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1 Overview
2 Principles
3 Approach
4 Way Forward: Eight National Missions
National olar Mission
National Mission !or Enhanced Energy E!!iciency
National Mission on "staina#le $a#itat
National Water Mission
National Mission !or "staining the $i%alayan
National Mission !or a &'reen (ndia&
National Mission !or "staina#le Agric"lt"re
National Mission on trategic )nowledge !or
*li%ate *hange
+ (%pl e%ent at i on o! Mi ssi ons: (nst i t "t i onal
Arrange%ents !or Managing *li%ate *hange
, -echnical .oc"%ent
National Action Plan on Climate Change
1. Overview
(ndia is !aced with the challenge o! s"staining its
rapid econo%ic growth while dealing with the glo#al
threat o! cli%ate change/ -his threat e%anates !ro%
acc"%"lated greenho"se gas e%issions in the
at%osphere0 anthropogenically generated thro"gh
long1ter% and intensive ind"strial growth and high
cons"%ption li!estyles in developed co"ntries/ While
engaged with the international co%%"nity to collec1
tively and cooperatively deal with this threat0 (ndia
needs a national strategy to !irstly0 adapt to cli%ate
change and secondly0 to !"rther enhance the ecolog1
ical s"staina#ility o! (ndia2s develop%ent path/
*li%ate change %ay alter the distri#"tion
and 3"ality o! (ndia2s nat"ral reso"rces and adversely
a!!ect the livelihood o! its people/ With an econo%y
closely tied to its nat"ral reso"rce #ase and cli%ate1
sensitive sectors s"ch as agric"lt"re0 water and
!orestry0 (ndia %ay !ace a %a4or threat #eca"se o! the
pro4ected changes in cli%ate/
(ndia2s develop%ent path is #ased on its
"ni3"e reso"rce endow%ents0 the overriding priority
o! econo%ic and social develop%ent and poverty
eradication0 and its adherence to its civili5ational
legacy that places a high val"e on the environ%ent
and the %aintenance o! ecological #alance/
(n charting o"t a develop%ental pathway
which is ecologically s"staina#le0 (ndia has a wider
spectr"% o! choices precisely #eca"se it is at an
earlystage o! develop%ent/ O"r vision is to create a
prospero"s0 #"t not waste!"l society0 an econo%y that is
sel!1s"staining in ter%s o! its a#ility to "nleash the
creative energies o! o"r people and is %ind!"l o! o"r
responsi#ilities to #oth present and !"t"re genera1
6ecogni5ing that cli%ate change is a glo#al
challenge0 (ndia will engage actively in %"ltilateral
negotiations in the 7N Fra%ewor8 *onvention on
*li%ate *hange0 in a positive0 constr"ctive and !or1
ward1loo8ing %anner/ O"r o#4ective will #e to
esta#lish an e!!ective0 cooperative and e3"ita#le
glo#al approach #ased on the principle o! co%%on
#"t di!!erentiated responsi#ilites and respective
capa#ilities0 enshrined in the 7nited Nations
Fra%ewor8 *onvention on *li%ate *hange
97NF***:/ "ch an approach %"st #e #ased on a
glo#al vision inspired #y Mahat%a 'andhi2s wise dict"%
;-he earth has eno"gh reso"rces to %eet people2s
needs0 #"t will never have eno"gh to satis!y people2s
greed/ -h"s we %"st not only pro%ote s"staina#le
prod"ction processes0 #"t e3"ally0 s"staina#le
li!estyles across the glo#e/
Finally0 o"r approach %"st also #e co%pati#le
with o"r role as a responsi#le and enlightened
%e%#er o! the international co%%"nity0 ready to
%a8e o"r contri#"tion to the sol"tion o! a glo#al
challenge0 which i%pacts on h"%anity as a whole/
-he s"ccess o! o"r national e!!orts wo"ld #e signi!i1
cantly enhanced provided the developed co"ntries
a!!ir% their responsi#ility !or acc"%"lated green1
ho"se gas e%issions and !"l!ill their co%%it%ents
"nder the 7NF***0 to trans!er new and additional
!inancial reso"rces and cli%ate !riendly technologies
to s"pport #oth adaptation and %itigation in devel1
oping co"ntries/
We are convinced that the principle o! e3"i1
ty that %"st "nderlie the glo#al approach %"st allow
each inha#itant o! the earth an e3"al entitlement to
the glo#al at%ospheric reso"rce/
(n this connection0 (ndia is deter%ined that
its per capita greenho"se gas e%issions will at no
point e<ceed that o! developed co"ntries even as we
p"rs"e o"r develop%ent o#4ectives/
s"staina#le develop%ent/
E!!ecting i%ple%entation o! progra%%es thro"gh
"ni3"e lin8ages0 incl"ding with civil society and
local govern%ent institutions and thro"gh p"#lic1
private1pa rtnersh i p/
Welco%ing international cooperation !or research0
develop%ent0 sharing and trans!er o! technologies
ena#led #y additional !"nding and a glo#al (P6
regi%e that !acilitates technology trans!er to
developing co"ntries "nder the 7NF***/
3/ Approach
2/ Principles
Maintaining a high growth rate is essential !or
increasing living standards o! the vast %a4ority o! o"r
people and red"cing their v"lnera#ility to the
i%pacts o! cli%ate change/ (n order to achieve a s"s1
taina#le develop%ent path that si%"ltaneo"sly
advances econo%ic and environ%ental o#4ectives0
the National Action Plan !or *li%ate *hange
9NAP**: will #e g"ided #y the !ollowing principles:
Protecting the poor and v"lnera#le sections o!
society thro"gh an incl"sive and s"staina#le devel1
op%ent strategy0 sensitive to cli%ate change/
Achieving national growth o#4ectives thro"gh a
3"alitative change in direction that enhances eco1
logical s"staina#ility0 leading to !"rther %itigation
o! greenho"se gas e%issions/
.evising e!!icient and cost1e!!ective strategies !or
end "se .e%and ide Manage%ent/
.eploying appropriate technologies !or #oth
adaptation and %itigation o! greenho"se gases e1
%issions e<tensively as well as at an accelerated
Engineering new and innovative !or%s o! %ar8et0
reg"latory and vol"ntary %echanis%s to pro%ote
-he NAP** addresses the "rgent and critical concerns
o! the co"ntry thro"gh a directional shi!t in the
develop%ent pathway0 incl"ding thro"gh the
enhance%ent o! the c"rrent and planned pro1
gra%%es presented in the -echnical .oc"%ent/
-he National Action Plan on *li%ate *hange
identi!ies %eas"res that pro%ote o"r develop%ent
o#4ectives while also yielding co1#ene!its !or address1
ing cli%ate change e!!ectively/ (t o"tlines a n"%#er
o! steps to si%"ltaneo"sly advance (ndia2s develop1
%ent and cli%ate change1related o#4ectives o! adap1
tation and %itigation/
4/ -he Way Forward:
Eight National Missions
(n dealing with the challenge o! cli%ate change we
%"st act on several !ronts in a !oc"sed %anner si%"l1
taneo"sly/ -he National Action Plan hinges on the
develop%ent and "se o! new technologies/ -he
i%ple%entation o! the Plan wo"ld #e thro"gh
appropriate institutional %echanis%s s"ited !or
e!!ective delivery o! each individ"al Mission2s o#4ec1
tives and incl"de p"#lic private partnerships and civil
society action/ -he !oc"s will #e on pro%oting
"nderstanding o! cli%ate change0 adaptation and
%itigation0 energy e!!iciency and nat"ral reso"rce
There are Eight National Missions which
form the core of the National Action Plan, represent-
ing multi-pronged, long-term and integrated strate-
gies for achieving ke goals in the conte!t of climate
change" #hile several of these programmes are
alread part of our current actions, the ma need a
change in direction, enhancement of scope and
effectiveness and accelerated implementation of
time-$ound plans"
4.1. National Solar Mission
A National %olar Mission will $e launched to signifi-
cantl increase the share of solar energ in the total
energ mi! while recogni&ing the need to e!pand
the scope of other renewa$le and non-fossil options
such as nuclear energ, wind energ and $iomass"
'ndia is a tropical countr, where sunshine is
availa$le for longer hours per da and in great inten-
sit" %olar energ, therefore, has great potential as
future energ source" 't also has the advantage of
permitting a decentrali&ed distri$ution of energ,
there$ empowering people at the grassroots level"
Photovoltaic cells are $ecoming cheaper with new
technolog" There are newer, reflector-$ased tech-
nologies that could ena$le setting up megawatt
scale solar power plants across the countr" Another
aspect of the %olar Mission would $e to launch a
ma(or )*+ programme, which could draw upon
international cooperation as well, to ena$le the cre-
ation of more afforda$le, more convenient solar
power sstems, and to promote innovations that
ena$le the storage of solar power for sustained,
long-term use"
4.2. National Mission for Enhanced
Energy Efficiency
The Energ ,onservation Act of -../ provides a legal
mandate for the implementation of the energ effi-
cienc measures through the institutional mecha-
nism of the 0ureau of Energ Efficienc 10EE2 in the
,entral 3overnment and designated agencies in
each state" A num$er of schemes and programmes
have $een initiated and it is anticipated that these
would result in a saving of /.,... M# $ the end of
4ive 5ear Plan in -./-"
To enhance energ efficienc, four new ini-
tiatives will $e put in place" These are6
A market $ased mechanism to enhance cost effec-
tiveness of improvements in energ efficienc in
energ-intensive large industries and facilities,
through certification of energ savings that could $e
Accelerating the shift to energ efficient
appliances in designated sectors through
innovative measures to make the products more
,reation of mechanisms that would help finance
demand side management programmes in all
sectors $ capturing future energ savings"
+eveloping fiscal instruments to promote energ
4.3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
A National Mission on %ustaina$le 7a$itat will $e
launched to make ha$itat sustaina$le through
improvements in energ efficienc in $uildings, man-
agement of solid waste and modal shift to pu$lic
transport" The Mission will promote energ efficienc
as an integral component of ur$an planning and ur$an
renewal through three initiatives"
i"The Energ ,onservation 0uilding ,ode, which
addresses the design of new and large commercial
$uildings to optimi&e their energ demand, will $e
e!tended in its application and incentives provided for
retooling e!isting $uilding stock"
ii")eccling of material and 8r$an #aste Management
will $e a ma(or component of ecologicall sustaina$le
economic development" 'ndia alread has a
significantl higher rate of reccling of waste
compared to developed countries" A special area of
focus will $e the development of technolog for
producing power from waste" The National Mission
will include a ma(or )*+ programme, focusing on $io
chemical conversion, waste water use, sewage
utili&ation and reccling options wherever possi$le"
iii" 0etter ur$an planning and modal shift to
pu$lic transport" Making long term transport plans
will facilitate the growth of medium and small cities
in was that ensure efficient and convenient pu$lic
'n addition, the Mission will address the need to
adapt to future climate change $ improving the
resilience of infrastructure, communit $ased disas-
ter management, and measures for improving the
warning sstem for e!treme weather events"
,apacit $uilding would $e an important component
of this Mission"
4.4. National Water Mission
A National #ater Mission will $e mounted to ensure
integrated water resource management helping to
conserve water, minimi&e wastage and ensure more
e9uita$le distri$ution $oth across and within states"
The Mission will take into account the provisions of
the National #ater Polic and develop a framework
to optimi&e water use $ increasing water use effi-
cienc $ -.: through regulator mechanisms with
differential entitlements and pricing" 't will seek to
ensure that a considera$le share of the water needs
of ur$an areas are met through reccling of waste
water, and ensuring that the water re9uirements of
coastal cities with inade9uate alternative sources of
water are met through adoption of new and appro-
priate technologies such as low temperature desali-
nation technologies that allow for the use of ocean
The National #ater Polic would $e
revisited in consultation with states to ensure $asin
level management strategies to deal with varia$ilit
in rainfall and river flows due to climate change"
This will include enhanced storage $oth a$ove and
$elow ground, rainwater harvesting, coupled with
e9uita$le and efficient management structures"
The Mission will seek to develop new regula-
tor structures, com$ined with appropriate entitle-
ments and pricing" 't will seek to optimi&e the effi-
cienc of e!isting irrigation sstems, including reha-
$ilitation of sstems that have $een run down
andalso e!pand irrigation, where feasi$le, with a
special effort to increase storage capacit" 'ncentive
structures will $e designed to promote water-neutral or
water-positive technologies, recharging of under-
ground water sources and adoption of large scale
irrigation programmes which rel on sprinklers, drip
irrigation and ridge and furrow irrigation"
4.5. National Mission for Sustaining the
Himalayan Ecosystem
A Mission for sustaining the 7imalaan Ecosstem
will $e launched to evolve management measures
for sustaining and safeguarding the 7imalaan glacier
and mountain eco-sstem" 7imalaas, $eing the source
of ke perennial rivers, the Mission would, inter-alia,
seek to understand, whether and the e!tent to
which, the 7imalaan glaciers are in recession and
how the pro$lem could $e addressed" This will
re9uire the (oint effort of climatologists, glaciologists
and other e!perts" #e will need to e!change
information with the %outh Asian countries and
countries sharing the 7imalaan ecolog"
An o$servational and monitoring network
for the 7imalaan environment will also $e esta$-
lished to assess freshwater resources and health of
the ecosstem" ,ooperation with neigh$ouring
countries will $e sought to make the network com-
prehensive in its coverage"
The 7imalaan ecosstem has ;/ million people
who practice hill agriculture and whose vulnera$ilit
is e!pected to increase on account of climate change"
,ommunit-$ased management of these ecosstems
will $e promoted with incentives to communit
organi&ations and panchaats for protection and
enhancement of forested lands" 'n mountainous
regions, the aim will $e to maintain two-thirds of the
area under forest cover in order to prevent erosion
and land degradation and ensure the sta$ilit of the
fragile eco-sstem"
4.6. National Mission for a Green India
A National Mission will $e launched to enhance eco-
sstem services including car$on sinks to $e called
3reen 'ndia" 4orests pla an indispensa$le role in the
preservation of ecological $alance and maintenance
of $io-diversit" 4orests also constitute one of the
most effective car$on-sinks"
The Prime Minister has alread announced a
3reen 'ndia campaign for the afforestation of < mil-
lion hectares" The national target of area under forest
and tree cover is ==: while the current area under
forests is -=:"
The Mission on 3reen 'ndia will $e taken up
on degraded forest land through direct action $
communities, organi&ed through >oint 4orest
Management ,ommittees and guided $ the
+epartments of 4orest in state governments" An ini-
tial corpus of over )s <... crore has $een earmarked
for the programme through the ,ompensator
Afforestaion Management and Planning Authorit
1,AMPA2 to commence work" The programme will
$e scaled up to cover all remaining degraded forest
land" The institutional arrangement provides for
using the corpus to leverage more funds to scale up
4.7. National Mission for Sustainale
The Mission would devise strategies to make 'ndian
agriculture more resilient to climate change" 't
would identif and develop new varieties of crops
and especiall thermal resistant crops and alternative
cropping patterns, capa$le of withstanding e!tremes
of weather, long dr spells, flooding, and varia$le
moisture availa$ilit"
Agriculture will need to $e progressivel
adapted to pro(ected climate change and our agri-
cultural research sstems must $e oriented to moni-
tor and evaluate climate change and recommend
changes in agricultural practices accordingl"
This will $e supported $ the convergence
and integration of traditional knowledge and practice
sstems, information technolog, geospatial
technologies and $iotechnolog" New credit and
insurance mechanisms will $e devised to facilitate
adoption of desired practices"
4ocus would $e on improving productivit of
rainfed agriculture" 'ndia will spearhead efforts at
the international level to work towards an ecologi-
call sustaina$le green revolution"
4.". Natinal Mission on Strategic #no$ledge
for %limate %hange
To enlist the glo$al communit in research and tech-
nolog development and colla$oration through
mechanisms including open source platforms, a
%trategic ?nowledge Mission will $e set up to identif
the challenges of, and the responses to, climate
change" 't would ensure funding of high 9ualit and
focused research into various aspects of climate
The Mission will also have, on its research
agenda, socio-economic impacts of climate change
including impact on health, demograph, migration
patterns and livelihoods of coastal communities" 't
would also support the esta$lishment of dedicated
climate change related academic units in 8niversities
and other academic and scientific research institu-
tions in the countr which would $e networked" A
,limate %cience )esearch 4und would $e created
under the Mission to support research" Private sector
initiatives for development of innovative technologies
for adaptation and mitigation would $e encouraged
through venture capital funds" )esearch to support
polic and implementation would $e undertaken
through identified centres" The Mission will also
focus on dissemination of new knowledge $ased on
research findings"
5. Implementation of Missions
These National Missions will $e institutionali&ed $
respective ministries and will $e organi&ed through
inter-sectoral groups which include in addition to
related Ministries, Ministr of 4inance and the
Planning ,ommission, e!perts from industr, acade-
mia and civil societ" The institutional structure
would var depending on the task to $e addressed
$ the Mission and will include providing the oppor-
tunit to compete on the $est management model"
Each Mission will $e tasked to evolve specific
o$(ectives spanning the remaining ears of the
//th Plan and the /-th Plan period -./--/= to -./<-
/@" #here the resource re9uirements of the Mission
call for an enhancement of the allocation in the //th
Plan, this will $e suita$l considered, keeping in
mind the overall resources position and the scope for
,omprehensive Mission documents detailing
o$(ectives, strategies, plan of action, timelines and
monitoring and evaluation criteria would $e devel-
oped and su$mitted to the Prime MinisterAs ,ouncil
on ,limate ,hange $ +ecem$er -..B" The ,ouncil
will also periodicall review the progress of these
Missions" Each Mission will report pu$licl on its
annual performance"
0uilding pu$lic awareness will $e vital in
supporting implementation of the NAP,," This will
$e achieved through national portals, media
engagement, civil societ involvement, curricula
reform and recognitionC awards, details of which will
$e worked out $ an empowered group" The 3roup
will also consider methods of capacit $uilding to
support the goals of the National Missions"
#e will develop appropriate technologies to
measure progress in actions $eing taken in terms of
avoided emissions, wherever applica$le, with refer-
ence to $usiness as usual scenarios" Appropriate indi-
cators will $e evolved for assessing adaptation $ene-
fits of the actions"
These Eight National Missions, taken together, with
