EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENT ON MALE VS FEMALE BUYING BEHAVIOR

Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

FINAL PROJECT
EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENT ON MALE VS FEMALE BUYING BEHAVIOR

Preston University,
North Nazimabad Compus, Karachi.

Research and Compiled By: Zubair Naikzad Submitted To: Mr. Khalid Pahore
Date: 2nd June 2009

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this project titled “Effects of Advertisement on Male vs. Female Buying Behavior” submitted by me to Preston University, in partial fulfillment of requirements of BBA program is a bonafide work carried by me under the guidance of Mr. Khalid Pahore. This has not been submitted earlier to any other University or Institution for the award of any degree diploma/ certificate or published any time before.

Place: Karachi, Pakistan Khalid Pahore Date:

Mr.

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CERTIFICATE FROM GUIDE & HEAD OF THE INSTITUTION

Certified that this project entitled “Effects of Advertisement on Male vs. Female

Buying Behavior” submitted in partial fulfillment for BBA Degree of Preston University
was carried out by Mr. Zubair Naikzad under the guidance of Mr. Khalid Pahore. This has not been submitted to any other university or institution for the award of any degree/ diploma/ certificate.

GUIDE

SENIOR PROGRAMME DIRECTOR

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Dedication
“Our Parents”
Whose care cherished, “our loving parents” always led us right path and success. Who have always helped and encouraged us. Their UN most care and affection has made us what wears.

“Our Respected Professor”
Who were perpetual sources of inspection for us. Our Professor “Mr. Khalid Pahore” who have been a source of inspection for us.

We owe to them all what we have.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
“To Him belongs the dimension of the Heavens and the earth, it is He who gives Life and death and He has power over all things.” (Al-Quran) All acclamation to Allah who has empowered and enabled us to accomplish the task successfully. First of all we would like to thank our Allah Almighty who really helps us in every problem during the report. We would like to express our sincere and humble gratitude to Almighty who’s Blessings, help and guidance has been a real source of all our achievements in our life. I wish to express our appreciation to our Professor Khalid Pahore who help us a lot and introduce us to new dimensions of knowledge. I would also like to thank to Professors “Adeeb Rasol” and “Sibtay Amir” who really helped us in using the statistical tools. And last but certainly not the least, to each other, whose presence served help more than anyone.

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Table of Content`
Preface....................................................................................... .............................1

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Preface

After going through various channels of advertisement such as Newspaper, Journals, Websites, TV Channels, and billboards along the streets and roads, the impact of such a strong and convincing mode struck my mind to work on the project based on “Effects of Advertisement on Male vs. Female Buying Behavior”.

While working on this project, I have experienced some general impacts of advertisement on both genders. It has been discovered that Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men. Men and women both perceive advertisements differently. Brand recall doesn’t lead to purchase. Women have better brand recall as compared to men and it differs in different age group.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior

Advertisement
Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of products and services through the creation and reinvention of the "brand image”. For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factual information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television, radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet, carrier bags and billboards. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization

Types of Advertisements
Persuasive Advertising: In this type the advertiser tries to persuade the public to buy his product, by explaining the various good qualities that the product possesses over other products. Competitive Advertising: This is carried out by different producers of different brands of the same product. Each producer tries to compete with other producers in trying to capture the market. The advertiser uses techniques that are persuasive and aggressive to achieve his target. Example, the advertiser claims that his product is best in terms of quality, performance and durability. Example: Biggs Butter is best. Informative Advertising: In this type information is passed on to the consumers about availability of products, changes in fashion and how to use the products. Under informative advertising the following goods and services are advertised:
Advertising in Trade and Technical Journals: These advertisements contain technical information about goods. Advertising of Particular Events: Trade fairs, exhibitions, concerts and sporting activities are examples of such advertising. In this type people are informed about such events and are persuaded to attend such events.

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Advertising of Employment Opportunities: In this type people come to know about the various employment opportunities available.

Generic Advertising (Collective): When all the producers in one industry combine to advertise their product, it is called generic advertising. These advertisements are usually sponsored by trade associations. The producers group together to share the costs and to promote the product hoping to increase the overall sales of the product. Example: Drink more tea.

Advertisement Media
Advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards , street furniture components, printed flyers, radio, cinema and television ads, web banners, web popup, skywriting, bus stop benches, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, taxicab doors and roof mounts, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, stickers on apples in supermarkets, the opening section of streaming audio and video, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising. The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format and this is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. Advertising on the World Wide Web is a recent phenomenon. Prices of Web-based advertising space are dependent on the "relevance" of the surrounding web content and the traffic that the website receives. E-mail advertising is another recent phenomenon. Unsolicited bulk E-mail advertising is known as "spam". Profile of major advertising mediums MEDIUM ADVANTAGES LIMITATIONS
Short life; poor reproduction quality; small pass along audience. High absolute cost, high clutter, fleeting exposure, less audience selectivity Relatively high cost, junk mail image. 11
Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

Flexibility; timeliness; good Newspapers local market coverage; broad acceptance; high believability. Combines sight, sound and motion; appealing to the Television senses; high attention; high reach. Direct mail Audience selectivity, flexibility,

Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior

MEDIUM

ADVANTAGES
no ad competition within the same medium, personalization.

LIMITATIONS
Audio presentations only; lower attention than television; non standardized rate structure; fleeting exposure. Long ad purchase lead time; some waste circulation; no guarantee of position.

