Angeles University Foundation

Angeles City

“Hydatidiform Mole”

Submitted By: Ano, Carl Elexer C. BSN III- 1 GRP 1 Submitted To: Rodalyn Morales RN

May 20, 2009


A hydatidiform mole or molar pregnancy is an abnormal form of pregnancy, characterized by the presence of a hydatidiform mole (or hydatid mole, mola hytadidosa) which is a rare mass or growth that forms inside the uterus at the beginning of a pregnancy. It is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Molar pregnancy comprises two distinct entities, partial and complete moles. Complete moles have no identifiable embryonic or fetal tissues and arise when an empty egg with no nucleus is fertilized by a normal sperm. In contrast, a partial mole occurs when a normal egg is fertilized moles by two may spermatozoa. develop into Hydatidiform

choriocarcinoma, a form of cancer. CAUSES: A hydatidiform mole, or molar pregnancy, results from over-production of the tissue that is supposed to develop into the placenta. The placenta normally feeds a fetus during pregnancy. In this condition, the tissues develop into an abnormal growth, called a mass. There are two types:
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Partial molar pregnancy Complete molar pregnancy

A partial molar pregnancy means there is an abnormal placenta and some fetal development. In a complete molar pregnancy, there is an abnormal placenta but no fetus.

Both forms are due to problems during fertilization. Potential causes may include defects in the egg, problems within the uterus, or a diet low in protein, animal fat, and vitamin A. Women under age 16 or older than 40 have a higher risk for this condition. You also are more likely to have a molar pregnancy if you have had one in the past. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:

Abnormal growth of the womb (uterus)
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Excessive growth in about half of cases Smaller-than-expected growth in about a third of cases

Nausea and vomiting that may be severe enough to require a hospital stay Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy during the first 3 months of pregnancy Symptoms of hyperthyroidism
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Heat intolerance Loose stools Rapid heart rate Restlessness, nervousness Skin warmer and more moist than usual Trembling hands Unexplained weight loss

Symptoms similar to preeclampsia that occur in the 1st trimester or early 2nd trimester -- this is almost always a sign of a hydatidiform mole, because preeclampsia is extremely rare this early in a normal pregnancy
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High blood pressure Swelling in feet, ankles, legs

EXAMS AND TESTS: A pelvic examination may show signs similar to a normal pregnancy, but the size of the womb may be abnormal and the baby's heart sounds are absent. There may be some vaginal bleeding. A pregnancy ultrasound will show an abnormal placenta with or without some development of a baby. Tests may include:

HCG blood test
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hCG under 5 mIU/ml: Negative. Not pregnant hCG between 5-25 mIU/ml: "Equivocal". Maybe pregnant maybe not. Repeat test in a couple of days hCG over 25 mIU/ml: You are pregnant. Extremely high – possible Hydatidiform mole

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Chest x-ray CT or MRI of the abdomen

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Dilatation and curettage (D & C) Hysterectomy

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