enhancements in current and ongoing programmes
included in the Technical +ocument, would not onl
assist the countr to adapt to climate change, $ut
also, importantl, launch the econom on a path that
would progressivel and su$stantiall result in miti-
gation through avoided emissions"
5.1. Institutional Arrangeents for
Managing !liate !hange Agenda
'n order to respond effectivel to the challenge of cli-
mate change, the 3overnment has created an
Advisor ,ouncil on ,limate ,hange, chaired $ the
Prime Minister" The ,ouncil has $road $ased repre-
sentation from ke stake-holders, including
3overnment, 'ndustr and ,ivil %ociet and sets out
$road directions for National Actions in respect of
,limate ,hange" The ,ouncil will also provide guidance
on matters relating to coordinated national action
on the domestic agenda and review of the
implementation of the National Action Plan on
,limate ,hange including its )*+ agenda"
The ,ouncil chaired $ the Prime Minister
would also provide guidance on matters relating to
international negotiations including $ilateral, multi-
lateral programmes for colla$oration, research and
development" +etails of the institutional arrange-
ment are at Anne!ure /"
The NAP,, will continue to evolve, $ased on
new scientific and technical knowledge as the
emerge and in response to the evolution of the mul-
tilateral climate change regime including arrange-
ments for international cooperation"
Annexure - I
o 0
l 2
CQ as
L i
a l
1 Background to India's National Action Plan on Climate Change
2 ome Current Programmes on Adaptation and Mitigation
! "a# $or%ard& 'ight National Missions
!.1 National olar Mission
!.2 National Mission for 'nhanced 'nerg# 'fficienc#
!.! National Mission on ustaina(le )a(itat
!.* National "ater Mission
!.5 National Mission for ustaining the )imala#an 'cos#stem
!.+ National Mission for a ,reen India
!.- National Mission for ustaina(le Agriculture
!.. National Mission on trategic /no%ledge for Climate Change
* 0ther Initiati1es
5 International Cooperation
+ 2eferences
1/ =ac8gro"nd to (ndia2s National Action
Plan on *li%ate *hange
The 4ourt h Assessment report of t he
'ntergovernmental Panel on ,limate ,hange 1'P,,-
concluded from direct o$servations of
changes in temperature, sea level, and snow cover in
the northern hemisphere during /B;. to the
present, that the warming of the earthAs climate
sstem is une9uivocal" The glo$al atmospheric
concentration of car$on dio!ide has increased from a
pre-industrial value of a$out -B. ppm to =@F ppm in
-..;" Multi-model averages show that the
temperature increases during -.F.--.FF relative to
/FB.-/FFF ma range from /"/ to <"4G, and sea level
rise from ."/B to .";F meters" These could lead to
impacts on freshwater availa$ilit, oceanic
acidification, food production, flooding of coastal
areas and increased $urden of vector $orne and
water $orne diseases associated with e!treme
weather events""
The Prime MinisterAs ,ouncil on ,limate
,hange, in its first meeting on /=
>ul, -..@, had
decided that "A National Document compiling
action taken by India for addressing the challenge of
Climate Change, and the action it proposes to take"
$e prepared"
The National Action Plan for ,limate ,hange
responds to the decision of the PMAs ,ouncil, as well
as updates 'ndiaAs national programmes relevant to
addressing climate change" 't identifies measures
that promote our development o$(ectives, while also
ielding co-$enefits for addressing climate change
effectivel" 't lists specific opportunities to simultane-
ousl advance 'ndiaAs development and climate related
o$(ectives of $oth adaptation as well as greenhouse
gas 13732 mitigation"
'ndiaAs development agenda focuses on the
need for rapid economic growth as an essential pre-
condition to povert eradication and improved stan-
dards of living" Meeting this agenda, which will also
reduce climate Hrelated vulnera$ilit, re9uires large-
scale investment of resources in infrastructure, tech-
nolog and access to energ" +eveloping countries
ma lack the necessar financial and technological
resources needed for this and thus have ver low
coping capacit to meet threats from climate
changes" Inl rapid and sustained development
cangenerate the re9uired financial, technological and
human resources" 'n view of the large uncertainties
concerning the spatial and temporal magnitude of
climate change impacts, it is not desira$le to design
strategies e!clusivel for responding to climate
change" )ather, the need is to identif and prioriti&e
strategies that promote development goals while
also serving specific climate change o$(ectives"
't is imperative to identif measures that pro-
mote our development o$(ectives, while also ielding
co-$enefits for addressing climate change effects"
,ost- effective energ efficienc and energ
conservation measures are of particular importance
in this connection" %imilarl, development of clean
energ technologies, though primaril designed to
promote energ securit, can also generate large
$enefits in terms of reducing car$on emissions" Man
health H related local pollution controls can also gen-
erate significant co-$enefits in terms of reduced
greenhouse gas emissions" This document identifies
specific opportunities to simultaneousl advance
'ndiaAs development and climate related o$(ectives
of adaptation and 373 mitigation"
't also descri$es 'ndiaAs willingness and
desire, as a responsi$le mem$er of the glo$al com-
munit, to do all that is possi$le for pragmatic and
practical solutions for all, in accordance with the
principle of common $ut differentiated responsi$ilities
and respective capa$ilities" The purpose of this
document is also to create awareness among repre-
sentatives of the pu$lic at large, different agencies
of the government, scientists, industr H in short, the
communit as a whole H on the threat posed $ cli-
mate change and the proposed steps to counter it"
&.&. 'he Im(erati)e of *o)erty !lle)iation
Economic reforms, implemented since /FF/, have
resulted in faster growth of the 'ndian econom" 3+P
growth rates have averaged roughl B: during
-..4--..B" 7owever, -@";: of the population still
lived $elow the povert line in -..4-.; and 44: are
still without access to electricit" The Approach Paper
to the Eleventh Plan emphasi&es that rapid econom-
ic growth is an essential prere9uisite to reduce
povert" The poor are the most vulnera$le to climate
change. The former Prime Minister, late Smt. Indira
Gandhi, had stated: 'poverty is the worst polluter'.
Therefore, development and poverty eradication
wil l be the best form of adaptati on to cl i mate
The impacts of climate change could prove
particularly severe for women. ith climate change,
there would be increasing scarcity of water, reduc!
tion in yields of forest biomass, and increased ris"s to
human health with children, women and the elderly
in a household becoming the most vulnerable. ith
the possibility of decline in availability of foodgrains,
the threat of malnutrition may also increase. #ll
these would add to deprivations that women already
encounter and so in each of the #daptation pro!
grammes, special attention should be paid to the
aspects of gender.
1.2 Relationship between Human Development
Index and Energy Consumption
The strong positive correlation between energy use
and human development is well recogni$ed %&igure
'.(.'). It is obvious that India needs to substantially
increase its per capita energy consumption to provide
a minimally acceptable level of well being to its
$igure 1.2.1& *uman +evelopment Inde, versus per capita
electricity consumption
1.3 Current Carbon Dioxide Emissions in India
India-s ./( emissions per capita are well below the
world-s average
. Per capita carbon dio,ide emis!
sions of some regions in the world in (001 are as fol!
3a(le 1.!.1& # comparison of India-s per capita G*G emissions
with some other countries
Per4Capita Car(on4dio5ide
emissions 6metric tons7
2S# (0.0'
32 4.10
.hina 6.70
8ussia ''.9'
India 1.02
"orld A1erage
India has a well!developed policy, legislative, regula!
tory, and programmatic regime for promotion of
energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear power,
fuel switching, energy pricing reform, and addressing
G*G emissions in the energy sector. #s a conse:uence
of these measures, India-s energy intensity of the
economy has come down sharply since the '4;0s and
compares favourably with the least energy intensive
developed countries
$igure 1.!.2& India's Energy intensity ! GDP "ased n
Internatina# Energy Agen$y data
;', '&(
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* '& +
+ ' & -
c '&.
/ '&0
Re!1 H23an De4e#53ent Re5rt 6*'',6
P2"#i s7ed !r t7e Uni ted Natins
De4e#53ent Prgra33e 8UNDP6
%'' %''' %''''
Per Ca5ita E#e$tri$ity Cns235tin in 9:7;year
'nerg# intensit# of ,8P 6kgoel9 2::: PPP7
." =/ -
0. 29-
; ." -@ -
Si 0. 25 -
t 0. 23 -
0. 2 -
0.9 -

`,2 ."/@ -
rn rn
0 '
1.. !bserved Changes in Climate and
"eather Events in India
There are some observed changes in climate param!
eters in India. India-s Initial <ational .ommunication,
(001 %<#T./M ')
to 2<&... has consolidated
some of these. Some highlights from <#T./M I and
others are listed here. <o firm lin" between the doc!
umented changes described below and warming due
to anthropogenic climate change has yet been estab!
urface 3emperature
#t the national level, increase of > 0.1? . has been
observed in surface air temperatures over the past
century. # warming trend has been observed along
the west coast, in central India, the interior peninsu!
la, and north!eastern India. *owever, cooling trends
have been observed in north!west India and parts of
south India.
hile the observed monsoon rainfall at the all!India
level does not show any significant trend, regional
monsoon variations have been recorded. # trend of
increasing monsoon seasonal rainfall has been found
along the west coast, northern #ndhra Pradesh, and
north!western India %@'0A to @'(A of the normal
over the last '00 years) while a trend of decreasing
monsoon seasonal rainfall has been observed over
eastern Madhya Pradesh, north!eastern India, and
some parts of GuBarat and Cerala %!7A to >;A of the
normal over the last '00 years).
'5treme "eather '1ents
Instrument records over the past '60 years do not
indicate any mar"ed long!term trend in the fre:uen!
cies of large!scale droughts and floods. Trends are
however observed in multi!decadal periods of more
fre:uent droughts, followed by less severe droughts.
There has been an overall increasing trend in severe
storm incidence along the coast at the rate of 0.0''
events per year. hile the states of est Dengal and
GuBarat have reported increasing trends, a decline
has been observed in /rissa. Goswami
et al, by
analysing a daily rainfall data set, have shown %i) a
rising trend in the fre:uency of heavy rain events,
and %ii) a significant decrease in the fre:uency of
moderate events over central India from '4=' to
2ise in ea ;e1el
2sing the records of coastal tide gauges in the north
Indian /cean for more than 10 years, 2nni"rishnan
and Shan"ar
have estimated, that sea level rise was
between '.07!'.9= mm per year. These rates are con!
sistent with '!( mm per year global sea level rise esti!
mates of IP...
Impacts on )imala#an ,laciers
The *imalayas possess one of the largest resources of
snow and ice and its glaciers form a source of water
for the perennial rivers such as the Indus, the Ganga,
and the Drahmaputra. Glacial melt may impact their
long!term lean!season flows, with adverse impacts
on the economy in terms of water availability and
hydropower generation.
The available monitoring data on *imalayan
glaciers indicates that while recession of some gla!
ciers has occurred in some *imalayan regions in
recent years, the trend is not consistent across the
entire mountain chain. It is accordingly, too early to
establish long!term trends, or their causation, in
respect of which there are several hypotheses.
2nder the <ational #ction Plan, these data will
be updated and refined continuously and additional
reliable data will be collected.
1.#. $ome %ro&e'tions o( Climate Change over
India (or the 21st Century
Some modelling and other studies have proBected
the following changes due to increase in atmospheric
G*G concentrations arising from increased global
anthropogenic emissions:
#nnual mean surface temperature rise by the
end of century, ranging from 6 to =? . under #(
scenario and (.= to 1? . under D( scenario of IP..,
with warming more pronounced in the northern parts
of India, from simulations by Indian Institute of
Tropical Meteorology %IITM), Pune.
E Indian summer monsoon %ISM) is a manifestation of
comple, interactions between land, ocean and
atmosphere. The simulation of ISM-s mean pattern as
well as variability on interannual and intraseasonal
scales has been a challenging ongoing problem.
Some simulations by IITM, Pune, have indicated that
summer monsoon intensity may increase beginning
from (010 and by '0A by ('00 under #( scenario of
E .hanges in fre:uency andF or magnitude of
e,treme temperature and precipitation events. Some
results show that fine!scale snow albedo influence
the response of both hot and cold events and that
pea" increase in e,treme hot events are amplified by
surface moisture feedbac"s.
&.6. *ossile Im(acts of *ro+ected
%limate %hange
.hanges in "ey climate variables, namely tempera!
ture, precipitation, and humidity, may have signifi!
cant long!term implications for the :uality and :uan!
tity of water. 8iver systems of the Drahmaputra, the
Ganga, and the Indus, which benefit from melting
snow in the lean season, are li"ely to be particularly
affected by the decrease in snow cover. # decline in
total run!off for all river basins, e,cept <armada and
Tapti, is proBected in India-s <#T./M I. # decline in
run!off by more than two!thirds is also anticipated
for the Sabarmati and Guni basins. +ue to sea level
rise, the fresh water sources near the coastal regions
will suffer salt intrusion.
&ood production in India is sensitive to climate
changes such as variability in monsoon rainfall and
temperature changes within a season. Studies by
Indian #gricultural 8esearch Institute %I#8I) and oth!
ers indicate greater e,pected loss in the 8abi crop.
3very ' ?. rise in temperature reduces wheat produc!
tion by 1!= Million Tonnes. Small changes in tempera!
ture and rainfall have significant effects on the :ual!
ity of fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, aromatic and
medicinal plants, and basmati rice. Pathogens and
insect populations are strongly dependent upon tem!
perature and humidity, and changes in these param!
eters may change their population dynamics. /ther
impacts on agricultural and related sectors include
lower yields from dairy cattle and decline in fish
breeding, migration, and harvests. Global reports
indicate a loss of '0!10A in crop production by ('00.
.hanges in climate may alter the distribution of
important vector species %for e,ample, malarial mos!
:uitoes) and may increase the spread of such diseases
to new areas. If there is an increase of 6.; ?. in tem!
perature and a 9A increase in relative humidity the
transmission windows i.e., months during which
mos:uitoes are active, will be open for all '( months
in 4 states in India. The transmission windows in
5ammu and Cashmir and in 8aBasthan may increase
by 6!= months. *owever, in /rissa and some south!
ern states, a further increase in temperature is li"ely
to shorten the transmission window by (!6 months.
Dased on future climate proBections of 8egional
.limate Model of the *adley .entre %*ad8M6) using
#( and D( scenarios and the DI/M31 vegetation
response model, 8avindranath et. al.
show that
99A and 7;A of the forest areas in the country are
li"ely to e,perience shift in forest types, respectively
under the two scenarios, by the end of the century,
with conse:uent changes in forests produce, and, in
turn, livelihoods based on those products.
.orrespondingly, the associated biodiversity is li"ely
to be adversely impacted. India-s <#T./M I proBects
an increase in the area under ,eric scrublands and
,eric woodlands in central India at the cost of dry
savannah in these regions.
*eavily populated regions such as coastal areas are
e,posed to climatic events,such as cyclones, floods,
and drought, and large declines in sown areas in arid
and semi-arid &ones occur during climate e!tremes"
Karge areas in )a(asthan, Andhra Pradesh, 3u(arat,
and Maharashtra and comparativel small areas in
?arnataka, Irissa, Madha Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,
0ihar, #est 0engal, and 8ttar Pradesh are fre9uented
$ drought" A$out 4. million hectares of land is
flood-prone, including most of the river $asins in the
north and the north-eastern $elt, affecting a$out =.
million people on an average each ear" %uch vulner-
a$le regions ma $e particularl impacted $ climate
A mean %ea Kevel )ise 1%K)2 of /;-=B cm is pro(ected
along 'ndiaAs coast $ the mid -/st centur and of
4<-;F cm $ -/.." 'ndiaAs NAT,IM ' assessed the vul-
nera$ilit of coastal districts $ased on phsical e!po-
sure to %K), social e!posure $ased on population
affected, and economic impacts" 'n addition, a pro-
(ected increase in the intensit of tropical cclones
poses a threat to the heavil populated coastal &ones
in the countr 1NAT,IM, -..42"
2. ome Current Actions for Adaptation
and Mitigation
Adaptation, in the conte!t of climate change, com-
prises the measures taken to minimi&e the adverse
impacts of climate change, e"g" relocating the com-
munities living close to the sea shore, for instance, to
cope with the rising sea level or switching to crops
that can withstand higher temperatures" Mitigation
comprises measures to reduce the emissions of
greenhouse gases that cause climate change in the
first place, e"g" $ switching to renewa$le sources of
energ such as solar energ or wind energ, or
nuclear energ instead of $urning fossil fuel in ther-
mal power stations"
,urrent government e!penditure in 'ndia on
adaptation to climate varia$ilit, as shown in 4igure
-"/, e!ceeds -"<: of the 3+P, with agriculture, water
resources, health and sanitation, forests, coastal-
&one infrastructure and e!treme weather events,
$eing specific areas of concern"
&i+,r- 2.. E=5endit2re n Ada5tatin Prgra33es in India
2.1 Some Existing Adaptation related
2.1.1. C$O" IM"$O'EMENT
The present programmes address measures such as
development of arid-land crops and pest management,
as well as capacit $uilding of e!tension workers and
N3Is to support $etter vulnera$ilit reducing
2.1.2. D$OU%HT "$OO&IN%
The current programmes seek to minimi&e the
adverse effects of drought on production of crops
and livestock, and on productivit of land, water and
human resources, so as to ultimatel lead to drought
proofing of the affected areas" The also aim to pro-
mote overall economic development and improve
the socio-economic conditions of the resource poor
and disadvantaged sections inha$iting the pro-
gramme areas"
2.1.3. &O$EST$)
'ndia has a strong and rapidl growing afforestation
programme" The afforestation process was accelerated
$ the enactment of the 4orest ,onservation Act of
/FB., which aimed at stopping the clearing and
degradation of forests through a strict, centrali&ed
control of the rights to use forest land and
Expenditure on adaptation as % of total

Expenditure on adaptation as % of G!"