Radio

Mass use, high geographical and demographic selectivity; low cost. High geographical and demographic selectivity; credibility and prestige; high quality reproduction, long life; good pass-along readership. Flexibility; high repeat exposure; low cost; low competition. Flexibility; full control; can dramatize message.

Magazines

Outdoor Broachers

Limited audience selectivity; creative limitation. Overproduction could lead to run away costs.

Table 1- 1: Profile of major advertising medium

Consumer Behavior
Consumer behavior refers to the mental and emotional process and the observable behavior of consumers during searching, purchasing and post consumption of a product or service. Consumer behavior involves study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy. It blends the elements from psychology, sociology, sociopsychology, anthropology and economics. It also tries to assess the influence on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups and society in general.

The Various Disciplines Influencing Consumer Behavior
No. 1 2 3 4 5 Discipline Economics Psychology Sociology Socio psychology Cultural anthropology Governed by Demand, supply, income, purchasing power Needs and motivation, personality, perception, attitude Society, social class, power, esteem, status Group behavior, conformity of group norms, group influences Values, beliefs, caste system, attitude towards joint family system

Table 1- 2 : Various Disciplines Influencing Consumer Behavior

Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behavior
Consumers do not make purchase decisions in a vacuum. Their buying preferences are influenced by cultural, Social, Personal and Psychological factors. Most of these
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factors are "uncontrollable" and beyond the hands of marketers, however it has to be
1. Motivationgroup Age culture Reference 2. Perception life style subculture Family 3. Learning Occupation social class Role & status personality 4. Belief & attitude

considered while dealing with the complex behavior.

Table 1- 3: Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behavior

Consumer Buying Decision Process
Consumer buying decision process is the processes undertaken by consumer in regard to a potential market transaction before, during and after the purchase of a product or service. Consumer Decision Making Process Generally Involves Five Stages:

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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior Table 1- : The process of Consumer Decision Making

Problem Recognition Purchase decision making process begins when a buyer becomes aware of an unsatisfied need or problem. This is the vital stage in buying decision process,

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because without recognizing the need or want, an individual would not seek to buy goods or service.
Example: It’s when a lady recognizes that she can not make a call from her mobile

phone that’s when she recognizes that her phone has been damaged i.e. the phone has hardware problems and needs to be repaired or buying a new piece. Information Search After the consumer has recognized the need, he / she will try to find the means to solve that need. First he will recall how he used to solve such kind of a problem in the past, this is called nominal decision making. Secondly, a consumer will try to solve the problem by asking a friend or goes to the market to seek advice for which product will best serve his need, this is called limited decision making. Sources of information include: • • • • Personal sources Commercial Sources Public sources Personal experience

Example: (continuing from previous…) The user of the phone after recognizing that her phone is damaged, she will eventually try to find out how she can repair her phone. If she cannot repair it herself she will ask a friend to help out, if the friend can not solve the problem she will go to mobile repair shop, if they also can not repair it then she will try to find which mobile phone is good and that can serve her need. In this process of information collection it will yield awareness of set of brands of mobile phones she can buy. Alternatives Evaluation Consumers’ evaluates criteria refer to various dimension; features, characteristics and benefits that a consumer desires to solve a certain problem. Product features and its benefit is what influence consumer to prefer that particular product. The consumer will decide which product to buy from a set of alternative products depending on each unique feature that the product offers and the benefit he / she can get out of that feature. Example: (continuing from previous…)
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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior

When that user got enough information concerning the different brands of mobile phones available in the market, she will decide which kind of a mobile phone and brand she’s going to buy depending upon her need for that particular mobile, either a mobile for multimedia and entertainment, Smart phone or classic phone. Purchase Action This stage involves selection of brand and the retail outlet to purchase such a product. Retail outlet image and its location are important. Consumer usually prefers a nearby retail outlet for minor shopping and they can willingly go to a far away store when they purchase items which are of higher values and which involve higher sensitive purchase decision. After selecting where to buy and what to buy, the consumer completes the final step of transaction by either cash or credit. Example: (continuing from previous…) After selecting brand of the phone and model from different alternatives of mobile phones, she will make a final decision of where to buy that phone and make the final transaction procedures. Post-purchase Actions Consumer favorable post-purchase evaluation leads to satisfaction. Satisfaction with the purchase is basically a function of the initial performance level expectation and perceived performance relative to those expectations. Consumer tends to evaluate their wisdom on the purchase of that particular product. This can result to consumer experiencing post purchase dissatisfaction. If the consumer’s perceived performance level is below expectation and fail to meet satisfaction this will eventually cause dissatisfaction, and so the brand and/ or the outlet will not be considered by the consumer in the future purchases. This might cause the consumer to initiate complaint behavior and spread negative word-of-mouth concerning that particular product. Example: (continuing from previous…) If she decided to buy a multimedia phone she will try to compare the quality of music it provides and pictures taken if they meet her expectations. If she will find that her expectation are meet she will be satisfied, if she found that there are more additional features that she did not expect this mobile phone to have, she will be delighted, otherwise she will be dissatisfied.
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Purchasing types and Experiences
Consumers can be categorized into three types: Impulsive buyers, who purchase products quickly. Patient buyers who purchase products after making some comparisons: and Analytical buyers who do substantial research before making the decision to purchase products or services. There are also window shoppers, who just browse.

