance

2.5
ratings

2

1.5

1

0.5
AMS ELEC LUX TRAI POR TRAI STU GASR AVE HAM ELEC PER TRAI REY ELEC STO ELEC MAD GASR
supply system

Engineers' competence Speed of trouble shooting and solving Reliability

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Survey by the cities

3

Filling station reliability
2.5

2
ratings

1.5

1

0.5
AMS LUX POR STU AVE HAM PER STO LON MAD REY

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe

Porto
STCP line

Alenquer
LINDE Factory

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Essential parts of the
GH2-Fillingstation Clean Urban Transport for Europe

Bundle-Filling
Hydrogen e.g: Hydrogen
Trailer, storage
300 bar
Steam-Reformer, Bufferbundle
300 bar 300 bar
Elektrolyzer H2-Compressor
150 - 300 m3/h
H2 7 - 20 bar

7-20 bar
150 - 300 m3/ h

Dispenser
COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe

Hydrogen-Filling
High-Booster
by Bundle
operation
(250 - 300 bar)
H2 by e.g.:
Trailer,
250 - 300 bar
Steam-Reformer,
~ 3000 m3/h 300 bar
Elekrtolyzer
Booster-Operation
150 - 300 m3/h
H2 7 - 20 bar

7 - 20 bar
150 - 300 m3/h
438 bar, 85°C
250 - 300 bar
= 350 bar, 15°C

250 - 300 bar
438 bar
~ 3000 m3/h
max 85 °C

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Porto filling station
Clean Urban Transport for Europe

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
Summary / Outlook
• The Fuel Cell Citaro receives a very positive feed back from both
the transport companies and the passengers
• Initial problems with some vehicle components have been solved
• The Fuel Cell stacks showed very high reliability

• Decentralised hydrogen production facilities have to be improved
(cheaper and more reliable) and the high pressure refuelling station
need to be further developed

• “Prepare the administration/certification bodies for the hydrogen
technology”

• The complete power train of alternative driven vehicles still needs
substantial efforts to gain equivalent „automotive reliability“ like
actual Diesel driven vehicles
COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Clean Urban Transport for Europe
The CUTE, ECTOS and STEP Team

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

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STCP

Clean Urban Transport for Europe

For more information about the
CUTE project

Visit our Web-Site:
www.fuel-cell-bus-club.com

COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Clean Urban Transport for Europe

Thank you for your attention !

rteixeira@stcp.pt
COFUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION DGTT

Rocha Teixeira