4 mmmmmm
m m m
2 #
v. 0
1 , 1 " C r
N .
o >
I N ' C r
$, $, o
14 #
12 #
mandat or re9ui rement s of compensat or
afforestation in case of an diversion of forest land
for an non-forestr purpose" 'n addition an aggres-
sive afforestation and sustaina$le forest manage-
ment programme resulted in annual reforestation
of /"@B mha during /FB;-/FF@, and is currentl /"/
mha annuall" +ue to this, the car$on stocks in
'ndian forests have increased over the last -. ears
to F -/. gigatons of car$on 13t,2 during /FB< to
2.1.4. #ATE$
The National #ater Polic 1-..-2 stresses that non-
conventional methods for utili&ation of water,
including inter-$asin transfers, artificial recharge of
groundwater, and desalination of $rackish or sea
water, as well as traditional water conservation prac-
tices like rainwater harvesting, including roof-top
rainwater harvesting, should $e practised to increase
the utili&a$le water resources" Man states now have
mandator water harvesting programmes in several
'n coastal regions, restrictions have $een imposed in
the area $etween -..m and ;..m of the 7TK 1high
tide line2 while special restrictions have $een
imposed in the area up to -..m to protect the sensi-
tive coastal ecosstems and prevent their e!ploita-
tion" This, simultaneousl, addresses the concerns of
the coastal population and their livelihood" %ome
specific measures taken in this regard include con-
struction of coastal protection infrastructure and
cclone shelters, as well as plantation of coastal
forests and mangroves"
2.1.6. HEALTH
The prime o$(ective of these programmes is the sur-
veillance and control of vector $orne diseases such as
Malaria, ?ala-a&ar, >apanese Encephalitis, 4ilaria and
+engue" Programmes also provide for emergenc
medical relief in the case of natural calamities, and
to train and develop human resources for these
2.1.7. $IS/ &INANCIN%
Two risk-financing programmes support adaptation
to climate impacts" The ,rop 'nsurance %cheme sup-
ports the insurance of farmers against climate risks,
and the ,redit %upport Mechanism facilitates the
e!tension of credit to farmers, especiall for crop failure
due to climate varia$ilit"
The National +isaster Management programme pro-
vides grants-in-aid to victims of weather related dis-
asters, and manages disaster relief operations" 't also
supports proactive disaster prevention programmes,
including dissemination of information and training
of disaster-management staff"
2.2. $ome o( India)s *'tions Relating to
+H+ ,itigation
'ndia has in place a detailed polic, regulator, and
legislative structure that relates strongl to 373 mit-
igation6 The 'ntegrated Energ Polic was adopted in
-..<" %ome of its ke provisions are6
Promotion of energ efficienc in all sectors
Emphasis on mass transport
Emphasis on renewa$les including $iofuels
Accelerated development of nuclear and
hdropower for clean energ
4ocused )*+ on several clean energ related tech-
%everal other provisions relate to reforming energ
markets to ensure that energ markets are competitive,
and energ prices reflect true resource costs" These
include6 Electricit Act -..;, Tariff Polic -..=,
Petroleum * Natural 3as )egulator 0oard Act, -..<,
etc" The provisions taken together are designed to6
)emove entr $arriers and raise competition in
e!ploration, e!traction, conversion, transmission
and distri$ution of primar and secondar energ
Accomplish price reform, through full competition
at point of sale
Promote ta! reform to promote optimal fuel
Augment and diversif energ options, sources
and energ infrastructure
Provide feed-in tariffs for renewa$les 1solar, wind,
$iomass cogeneration2
%trengthen, and where applica$le, introduce
independent regulation
The )ural Electrification Polic, -..<, promotes
renewa$le energ technologies where grid connec-
tivit is not possi$le or cost-effective" The New and
)enewa$le Energ Polic, -..;, promotes utili&ation
of sustaina$le, renewa$le energ sources, and accel-
erated deploment of renewa$les through indige-
nous design, development and manufacture"
The National Environment Polic, -..<, and
the Notification on Environment 'mpact Assessment
1E'A2, -..<, reform 'ndiaAs environmental assessment
regime" A num$er of economic activities are re9uired
to prepare environment impact assessments, and
environment management plans, which are
appraised $ regulator authorities prior to start of
construction" The E'A provisions strongl promote
environmental sustaina$ilit"
An energ la$elling programme for appliances was
launched in -..<, and comparative star-$ased
la$elling has $een introduced for fluorescent tu$e-
lights, air conditioners, refrigerators, and distri$u-
tion transformers" The la$els provide information
a$out the energ consumption of an appliance,
and thus ena$le consumers to make informed deci-
sions" The 0ureau of Energ Efficienc has made it
mandator for refrigerators to displa energ effi-
cienc la$el and is e!pected to do so for air condi-
tioners as well" The standards and la$elling pro-
gramme for manufacturers of electrical appliances
is e!pected to lead to significant savings in electric-
it annuall"
An Energ ,onservation 0uilding ,ode 1E,0,2 was
launched in Ma, -..@, which addresses the design of
new, large commercial $uildings to optimi&e the
$uildingsA energ demand $ased on their location in
different climatic &ones" ,ommercial $uildings are
one of the fastest growing sectors of the 'ndian
econom, reflecting the increasing share of the services
sector in the econom" Nearl one hundred $uildings
are alread following the ,ode, and compliance with
the ,ode has $een incorporated into the mandator
Environmental 'mpact Assessment re9uirements for
large $uildings" 't has $een estimated that if all the
commercial space in 'ndia ever ear conform to E,0,
norms, energ consumption in this sector can $e
reduced $ =.-4.:",ompliance with E,0, norms is
voluntar at present $ut is e!pected to soon $ecome
'n March -..@ the conduct of energ audits was
made mandator in large energ-consuming units in
nine industrial sectors" These units, notified as Edes-
ignated consumersE are also re9uired to emplo
Ecertified energ managersE, and report energ con-
sumption and energ conservation data annuall"
2.2.5. Mass T$ANS"O$T
The National 8r$an Transport Polic emphasi&es
e!tensive pu$lic transport facilities and non-motori&ed
modes over personal vehicles" The e!pansion of the
Metro )ail Transportation %stem in +elhi and other
cities and other mass transit sstems, such as the
Metro 0us pro(ect in 0angalore, are steps in its
i mpl ement at i on" The st at e government of
Maharashtra recentl announced that it will impose
a congestion ta! to discourage the use of private cars
in cities where it has created Esufficient pu$lic transport
'n ur$an areas, one of the ma(or sources of air pollu-
tion is emissions from transport vehicles" %teps taken
to reduce such pollution include 1i2 introduction of
compressed natural gas 1,N32 in +elhi and other
citiesL 1ii2 retiring old, polluting vehiclesL and 1iii2
strengthening of mass transportation as mentioned
a$ove" %ome state governments provide su$sidies for
purchase and use of electric vehicles" 4or thermal
power plants, the installation of electrostatic precip-
itators is mandator" 'n man cities, polluting indus-
trial units have either $een closed or shifted from
residential areas"
The 0ureau of Energ efficienc has introduced EThe
0achat Kamp 5o(anaE, a programme under which
households ma e!change incandescent lamps for
,4Ks 1compact fluorescent lamps2 using clean devel-
opment mechanism 1,+M2 credits to e9uate pur-
chase price" %ome states have made mandator the
installation of solar water heaters in hospitals, hotels
and large government and commercial $uildings"
%u$sid is provided for installation of solar water
heaters in residential $uildings"
2.2.8. "$OMOTION O& (IO&UELS
The 0iodiesel Purchase Polic mandates $iodiesel
procurement $ the petroleum industr" A mandate
on Ethanol 0lending of 3asolene re9uires ;: $lend-
ing of ethanol with gasolene from /
>anuar, -..=,
in F %tates and . 8nion Territories"
3. T1- #a2 &or3ar4.
Ei+1t Natio!al Missio!s
The e!perience gained so far ena$les 'ndia to
em$ark on an even more proactive approach" The
following su$sections descri$e the various pro-
grammes that ma $e taken up under the National
Action Plan"
,.&. National Solar Mission
The National %olar Mission would promote the use of
solar energ for power generation and other appli-
cations" #here necessar for purposes of sstem $al-
ance or ensuring cost-effectiveness and relia$ilit, it
would also promote the integration of other renew-
a$le energ technologies, for e!ample, $iomass and
wind, with solar energ options"
'ndia is largel located in the e9uatorial sun
$elt of the earth, there$ receiving a$undant radiant
energ from the sun" The countr receives a$out
;,... trillion k#hCear e9uivalent energ through
solar radiation" 'n most parts of 'ndia, clear sunn
weather is e!perienced -;. to =.. das a ear" The
annual glo$al radiation varies from /<.. to --..
, which is tpical of the tropical and su$-
tropical regions" The average solar insolation inci-
dent over 'ndia is a$out ;"; k#hCm
per da" >ust /:
of 'ndiaAs land area can meet 'ndiaAs entire electricit
re9uirements till -.=."
%olar $ased power technologies are an
e!tremel clean form of generation with practicall
no form of emissions at the point of generation"
The would lead to energ securit through displace-
ment of coal and petroleum" T*+ losses are ver low
in decentrali&ed sstems" +eploment can $e done
independentl of the national grid and integrated
with the national grid when needed"
%olar Thermal Power 3enerating %stems 1%TP32 or
,oncentrating %olar Power 1,%P2 use concentrated
solar radiation as high temperature energ source 1M
;..G,2 to produce electricit"
The working mechanism for solar heat to
electricit is fundamentall similar to that of tradi-
tional thermal power plants" %TP3 technologies are
now on the verge of significant scale commerciali&a-
tion" Ma(or technologies include para$olic trough or
dish, dish-engine sstem, central tower receiver ss-
tem, and solar chimne 1which drives an air draft tur-
$ine, and does not raise steam2"
%olar power is, o$viousl availa$le onl during
sunlight hours" There are also significant seasonal
variations" Moreover, the need to track the movement
of the sun during the da, as also the seasonal variations
in orientation, although full predicta$le, ma add
significantl to cost in respect of dish collector sstems"
7owever, design variants are availa$le that re9uire
movement of onl the heat collector at
the focus, or onl of individual mirrors in an arra,
thus reducing costs"
The cclical 1diurnal, annual2 and episodic
1cloud cover2 variations of solar insolation, and the
impossi$ilit of regulating the solar flu! means that
in order to ensure stead power suppl, meet peak-
ing re9uirements, as well as to ensure optimal uti-
li&ation of steam tur$ines and generators, it is neces-
sar to either h$ridi&e solar thermal sstems with
alternative means of raising steam, or provide for
high temperature thermal energ storage" The former
ma $e accomplished $ h$ridi&ation with con-
ventional fuels, or $ $iomass com$ustion sstems"
The latter ma $e accomplished $ insulated storage
of molten saltsL however, in their case the rate of
heat loss ma $e significant, and storage for more
than /.-/- hours is uneconomic"
The investment cost of stand-alone 1i"e" with-
out h$ridi&ation2 solar thermal power plants are in
the range of )s -.--- crCM#" 't usuall includes the
cost of the solar concentrators, $alance of sstem
10I%2, receiver 1tur$ine2 with generator and control
e9uipments, etc" The estimated unit cost of genera-
tion is currentl in the range of -.--; )sC?#h"
1%ource %cientific American, >anuar -..B2
Proposed )*+ activities in respect of %olar
Thermal power generation would cover design and
development of concentrating solar thermal power
sstems, including para$olic troughs, central receiver
sstems, and dishCengine sstems" The )*+
effort should $e directed mainl at reducing costs
of production and maintenance, and include $oth
production design and fa$ricationCassem$l tech-
ni9ues" 'n addition, )*+ should cover $alance of
sstems issues involved in h$ridi&ation with $io-
mass com$ustion $ased sstems andCor molten salts
thermal storage"
'n photovoltaic generation, solar energ is directl
converted to electricit using a semi-conductor, usu-
all a silicon diode" 7owever, while there are other
semi-conductors 1e"g" cadmium telluride2 that ma
$e used for power generation, most of them are at
various stages of )*+"
The investment costs of solar PD $ased
power sstems are in the range of )s" =.-
=;crCM#"This includes the cost of the solar panels
and $alance of sstem 10I%2" The unit cost of gener-
ation is still in the range of )s" /;--. ?#h, $ut ma
fall significantl for thin-film $ased sstems"
Proposed )*+ activities in respect of %olar
Photovoltaic generation, for the near and medium
term would include improvement in solar cell effi-
cienc to /;: at commercial levelL improvements in
PD module technolog with higher packing densit
and suita$ilit for solar roofsL and development of
lightweight modules for use in solar lanterns and
similar applications"
'n specific areas of $oth solar thermal and solar PD
sstems, it would $e useful to enter into colla$ora-
tion with institutions working elsewhere, with sharing
of the resulting 'P)s"
Technolog transfer in $oth %olar Thermal
technologies and the PD technologies will $e
re9uired in respect of cost-effective and efficient
technologies suita$le for use in 'ndia" %upport to
commercial demonstration $ entrepreneurs of %olar
Thermal and %olar PD, $oth stand-alone and distri$-
uted generation sstems, in particular in remote
locations, and using these as training facilities for
local entrepreneurs and I*M personnel would also
help develop this sector"
The National %olar Mission would $e responsi$le
for6 1a2 the deploment of commercial and near
commercial solar technologies in the countrL 1$2
esta$lishing a solar research facilit at an e!isting
esta$lishment to coordinate the various research,
development and demonstration activities $eing car-
ried out in 'ndia, $oth in the pu$lic and private sec-
torL 1c2 reali&ing integrated private sector manufac-
turing capacit for solar material, e9uipment, cells
and modules 1d2 networking of 'ndian research efforts
with international initiatives with a view to promoting
colla$orative research and ac9uiring technolog
where necessar, and adapting the technolog ac9uired
to 'ndian conditionsL 1e2 providing funding support for
the activities foreseen under 1a2 to 1d2 through
government grants dul leveraged $
funding availa$le under glo$al climate mechanisms,
and earnings from deploment of research sponsored
$ the Mission" Polic and )egulator measures for
promotion of solar technologies would also $e
enhanced as common to all renewa$les $ased tech-
Iver the //
and /-
Plan periods 1till
-./@2 the Mission would aim to deliver at least
B.: coverage for all low temperature 1N/;.G ,2,
and at least <.: coverage for medium tempera-
ture 1/;.G to -;.G ,2 applications of solar energ
in all ur$an areas, industries, and commercial
esta$lishments" )ural solar thermal applications
would also $e pursued under pu$lic-private part-
nerships where feasi$le" ,ommensurate local man-
ufacturing capacit to meet this level of deplo-
ment, with necessar technolog tie-ups, where
desira$le, would $e esta$lished" 4urther, the
Mission would aim for local Photovoltaic 1PD2 pro-
duction from integrated facilities at a level of /...