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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior

CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH PROPOSAL

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Abstract
I have studied the impact of advertisements on male vs. female consumer buying behavior. I have take various variables in consideration like age, gender, brand recall and effects of advertisement in order to make a relationship between advertising and consumer’s decision-making regarding purchase. Men and women perceive advertisements differently and hence both genders require different persuasive techniques. We have taken neutral products/services for this analysis so as to provide both the genders with same circumstances to come up with an objective comparison. A broader age bracket of 18-60 years has been taken as the sample for this research, which was further divided into sub groups as per our requirements. For this, we focused on the Karachi region in order to support the market trends of that particular region. This would help the firms in creating marketing strategies focused to both the genders, separately.

Problem Statement
Men and women have different tendencies of being affected by advertisements. This is why companies do not know exactly that which customer group, men or women are easier to influence through marketing campaigns. Therefore, the advertising budget is not spent accordingly to come up with a precise promotional campaign needed. If targeting men is easier, then the marketing should be done accordingly and if affecting women is easier, then the marketing campaign should be modify in order to reach that customer segment in a more effective manner. This shows that companies lack the awareness of whom to target through their promotional campaigns. Whether females would be easier to effect through the advertisements or males, this still hasn’t been proven according to the Pakistani market. Based on all this, it can be stated that the companies end up spending a lot of their advertising budget on irrelevant target audience. Sometimes, when `targeting and attracting one specific gender would be more profitable, companies keep wasting their resources on marketing on a mass scale, which results in an unnecessary burden on the already scarce resources.

Research Objectives
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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior

An important factor under study was that who is impacted more by any advertisement; whether it is males or females. Another important factor that was studied was that customers belonging to which gender have a better brand recall. This is because brand recall plays a very important role in the resulting purchase; if a consumer can recall the brand, he/she will most probably buy it. For this research, a few hypotheses have been enacted: I.Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men. II.Men and women perceive advertisements differently. III.Brand recall leads to purchase. IV.Women have better brand recall as compared to men. V.Brand recall differs in different age brackets. The main form of our research was exploratory study because there was not much material regarding this specific topic already available. Research was carried out by exploring the consumer characteristics in this region specifically on a sample of around 200 people within the chosen age bracket of 18-50years in Karachi.

Importance/Benefit of study
This research is beneficial, firstly, for the advertising agencies, as it will become easier for them to formulate the exact marketing strategies for their customers so as to target the particular audience of the organization. It will also help the organizations to distribute their marketing expenditure over different mediums of advertising, catering to their target group. It will also provide a platform to the market researchers of the respective organization to devise the marketing budget in accordance with a perfect balance between the medium chosen and the audience targeted. This will support them in identifying their target segment that they can influence and which can work in their favor. Hence getting the maximum return on what they will invest for marketing their product/services. It will also guide the marketers to identify the factors that influence the audience more effectively in any advertisement and so those can be worked on. Also it will be

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analyzed that how men and women perceive advertisements differently and hence what are the factors that lead to their purchase decision.

Research Design
The basic point of this research was to analyze how advertising affects males and females consumers differently. For this, a few hypotheses had been developed which have been stated above. I observed the behaviors of both these consumers through different means so that the hypotheses that we have come up with can be verified or proven otherwise. Some of the techniques that were used to collect the data for research were as follows: Surveys – a sample size of 100 will be surveyed constituting of both the female and male population with equal proportions. This survey would help us to analyze how males and females respond differently to different advertisements and this will show how their attitudes towards products are shaped. Interviews – This would involve interviewing some customers randomly in order to analyze customer behavior through a more personal approach. A discussion with the customer can sometimes uncover several factors, which we could have previously missed out on. Focus Group – this will involve carrying out a discussion in a controlled environment. This discussion will basically help us in determining whether males and females have different views regarding different advertisements that we will raise a discussion on. Both the genders will be in the same environment and under same conditions because of which unreasonable variations cannot arise in the response.

Presentation of results
I will present result in different forms. For example graphical representation of statistical data, tables, charts and figures. These techniques would help in the evaluation of results.

Facilities, Resources & proposed Budget
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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior

Following are some of the items and their approximate costs that might be required for the conduction of our research: Recourses Computer Personal Computer at home Internet Sky link Broadband(DSL) (home) Printer HP (At home) Stationary & binding Traveling Expenses Total Quantity Pc – 2 Cost N/A Total Cost N/A

---

Rs. 1200

Rs. 1200

1 Printers --1 person ---

Rs. 600 per Rs. 600 cartridge(filling) Rs. 500 ----Rs. 500 Rs. 1000 Rs.

Table 2-1 Facilities, Resources and Proposed Budget

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CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN

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Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior

Research Design
Research design is a frame work or blueprint for conducting the market research project. It details the procedure necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure or solve marketing research problem.

