0 Up votes0 Down votes

91 views8 pagesMay 17, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

91 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Steve Jobs
- Wheel of Time
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook, Red Letter Edition
- Cryptonomicon
- The Woman Who Smashed Codes: A True Story of Love, Spies, and the Unlikely Heroine who Outwitted America's Enemies
- Contagious: Why Things Catch On
- Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Technology Project
- Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are
- Zero to One: Notes on Start-ups, or How to Build the Future
- Console Wars: Sega, Nintendo, and the Battle that Defined a Generation
- Dust: Scarpetta (Book 21)
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Crushing It!: How Great Entrepreneurs Build Their Business and Influence—and How You Can, Too
- Make Time: How to Focus on What Matters Every Day
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- Wild Cards

You are on page 1of 8

, M-QAM)

In May 2008, we derived the theoretical symbol error rate for a general M-QAM

modulation (in Embedded.com, DSPDesignLine.com and dsplog.com) under Additive

White Gaussian Noise. While re-reading that post, felt that the article is nice and warrants

a re-run, using OFDM as the underlying physical layer. This post discuss the derivation

of symbol error rate for a general M-QAM modulation. The companion Matlab script

compares the theoretical and the simulated symbol error rate for 16QAM, 64QAM and

256QAM over OFDM in AWGN channel.

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) schemes like 16-QAM, 64-QAM are used in

typical wireless digital communications specifications like IEEE802.11a, IEEE802.16d.

In this post let us derive the equation for probability of symbol being in error for a

general M-QAM constellation, given that the signal (symbol) to noise ratio is .

The general M-QAM constellation

The number of points in the constellation is defined as, where is the number of

bits in each constellation symbol. In this analysis, it is desirable to restrict to be an even

number for the following reasons (Refer Sec 5.2.2 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-

MESSERSCHMITT]):

1. Half the bits are represented on the real axis and half the bits are represented on

imaginary axis. The in-phase and quadrature signals are independent level Pulse

Amplitude Modulation (PAM) signals. This simplifies the design of mapper.

2. For decoding, symbol decisions may be applied independently on the real and

imaginary axis, simplifying the receiver implementation.

Note that the above square constellation is not the most optimal scheme for a given signal

to noise ratio.

Average energy of an M-QAM constellation

In a general M-QAM constellation where and the number of bits in each

constellation is even, the alphabets used are:

, where .

For example, considering a 64-QAM ( ) constellation,

and the alphabets are

.

For computing the average energy of the M-QAM constellation, let us proceed as

follows:

(a) Find the sum of energy of the individual alphabets

(b) Each alphabet is used times in the M-QAM constellation.

(c) So, to find the average energy from constellation symbols, divide the product of

(a) and (b) by .The average energy is,

.

Plugging in the number for 64-QAM,

.

Plugging in the number for 16-QAM,

.

From the above explanations, it is reasonably intuitive to guess that the scaling factor

of , which is seen along with 16-QAM, 64-QAM constellations respectively is

for normalizing the average transmit power to unity.

Finding the symbol error rate

For computing the symbol error rate for an M-QAM modulation, let us consider the 64-

QAM constellation as shown in the figure below and extend it to the M-QAM case.

Figure: Constellation plot for 64-QAM modulation (without the scaling factor

of )

As can be seen from the above figure, there are three types of constellation points in a

general M-QAM constellation:

(a) Constellation points in the corner (red-square)

The number of constellation points in the corner in any M-QAM constellation is always

4, i.e

(b) Constellation points in the inside (magneta-diamond)

The number of constellation points in the inside is,

.

For example with M=64, there are 36 constellation points in the inside.

(c) Constellation points neither at the corner, nor at the center (blue-star) The

number of constellation points of this category is,

.

For example with M=64, there are 24 constellation points in the inside.

Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel

Let the received symbol is,

, where

is the energy,

is the normalizing factor,

is the transmit symbol and

is the noise.

Assume that the additive noise follows the Gaussian probability distribution function,

with

mean and

variance .

Symbol in the inside (magenta-diamond)

The conditional probability distribution function (PDF) of given that the transmitted

symbol is :

.