M#Cannum within this time frame" 't would also
aim to esta$lish at least /... M# of ,oncentrating
%olar Power 1,%P2 generation capacit, again, with
such technical tie-ups as essential within the stated
time frame"
The untapped energ potential of each of
the three generic solar $ased energ approaches 1i"e"
solar PD, solar thermal, and $iomass2 is well $eond
current usage levels" 'n the long term the Mission
would aim to network 'ndian research efforts in solar
technolog with glo$al initiatives in these three
areas, so as to ena$le deliver of solar solutions to
'ndiaAs energ needs in tandem with developments
'n the long-term, the Mission would direct
'ndian solar research initiatives to deliver trul dis-
ruptive innovations that cut across more than one
approach or technolog" These include6 1a2 getting
the same electrical, optical, chemical and phsical
performance from cheap materials as that delivered
$ e!pensive materialsL 1$2 developing new para-
digms for solar cell design that surpass current effi-
cienc limitsL 1c2 finding catalsts that ena$le ine!-
pensive, efficient conversion of solar energ into
chemical fuelL 1d2 identif novel methods of self-
assem$l of molecular components into functionall
integrated sstemsL and 1e2 developing new materi
als for solar energ conversion infrastructure, such as
ro$ust, and ine!pensive, thermal management mate-
The ultimate o$(ective of the Mission would
$e to develop a solar industr in 'ndia that is capa$le
of delivering solar energ competitivel against fos-
sil options from the ?ilowatt range of distri$uted
solar thermal and solar PD to the 3igawatt scale of
$ase load priced and dispatcha$le ,%P within the
ne!t -.--; ears"
,.-. National Mission for Enhanced Energy
Efficiency in Industry
The industr sector is the largest user of commercial
energ in 'ndia, accounting for 4-: of the countrAs
total commercial energ use during -..4-.;" The
'ndian industr sector, comprising large, medium,
and small enterprises registered a growth of /."<:
in AprilO+ecem$er -..< 1Mo4, -..@2" %ince the industr
sector is viewed as central for economic growth, it
would continue to pla a ma(or role in the overall
development of 'ndia"
The industriali&ation policies of the countr
have helped in setting up of several energOintensive
primar manufacturing facilities such as iron and
steel, cement, fertili&er, refineries, with investment
targets fi!ed in successive 4ive-ear Plans of the
3overnment of 'ndia" The planners also encouraged
various small scale industries, providing huge
emploment" The small scale sector produces close to
@;.. items in which =-< items are reserved $ the
3overnment of 'ndia 1Mo%%', -..@2 to $e e!clusivel
produced $ small units"
As per the national greenhouse inventor,
the direct ,I
emissions from industrial sources
accounted for nearl =/ : of the total ,I
from the countr 1data for $ase ear /FF42
1NAT,IM, '2" The ,I
emissions from the industrial
sector can $e $roadl categori&ed into two heads, i"e"
process related emissions, and emissions due to fuel
com$ustion in industries" If the total estimated -;.
million tonnes of direct ,I
emissions from the
industr in /FF4, nearl <.: were accounted for $
energ use 1NAT,IM, '2"
373 Mitigation options in the industr sector can $e
$roadl grouped under three heads as given $elow6
%ector specific technological options
,rossHcutting technologies options
4uel switch options
Darious 373 mitigation technolog options in
respect of the ,hlor-Alkali, ,ement, Aluminum,
4ertili&er, 'ron and %teel, Pulp and Paper, and Te!tile
sectors are currentl $eing investigated"
Apart from sectorHspecific options, there are certain
cross-cutting energ efficient technological options
that could $e adopted in a wide range of industries"
'n general, in the industries sector, appro!imatel
;.: of the industrial energ use is accounted for $
cross-cutting technologies"
The estimated energ saving potential for a
large num$er of plants is of the order of ;: to /;:"
3.2.4. &UEL S#ITCH
#ith the increasing availa$ilit of natural gas in the
countr 1$oth as imported KN3 Pli9uefied natural
gasQ and likel increased domestic natural gas sup-
pl2, industries ma have the option to switch over
from coal to the use of natural gas" 4uelHswitch to
natural gas generall leads to increase in energ use
Another option is switching over from fossil
fuels to producer gas from $iomass fuels for various
thermal applications" 'ndustries with low temperature
re9uirements 1upto /..G,2 1for e!ample, te!tiles and
pharmaceuticals2 ma also use solar thermal sstems
for water heating"
Although the efficienc of most large industrial sec-
tors has $een improving over time, and the specific
energ consumption of man of the large plants
compares well with the worldAs $est, it is estimated
that ,I
emissions from fuel and electricit use in
the industr sector could $e further reduced $
a$out <.; million tonnes 1appro!imatel /<: reduc-
tion from the 0A8 scenario2 in the ear -.=/"
7owever, this will involve ma(or incremental investment
costs, as well as, overall, large economic costs, $esides
technolog transfer"
3.2.6. CO-(ENE&ITS
Energ-efficienc measures in the industrial sector
also have some co-$enefits due to reduction in fuel
and material use leading to reduced emission of air-
pollutants, solid waste, and waste water" 'n addition,
some options also lead to improvement in the 9ualit
of product"
)elevant technologies under development that
would reduce specific energ consumption need to
$e transferred to 'ndia when commerciall via$le"
3.2.8. &INANCIN%
The move to efficient technologies in the industr
sector generall involves significant incremental
investment, and in man cases, economic costs"
These would have to $e provided $ multilateral
funding arrangements" 'n particular, special
financing mechanisms would need to $e put in
place for the %MEs" 0undling andCor programmatic
,+M could $e a possi$le financing route for these
,ooperative approaches $ the government and
industr are needed to enhance awareness of ener-
g-efficient options, and upgrade relevant technical
knowledge" The financial sector also needs capacit
$uilding in appraisal of specific energ efficienc
improvement investments in e!isting industries"
8nder the Energ ,onservation Act 1-../2, F energ
intensive industrial sectors, i"e" thermal power sta-
tions, fertili&er, cement, iron and steel, chlor-alkali,
aluminum, railwas, te!tile and pulp and paper, are
re9uired to emplo a certified energ manager, con-
duct energ audits periodicall, and adhere to spe-
cific energ-consumption norms that ma $e pre-
,urrentl, almost ever industrial sector is
characteri&ed $ a wide $and of energ efficiencies
in different units" %everal of them are at glo$al fron-
tier levels, $ut some others have relativel poor per-
formance" As an approach to enhancement of over-
all energ efficienc in each sector, the efficienc
$and-width of the sector is divided into 4 $ands" The
energ efficienc improvement target, in percent-
age, from current levels for each unit varies with its
$and, $eing highest for the least energ efficient,
and the least for the most efficient" These targets
would have to $e achieved within a period of = to ;
ears within each group"
3iven the fact of fertili&er su$sidies, individ-
ual fertili&er units have little incentive to undertake
energ-efficienc investments" 't is, therefore, imper-
ative that fertili&er su$sidies $e restructured to elim-
inate such a$sence of incentive"
To promote technolog upgradation in the
%ME 1small and medium enterprise2 sector, it would
$e essential to evolve sectorHspecific integrated pro-
grammes for technolog development" This would
re9uire e!ternal support for significantl longer
durations to address various technological $arriers
and promote energ efficiencies at the unit level"
The information or knowledge gap is more pro-
nounced in case of small industries and Ehand-hold-
ingE to help industries install energ efficient tech-
nologies as well as to ensure their optimum perform-
ance through $est operating practices will $e
Most of the energ-efficient e9uipment
re9uire higher upfront investment" An accelerated
depreciation up to B.: in the first ear on energ-
efficient e9uipment would help their deploment"
4urther, reduced rate DAT 1value added ta!2 on ener-
g- efficient e9uipment would also help in
reducingthe re9uired upfront investment"
To further enhance energ efficienc, four
new initiatives ma $e considered" These are6
Mandated specific energ consumption decreases in
large energ consuming industries and facilities that
have $een notified as +esignated ,onsumers under the
Energ ,onservation Act, and provide a framework to
certif energ savings in e!cess of the mandated
savings" The certified e!cess savings ma $e
traded amongst companies to meet their mandated
compliance re9uirements, or $anked for the ne!t
ccle of energ savings re9uirements"
Ta! incentives for promotion of energ efficienc,
including differential ta!ation on appliances that have
$een certified as energ efficient through energ
la$eling programme"
,reation of energ efficienc financing platforms for
ena$ling pu$lic-private-partnerships to capture energ
savings through demand side management
programmes in the municipal, $uildings, and agri-
cultural sectors"
4iscal 'ncentives
3.2.11. DELI'E$) O"TIONS
The ke deliver options for energ efficienc in
industr are6
Pro(ects, including retrofits, $ the corporate sector,
with institutional finance
Activities related to cluster development, particu-
larl in %MEs
Promotion of E%,Is 1Energ %ervice ,ompanies2
for providing energ efficienc solutions across
industr sectors
The Energ Efficienc 4inancing Platform initiated $
the 0ureau of Energ Efficienc, in con(unction with
a ro$ust E%,I industr could provide the necessar
impetus to energ efficienc" 'n respect of each deliver
mode, car$on finance through the ,+M would also
$e relevant"
3.3 National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
The Mission comprises three components, i"e" pro-
moting energ efficienc in the residential and com-
mercial sector, management of municipal solid
waste, and promotion of ur$an pu$lic transport"
These are presented $elow6
The residential sector accounts for around /="=: of
total commercial energ use in 'ndia" #hile several
households, especiall in the rural areas, continue to
use $iomass for cooking in traditional cookstoves,
which leads to high levels of indoor air pollution and
poses a ma(or health risk especiall to women and
children, the use of modern fuels such as KP3 1li9ue-
fied petroleum gas2 and kerosene is increasing rapid-
l" +uring /FF.--..=, consumption of KP3 increased
at an annual rate of //"-<:, while electricit use
increased at B"-;: annuall in the residential sector"
Electricit consumption in the residential sector
is primaril for lighting, space conditioning, refrig-
eration, and other appliances" According to a stud
on energ consumption in the residential sector in
the cit of +elhi, while lighting accounted for around
B:-/4: of total electricit consumption, space-con-
ditioning accounted for nearl ;-:, and refrigerators
accounted for around -B: 1in the summer months2"
Accordingl, energ saving measures related with
space conditioning 1heating and cooling2, refrigera-
tion, and lighting have great significance in moving
towards sustaina$le residential energ use"
The commercial sector comprises various
institutional esta$lishments such as $anks, hotels,
restaurants, shopping comple!es, offices, and pu$lic
$uildings" Electricit consumption has increased at
the rate of @"4: annuall $etween /FF.--..= in the
commercial sector" 't is estimated that on average, in
a tpical commercial $uilding in 'ndia around <.:
of the total electricit is consumed for lighting, =-:
for space conditioning, and B: for refrigeration"
7owever, the end-use consumption varies signifi-
cantl with space conditioning needs" #hile a full
airconditioned office $uilding could have a$out <.:
of the total electricit consumption accounted for
$air conditioning, followed $ -.: for lighting, in
a non-airconditioned $uilding the consumption pat-
terns would $e significantl different"
Energ use in residential and commercial
$uildings also varies significantl across income
groups, $uilding construction tpolog, climate, and
several other factors" There e!ists significant scope to
reduce energ use, while also providing the re9uisite
energ services in case of $oth e!isting as well as new
constructions" Although the saving potential of each
option ma var with tpolog, climate, space condi-
tioning needs, and the initial $ase design proposed
$ the clientCdesigner, on an average it is estimated
that the implementation of energ efficient options
would help in achieving around =.: electricit sav-
ings in new residential $uildings and 4.: electricit
savings in new commercial $uildings" 'n case of e!isting
$uildings, the energ saving potential for residential
$uildings is estimated to $e around -.:, and that for
commercial $uildings around =.:"
Darious studies have esta$lished that su$-
stantial energ savings can $e achieved in the resi-
dential and commercial sectors" 'mplementing car$on
mitigation options in $uildings is associated with a
wide range of co-$enefits, including improved
energ securit and sstem relia$ilit" Ither co-$ene-
fits of energ efficienc investments include the cre-
ation of (o$s and $usiness opportunities, while the
energ savings ma lead to greater access to energ
for the poor, leading to their improvement and well-
$eing" Ither co-$enefits include improved indoor
and outdoor air 9ualit, and there$ improved
health and 9ualit of life" COSTS AND FINANCING
The incremental cost of implementation of energ-
efficient measures is estimated to var $etween =:;:
for residential $uildings and /.:-/;: for commercial
$uildings on a case-to-case $asis" Economic savings
over the lifetime of the appliances would depend upon
the specific- usage patterns" Also, it is e!pected that in
general, private home-owners would seek shorter
pa-$ack periods than owners of commercial propert"
#hile the use of more efficient appliances
can pla a ke role in reducing final energ demands,
energ-efficient appliances tpicall have higher up-
front costs than their non-la$eled counterparts"
3iven that significant incremental investment costs
are associated with the efficient technologies, appro-
priate financing mechanisms need to $e adopted in
order to promote these technologies"
Adoption of energ-efficient lighting and
space-conditioning technologies should $e integrated
into housing finance schemes of financial institu-
tions, appliance financing schemes need to incen-
tivi&e purchase of energ-efficient e9uipment, and
utilit- $ased programmes should $e put in place to
pa for the higher upfront capital costs of lighting
sstems in the utilit $ills"
,ar$on-market financing would ena$le
access to these technologies where there are higher
investment costs, or higher economic costs of the
re9uired energ service, or $oth" This ma $e espe-
ciall useful in view of the Esplit incentiveE pro$lem
in such cases, that is, the persons who incur the addi-
tional investment costs are different from those that
might reali&e the energ savings" RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
The )*+ needs for the residential and commercial
sectors is mainl related to energ efficient technolo-
gies" 't needs to focus on the development of ener-
g-efficient products for the following applications6
Energ-efficient $uildings and $uilding
+evelopment of energ efficient windows
+evelopment of low-cost insulation material
+evelopment of simulation software to predict the
energ used in $uildings
Energ efficient appliances
+evelopment of energ-efficient ceiling fans
+evelopment of ver-low-energ-consuming cir-
cuits for stand-$ power
+evelopment of low-cost light-emitting diode
1KE+2-$ased lamps for space lighting
The %A,-, 1%cientific Advisor ,ommittee of the
,a$inet2 has recommended the launch of a National
Networked 'nitiative for )*+ on the development of
the ne!t generation of KE+s, particularl white KE+s" TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND CAPACITY BUILDING
The energ efficient lighting and space conditioning
technologies developed internationall are generall
superior as compared to those availa$le within the
countr" There is therefore a need for technolog
transfer from the developed countries" 7owever
adopting these internationall developed technologies
is associated with pament of additional costs due to
the 'P) component associated with these technologies"
Mechanisms need to $e put in place so that these costs
do not impose an additional $urden on the consumers"
%olar evacuated tu$ular panel technolog is
availa$le internationall for solar water heating ss-
tems, $ut needs to $e transferred for diffusion in the
'ndian market"
Kack of awareness of energ-saving options
and potential among architects, engineers, interior
designers, and professionals in the $uilding industr
including plum$ers and electricians is a ma(or $arrier
to the construction of low-energ $uildings"
)eali&ing the potential of energ saving re9uires an
integrated design process involving all the stake-
holders, with full consideration of opportunities for
passivel reducing $uilding energ demands"
0uilders and developers need to $e trained
and made aware of the options to save energ in new
constructions" There is a need to create comprehen-
sive integrated programmes at universities and other
professional esta$lishments to impart such training
for designing and constructing low-energ $uildings" POLICY AND REGULATORY ENHANCEMENTS
A diverse portfolio of polic instruments would $e
re9uired to address the $arriers to efficient energ
use in the residential and commercial sectors"
There is a need to continuousl update appli-
ance energ norms and $uilding energ codes and
la$eling, move towards rational energ pricing
$ased on long-term average economic cost, and pro-
vide fiscal $enefits for efficienc improvements"
The E,0, 1Energ ,onservation 0uilding
,ode2 was developed after the adoption of the
Energ ,onservation Act 1-../2" The E,0, aims to
reduce the $aseline energ consumption $ supporting
adoption and implementation of efficienc sa-
ings and savings in G*G emissions, besides other ben!
efits. 3.D. intervention has encouraged design inno!
vation in the building envelope and system design
and specification, which have resulted in =0A energy
savings %as measured in 3.D. compliant buildings)
when compared to conventional constructions.
Given the scale of energy savings that can be
achieved by the implementation of 3.D., it is impor!
tant to direct policy towards encouragingFmandating
energy savings. #s an e,ample, it would be pertinent
to address the cost of .&G %.ompact &luorescent Gamp)
and T= %3fficient Tube Gight) which is a barrier to their
wide spread use, and implement measures to increase
the demand in order to reduce prices through scale
effects. Garge!scale availability of appropriate
materials and e:uipment to meet the re:uirement of
3.D. is also urgently needed. The energy codes are
still new in India and the products %insulation, efficient
glass, efficient *H#. systems, and so on) and
services re:uired by buildings to comply with the
code re:uirements are not readily and abundantly
available, or competitively priced. Mar"et power
monopoly of a handful of manufacturers of energy
efficient products has resulted in a non!competitive
mar"et for products li"e insulations, chillers, and so
In addition to the above, the Mo3& %Ministry
of 3nvironment and &orests) has developed a manual
on norms and standards for environmental clearance
for large construction proBects after wide consultation
with e,perts from different disciplines. The manual
would be used as a technical guideline to assist the
proBect proponentsF sta"eholdersF consultants for the
preparation environmental impact assessments of
proBects and obtain environmental clearance. Doth the
3#.s %3,pert #ppraisal .ommittee) at Mo3& and
S3#.s %State 3,pert #ppraisal .ommittee) at the
stateF 2T level appraise and grade all new
construction proBects re:uiring environmental
clearances on the basis of the manual. The state
pollution control boards are re:uired to verify the
compliance of the 3nvironmental Management Plan
and the observance of the criteria of gradation by the
proBect proponents.
Successful implementation of performance!
based codes re:uires education and training of
building officials and inspectors and demonstration
proBects. Setting fle,ible performance!based
codesrather than technologyFoptions prescriptions
can help "eep compliance costs low and may provide
incentives for innovation. DELIVERY OPTIONS
The DGI %Dachat Gamp IoBana) model needs to be
pursued to promote energy efficient and high :uality
.&Gs as replacement for incandescent bulbs in
households. .omprehensive implementation of the
DGI can lead to a reduction of '0,000 M
%Megawatt) of electricity demand. The DGI depends
upon .+M %clean development mechanism) revenues
to meet the incremental investment cost as well as
the incremental economic cost that would be the
case in many participating households.
3S./s %3nergy Service .ompanies) need to
be promoted as vehicles to deliver energy!efficiency
improvements, in particular because of the Jsplit
incentivesJ problem, and facilitate access to carbon
finance through bundled .+M proBects.
The energy efficient options in the residen!
tial and commercial sectors should be promoted as
bundles of programmatic .+M options.
Municipal solid waste %MS) generation reflects not
Bust income levels, but also lifestyle choices. 8ecycling
of materials is an important option for reducing envi!
ronmental pressures. &igure 6.6.(.' below indicates
that India has a significantly higher rate of recycling
of materials in MS than developed countries.
Fig"re 3/3/2/1: %&era'e rate of recycling %in A), e,cluding re!use
Source: T38I %(007)
G*G emissions from MS in India are also much
lower than in developed countries, rec"oned per unit
of consumption %in K '000 at PPP), &igure 6.6.(.(
Figure G*G emissions intensity from waste generation
%in gmFK'000 at PPP G+P)
Source: T38I %(007)
MS generation in Indian cities %around ='00 2GDs)
is estimated to have increased from 7 million tonnes
in '419 to 1; million tonnes in '449, and to 74 mil!
lion tonnes in (007 %.entral Pollution .ontrol Doard
(000, T38I (00'). In addition, Indian consumption of
plastics is around 1 MTP# %million tonnes per
annum). #bout 70A of this comprises polyolefins,
which are primarily used as pac"aging material.