Description of Research Design
Formal Study – In my study I formulated four basic hypothesizes and then carried out the whole research process to test those hypothesizes. Basically it was to check which one among those holds true or even false in some of the cases. In short this is a formal study because hypothesizes were formulated in the very beginning and the entire research was carried out to prove or disapprove those. Communication Study – In this method of data collection it is the responsibility of the researcher to question the subjects and record the respondents’ response by personal or impersonal means so that the data could be used as a basis for testing the hypothesis by using various statistical tools. I call my study a communication study because in the initial stages. Also to have a fair idea about consumer response I had a pilot testing session taken place online as well. Experiment – Experiment provides the researcher with enough flexibility to manipulate the variables in the study so as not to distort the overall result of the study. For example one of our hypotheses was that women are more spontaneous shoppers than men; that is they tend to buy things which they have not even planned. In order to test this hypothesis I have assumed that all the women in our sample size belong to the income group who has the purchasing power of buying products/services on instinct while they are shopping; which actually means that money is not a constraint in this case whereas a more practical approach would be that there are income groups where women do not have the budget to accommodate products/services bought at an impulse. Casual Study – The main objective of research was to analyze the effectiveness of marketing mediums on the male/female buying behavior; with my main focus on their brand recall ability. Therefore the research I made an effort to explain the relationship among our variables and that is it true that females have a better brand

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recall then men or for that matter what is the effect of using television as marketing medium compared to a billboard.

Research Methods
Communication Methods Chosen
1. Self-administered Survey – A Survey was conducted in the Karachi

region. a. Sample survey & measurement scale types: Gender: Age: City: Male/Female (18-25)/(26-40)/(41-50) Karachi

The following table shows the variables that are measured in specific hypotheses along with their data types.

Hypotheses H-I H-II H-III H-IV H-V

Variable Measured Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men Men and women perceive advertisements differently Brand recall leads to purchase Women have better brand recall as compared to men Brand recall differs in different age brackets

Measurement Scales Multiple Choice Ranking, Multiple Choice Multiple Choice, Free response Multiple Choice, Free response Multiple Choice, Free response

Sample Question Number 1 and 2 3, 4, 5 and 6 7 and 8 9, 10 and 11 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11

The questions were categorized as per the hypothesis taken up for the research. Following measurement scales were used in making the survey. The survey is attached in the appendix. • • • Multiple choice—single response Forced Ranking Scale Free Response

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Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior
2. Interviews – although we could not conduct formal interviews. However while

conducting the surveys we realized that most of the respondents did not have the know how of how to go about it. So during those sessions we not only administered them but also interacted with them so as to make things sensible and easier for them.

Chapter Scheme
1. The first chapter deals with the introduction about the Effects of

advertisement on Male Vs. Female Buying Behavior which consists of following information: • • • • • • • Advertisement, Types of Advertisement, Advertisement Media, Consumer Behavior, The Various Disciplines Influencing Consumer Behavior, Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behavior, Consumer Buying Decision Process and Purchasing types and Experiences.

2. The second chapter describes the research proposal. It consists of:

• • • • • • •

Abstract, Problem Statement, Research Objectives, Importance/Benefit of study, Research Design, Facilities, Resources & proposed Budget, Presentation of results and Facilities, Resources & proposed Budget.

3. The third chapter deals with the Research design, it includes:


Description of Research Design, Research Methods and
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Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

Chapter Scheme

4. In fourth chapter, I have covered following research aspects: • • • •

Preparation of record structure in SPSS according to questionnaire, Entering of questionnaire data into SPSS data file, Preparation of distribution and charts from SPSS, and Place charts into appendix.

5. In chapter five, I have covered the following aspects. • • •

Compute statistics scale, Analysis data, and Test hypotheses which describe in chapter 2.

6. The Sixth chapter interprets all analytical result; summarize test result and

different recommendations based on our hypothesis.

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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior

CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS

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I have used SPSS 17 for data entry and after the data entry, following findings were found on the basis of our survey; the findings are represented on the basis of males vs. females.

H-1 Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men (Q1 & Q2)
Females: 42.5% females in the age group of 18-25 have selected YES to the question that they make a shopping list and plan their shopping, 15% have selected NO to the question that they do not make a shopping list and also do not plan their shopping and 42.5% have selected SOMETIMES to the question that they sometimes make a shopping list and plan their shopping. 57.1% of females in the age group of 26-40 responded that they also plan their shopping, 7.1% say NO to the question that they do not make a shopping list and plan their shopping and 35.8% have select SOMETIMES to the question that they sometimes make a shopping list and plan their shopping. Last but not the least, 58.3% of the females in the age group of 41-50 selected that they plan their shopping, 12.5% select NO to the question that they do not make a shopping list and plan their shopping and 29.2% have selected SOMETIMES to the question that they sometimes make a shopping list and plan their shopping. On the other hand, 30% of the females in age group 18-25 selected YES to the question that they “stick to the shopping list they have planned for”, 42.5% selected NO to the question and 27.5% selected SOMETIMES. In the same way, 42.9% of the females in the age group of 26-40 selected YES to the question they stick to shopping list they planned for”, 35.7% answer NO to the question and 21.4% answer SOMETIMES to the question. On the other hand, 45.8% females with age group of 41-50 selected YES to the question, 16.7% selected NO to the question and 37.5% of selected SOMETIMES to the question that they stuck to their shopping list they planned. Males: 40.5% males in the age group of 18-25 have selected YES to the question that they make a shopping list and plan their shopping, 25% have selected NO to question and 34.5% have selected SOMETIMES to the question. 51.6% of males in the age group of
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Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior 26-40 responded that they also plan their shopping, 12.9% say NO to the question that they do not make a shopping list and plan their shopping and 35.5% have select SOMETIMES to the question that they sometimes make a shopping list and plan their shopping Last, But not the least, 57.1% of the males in the age group of 41-50 selected that they plan their shopping, 28.6% select NO to the question that they do not make a shopping list and plan their shopping and 14.3% have selected SOMETIMES to the question that they sometimes make a shopping list and plan their shopping. On the other hand, 33.3% of the males in age group 18-25 selected YES to the question that they “stick to the shopping list they have planned for”, 36.9% selected NO to the question and 29.8% selected SOMETIMES. In the same way, 32.3% of the males in the age group of 26-40 selected YES to the question they stick to shopping list they planned for”, 35.5% answer NO to the question and 32.3% answer SOMETIMES to the question. On the other hand, 28.6% males with age group of 4150 selected YES to the question, 42.9% selected NO to the question and 28.6% of selected SOMETIMES to the question that they stuck to their shopping list they planned.