As can be seen from the above figure, the symbol in the inside is decoded correctly only

if real part of lies inbetween 0 to 2 and the imaginary part of lies

inbetween 0 to 2. The probability of correct demodulation is,

.

The probability of the real component falling with in 0 to 2 can be found by integrating

the probability distribution function of two parts:

(a) Find the probability that the real component lies from to .

(b) Find the probability that the real component lies from to .

(c) Given that the total probability is always 1, for finding the probability of the real

component lies within to , subtract the sum of (a) and (b) from 1.

Note: The complementary error function, .

Similarly,

.

From the above equations,

.

The probability of the symbol decoded being in error is,

.

Symbol in the corner (red-square)

The conditional probability distribution function (PDF) of given that the transmitted

symbol is :

.

As can be seen from the above figure, the symbol in the inside is decoded correctly only

if real part of lies from to and the imaginary part of lies

from to .

.

For finding the probability that the real component lies from to , one can integrate the

probability distribution function of the received symbol.

Similarly,

.

So, probability that the decoded symbol is correct given is transmitted

is,

.

Now, the probability of the symbol decoded being in error is,

.

Symbol neither at the corner nor inside (blue-star)

As can be seen from the above figure, the symbol in the inside is decoded correctly only

if real part of lies from to and the imaginary part of lies from 0 to

2.

.

For finding the probability that the real component lies from to , one can integrate the

probability distribution function of the received symbol.

.

As described for the symbol in the inside scenario, the probability of the imaginary

component falling with in 0 to 2 can be found by integrating the probability distribution

function of two parts:

(a) Find the probability that the imaginary component lies from to .

(b) Find the probability that the imaginary component lies from to .

(c) As the total probability is 1, for finding the probability of the imaginary component

lies within to , subtract the sum of (a) and (b) from 1.

So the probability that the symbol is decoded correctly is,

The probability of error is,

.

Total symbol error probability

Given that we have computed the individual symbol error probability for each of the

three types of constellation points, to find the joint symbol error rate we compute the

average error i.e.

Pluging in the equations,

.

OFDM modulation

Let us use the OFDM system loosely based on IEEE 802.11a specifications.

Parameter Value

FFT size. nFFT 64

Number of used subcarriers. nDSC 52

FFT Sampling frequency 20MHz

Subcarrier spacing 312.5kHz

Used subcarrier index {-26 to -1, +1 to +26}

Cylcic prefix duration, Tcp 0.8us

Data symbol duration, Td 3.2us

Total Symbol duration, Ts 4us

Simulation model

Simple Matlab/Octave script for computing the symbol error rate for 16QAM/64QAM

and 256QAM modulation scheme in additive white gaussian noise channel over OFDM.

Click here to download : Matlab code for computing symbol error rate for

16QAM/64QAM and 256QAM in AWGN over OFDM

- Lux 50 HandbookUploaded byBacas Mian
- LTE ThroughputUploaded byAndrew Thei
- 3G OptimisationUploaded byaryanpoor7371
- ADC - Digital ModulationUploaded byIr Dennis N Mwighusa
- Data EncodingUploaded byadilmalik2k
- Performance of Simulink based SS-OFDM model for Broadband Wireless Access NetworkUploaded byverma85_amit
- WaveLab Advantage Datasheet 1306Uploaded byShe San
- Modulator Free QAM SynthesisUploaded byanoopajay87
- gsm_edgeUploaded byAmit Singh Tomar
- Adaptive Relay Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop SystemUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Phase Shift Keying-1Uploaded byamit rao
- Assignment 1Uploaded byKamran Khan
- 07024915Uploaded byBenedikt von Lindewiese
- Frequency Source Requirements for Digital Communications SystemsUploaded byvarshinisundaram
- 2 3JK10864AAAAWBZZA Radio Resource ManagementUploaded byDong Tejero
- EGPRS2 Rohde&ScwarzUploaded bybookmuc
- W-cdma Ua07 Hsxpa Algo - Tmo18256 d0sgdeni1.0Uploaded byMichael Melicado
- OutUploaded byDhia Mus
- 3em22842ab_v1_9500 Mpr Users Manual (Ansi) r01.01.00Uploaded byspieprzaj
- temp fileUploaded byAbhay Upadhyay
- Chapter 2Uploaded byAnonymous RoAnGpA
- A g 03401860189Uploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Introduction to CDMAUploaded byashok_nitham
- CDMA network.CPT1Uploaded byelectricalbah
- lb_4.9_5.8Uploaded bymasudrana7300
- PAPRUploaded byRaghavendraNunemunthala
- ADRF6510Uploaded byiw2nvw
- Chuong TrinhUploaded byNga Tran Dinh
- Simulation & Design of Software-Defined RadiosUploaded byMuhammad Firdaus
- HSPA Network TtjxUploaded bychamkor_panesar6191