#bout (.0 MTP# of total consumption is generated
as plastic waste of which around 90A is recycled,
mostly by the informal sector. The decadal growth in
consumption of plastics during the period '44'!(00'
was around '1A %Indian .entre for Plastics in the
3nvironment and .entral Institute of Plastic
3ngineering Technology (006). #lthough the :uantity
of plastic waste reaching disposal sites is fairly low
%0.7(A on a dry weight basis), testifying to the high
rate of recyclingFreuse, the management of thin plas!
tic bags remains a matter of concern due to low col!
lection efficiency in their case. The plastic waste!recy!
cling sector therefore needs to be strengthened.
a!le C7ara$teristi$s ! MS: in -( $ities
Parameter "nit #ange
.ompostable % 60 ! 96
8ecyclable %Plastics,
Paper, Metal, Glass etc) % '0 ! 69
Moisture % '9 ! 7=
.arbonF<itrogen %.F<) 8atio '1 ! =6
*.H "calF"g =(0 ! 6977
Source: .P.D, (00=
There is a trend of increase in the percentage of recy!
clables, accompanied by decreases in the percentage
of biodegradable matter in the waste stream.
a!le C7ange in >aste $35sitin in se#e$ted $ities
1?@211??> 2>>+ 1?@211??> 2>>+
Guc"now 70.6' 19.1' 7.9( '=.=6
Col"ata 17.=; =0.=7 (.=; ''.1;
Canpur =6.61 19.=( (.=9 ''.46
Mumbai =4.69 7(.11 6.;= '7.77
+elhi =9.9' =1.1( ;.(1 '=.=(
.hennai =7.(1 1'.61 7.70 '7.61
Dangalore 9=.00 ='.;1 (.90 ((.16
#hemdabad 1;.4= 10.;' 9.=9 ''.7=
o"rce: 1?@21?>: !lannin' (ommission) 1995, 2005* (!(+ POLICIES AND REGULATIONS
The 91th .onstitutional #mendment %'44() trans!
ferred the responsibility for collection, treatment
and disposal of MS from State Governments to the
2rban Gocal Dodies %2GDs). The outbrea" of plague at
Surat %'441) focused policy attention on the impor!
tance of proper systems for MS in the 2GDs. In
response to direction by the Supreme .ourt in a PIG
%P <o. ;;;F'447) MS 8ules (000 were promulgated,
MS service from generation to disposal was
mandated, and Gocal Governments made responsible
for compliance. Since then 2GDs have gradually
improved the systems of collection and transport of
MS. *owever, maBor gaps e,ist in respect of treat!
ment and disposal. In particular, in respect of dispos!
al, the compliance is poor %L=A), and while there are
an increasing number of proBects incorporating safe
disposal, most have inade:uate capacity.
3fforts at composting, and generating ener!
gy from waste have generally not been successful for
a variety of systemic, technology, and pricing issues,
including variable :uality of waste, insufficient seg!
regation of MS, opposition to siting the facilities
from local residents, and accordingly, the practice of
open dumping continues. The dominant technology
choice remains composting.
In addition, e,perience has made clear that
&i+,r- 3.3.2.. C35#ian$e Stat2s ! MS: R2#es 8S2r4ey1 *''.6
%ource6 #orld 0ank #%P, -..@
M%# operations cannot overall $e profita$le, and
while cost-effectiveness and revenue streams should
$e pursued, M%# operations as a whole should $e
recogni&ed as entailing the provision of a pu$lic
good 1or environmental service2, generall re9uiring
net fiscal e!penditures $ the concerned local $odies"
The M%# )ules under the Environment
Protection Act are currentl somewhat focused on
specific treatment options, including the chain of col-
lection, transport and disposal" This focus is undul
prescriptive, and prevents innovation in sstems and
procedures, as well as update on new technologies
and techni9ues" The M%# )ules should $e revised to
focus instead on performance or outcome norms
that are to $e met, irrespective of particular sstems
and procedures, or technologies" This would provide
$enchmarks for monitoring and enforcement, as
well as give space for innovation in sstems, proce-
dures, and technologies"
There is an emerging consensus that M%#
)ules should ena$le 1$ut not re9uire2 the sharing of
infrastructure, including transport and treatment
facilities, across a given region, including towns and
villages" This would help reali&e scale economies,
$esides access to $etter and more cost-effective ss-
tems and treatment options for the smaller ur$an
centres and ha$itations"
0road guidelines for polic reform in the
M%# sector include6,ommon )egional 4acilities6 'n
respect of smaller towns and villages located in a
region, sa a district, disposal facilities should $e
developed as a common regional facilit"
'ntegrated %stems for collection, transport, transfer,
treatment, and disposal facilities6 even if different
organi&ations implement different components, as
opposed to stand-alone facilities and open
M%# operations cannot $e financiall via$le6 8K0s
should not e!pect to reali&e net roalties for treatment
and disposal of M%#, and a tipping fee would $e
necessar 1reckoned on tonnage of M%# or num$er
of sources of different kinds2 to $e met from 8K0
#hile there are several potential $enefits in
implementing M%# operations through pu$lic-pri-
vate partnerships, including cost-effectiveness, as
compared to operations carried out $ the local $odies
on their own, it is imperative that municipal finances
are placed on a sound footing prior to outsourcing this
function" #hile the issue of municipal finance reform
is comple! with man dimensions, and needs to $e
pursued independent of M%# issues, a pre-re9uisite
is separation of the accounts of the local $odies in
respect of their different responsi$ilities, such as
M%#, water suppl, sewage disposal and roads" This
separation would firstl, provide
! >aste
SLF Segregatin
at S2r$e
A$ti4ity ! S:M
d N23"er ! $ities >it7 )'? $4erage
Treat3ent @
guidance to setting user charges %however collected),
and a benchmar" against which bids for provision of
MS services may be Budged.
The <ational 3nvironment Policy, (007, provides for:
8emoval of barriers %incentives, regulation) for
beneficial utili$ation of non!ha$ardous materials
Implementing viable PPPs for operation of ha$!
ardous and non!ha$ardous waste disposal facilities
on payment of user fees, ta"ing into account con!
cerns of local communities
Survey and preparation of national inventory of
to,ic and ha$ardous waste sites and online moni!
toring of their movement
Giving legal recognition to and strengthening informal
sector systems of, collection and recycling and
enhancing their access to finance and technology
The significance of the last is that while the informal
recycling sector is the bac"bone of India-s highly
effective recycling system, unfortunately, a number
of municipal regulations impede the operation of
the recyclers, owing to which they remain at a tiny
scale without access to finance or improved recycling
technologies. R&D NEEDS
Technological re:uirements are listed as follows:
Diomethanation technology for waste to
including its decentralised application for segre!
gated waste streams li"e vegetable mar"et waste,
slaughterhouse waste and dairy waste.
+evelopment of indigenous gas engines for waste
to energy applications to reduce the overall cost of
the pac"age.
2pgrading plastic waste recycling technologies to
reduce occupational and environmental ha$ards.
8ecycling technologies for construction and demo!
lition wastes and e!waste streams. FINANCING
The '0th Plan emphasi$ed provision of important
infrastructure facilities and '00A coverage of urban
population with water supply facilities, and 9=A of
urban population with sewerage and sanitation by the
end of the plan period. 2nder the 5<28M, till 5anuary
(00;, funds amounting to 8s 400 crores were released
to 2GDs. The re:uired funding for upgrading MS
facilities in all cities and towns would be much greater.
3.3.3. P6OMO-(ON OF 76=AN P7=A(* -6ANPO6-
#n increase in the demand for transportation services
for both passengers and freight is inevitable, given
economic growth and increase of population. The
total number of registered motor vehicles in India
has increased from ('.1 million in '44' to 9(.9 million in
(001 at a .#G8 of 4.4A, with the two wheeler
segment comprising of motorcycles, scooters, and
mopeds growing most rapidly amongst personali$ed
modes of transportation. 8oad based transportation
is the main source of G*G emissions in the
transportation sector.
Harious studies have estimated that policy and
technological measures can lead to significant energy and
thereby emission savings in the transport sector. 3stimates
of the Planning .ommission indicate an energy saving
potential of ''= mtoe %million tonnes of oil e:uivalent) in
the year (06'F6( by increasing the share of railways and
improving efficiencies of different modes of transport
%Planning .ommission, (007). Similarly, T38I estimates
indicate an energy saving of '11 mtoe in (06' by including
efficiency improvement across modes as well as considering
enhanced use of public transportation and rail based
movement, use of bio!diesel as compared to business!as!
usual trends. The corresponding ./( emissions reduction is
estimated at 166 million tonnes in (06'. TRANSPORT OPTIONS
Mass transport options including buses, railways and
mass rapid transit systems, etc. are the principal
option for reducing energy use in the urban transport
sector, and mitigating associated G*G emissions and
air pollution. The use of .<G has helped reduce air
pollution due to diesel use in some cities because of
its lower particulates emissions. 8egarding biofuels,
ethanol blending of gasoline upto =A is re:uired in 4
states, and is e,pected that this limit would be
increased to'0A. 8M+ has to be carried out on the
com$ustion characteristics of motor engines for
$lending of higher content of ethanol in petrol" 0io-
diesel production from Jatropha curcas and
Pongamia shru$s is also increasing" The National
Mission on 0io-diesel aims in the first 1demonstra-
tion2 phase to esta$lish $iodiesel plantations in -<
states, while the second phase will lead to the pro-
duction of sufficient $io-diesel to ena$le a -.:
$lend in vehicle diesel in -.//C/-" 7owever, the oil
content of $io-diesel crops from different parts of
'ndia is highl varia$le" )*+ has to $e carried to
identif superior genotpes and collect seeds, which
need to $e inventorised, documented and stored
under different agro-climatic &ones" 'ntroduction of
$io-fuels should not divert land marked for food pro-
duction and thus decrease the availa$ilit of food-
grains to population" There is also some controvers
a$out the net 373 emission of some $iofuels"
7drogen has the potential to replace fossil
fuels in the future" 'n recent ears, significant
progress has $een reported $ several countries for
overcoming pro$lems in its storage and production"
'n 'ndia, a National 7drogen Energ )oad Map has
$een prepared" %ome organisations have alread
developed prototpes of two-and three-wheelers and
$uses to run on hdrogen fuel" 7owever, large scale
penetration of the market $ hdrogen propelled
vehicles is not e!pected till a few decades from now" COSTS AND FINANCING
Most of the energ-efficienc measures re9uire huge
investments in the creation of new infrastructure"
Efforts to reduce ,I
emissions $ the wa of intro-
duction of M)T% 1mass-rapid transit sstem2 would
involve diverting resources from other priorit claims
on fiscal resources"
Moreover, the possi$ilit of su$stantiall
reducing the dependence on petroleum products is
constrained $ the significantl higher costs of most
alternative fuel options as of now" The main $arrier
to the use of hdrogen $ased fuel cell vehicles 14,Ds2
is that of high 4,D drive-train costs" CO-BENEFITS
Mitigation options such as enhanced shares of pu$lic
transport or rail-$ased movement, efficienc
improvements, and increased adoption of $io-diesel
or ,N3 have important co-$enefits at the regional
and local levels"
Pricing, ta!es, and charges, apart from raising
revenue for governments, are e!pected to influence
travel demand and choice of transportation modes,
there$ decreasing fuel demand and 373 emissions"
Transport pricing can offer important gains in social
welfare $ simultaneousl reducing local pollution
and 373 emissions, accidents, noise and congestion, as
well as generating state revenue for enhancing social
wel-$eing andCor infrastructure construction and
4,Ds fuelled $ hdrogen have &ero ,I
emission and high efficienc, address air 9ualit 1&ero
tailpipe emissions2, and ma promote energ securit
since hdrogen can $e produced from a wide range
of sources"
#ith an e!panding automo$ile sector, rec-
cling of recovera$le materials at end-of-life of auto-
mo$iles would lead to considera$le energ savings
't is estimated that $ -.-., recovera$le materials
annuall will $e of the order of /"; million tons of
steel, /B.,... tons of aluminium and @;,... tons
each of ru$$er and plastics" )eccling of these mate-
rials will also reduce mining, depletion of natural
resources, and degradation of environment" 'ndia
has no formal regulations regarding reccla$ilit and
disposal of end-of-life vehicles"
The following actions are proposed for the transport
Promoting the use of coastal shipping and inland
waterwas, apart from encouraging the attractiveness
of rail-$ased movement relative to long-distance road
$ased movement
Encouraging energ )*+ in the 'ndian )ailwas
'ntroducing appropriate transport pricing measures to
influence purchase and use of vehicles in respect of
fuel efficienc and fuel choice
Tightening of regulator standards such as enforcing
fuel-econom standards for automo$ile manufacturers
Esta$lishing mechanisms to promote investments in
development of high capacit pu$lic transport sstems
1e"g" offer e9uit participation andCor via-
$ilit gap funding to cover capital cost of pu$lic
transport sstems2
A$andoning of old vehicles to $e made illegal
with suita$le legislation and fi!ing the responsi$ilit
of handing over the end-of-life vehicle to collection
centers on the last owner of the vehicle
%etting up of a demonstration unit to take up rec-
cling of vehicles, especiall two wheelers, which
re9uire new techni9ues
%etting up a ,om$ustion )esearch 'nstitute to
facilitate )*+ in advanced engine design
Providing ta! $enefits and investment support for
recover of materials from scrap vehicles
,.4. National Water Mission
'ndia gets on an average //F@ mm of rainfall ever
ear" This amounts to a total precipitation of 4...
$illion m
" 7owever, =... $illion m
of this is lost
due to run off, and onl /... $illion m
is availa$le
as surface and ground water sources, amounting to
c"/... m
per ear per capita water availa$ilit" This
is a$out //;
of that of man industrialised
countries" Man parts of 'ndia are water stressed
toda and 'ndia is likel to $e water scarce $ -.;."
The pro$lem ma worsen due to climate change
impacts" 't is therefore important to increase the effi-
cienc of water use, e!plore options to augment
water suppl in critical areas, and ensure more effec-
tive management of water resources" New regulator
structures with appropriate entitlements and pricing
and incentives to adopt water-neutral and water
positive technologies ma $e re9uired" 'ntegrated
water policies will help to cope with varia$ilit in
rainfall and river flows at the $asin level" %ome spe-
cific aspects related to water resources are discussed
in more detail $elow"
)ivers and lakes, the most visi$le sources of surface
water, often indicate the state of the environment
more clearl than man other indicators" %uch
resources also have economic significance in the
form of waterwas for transport, sources of clean
energ in the form of hdropower, and vital inputs
to agriculture in the form of irrigation" ?e elements
on surface water studies include the following6
Estimating river flows in mountainous areas
,ustomi&ing climate change models for regional
water $asins
E!tending isotopic-tracer-$ased techni9ues of mon-
itoring river water discharge to all ma(or river
monitoring stations
+eveloping digital elevation models of flood-prone
areas for forecasting floods
Mapping areas likel to e!perience floods and
developing schemes to manage floods
%trengthening the monitoring of glacial and seasonal
snow covers to assess the contri$ution of snowmelt to
water flows of 'ndian rivers that originate in the
Esta$lishment of a wider network of automatic
weather status and automated rain gauge stations
Planning of watershed management in mountain
3roundwater accounts for nearl 4.: of the total
availa$le water resources in the countr and meets
nearl ;;: of irrigation re9uirements, B;: of rural
re9uirements and ;.: of ur$an and industrial
re9uirements" 7owever, overe!ploitation of the
resource has sharpl lowered the water ta$le in
man parts of the countr, making them increasingl
vulnera$le to adverse impacts of climate change" ?e
areas in this programme ma include the following6
Mandating water harvesting and artificial recharge
in relevant ur$an areas
Enhancing recharge of the sources and recharge
&ones of deeper groundwater a9uifers
Mandator water assessments and auditsL ensuring
proper industrial waste disposal
)egulation of power tariffs for irrigation
3.4.3. U"%$ADIN% STO$A%E ST$UCTU$ES &O$ &$ESH
To address the pro$lems of droughts and floods trig-
gered $ e!treme weather events, it is essential to
$oth augment storage capacit and improve
drainage sstems" Effective drainage is also essential
to reclaim waterlogged and saline-alkali lands and to
prevent the degradation of fertile lands" ?e areas
are listed $elow6
Prioriti&ing watersheds vulnera$le to flow changes
and developing decision support sstems to facilitate
9uick and appropriate responses
)estoration of old water tanks
+eveloping models of ur$an storm water flows
and estimating drainage capacities for storm-water
and for sewers $ased on the simulations
%trengthen links with afforestation programmes
and wetland conservation
Enhancing storage capacities in multipurpose
hdro pro(ects, and integration of drainage with
irrigation infrastructure
#etlands provide a range of ecological services,
including water conservation, recharge of ground-
water, and preservation of flora and fauna, including
species and varieties at risk and are a source of liveli-
hood to man" #etlands face the threat of conver-
sion to other uses, which means a loss of their eco-
logical services, making those who depend on them
vulnera$le" Actions identified for conserving wet-
lands are listed $elow6
Environmental appraisal and impact assessment of
developmental pro(ects on wetlands
+eveloping an inventor of wetlands, especiall
those with uni9ue features
Mapping of catchments and surveing and assess-
ing land use patterns with emphasis on drainage,
vegetation cover, silting, encroachment, conver-
sion of mangrove areas, human settlements, and
human activities and their impact on catchments and
water $odies"
,reating awareness among people on importance
of wetland ecosstems
4ormulating and implementing a regulator
regime to ensure wise use of wetlands at the
national, the state, and district levels
'n 'ndia, desalination has $een recogni&ed as a pos-
si$le means to argument the water suppl through
natural resources for meeting the growing needs of
water due to population and industrial growth"
%ince desalination is an energ intensive process 1the
energ re9uired ma var from a$out = k#h to /<
k#h for separating /... litres depending on the
tpe of process used2, the application of desalina-
tion technolog for increasing regional water sup-
plies strongl links to energ issues and thus 373
emissions" +evelopment activities have $een initiated
i n vari ous l a$orat ori es i n t he count r"
+esalination has $een recogni&ed as an important
cross disciplinar technolog area for )*+ in the
Plan" Technologies are $eing developed for the
%eawater desalination using )everse Ismosis and
multistage flash distillation to take advantage of
low-grade heat energ e"g" from power plants located
in the coastal regions or $ using renewa$le energ
such as solar
0rackish water desalination
#ater reccle and reuse
#ater purification technologies
,.5. National Mission for Sustaining the
Himalayan Ecosystem
The 7imalaan ecosstem is vital to the ecological
securit of the 'ndian landmass, through providing
forest cover, feeding perennial rivers that are the
source of dri nki ng wat er, i rri gat i on, and
hdropower, conserving $iodiversit, providing a
rich $ase for high value agriculture, and spectacular
landscapes for sustaina$le tourism" At the same time,
climate change ma adversel impact the
7imalaan ecosstem through increased tempera-
ture, altered precipitation patterns, and episodes
of drought"
,oncern has also $een e!pressed that the
7imalaan glaciers, in common with other entities
in the glo$al crosphere, ma lose significant ice-
mass, and there$ endanger river flows, especiall
in the lean season, when the North 'ndian rivers
are largel fed $ melting snow and ice" %tudies $
several scientific institutions in 'ndia have $een
inconclusive on the e!tent of change in glacier
mass, and whether climate change is a significant
causative factor"
't is accordingl, necessar to continue and
enhance monitoring of the 7imalaan ecosstem, in
particular the state of its glaciers, and the impacts of
change in glacial mass on river flows" %ince several
other countries in the %outh Asian region share the
7imalaan ecosstem, appropriate forms of scientific
colla$oration and e!change of information ma $e
considered with them to enhance understanding of
ecosstem changes and their effects"
't is also necessar, with a view to enhancing
conservation of 7imalaan ecosstems, to empower
local communities, in particular through the
Panchaats, to assume greater responsi$ilit for
management of ecological resources"
The National Environment Polic, -..<, inter-
alia provides for the following relevant measures for
conservation of mountain ecosstems6
Adopt appropriate land-use planning and water-
shed management practices for sustaina$le devel-
opment of mountain ecosstems
Adopt E$est practiceE norms for infrastructure
construction in mountain regions to avoid or min-
imi&e damage to sensitive ecosstems and despoiling
of landscapes
Encourage cultivation of traditional varieties of
crops and horticulture $ promotion of organic
farming ena$ling farmers to reali&e a price premium
Promote sustaina$le tourism through adoption of
E$est practiceE norms for tourism facilities and
access to ecological resources, and multistakeholder
partnerships to ena$le local communities to gain
$etter livelihoods, while leveraging financial,
technical, and managerial capacities of investors
Take measures to regulate tourist inflows into
mountain regions to ensure that these remain
within the carring capacit of the mountain ecolog
,onsider particular uni9ue mountain scapes as enti-
ties with E'ncompara$le DaluesE, in developing
strategies for their protection
,.6. National Mission for a .Green India.