H-2 Men and women perceive advertisements differently (Q3, Q4, Q5 and Q6)
In the questionnaire, I have asked Q3, Q4, Q5 and Q6 to measure the perception of advertisement depending on gender. The questionnaire was designed to find the most effective medium of advertising that influences males vs. females and theme of the advertisement as well as the perception that whether advertisements give a true picture of a particular add or not. Females: 75% of the females in the Age group of 18-25 rated TV as the highest medium of advertisement, 65% of females in the Age group of 26-40 also rated TV as the highest medium of influence and similarly 37.5% of the females in the Age group of 41-50 once again have rated TV as the highest medium as well. 25% of the females in the age group of 18-25 rated celebrity endorsed theme as the highest influential theme and 27.5% rated informative themes as a second higher
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theme for in advertisements. 43% females in the age group of 26-40 rated informative themes as the highest influential theme and 28.6% females rated celebrity endorsed theme as the second higher influential theme. Similarly, 37.5% of the females in the age group of 41-50 rated informative theme as the highest influential theme and 20.8% rated celebrity endorsed theme as a second higher theme for in advertisements. When asked whether advertisements give a true picture of a product or service and to what extent advertisements attract their attention. 40% of the females in the 18-25 of age group agree with the statement that the advertisement give a true picture of a product/service, and 17.5% disagree with the statement, While 52.5% feel that to some extent, they are attracted by the advertisement. 28.6% of the females in the 2640 of age group agree with the statement that the advertisement give a true picture of a product/service, and 35.7% disagree with the statement, 42.9% feel that to a lot extent, they are attracted by the advertisement. Similarly, 25% of the females in the age group of 41-50 say that advertisements give a true picture of the product or service being marketed, and 12.5% of female says that they misguide us. While 58.3% of the females of the same age group feel that to some extent advertisements attract their attention. Males: 73.8% of the males in the Age group of 18-25 rated TV as the highest medium of advertisement, 64.5% of males in the Age group of 26-40 also rated TV as the highest medium of influence and similarly 71.4% of the males in the Age group of 41-50 once again have rated TV as the highest medium as well. 29.8% of the males in the age group of 18-25 rated celebrity endorsed theme as the highest influential theme and 22.8% rated humorous themes as a second higher theme for in advertisements. 41.9% males in the age group of 26-40 rated informative themes as the highest influential theme and 25.8% males rated celebrity endorsed theme as the second higher influential theme. Similarly, 57.1% of the males in the age group of 41-50 rated celebrity endorsed theme as the highest influential theme and 28.6% rated informative theme as a second higher theme for in advertisements.
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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior When asked whether advertisements give a true picture of a product or service and to what extent advertisements attract their attention. 33.3% of the males in the 18-25 of age group agree with the statement that the advertisement give a true picture of a product/service, and 27.4% disagree with the statement, While 40% feel that they are attracted by the advertisement to a lot extent. 32.3% of the males in the 26-40 of age group agree with the statement that the advertisement give a true picture of a product/service, and 22.6% disagree with the statement, while 32.3% feel that to some extent, they are attracted by the advertisement. Similarly, 42.9% of the males in the age group of 41-50 say that advertisements give a true picture of the product or service being marketed, and 28.8% of males say that they misguide us. While 71.8% feel that to some extent advertisements attract their attention.

H-3 Brand Recall leads to purchase:
In the questionnaire, Q7 has been asked to find that ever advertisement create feeling to try out a product and Q8 has been asked to find that how often your purchase decision is based on an advertisement recall in order to test their brand recall. Females: 43% of females in the age group of 18-25 has agree with the statement that advertisement create feeling to try out the product or service and selected YES, 3% disagree with statement and select NO and 54% answer SOMETIMES to the statement. Similarly, 43% of females in age group of 26-40 Selected Yes, 22% selected NO and 36% selected SOMETIMES. Whereas, 29% of females of age group of 41-50 selected YES, 4% selected NO and 69% selected SOMETIMES to statement. On the other hand, 7% of the females in the age group 18-25 have selected MOSTLY, 55% have selected OFTEN, 23% selected RARELY and 15% have selected Never to the question that how much their purchase decision is based on advertisement recall. Similarly, 21% of females of the age group of 26-40 have selected MOSTLY, 43% have selected OFTEN, 29% have selected RARELY and 7% have selected NEVER to the question. Whereas, 12% of females of the age group of 41-50 have selected MOSTLY, 42% have selected OFTEN, 38% have selected RARELY and 8% have selected NEVER to the question.