- Tems Investigation Drive Test procedureUploaded byRatha Sroy
- Lte Interview QuestionsUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- ArpUploaded byKamal Bhojah
- Channel ElementUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- RF Optimization StepsUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- 797-3514-1-PBUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- UMTS Interfaces and ProtocolsUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- What is RRC and RABUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- Drive TestUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- ht MC CDMUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- RTWPUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- IMSI Messages TraceUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- Projects List for ECE & EEEUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- Tems Investigation 15.3 DatasheetUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- PAT command.txtUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- LWP-12-A2Uploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- visio 2010 keyUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- Learning Material - Data CommunicationUploaded byrahulraj1213
- drivetestlearning-140527111316-phpapp01Uploaded byAltaf
- Drive Test From a to Z (Part 1)Uploaded byAhmed Omar
- 2-rtpUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- TLT5606 Demo2 SolutionsUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- Spread SpectrumUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- This Paper Focuses OnUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- Setup GuideUploaded byĐinh Nhâm
- bbUploaded byĐinh Nhâm

- Assignment 1 CalendarUploaded byPraveen Mantur
- Protfolio TrackerUploaded byXplore Engg
- Uk3 - The Capacity and Circulation of Passenger Terminal Building in Regional Airport (Case Minangkabau and Adisutjipto International Airports of Indonesia)Uploaded byNblazaliaa
- UG-37 f factorUploaded byjames
- Berleant - Aesthetics and Environment- Variations on a Theme (Book).pdfUploaded byMara Aline Campos
- Lecture 3Uploaded byyrdgcgf5664
- 09 Construction WMMUploaded byDevesh Kumar
- p Series Catalog 10561013Uploaded byDaniel Barraza Cortes
- Linear Momentum NotesUploaded byruuki
- Copula (Probability Theory)Uploaded byuser2127
- 1_Uploaded byahmedanas
- Proliferation Resistance of the Thorium Fuel Cycle by U-232 ProductionUploaded byMike
- Lab6 - Modeling Registers and CountersUploaded bywert1a2
- Labview Lab OneUploaded byelcboy
- Handbook of electrochemistryUploaded byRicardo Pecina Gonzalez
- Chemistry Lab - Baking Soda Analysis (1)Uploaded byQuennie Camañero
- Mussel Oyster CompositesUploaded bypitblau
- GTR 16-Reglamento Técnico Mundial Sobre NeumáticosUploaded byDiego Gomez
- (Eurasip Book Series on Signal Processing & Communications) Edited by_ Thomas Kaiser_ AndrÃ© Bourdoux_ Holger Boche_ Javier RodrÃ-guez Fonollosa_ JÃ¸rgen Bach Andersen_ and Wolfgang Utschick-Smart AntUploaded byXiuquan Zhang
- D7100 Setup GuideUploaded bydshalev8694
- Dexion Drive in RackingUploaded byalfonxxl
- Organic Chemistry SIPCAnUploaded byAnthony Netzel
- Apparatus Protection Using Protective RelaysUploaded bythangalakshmiprakash
- MetodeUploaded byHardyanti Ayu Amalya
- 10.1.1.120.8015.pdfUploaded byTharindu Gunarathne
- 249238742 Auditing Theory CabreraUploaded byGem Alcos Nicdao
- SWIP Manual Part 1Uploaded byMark Pastor
- how_trays_work__flooding.pdfUploaded byAries Marte
- Air Pollution Control Manual BagfilterUploaded byksbbs
- Maze Generator Source CodeUploaded byKyungsuk Bae

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.