4orests are repositories of genetic diversit, and suppl
a wide range of ecosstem services thus helping
maintain ecological $alance" 4orests meet nearl
4.: of the energ needs of the countr overall, and
over B.: of those in rural areas, and are the $ack-
$one of forest-$ased communities in terms of liveli-
hood and sustenance" 4orests se9uester $illions of
tons of car$on dio!ide in the form of $iomass and
soil car$on" The proposed national programme will
focus on two o$(ectives, namel increasing the forest
cover and densit as a whole of the countr and con-
serving $iodiversit"
The report of the #orking 3roup on 4orests for the
4ive-5ear Plan puts the annual rate of planting
during -../C.- to -..;C.< at /"< million hectares and
proposes to increase it to 3.3 million hectares during
the //
Plan" The final target is to $ring one-third of
the geographic area of 'ndia under forest cover"
The 3reening 'ndia Programme has alread
$een announced" 8nder the programme, < million
hectares of degraded forest land would $e afforested
wi t h t he part i ci pat i on of >oi nt 4orest
Management ,ommittees 1>4M,s2, with funds to the
e!tent of )s <... crores provided from the accumu-
lated additional funds for compensator afforestation
under a decision of the %upreme ,ourt in respect of
forest lands diverted to non-forest use"
The elements of this Programme ma include
the following6
Training on silvicultural practices for fast- growing
and climate- hard tree species
)educing fragmentation of forests $ provision of
corridors for species migration, $oth fauna and flora
Enhancing pu$lic and private investments for raising
plantations for enhancing the cover and the densit
of forests
)evitali&ing and upscaling communit-$ased initia-
tives such as >oint 4orest Management 1>4M2 and
Dan Panchaat committees for forest management
'mplementation of the 3reening 'ndia Plan
4ormulation of forest fire management
3.6.2. CONSE$'IN% (IODI'E$SIT)
,onservation of wildlife and $iodiversit in natural
heritage sites including sacred groves, protected
areas, and other $iodiversit AhotspotsA is crucial for
maintaining the resilience of ecosstems" %pecific
actions in this programme will include6
'n-situ and e!-situ conservation of genetic
resources, especiall of threatened flora and fauna
,reation of $iodiversit registers 1at national, dis-
trict, and local levels2 for documenting genetic
diversit and the associated traditional knowledge
Effective implementation of the Protected Area
%stem under the #ildlife ,onservation Act
Effect i ve i mpl ement at i on of t he Nat i onal
0iodiversit ,onservation Act, -../
,.7. National Mission for Sustainale
,ontri$uting -/: to the countrAs 3+P, accounting
for // : of total e!ports, emploing ;<"4: of the
total workforce, and supporting <.. million people
directl or indirectl, agriculture is vital to 'ndiaAs
econom and the livelihood of its people" The pro-
posed national mission will focus on four areas cru-
cial to agriculture in adapting to climate change,
namel drland agriculture, risk management, access
to information, and use of $iotechnolog"
,.7.&. /ryland !griculture
Iut of the net cultivated area of appro!imatel /4/
million hectares , a$out B; million hectares 1<.:2
falls under the drlandCrain-fed &one" Accordingl, to
realise the enormous agricultural growth potential
of the drlands in the countr and secure farm-$ased
livelihoods, there is a need to prevent declines in
agricultural ields during climatic stress" Priorit
actions on drland agriculture with particular rele-
vance to adaptation will $e as follows6
+evelopment of drought- and pest-resistant crop
'mproving methods to conserve soil and water
%takeholder consultations, training workshops and
demonstration e!ercises for farming communities,
for agro-climatic information sharing and
4inancial support to ena$le farmers to invest in and
adopt relevant technologies to overcome climate
related stresses
3.7.2. $IS/ MANA%EMENT
The agricultural sector ma face risks due to e!treme
climatie events" Priorit areas are as follows6
%trengthening of current agricultural and weather
insurance mechanisms
+evelopment and validation of weather derivative
models 1$ insurance providers ensuring their
access to archival and current weather data2
,reation of we$-ena$led, regional language $ased
services for facilitation of weather-$ased insurance
+evelopment of 3'% and remote-sensing method-
ologies for detailed soil resource mapping and land
use planning at the level of a watershed or a river
Mapping vulnera$le eco-regions and pest and dis-
ease hotspots
+eveloping and implementing region-specific con-
tingenc plans $ased on vulnera$ilit and risk scenarios
Although man information channels are availa$le
to farmers, none of them offers need-$ased informa-
tion in an interactive mode" %uppling customi&ed
information can $oost farm productivit and farm
incomes, and the following areas deserve priorit6
+evelopment of regional data$ases of soil, weather,
genotpes, land-use patterns and water resources"
Monitoring of glacier and ice-mass, impacts on
water resources, soil erosion, and associated
impacts on agricultural production in mountainous
Providing information on off-season crops, aro-
matic and medicinal plants, greenhouse crops, pas-
ture development, agro-forestr, livestock and
,ollation and dissemination of $lock-level data on
agro-climatic varia$les, land-use, and socio-eco-
nomic features and preparation of state-level
agro-climatic atlases
0iotechnolog applications in agriculture relate to
several themes, including drought proofing, taking
advantage of elevated ,I- concentrations,
increased ields and increased resistance to disease
and pests" Priorit areas include6
8se of genetic engineering to convert ,-= crops to
the more car$on responsive ,-4 crops to achieve
greater photosnthetic efficienc for o$taining
increased productivit at higher levels of car$on
dio!ide in the atmosphere or to sustain thermal
+evelopment of crops with $etter water and nitrogen
use efficienc which ma result in reduced emissions
of greenhouse gases or greater tolerance to drought
or su$mergence or salinit
+evelopment of nutritional strategies for manag-
ing heat stress in dair animals to prevent nutrient
deficiencies leading to low milk ield and produc-
,.". National Mission on Strategic #no$ledge
for %limate %hange
This national mission envisages a $road-$ased effort
that would include the following ke themes6
)esearch in ke su$stantive domains of climate sci-
ence where there is an urgent need to improve the
understanding of ke phenomena and processes,
including, for e!ample, monsoon dnamics,
aerosol science and ecosstem responses
3lo$al and regional climate modelling to improve
the 9ualit and specificit of climate change pro-
(ections over the 'ndian su$-continent, including
changes in hdrological ccles
%trengthening of o$servational networks and data
gathering and assimilation, including measures to
enhance the access to and availa$ilit of relevant data
,reation of essential research infrastructure, such
as high performance computing and ver large
$andwidth networks to ena$le scientists to access and
share computational and data resources
These $road themes are ela$orated in the su$-sec-
tions $elow6
Although the 'P,,-A)4 has addressed the general
glo$al trends on climate change, spatiall detailed
assessments are not availa$le for 'ndia" This is
$ecause of inade9uate computing power availa$le,
difficulties in getting climate related data, and
dearth of trained human resources amongst climate
modelling research groups in 'ndia" The following
actions will $e taken6
There is a need to develop high resolution Air Icean
3eneral ,irculation Models 1AI3,M2 and nested
)egional ,limate Models 1),M2 that simulate region-
al climate change, in particular monsoon $ehaviour,
$ pooling institutional capa$ilities and computational
'n respect of 3eneral ,irculation Models
13,M2, there is a need to $uild national level core climate
modelling groups to develop high resolution coupled
AI3,M that effectivel simulate monsoon $ehaviour"
These would $e emploed for multi-ensem$le and
multi-ear simulations of the present and future
climate" 'ndigenous )egional ,limate Models 1),M2
are necessar to generate accurate future climate
pro(ections upto 1at least2 district level" )egional
data re-analsis pro(ects should $e encouraged" A
)egional Model 'nter-comparison
Pro(ect 1)M'P2 for climate is re9uired to minimi<e
uncertaint in future climate pro=ections.
3.8.3. P20M03IN, 8A3A ACC'
3here are se1eral data(ases that are rele1ant for cli4
mate research> along %ith the respecti1e agencies
that are responsi(le for collecting and suppl#ing that
data. It is suggested that each of these Ministries and
8epartments ma# appoint a AfacilitatorA, %ho %ill
Ta8l- 3.8.3 So9- Data8as-s :or Cli9at- $-s-arc1
pro1ide access to the data" A concept of Aregistered
users' has (een proposed> %ho %ill ha1e easier access
to climate related data held (# the 1arious scientific
Ministries and +epartments of the ,o1ernment.
3here is a need to re1ie% the restrictions on data
access. 3he Ministries and their agencies should also
take action to digiti<e the data> maintain data(ases
of glo(al ?ualit#> and streamline the procedures go14
erning access. '5isting data(ases that %ill need to (e
e5panded and impro1ed are listed (elo%.
%" No.
%ea surface temperature %alinit
ea le1el rise
8ata Collecting and uppl#ing Agenc#
Ministr of Earth %ciences
$aci l i t at or report i ng t o
%ecretar, Ministr of Earth %ciences
%now cover
3lacial data
a2National )emote %ensing Agenc 6N2A7
$2,eological %urve of India
c2 no% and Avalanche tudies
'sta(lishment 6A'7> +efence )esearch
and 8e1elopment 0rgani<ation
a2%ecretar, +epartment of %pace
$2%ecretar, Ministr of Mines
c2 %ecretar, +epartment of +efence
)esearch and 8e1elopment
%urface temperature
Air temperature
'1aporation data
'ndia Meteorological 8epartment>
Ministr of Earth %ciences"
%ecretar, Ministr of Earth %ciences
;and urface
'mager 1vegetation map2
4orest cover
a2%urve of 'ndia
$2National )emote %ensing Agenc 1N)%A2
a2%ecretar, +epartment of %cience
and Technolog
$2%ecretar, +epartment of %pace
,round %ater
"ater 9ualit
2i1er %ater
"ater utili<ation
a2,entral "ater Commission
(7tate "ater 2esource 0rgani<ations
a2%ecretar, Ministr of #ater
$2,hief %ecretaries of the respective
%oil profile
Area under cultivation
Production and ield
,ost of cultivation
Ministr of Agriculture
a2%ecretar, 8epartment of Agriculture
and ,o-operation
$2 %ecr et ar , +epar t ment of
Agricultural )esearch and Education
Economic status
,ensus of 'ndia
)egistrar 3eneral 'ndia, Ministr of
7ome Affairs
4orest resources
Plant and animal
species distri$ution
a24orest %urve of 'ndia
$2%tate 4orest +epartment
c20otanical %urve of 'ndia
a7@oological %urve of 'ndia
e2 +epartment of %pace
a2%ecretar, Ministr of Environment
and 4orests
$2,hief %ecretaries of the respective
a2%ecretar, Ministr of 'n1ironment
and 4orests
c2%ecretar, Ministr of Environment
and 4orests
e2 %ecretar, +epartment of %pace
F )ealth 2elated 8ata +epartment of 7ealth )esearch %ecretar, +epartment of 7ealth
The creation of an integrated National ?nowledge
Network 1scala$le and ultimatel of multi-/. 3$ps
capacit2 as suggested $ the National ?nowledge
,ommission and the Principal %cientific AdviserAs
Iffice would o$viousl $enefit climate modellers"
The upcoming 3rid ,omputing stands out as a
uni9ue technolog for handling tera$tes of e!peri-
mental data re9uiring hundreds of teraflops of com-
puting power" Darious Ministries of the 3overnment
are also taking steps to augment their super-comput-
ing resources in the Eleventh Plan"
'n order to meet the new challenges related to climate
change, human resources would re9uire to $e
enhanced through changes in curricula at the school
and college levels, introduction of new programmes
at the universit level, and training of professionals
and e!ecutives in relevant fields" An overall assess-
ment of additional skills re9uired will have to $e car-
ried out at the national, state and local levels, so that
necessar measures can $e undertaken for enhanc-
ing the 9ualit and 9uantum of human resource
re9uired in the coming ears and decades" The latter
would have to $e viewed also in the conte!t of the
current difficulties faced in attracting oung people
to careers in science in general, to overcome which
steps are $eing taken during the //
;. Ot1-r I!itiati<-s
.1. +H+ ,itigation in %ower +eneration
The present energ mi! in 'ndia for electricit gener-
ation is shown in Ta$le 4"/ $elow6
Ta8l- ;.. Present Energy Mi= in E#e$tri$ity Generatin in India
So,rc- "-rc-!ta+-
,oal ;;
7dropower -<
Iil and gas /.