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Males: It was found that 56% of males in the age group of 18-25 has agree with the statement that advertisement create feeling to try out the product or service and selected YES, 11% disagree with statement and select NO and 33% answer sometimes to the statement. Similarly, 42% of males in age group of 26-40 Selected Yes, 16% selected NO and 42% selected SOMETIMES. Whereas, 57% of females of age group of 41-50 selected YES, 14% selected NO and 29% selected SOMETIMES to statement. On the other hand, 26% of the males in the age group 18-25 have selected MOSTLY, 51% have selected OFTEN, 18% selected RARELY and 5% have selected NEVER to the question that how much their purchase decision is based on advertisement recall. 36% of males of the age group of 26-40 have selected MOSTLY, 39% have selected OFTEN, 23% have selected RARELY and 3% have selected NEVER to the question. Similarly, 43% of males of the age group of 41-50 have selected MOSTLY, 29% have selected OFTEN, 14% have selected RARELY and 14% have selected NEVER to the question.

H-4(a) Women have better brand recall as compared to men
In the questionnaire, Q9 has been asked to find that which brand comes to your mind from the following colors to test that whether women have better brand recall as compared to men or not. Females: It was found that in the age group of 18-25 females group, 65% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly five out of five sub questions, 25% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly four out of five sub question and 10% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly three out of five sub question. Similarly, in the age group of 26-40 females group, 35.7% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly five out of five sub questions, 35.7% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly four out of five sub question, 21.4% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly three out of five sub question and 7.1% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering
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Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior none out of five sub question. Whereas, in the age group of 41-50 females group, 41.7% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly five out of five sub questions, 16.7% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly four out of five sub question, 29.2% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly three out of five sub question and 12.5% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly two out of five sub question. Males: It was found that in the age group of 18-25 males group, 59.5% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly five out of five sub questions, 22.6% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly four out of five sub question, 2.4% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly three out of five sub question, 1.2% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly two out of five sub question, 4.8% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly one out of five sub question and 9.5% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering none out of five sub question Similarly, in the age group of 26-40 males group, 61.3% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly five out of five sub questions, 25.8% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly four out of five sub question, 6.5% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly three out of five sub question and 6.5% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering none out of five sub question. Whereas, in the age group of 41-50 males group, 57.1% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly five out of five sub questions, 14.3% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly four out of five sub question, 14.3% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering correctly one out of five sub question and 14.3% have recognized brand come to your mind from given colors by answering none out of five sub question.

H-4(b) Women have better brand recall as compared to men
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Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

In the questionnaire, Q10 which consists of different tags lines have been asked to find out the brand recall males verse females. Females: It was found that in the age group of 18-25 females group, 35% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly seven out of seven sub questions, 25% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly six out of seven sub questions, 22.5% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly five out of seven sub questions, 12.5% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly four out of seven sub questions, 2.5% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly three out of seven sub questions and 2.5% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly two out of seven sub questions. Similarly, in the age group of 26-40 females group, 28.6% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly seven out of seven sub questions, 21.4% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly six out of seven sub questions, 35.7% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly five out of seven sub questions, 7.1% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly four out of seven sub questions and 7.1% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly two out of seven sub questions. Whereas, in the age group of 41-50 females group, 50% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly seven out of seven sub questions, 33.3% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly six out of seven sub questions and 16.7% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly five out of seven sub questions. Males: It was found that in the age group of 18-25 males group, 59.5% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly seven out of seven sub questions, 8.3% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly six out of seven sub questions, 10.7% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly five out of seven sub questions, 4.8% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly four out of seven sub questions, 6% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly three out of seven sub questions,
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Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior 2.4% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly two out of seven sub questions and 8.3% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering none out of seven sub questions. Similarly, in the age group of 26-40 males group, 22.6% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly seven out of seven sub questions, 19.4% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly six out of seven sub questions, 29% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly five out of seven sub questions, 9.7% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly four out of seven sub questions, 9.7% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly three out of seven sub questions, 3.2% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly two out of seven sub questions and 6.5% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering none out of seven sub questions. Whereas, in the age group of 41-50 males group, 42.9% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly seven out of seven sub questions, 14.3% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly six out of seven sub questions, 28.6% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly four out of seven sub questions and 14.3% have recognized different brand tag lines by answering correctly three out of seven sub questions.

H-4(c) Women have better brand recall as compared to men
Last but not the least, in the questionnaire, different celebrities name have given in Q11 to find out which advertisement comes to your mind when you think of the following celebrities to determine brand recall in women as compared to men. Females: It was found that in the age group of 18-25 females group, 72.5% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly six out of six sub questions, 10% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly five out of six sub questions, 12.5% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly four out of six sub questions, 2.5% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly three out of six sub questions and 2.5% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering none out of six sub questions. Similarly, in the age group of 26-40 females group, 35.7% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly six out of six sub questions, 21.4% have
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Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly five out of six sub questions and 42.9% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly four out of six sub questions. Whereas, in the age group of 41-50 females group, 41.7% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly six out of six sub questions, 25% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly five out of six sub questions, 29.2% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly four out of six sub questions and 4.2% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly three out of six sub questions. Males: It was found that in the age group of 18-25 males group, 75% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly six out of six sub questions, 8.3% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly five out of six sub questions, 8.3% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly four out of six sub questions, 3.6% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly three out of six sub questions and 4.8% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering none out of six sub questions. Similarly, in the age group of 26-40 males group, 35.5% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly six out of six sub questions, 29% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly five out of six sub questions, 25.8% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly four out of six sub questions, 6.5% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly two out of six sub questions and 3.2% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering none out of six sub questions. Whereas, in the age group of 41-50 males group, 42.9% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly six out of six sub questions, 14.3% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly four out of six sub questions, 14.3% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly three out of six sub questions and 28.6% have recognized brand by the celebrities name by answering correctly two out of six sub questions.