#ind and solar power <
Nuclear power =
At present, fossil fuels account for <<: of the total,
and are responsi$le for most of the 373 emissions
from the energ sector" +uring the //
Plan, utilit-$ased generation capacit is e!pected to
increase $ @B,... M#" A significant proportion of
this increase will $e thermal-coal $ased" #hile the
new investments in the thermal power sector, which
are su$stantial, have high efficiencies, the aggregate
efficienc of the older plants is low" 'n addition, high
AT,K 1aggregate technical and commercial loss2 in
power transmission and distri$ution is a ke concern
There are three was of lowering the emissions
from coal $ased plants6 increasing efficienc of e!isting
power plantsL using clean coal technologies 1relative
emissions are c"@B: of conventional coal-thermal2,
and switching to fuels other than coal, where
possi$le" These measures are complementar and not
mutuall e!clusive" Another option that has $een
suggested is car$on capture and se9uestration 1,,%2"
7owever, feasi$le technologies for this have not et
$een developed and there are serious 9uestions a$out
the cost as well permanence of the ,I
Appro!imatel ;... M# out of total of
@=,;.. M# of present installed capacit 1at the end
of Novem$er, -..@2 of coal thermal plants have low
capacit utili&ation of less than ;:, as well as low
conversion efficienc" +uring the //th Plan, these
units would $e retired, and during the /-
Plan, an
additional /.,... M# of the least efficient operating
plants would $e retired, or reconditioned to improve
their operating efficienc"
%upercritical and ultra-supercritical plants can
achieve efficiencies of - 4. and - 4;: respec-
tivel, compared to a$out =;: achieved $ su$critical
plants" %ince coal-$ased power generation will
continue to pla a ma(or role in the ne!t =.-;. ears,
it would $e useful, wherever cost-effective and oth-
erwise suita$le, to adopt supercritical $oilers, which
is a proven technolog, in the immediate future, and
ultra-supercritical $oilers when their commercial via-
$ilit under 'ndian conditions is esta$lished" At
present, construction of several supercritical coal
$ased power pro(ects is in progress"
)esearch and development with regard to
ultra-supercritical technolog needs to focus on the
following areas6
+evelopment of materials for use in steam generator
tu$es, main steam piping, and high-pressure tur$ines
that can withstand high pressure and high
temperatures of more than <..G,, and are resistant to
o!idation, erosion, and corrosion
+evelopment of know-how related to heat transfer,
pressure drop, and flow sta$ilit at ultra-supercritical
'ntegrated gasification com$ined ccle technolog
can make coal-$ased power generation - /.: more
efficient" 4or ever /: rise in efficienc, there is a -:
decrease in ,I
release" 0esides, there is a su$stan-
tial reduction in NI! emissions" +emonstration of
plants using high-ash, low-sulphur 'ndian coal needs
to $e pursued, while recogni&ing constraints such as
high costs and availa$ilit of superior imported coal"
)ecent research has shown that these plants should
$e $ased on the Pressuri&ed 4luidi&ed 0ed 1P402
0harat 7eav Electricals Ktd" 107EK2 alread
has = )*+ plants $ased on P40, which have provided
design information to scale up this technologE"
07EK and AP3EN,I have signed an agreement
recentl to set up a /-; M# plant at Di(aawada
using indigenous '3,, technolog"
Natural gas $ased power generation is cleaner than
coal-$ased generation as CO
emissions are onl -
;.: compared to coal" 0esides, natural gas can $e
used for electricit generation $ adopting advanced
gas tur$ines in a com$ined ccle mode" 'ntroduction
of advance class tur$ines with inlet temperature in
the range /-;. AC < %0-'A C has led to com$ined
ccle power plant efficienc of a$out ;;: under
'ndian conditions" Man such plants are in operation
in 'ndia" #ith the discover of significant reserves of
natural gas in the 3odavari $asin, setting up more
com$ined ccle natural gas plants is an attractive
373 mitigation option in 'ndia"
Promotion of nuclear energ through enhancing
nuclear capacit and adoption of fast $reeder and
thorium-$ased thermal reactor technolog in nuclear
power generation would $ring significant $enefits in
terms of energ securit and environmental $enefits,
including 373 mitigation"
'ndiaAs uranium resources are limited $ut the
countr has one of the largest resources of thorium
in the world" Therefore, right from inception, 'ndia
has adopted a programme that will ma!imi&e the
energ ield from these materials" This is the three-
stage nuclear power programme" The first stage of
nuclear power generation is $ased on P7#)
1Pressuri&ed 7eav #ater )eactor2 technolog using
indigenous natural uranium" The second stage is
$ased on 40) 14ast 0reeder )eactor2 technolog
using plutonium e!tracted $ reprocessing of the
spent fuel o$tained from the first stage" The third
stage consists of using thorium resources"
The current installed capacit of nuclear
power plants is 4-.. M#, accounting for nearl =:
of total installed capacit" A ;.. M# fast $reeder
reactor is under construction and is e!pected to go
on stream in a$out three ears" A =.. M# Advanced
7eav #ater )eactor 1A7#)2 has $een designed" 'ts
construction is due to $egin in the //th Plan" The
pro(ected installed nuclear power $ +epartment of
Atomic Energ 1+AE2 is shown in 4igure 4"/ $elow"
$igure *.1.*& N2$#ear P>er Generatin PrBe$tins 25t *'-'
"y DAE
4or sustaina$ilit of nuclear energ as a mitigation
option in the long term, it is important to close the
nuclear fuel ccle


'n this wa one can produce
several tens of times more energ from the e!isting
uranium resources if the plutonium from the spent
fuel is reccled in fast $reeder reactors and this
potential can $e increased $ another order of mag-
nitude $ closing the nuclear fuel ccle with thorium"
Therefore, the three stage nuclear programme of
'ndia $ased on the closed fuel ccle philosoph
assumes greater significance in the conte!t of cli-
mate change mitigation" The closed fuel ccle, in
comparison to the once-through ccle, also reduces
the volumes of radioactive waste re9uiring treat-
ment and disposal"
'ndiaAs current technical losses during transmission
and distri$ution are as high as /<:-/F:" 0 adopt-
ing 7DA, 1high voltage A,2 and 7D+, 1high voltage
+,2 transmission, the figure can $e $rought down to
<:-B: $ using amorphous core transformers and
up-grading the distri$ution sstem 1avoiding conges-
tion etc"2" +istri$ution losses can also $e reduced $
adopting energ-efficient transformers, which use
high-grade steel in the transformer core"
4.1.6. H)D$O"O#E$
The ,EA 1,entral Electricit Authorit2 has estimated
'ndiaAs hdropower potential at /4B,@.. M#" The
hdroelectric capacit currentl under operation is
a$out -B,... M#, while /4,... M# capacit is
under various stages of development" The ,EA has
also identified ;< sites for pumped storage schemes
with an estimated aggregate installed capacit of
F4,... M#" 'n addition, a potential of /;,... M# in
terms of installed capacit is estimated from small,
mini, and micro-hdel pro(ects" If this onl a$out
-... M# has $een e!ploited at present" These pro(-
ects are important, in particular, for electrification of
remote hill areas, where it ma not $e feasi$le for
the grid electricit to reach" Karge-scale hdropower
with reservoir storage is the cheapest conventional
power source in 'ndia" 7owever, resettlement of dis-
placed population due to su$mergence of large
areas of ha$itation lands has to $e attended to with
4.2. "ther #ene$able Energy %echnologies
)enewa$le energ sources, i"e" $ased on primar
energ sources that are regenerated naturall in
time-spans that are meaningful in terms of polic
and planning hori&ons, represent genuine suppl
side sustaina$ilit of glo$al energ sstems"
)enewa$le energ technologies 1)ETs2 have
several well-recogni&ed advantages in relation to
conventional, largel fossil fuels $ased, energ ss-
tems" 4irst, $ displacing use of fossil fuels, in particular,
petroleum $ased fuels, the promote energ securit"
%econd, the are amena$le to adoption at different
scales O from hundreds of megawatts capacit to a
few kilowatts" 'n man cases the ma $e deploed in
modular, standardi&ed designs" This ena$les )ET% to
$e matched closel with end-use scales, ena$ling
decentrali&ed deploment, and thus avoiding the risk of
failures, and unauthori&ed access to large networks,
which leads to non-commercial losses" The feasi$ilit
of location close to the load or consuming centres
ena$les reduction of technical transmission and
distri$ution losses" 7owever, where centrali&ed grids
1networks2 e!ist, the ma $e inserted as individual
modules in the grid 1network2 suppl" Third, the can
help promote sustaina$le development, $roadl
defined, through increased opportunities for local
emploment, especiall the rural poor, and
environmental improvement through reducing 373
emissions, local air pollutants, solid waste and waste-
water generation, and 1in case of forestr-$ased
sources2, soil and water conservation, and maintaining
ha$itats of wild species"
In the other hand, several )ETs also have
disadvantages" 4irst, some primar energ flows 1e"g"
solar, wind2 are intermittent, and insufficientl pre-
dicta$le, re9uiring h$ridi&ation with sstems more
under human control" 4or another, some )ETs forms,
such as $iofuels compete with ara$le land and irrigation
water with food crops" 'f not implemented with great
care, the ma have adverse social and economic
83Ts easily have the potential to replace all
current and foreseeable use of fossil fuels, for power
generation, transportation, and industrial use, for all
time to come. 83Ts represent a range of specific con!
version pathways and technologies. These are at dif!
ferent stages of deployment, innovation, and basic
research. Some that are fully established commercial!
ly, e.g. biomass combustion and gasification based
power generation need up!scaling through policies
and regulations that would permit some uni:ue
deployment models to be operationali$ed. In other
cases, where commercial scale operation has been
demonstrated, but costs are still high, with the possi!
bility that increased scale and further innovation in
both technology and deployment models will reduce
costs, tariff and regulatory support for a limited period
may be needed. here technologies have been
demonstrated at laboratory scale, further 8M+ to
enable pilot and commercial scale demonstration
may involve facilitation of industry and research lab!
oratory partnerships, and may also involve public fis!
cal %investment) support.
4.2.1. RETs &O$ "O#E$ %ENE$ATION
Power generation technologies based on renewable
energy flows comprise the following maBor primary
sources: Diomass, *ydropower, Solar, and ind.
Technologies in each of these primary sources have
already been deployed in India at commercial scale,
but there remain several challenges in respect of
policies and regulations, 8M+ and transfer of tech!
nologies, costs and financing, and deployment mod!
els, that need to be addressed in order to ensure
their mainstreaming in the commercial power sector.
Diomass based technologies include those involving
primary biomass combustion, and those that do not
involve direct biomass combustion, but may involve
conversion to a secondary energy form.
*istorically, primary biomass combustion has
been the main source of energy for India. The
Integrated 3nergy Policy %Planning .ommission,
(007) has estimated that around ;0 mtoe is current!
ly used in the rural household sector. In addition, the
Ministry of <ew and 8enewable 3nergy has estimat!
ed state!wise gross and net availability of agro!
residues for power generation.
There are two basic technology pathways for
biomass for power options currently being imple!
mented. These technologies are #traight $iomass
Combustion and Diomass %asification COSTS AND FINANCING
Plant capacities for straight primary biomass combus!
tion are not very large due to limited radius of eco!
nomic biomass collection. Investment cost for bio!
mass combustion based power proBects or co!genera!
tion proBects varies between 8s. 1 to 8s. = crores per
M, depending upon proBect site, design and opera!
tion related factors. The cost of electricity generation
is around 8s. 6F"h depending upon specific fuel
consumption, which in turn depends on type of fuel
and operating pressure of the boiler and steam tur!
bine. This technology is, thus, generally cost!compet!
itive with conventional power delivered by the grid
to rural areas.
In respect of biomass gasification technolo!
gies, the investment cost, with I. engines as source
of power generation, comes between 8s. (=,000 N
70,000 F ", depending on the type of gasification
system and type of fuel, including costs of gasifier
and I. engine. The cost of electricity generation cost
varies between 8s.6 "h to 8s. =F"h for the cur!
rently available technologies in India.
In both cases, the costs of biomass collection
and transportation are "ey issues, which limit scale of
operation of individual units. CO-BENEFITS
Diomass based power technologies avoid problems
associated with ash disposal from coal based plants.
The ash from the biomass combustion may be
returned to the fields to enhance agricultural pro!
ductivity. If the biomass is grown in energy planta!
tions on wastelands or commonFpanchayat lands,
there would be increase in rural employment,
besides water, and soil conservation. TM+ losses
would be very low especially in decentrali$ed sys!
tems, and deployment can be done independently of
the national grid and integrated with the national
grid when e!tended" RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
The technolog for power generation through
straight primar $iomass com$ustion is mature, with
significant commercial deploment" )*+ is re9uired
for compacting different tpes of $iomass for trans-
portation, and improved $oiler design to ena$le the
use of multiple $iomass feedstocks"
Ine significant area of )*+ is development
of hot gas cleaning sstems and optimum integration
with the gasifiers" Another is the development of
gasifier sstems $ased on charcoal and proli&ed $io-
mass, since volatile distillates of $iomass feedstock
ma have significant economic value, which would
$e lost if the $iomass is directl $urned" TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND CAPACITY BUILDING
0iomass gasifiers availa$le in the countr are of ver
low capacit compared to European and American
gasifiers, where the capacities var from / M# to
/.. M#" 0iomass gasifiers with capacities upto /..
M# $ased on ,irculating 4luidised 0ed 1,402,
0u$$ling 4luidised 0ed 10402 and Pressurised
4luidised $ed 1P402 are availa$le in the 8%A, 4inland
and 8?" Transfer of these technologies, and where
necessar adaptive )*+, would ena$le deploment
models involving energ plantations on wastelands
or commonCpanchaat lands which would not com-
pete with food crops"
,apacit $uilding needs include support to
commercial demonstration $ entrepreneurs of $io-
mass $ased distri$uted generation sstems and using
these as training facilities for local entrepreneurs and
I*M personnel" %uch demonstration and skills devel-
opment would ena$le accelerated deploment of
these technologies" SMALL-SCALE HYDROPOWER
7dropower, $oth large 1reservoir storage2 and small
scale, accounts for /B: of the total electricit gener-
ated in 'ndia" If the total estimated large hdropower
potential of /4B,@.. M# 1storage and run-of-
river2, so far onl =;,... M# has $een utili&ed" 'n
addition, there are ;< assessed sites for pumped storage
hdropower, totaling F4,... M#" The total small
hdropower 1upto -; M#2 potential is /;,... M#, of
which onl /F.; M# has $een utili&ed" Karge-scale
hdropower with reservoir storage is the cheapest
conventional power source in 'ndia" %mall-scale
hdropower is cost competitive with conventional
generation options, in particular for rural elec-
trification" 'n remote rural locations far awa from
the grid, it ma $e the onl feasi$le and economic
power option"
The technolog options for hdropower at
all scales are commerciall well esta$lished, e!cept in
the pico-tur$ine ranges i"e" N / k#" COSTS AND FINANCING
The cost of generation ranges from )s" - to 4 per
k#h" The capital costs are higher than for conven-
tional power, and usuall in the range of )s" @ crore
%mall hdropower displaces diesel gensets, there$
avoiding local pollution" 0 thus avoiding consumption
of petroleum products, it also promotes energ securit"
%mall hdropower is generall more predicta$le than
solar or wind $ased sources, with variations occurring
over the ear, rather than on a hourl or dail $asis" RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT AND CAPACITY BUILDING
The following are priorities for )* +6
+esign of pico tur$ines 1N ;..# range26 This would
ena$le ver small scale generation at the household
level, $ased on local hdro resources
Electronic Koad ,ontroller for micro hdro6 This
would ena$le suppl of power from micro-hdel
sources to village level grids
,ost reductions in E*M
%tandardi&ing the modules and optimi&ing the
usage of materials is critical for reducing e9uipment,
and hence generation, costs
%upport to commercial demonstration $ entrepre-
neurs of smallCmicro-hdel $ased distri$uted gen-
eration sstems, in particular in remote locations,
and using these as training facilities for local entre-
preneurs and I*M personnel would help develop
this sector" WIND ENERGY
The installed capacit for using wind energ has
gone up rapidl during the last few ears 1presentl
a$out B... M#2" 7owever, the capacit utili&ation
factors are low due to the variations in the wind
flow" Action is re9uired to design, develop and man-
ufacture small wind energ generators 1#E3s2 upto
/. k# capacit, that can generate power at ver low
speeds 1- - to -"; mCsec2" Effort is also re9uired for
the development of low weight car$on fi$er and
other new generation composites, etc" for use in
wind tur$ines"
An encouraging sign is the strong interest of
the private sector in the wind area" %ome 'ndian pri-
vate companies are involved in setting up wind tur-
$ines in other countries in a $ig wa"
The Electricit Act, -..= and the National Tariff
Polic, -..<, provide for $oth the ,entral Electricit
)egulator ,ommission 1,E),2 and the %tate
Electricit )egulator ,ommissions 1%E),2 to pre-
scri$e a certain percentage of total power purchased
$ the grid from renewa$le $ased sources" 't also
prescri$es that a preferential tariff ma $e followed
for renewa$les $ased power"
The following enhancements in the regula-
torCtariffs regime ma $e considered to help main-
stream renewa$les $ased sources in the national
power sstem6
1i2 A dnamic minimum renewa$les purchase
standard 1+M)P%2 ma $e set, with escalation
each ear till a pre-defined level is reached, at
which time the re9uirements ma $e revisited" 't is
suggested that starting -..F-/., the national
renewa$les standard 1e!cluding hdropower with
storage capacit in e!cess of dail peaking capacit,
or $ased on agriculture $ased renewa$les
sources that are used for human food2 ma $e set
at ;: of total grids purchase, to increase $ /:
each ear for /. ears" %E),s ma set higher per-
centages than this minimum at each point in time"
8ii6 ,entral and state governments ma set up a ver-
ification mechanism to ensure that the renewa$les
$ased power is actuall procured as per the appli-
ca$le standard 1+M)P% or %E), specified2"
Appropriate authorities ma also issue certificates
that procure renewa$les $ased power in e!cess of the
national standard" %uch certificates ma $e tradea$le,
to ena$le utilities falling short to meet their
renewa$les standard o$ligations" 'n the event of
some utilities still falling short, penalties as ma $e
allowed under the Electricit Act -..= and rules
thereunder ma $e considered"
1iii2 Procurement of renewa$les $ased power $ the
%E0sCother power utilities should, in so far as the
applica$le renewa$les standard 1+M)P% or %E),
specified2 is concerned, $e $ased on competitive
$idding, without regard to scheduling, or the tariffs of
conventional power 1however determined2"
4urther, renewa$les $ased power ma, over and
a$ove the applica$le renewa$les standard, $e
ena$led to compete with conventional generation on
e9ual $asis 1whether $id tariffs or cost-plus tariffs2,
without regard to scheduling 1i"e" renewa$les $ased
power suppl a$ove the renewa$les standard should
$e considered as displacing the marginal
conventional peaking capacit2" All else $eing e9ual,
in such cases, the renewa$les $ased power should $e
preferred to the competing conventional power"
'nternal com$ustion engine $ased power plants for
transportation modes re9uire li9uid or gaseous fuels"
'n addition, rail 1inc" K)T2 modes, and some niche
personal transportation modes are $ased on storage
$atter power, which ma $e recharged from mains
outlets" The focus in this section is on li9uid fuels of
$iological origin for transportation, and industrial
applications 1prime-movers, heating fuels2"
T1-r- ar- s-<-ral =ossi8l- =at13a2s :or 4-ri<i!+
tra!s=ortatio! a!4 i!4,strial :,-ls 6!ot 8-i!+ :--4-
stoc>s 31-r- t1- c1-9ical co9=ositio! rat1-r t1a!
-!-r+2 co!t-!t is t1- 9ai! co!si4-ratio!7.
At =r-s-!t5 o!l2 8io4i-s-l so,rc-4 :ro9
?atro=1a or "o!+a9ia =la!tatio!s5 a!4 8io-t1a!ol
,si!+ s=oilt :oo4+rai!s ar- cost--::-cti<- i! r-latio!
to =-trol-,9 8as-4 :,-ls. #1il- si+!i:ica!t $@D is
8-i!+ carri-4 o,t i! s-<-ral co,!tri-s5 i!cl,4i!+ i!