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CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS

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Hypothesis 1: Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men.
The first two questions were asked to test hypothesis. The question consists of whether individuals make a list before going for shopping and stick to that list or not. According to the finding, it was found that 44.3%% males and 50% females planned shopping and they made a shopping list. This obviously shows females are more planned shoppers as compared to men. Similarly, 22.1% of Males and 12.8% of females did not plan their shopping. This shows that females are much more spontaneous when it comes to shopping. In the second question, it was observed that 32.3% men and 37.2% stick to what they had planned for shopping while 36.9 of males and 33.3% of females stick to what they had planned for shopping. So, the finding has proved that women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men. H1: ACCEPTED

Hypothesis 2: Men and women perceive advertisements differently.
This hypothesis was tested from four different angles. Firstly I observed that which advertising medium was more effective for each gender, then I saw that what kind of advertisement themes were preferred by males and females, after that it was inquired whether men and women believed that advertisements were true or not and lastly it was asked that to what extent did advertisements attract their attention. These different angles gave us the opportunity to see how advertisements were perceived differently by men and women. The exposure of different advertising mediums is different among both the genders. This was also proved by the results in which I found that male and female both ranked TV as the most effective while Newspaper as the second most effective medium, the percentage of male ranking TV was much more than that of female (male: 71.3%, female: 61.5%) while the percentage of female ranking Newspaper as

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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior the second most effective medium was little bit more that men (female: 12.8, male: 12.3). In the fourth question, I recognized that females were influenced by informative, celebrity endorsed and Adventurous themes. Male on the other hand were most affected by celebrity endorsed, informative and humorous advertising themes. When I compare the percentages, I found that 30.3% male ranked celebrity endorsed advertising as the most effective advertising theme. The second most important was informative advertising (male: 27%) and third was humorous advertising (male: 21.3%). For women, the most influential theme is the informative advertising (female: 27%), the second most influential theme is celebrity endorsed advertising (female: 29%) and the third was Adventurous advertising (female: 16.7%). In question five; individuals were asked what they thought about advertisements giving a true picture of the products/services being marketed. A small percentage of men and women agreed that advertisements were true (Male: 33.8%, female: 33.3%). As for people who did not believe that advertisements were true, there was a huge difference in the number of men and women, which believed so. Around 26.2% males confidently said that advertisements do no portray the products/services very truly and around 19.2% women believed the same. This shows the differing perceptions very clearly. Around 47.4% women chose the option ‘maybe’ because they were not really sure about advertisements. Compared to that, only 40.2% males chose this option. In the last question for this hypothesis, people were asked that to what extent did advertisements attracted their attention. 36.1% male chose the ‘a lot’ option whereas only 29.5% female chose this option. There was also an option of ‘somewhat’ for people who were not very confident about whether advertisements did or did not attract their attention. Around 35.2% males select the option of “somewhat” whereas 51.3% females chose it too. The percentage of males who confidently believed that advertisements did not attract their attention at all was less than that of women (male: 2.5%, female: 6.4%). This percentage difference between men and women clearly shows the differing perceptions that they have about advertisements. It can also be related to the previous two questions.
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H2: ACCEPTED

Hypothesis 3: Brand recall leads to purchase.
The two questions were asked to test this hypothesis. In the first one, individuals were asked whether an advertisement ever created an inert feeling in them to try out a product/service. Around 52% males said YES to this question, 12.3% answered NO while a 35.2% said SOMETIMES to this question. In Females, 38.5% selected YES, 6.4% answered NO while 55.1% selected SOMETIMES to the question. In the second question for this hypothesis, the individuals were asked how often their purchase decision was based on brand recall. Most of the individuals in both males and females chose the “Often” option. Second in line is the “Rarely” option. This shows an interesting fact; people may like different advertising themes, they may say that an advertisement did create an inert feeling to try out a product/service, but when it comes to actually purchasing the products/services, their buying decision is often based on brand recall. This means that the inert feeling created by advertisements was not strong enough to make people actually buy the product/service. This means that the hypothesis that brand recall leads to a purchase would not be true as the results show that people may remember a product/service due to its advertisements but it’s not necessary that they would buy it too when they remember it. H3: REJECTED

Hypothesis 4: Women have a better brand recall then men.
The last three questions of the questionnaire were asked to test this hypothesis. Individuals were asked to list out brands that they recalled from some specific colors, tag lines and celebrities. In the first question, which was related to brands recalled from five specific colors, it was seen that the percentage of women who scored the maximum marks, i.e. got all their answers correct, was greater than men. On average, men scored less than
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Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior women in terms of remembering brands from different colors. It was found by taking the mean. (Male: 4.07, Female: 4.22) In the next question, in which individuals were asked to recall brands from different tag lines, once again females were the maximum scorers. 88.5% women scored five or above out of a total of seven while men who scored seven or above were only 75.5%. This clearly shows the huge difference in terms of better brand recall. It can also proved by taking mean. (Male: 5.43, Female: 5.86) For the last question too, the total score was six and individuals had to list the brands that they remembered from different celebrities. Once again, 96.2% of the women scored four and above scorers out of six, while on the other hand, 89.3% of men scored four and above out of six. It can also be proved by taking their mean. (Male: 5.13, Female: 5.23) From the above results, it is proved that Women have a better brad recall then men. H4: ACCEPTED

Hypothesis 5: Brand recall differs in different age brackets.
In the results obtained from brand recall questions, it was seen that younger consumers in both the genders had a better brand recall than the other two strata of both males and females. This is because the memory recall is better in younger age and the younger generation today is more in touch with media than the older generations. Another reason for this is that companies tend to target the younger through advertising campaigns as the younger consumers can influence the buying behavior of their parents and grandparents too. So as this younger age bracket is specifically targeted, and that is the reason why younger consumers have a better brand recall. H5: ACCEPTED

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Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS

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Based on all the findings and analysis, we have come to the following conclusions: • Women are easier to target and affect through marketing due to their higher emotional quotient and TV exposure. It is also more beneficial to target women as their brand recall was also proved to be better so this obviously means that they are more prone to spread the product’s awareness through word of mouth. Due to these reasons, companies should spend a greater proportion of their marketing budget on targeting women through adverting campaigns based on emotional, humorous and celebrity endorsed themes. • TV and newspapers are the most effective mediums for marketing to consumers belonging to both the genders. • It is not necessary that brand recall leads to purchase but still promotion is important and effective in terms of creating awareness and recall potential in the consumers. • Women have a more spontaneous buying behavior as compared to men so point-of-sale advertising can be a point of focus for the companies. • • Men and women perceive advertisements differently so different advertising themes are important to target both these genders more effectively.

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Bibliography

Websites:
• • • • • • •

www.google.com www.yahoo.com www.scribd.com www.wikipedia.com www.4shared.com www.esnips.com www.h33t.com

Books: Marketing, 13th Edition Michael J. Etzel, Bruce J. Walker, William J. Staton Consumer Behavior, 4th Edition David L. Loudon & Albert J. Della Bitta

Professors: •
• •

Professor Sibtay Amir Professor Adeeb Rasool Professor Lateef Dallus

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APPENDICES

Appendices

Questionnaire
Gender: Male H-I men. Q1: Do you plan your shopping: do you make a shopping list? • • • Yes No Sometimes Female Age:18-25 26-40 40 and above Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to

Q2: Do you stick to what you have planned for shopping? • • • Yes No Sometimes

H-II Men and women perceive advertisements differently. Q3: Which advertising medium do you think is most effective? (Rate, 5 being the highest, 1 the lowest)
• • • • •

TV Billboard News paper Internet Radio

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

Q4: How would you rate the following advertisement theme? (5 being the highest, 1 the lowest)
• • • • •

Humorous Informative Adventurous Emotional Celebrity endorsed

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

Q5: Do you think that advertisements give a true picture of products/services being marketed? • • • Yes No May be

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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior Q6: To what extent do you think that advertising attracts your attention? • • • • • Extremely A lot Somewhat No Not at all

H-III Brand recalls leads to purchase.

Q7: Did an advertisement ever create feeling to try out a product/service? • • • Yes No Sometimes

Q8: How often is your purchase decision based on an advertisement recall? • • •

Mostly Often Rarely
Never

Hypothesis IV: Women have a better brad recall then men. Q9: Which brand comes to your mind from the following colors? (List as many as you remember) Yellow Blue Red Indigo Green ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

Q10: Fill in the following blanks: Brands

Tag Lines Gaarha jo hai
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_____________________________

Research and Compiled by: Zubair Naikzad (2411106019)

Appendices • • • • • •

_____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

itna khalis jitna pyar Piyo aur jiyo Connecting people ab sab keh dou Do the Dew the smart call

Q11: Which advertisement comes to your mind when you think of the following celebrities? (List as many as you remember)
• • • • • •

Reema Amna Haq Ali Zafar Shaan Atif Aslam Iman Ali

_______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

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Age Group Wise Charts (Findings)

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Appendices

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Appendices

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Appendices

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Hypothesizes Wise Charts (Analysis)
Hypothesis-I Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men

Q1: Do you plan your shopping: do you make a shopping list?

Q2: Do you stick to what you have planned for shopping?

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Appendices

Hypothesis-II Men and women perceive advertisements differently Q3: Which advertising medium do you think is most effective? (Rate, 5 being the highest, 1 the lowest)

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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior Q4: How would you rate the following advertisement theme? (5 being highest, 1 lowest)

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Appendices

Q5: Do you think that advertisements give a true picture of products or services being marketed?

Q6: To what extent do you think that advertising attracts your attention?

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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior
Hypothesis-III Brand recall leads to purchase

Q7: Did an advertisement ever create an inert feeling to try out a product/service?

Q8: How often is your purchase decision based on an advertisement recall?

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Appendices Hypothesis-IV Women have better brand recall as compared to men

Q9: Which brand comes to your mind from the following colors? (List as many as you remember)

Q10: Fill in the following blanks:

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Effect Of Advertisement On Male Vs Female Buying Behavior Q11: Which advertisement comes to your mind when you think of the following celebrities? (List as many as you remember)

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