I!4ia5 i! r-s=-ct o: t-c1!olo+i-s 8as-4 o! s-<-ral o:
t1- a8o<- =at13a2s5 at =r-s-!t5 t1- costs ar- !ot
co9=-titi<- 3it1 =-trol-,9. Ho3-<-r5 it is =ro8a8l-
t1at s-<-ral 8io:,-ls t-c1!olo+i-s 3o,l4 -<-!t,all2
8-co9- co9=-titi<- 3it1 =-trol-,95 a!4 t1-
=olic2Ar-+,lator2 r-+i9- 9,st -!a8l- t1-9 to 8-
co99-rciall2 4-=lo2-4 31-! t1at 1a==-!s.
4.3. /isaster Management 0es(onse to
E1treme %limate E)ents
#it1 =roB-ct-4 i!cr-as-s i! t1- :r-C,-!c2 a!4 i!t-!-
sit2 o: -Dtr-9- -<-!ts i!cl,4i!+ c2clo!-s5 4ro,+1ts5
a!4 :loo4s attri8,ta8l- to cli9at- c1a!+-5 4isast-r
9a!a+-9-!t !--4s +r-at-r attentin& I! t1- t1
"la!5 t1- a==roac1 to3ar4s 4isast-r 9a!a+-9-!t
1as 9o<-4 :ro9 r-li-: to =r-<-!tio!5 9iti+atio!5 a!4
=r-=ar-4!-ss. T3o 9ai! =la!>s o: t1- !-3 a==roac1
ar- 9ai!str-a9i!+ 4isast-r ris> r-4,ctio! i!to i!:ra-
str,ct,ral =roB-ct 4-si+! a!4 str-!+t1-!i!+ co99,-
!icatio! !-t3or>s a!4 4isast-r 9a!a+-9-!t :acili-
ti-s at all l-<-ls.
As a =la!!-4 a4a=tatio! strat-+25 r-4,ci!+ ris>s
:ro9 !at,ral 4isast-rs !--4s to 8- a =art o: i!:ra-
str,ct,r- =roB-ct 4-si+!5 -s=-ciall2 i! ar-as <,l!-ra-
8l- to -Dtr-9- -<-!ts. It is +-!-rall2 9,c1 c1-a=-r
to i!cor=orat- a==ro=riat- :-at,r-s i! t1- i!itial
4-si+! a!4 co!str,ctio! o: i!:rastr,ct,r- =roB-cts5
i!cl,4i!+ siti!+5 t1a! to ,!4-rta>- r-tro:its lat-r.
T1- <ario,s -l-9-!ts o: t1is "ro+ra99- 9a2
Disast-r-s=-ci:ic <,l!-ra8ilit2 ass-ss9-!ts a!4 s-c-
toral i9=acts ass-ss9-!ts at t1- stat- a!4 4istrict
l-<-l :or =r-=ari!+ co!ti!+-!c2 =la!s
Mai!t-!a!c- o: critical :aciliti-s s,c1 as 1-alt1 car-
s-r<ic-s a!4 3at-r s,==li-s
Colla8oratio! 3it1 i!s,ra!c- =ro<i4-rs to i!s,r-
i!:rastr,ct,r-5 9ai!str-a9i!+ 4isast-r ris> r-4,ctio!
i!to Sar<a S1i>s1a A81i2a!5 ?a3a1arlal N-1r, Natio!al
Ur8a! $-!-3al Missio! a!4 I!4ira A3as )oBa!a
Ca=acit2 8,il4i!+ a9o!+ 4-si+! -!+i!--rs5 =roB-ct
=la!!-rs a!4 :i!a!cial instit2tins o! i!cor=orati!+
-l-9-!ts o: 4isast-r 9a!a+-9-!t
D-<-lo=9-!t o: =r-:a8ricat-4 str,ct,r-s i!st-a4 o:
cast-i!-=lac- co!str,ctio! i! <,l!-ra8l- ar-as
E!:orc-9-!t o: 8,il4i!+ co4-sE 8-tt-r ,r8a! =la!-
!i!+ a!4 Fo!i!+ o: <,l!-ra8l- ar-as
E!s,ri!+ t1at co99,!icatio! c1a!!-ls ar- !ot s-<-r-4
4,ri!+ 4isast-rs ca! =rot-ct li<-s a!4 -D=-4it- r-li-:
a!4 r-1a8ilitatio! o=-ratio!s. &,rt1-r9or-5 it is
-ss-!tial to 1a<- a r-+,lar 9o!itori!+ =ro+ra99- i!
=lac- to =ro<i4- -arl2 3ar!i!+ o: i99i!-!t 4isast-rs to
:acilitat- a =la!!-4 r-s=o!s-5 i!cl,4i!+ -<ac,atio!
:ro9 <,l!-ra8l- ar-as to 9i!i9iF- t1- i9=act o:
4isast-rs. S=-ci:ic actio! ar-as 3ill i!cl,4-.
U=+ra4i!+ :or-casti!+5 trac>i!+ a!4 -arl2 3ar!i!+
s2st-9 :or c2clo!-s5 :loo4s5 stor9s a!4 ts,!a9i
Mo!itori!+ ri<-r :lo3s a!4 9a==i!+ :loo4 Fo!-s
%-!-ratio! o: r-+io!al sc-!arios 8as-4 o! si!+l- or
9,lti-1aFar4 9a==i!+
Disast-r r-s=o!s- trai!i!+ at t1- co99,!it2 l-<-l
to 8,il4 i!:rastr,ct,r- a!4 1,9a! r-so,rc-s :or
9-4ical =r-=ar-4!-ss a!4 -9-r+-!c2 9-4ical
r-s=o!s- to 9a!a+- 9ass cas,alti-s 4,ri!+ -Dtr-9-
4.4. *rotection of %oastal !reas
T1- coastal ar-as ar- a! i9=orta!t a!4 critical r-+io!
:or I!4ia !ot o!l2 8-ca,s- o: t1- <ast G500->9 coast-
line $ut also $ecause of the densit of population
and livelihoods dependant on coastal resources"
,oastal &ones are particularl vulnera$le and sensi-
tive to such impacts of climate change as rise in the
sea level, rise in the high-tide level, and cclones and
storms, which are pro(ected to $ecome more fre-
9uent and intense" The programme will focus on two
elements, namel 1/2 coastal protection and 1-2 earl
warning sstems" Priorit areas on coastal &ones
+evelopment of a regional ocean modelling sstem
especiall in the 0a of 0engal and the Ara$ian
7igh-resolution coupled oceanOatmosphere vari-
a$ilit studies in tropical oceans, in particular the
'ndian Icean
+evelopment of a high-resolution storm surge
model for coastal regions
+evelopment of salinit-tolerant crop cultivars
,ommunit awareness on coastal disasters and
necessar actionL plantation and regeneration of
Timel forecasting, cclone and flood warning ss-
Enhanced plantation and regeneration of man-
groves and coastal forests
4.5 Health Sector
The proposed programme comprises two main com-
ponents, namel provision of enhanced pu$lic health
care services and assessment of increased $urden of
disease due to climate change" Areas that can con-
tri$ute to enhanced health care services include the
Providing high-resolution weather and climate
data to stud the regional pattern of disease
+evelopment of a high-resolution health impact
model at the state level
3'% mapping of access routes to health facilities in
areas prone to climatic e!tremes
Prioriti&ation of geographic areas $ased on epi-
demiological data and the e!tent of vulnera$ilit to
adverse impacts of climate change
Ecological stud of air pollutants and pollen 1as the
triggers of asthma and respirator diseases2 and how
the are affected $ climate change
%tudies on the response of disease vectors to cli-
mate change
Enhanced provision of primar, secondar, and ter-
tiar health care facilities and implementation of
pu$lic health measures, including vector control,
sanitation, and clean drinking water suppl
4.6. %reating !((ro(riate %a(acity at /ifferent
2e)els of Go)ernment
'n view of several new initiatives that would $e
re9uired, $oth in respect of adaptation and mitigation,
creation of knowledge and suita$le capacit at each
level of 3overnment to facilitate implementation of
appropriate measures assumes great importance"
At the level of the central government, there
would $e a need to carr out the following6
There should $e support to relevant polic
research to ensure that adaptation and mitigation
takes place in a manner that enhances human well-
$eing, while at the same time minimi&ing societal
costs" This should lead to the design of suita$le legal,
fiscal and regulator measures"
Appropriate capacit for implementing )*+
activities and promoting large-scale pu$lic awareness
and information dissemination on various aspects
of climate change is re9uired" 4or ade9uate )*+
activities a proactive approach favouring partnerships
$etween research organi&ations and industr would $e
efficient and productive"
At the level of state governments, several
agencies would need to enlarge and redefine their
goals and areas of operation" 4or instance, %tate
Electricit )egulator ,ommissions would need to
concern themselves with regulator decisions that
ensure higher energ efficienc, greater use of
renewa$le energ, and other low car$on activities
that would ensure energ securit, reduced local pol-
lution, and increased access to energ in areas where
distri$uted and decentrali&ed forms of energ pro-
duction would $e economicall superior to conven-
tional methods" %tate governments ma also emplo
fiscal instruments to promote appropriate options
and measures"
Kocal $odies would need to create capacit
on regulator measures, particularl for ensuring
energ efficienc in new $uildings as well as through
a programme of retrofits" 'n respect of adaptation
measures, local capacit and the involvement of com-
munities in actions to adapt to the impacts of climate
change would $e crucial"
Pu$lic awareness on climate change would
have to $e spearheaded and driven $ government
at all levels" Emphasis on schools and colleges is
'n some cases legislation ma $e re9uired at
the central and state levels to arrive at appropriate
delegation of responsi$ilit and authorit for meeting
some of the goals mentioned a$ove"
+/ (nternational *ooperation: the
M"ltilateral 6egi%e on *li%ate *hange
As a part to the 8N 4ramework ,onvention on
,limate ,hange and its ?oto Protocol, 'ndia plas an
active role in multilateral cooperation to address cli-
mate change" These agreements are $ased on the
principle of "common but differentiated responsibil&
ities and respecti'e capabilities" of Parties" Thus,
the incorporate certain common commitments for
all Parties, including an o$ligation to "formulate and
implement programmes containing measures to mit&
igate climate change" Additionall, the ,onvention
re9uires the developed countries 1listed in its Anne!
'2 to sta$ili&e and reduce their greenhouse gas emis-
sions and the ?oto Protocol esta$lishes 9uantified,
time-$ound targets in this regard" ,ountries with the
most advanced economies 1listed in Anne! '' of the
convention2 are also re9uired to transfer financial
resources and technolog to developing countries
for purposes of mitigation and adaptation"
The ,onvention specificall notes that "per
capita emissions in de'eloping countries are still rel&
ati'ely lo( andthe share of global emissions origi&
nating in de'eloping countries (ill rise to meet their
social and de'elopment needs" The ,onvention also
recogni&es that "economic and social
de'elopmentand po'erty eradication are the first and
o'erriding priorities of the de'eloping country parties"
Thus, developing countries are not re9uired to divert
resources from development priorities $ imple-
menting pro(ects involving incremental costs O unless
these incremental costs are $orne $ developed
countries and the needed technologies are trans-
The 3lo$al Environmental 4acilit 13E42
finances implementation of pro(ects in developing
countries under the ,onvention" Additionall, the
?oto Protocol created the ,lean +evelopment
Mechanism 1,+M2, which allows developed countries
to meet part of their emission reduction commit-
ments $ purchasing credits from emission reduction
pro(ects in developing countries, thus serving the
dual o$(ective of facilitating compliance $ developed
countries of their emission reduction commitments
and of assisting developing countries to achieve
sustaina$le development"
5.&. Some 'echnology /e)elo(ment and
'ransfer Issues
'n the move towards a low-car$on econom, technol-
og has a vital role to pla" Technolog solutions are
also ver important for enhancing adaptive capacit
and reducing vulnera$ilit to climate change and its
impacts" 'n this respect, international cooperation in
science and technolog assumes great significance"
't is important to ensure that within the mul-
tilateral process under the 8N4,,,, the menu of
cooperation mechanisms is not constrained, and
indeed, proactive measures are taken for these
mechanisms to $e used" The stage of the technolog
in terms of its progression from research to wide-
spread market adoption will pla an important role
in determining the mechanisms that are appropriate
and relevant"
4or e!ample, when the technolog solutions are
at a ver earl stage of development, the primar focus
is usuall on cooperation in $asic scientific research"
'ndia has alwas $een ver activel engaged in, and
is making ke contri$utions to international scientific
programmes that ma have significant implications
for the transition to a sustaina$le
energ fut ure, such as t he 'nt ernat i onal
Thermonuclear E!perimental )eactor 1'TE)2" At the
individual and institutional level, 'ndian participa-
tion in scientific networks is also ver strong" 4rom a
long-term perspective, this scientific cooperation will
remain ver important"
As ideas progress from the la$orator closer
towards the market, the focus shifts towards tech-
nolog design and development" Mechanisms that
ena$le (oint technolog development involving pu$-
lic and private sector entities and with suita$le
norms for financing and 'P)-sharing would $e impor-
tant for ensuring that the process of technolog
development and commerciali&ation happens more
rapidl and effectivel"
4or the final stage of deploment and mar-
ket adoption of technologies in developing coun-
tries, two different conte!ts ma $e identified" 4or
technologies that are alread mature and deploed
in the developed countries, appropriate financing
models are essential, which ma $ecome operational
through multilateral institutions, car$on markets
and mechanisms like the ,+M" 7owever, as was
noted earlier, given the somewhat limited role that
the ,+M appears to have plaed with regard to tech-
nolog transfer, this issue will merit detailed e!ami-
7owever, the transition to a more sustain-
a$le energ future will re9uire a much more rapid
progression towards a variet of newer, low-car$on
and energ efficient technologies in different areas"
The usual mechanism considered for this purpose is
that of technolog transfer from the developed to
the developing countries" The conventional model of
technolog transfer, considers that technolog devel-
oped in the North is first esta$lished there, $efore it
is supplied to the %outh" The rapid changes in the
glo$al economic and technolog environment are
making this model less applica$le" As the e!perience
so far also suggests, this model ma $e inade9uate in
terms of satisfing the scale and scope of the tech-
nolog response re9uired" New models and mecha-
nisms for technolog transfer will need to incorpo-
rate at least three ke elements6 appropriate funding
modalities and approachesL a facilitative 'P) environ-
ment, and enhancing the a$sorptive capacit within
developing countries"
New multilateral technolog cooperation
funds ma $e re9uired that would finance the devel-
opment, deploment, diffusion and transfer of tech-
nologies for $oth mitigation and adaptation to
developing countries"
Ine of the main $arriers to technolog
adoption lies in the low a$sorptive capacities of
developing countries" 't is vital that mechanisms for
technolog transfer include measures that will
ena$le the enhancement of a$sorptive capacities,
keeping in mind the targets of such technolog
5.-. %lean /e)elo(ment Mechanism
'ndia has given host-countr approval for F<F ,+M
pro(ects as of >une -..B" )enewa$le energ, including
renewa$le $iomass, accounted for the largest num$er
of pro(ects 1;==2, followed $ energ efficienc
1=.=2" Der few pro(ects in the forestr 1<2 and
municipal solid waste 1/B2 sectors were included,
despite their large potential" The e!pected investments
in these @;= pro(ects 1if all go on stream2 is a$out )s"
/.<,F.. crores"
If the F<F pro(ects, =4. pro(ects have $een
registered $ the multilateral E!ecutive 0oard 1,+M
E02" 'ndia accounts for a$out =-: of the world total
of /.B/ pro(ects registered with the ,+M E0, followed
$ ,hina 1-.:2, 0ra&il 1/=:2, and Me!ico 1/.:2
1%ource6 8N4,,,2" A$out 4F= million certified emission
reductions 1,E)s2 are e!pected to $e generated until
-./- if all these host-countr approved pro(ects in
'ndia go on stream 1National ,+M Authorit,
Novem$er -..@2" As of >une -..B, /;-"4 million ,E)s
had $een issued to pro(ects worldwide, of which
'ndia accounted for -B"/<::, ,hina 1-F"-;:2,
?orea 1/@"B@:2, and 0ra&il 1/4"/=:2"
%ome cross-cutting challenges in ,+M imple-
mentation in 'ndia are listed $elow6
The pro(ects from 'ndia are generall small" If the
-B= pro(ects registered with the ,+M E0 till Icto$er
-..@, <=: are small-scale pro(ects 1in terms of the
Protocol definition2
The portfolio is dominated $ unilateral pro(ects,
i"e" the investors are 'ndian parties, emplo locall
availa$le technologies, and use domestic financial
resources" #hile this has provided a significant
impetus to local innovation, ,+M has not led to
the technolog transfer from industriali&ed to
developing countries envisaged $ the Protocol
'ndustriali&ed countries have not participated sig-
nificantl in pro(ect financing and the pro(ect risks are
mostl taken up $ the host industries
'nsurance companies in general have shown little
interest in ,+M, which is unfortunate since the can
catalse car$on trading $ providing risk and
financial analsis skills
There is much su$(ectivit in the multilateral ,+M
process, and divergent interpretations are given $
different designated operating entities 1+IEs2
accredited $ the ,+M E0
7igh transactions costs prevent the small-scale sector
1in the 'ndian definition2 from participating in ,+M
'n the a$sence of an international transactions log
1'TK2, there is lack of relia$le information in the
car$on market on ,+M transactions
+espite the a$ove, there is encouraging response
from 'ndian entrepreneurs to the ,+M across differ-
ent sectors" 0esides, several recent enhancements of
,+M such as $undling and programmatic ,+M need
to $e mainstreamed" Alongside the car$on market
under the ?oto Protocol, a voluntar 1non-compli-
ance2 car$on market is emerging involving trades in
DE)0 1verified emission reductions2" This market ma
grow su$stantiall in the future"
5.3. Enhanced Implementation o the !"#$$$
'ndia looks forward to enhanced international coop-
eration under the 8N4,,," Iverall, future interna-
tional cooperation on climate change should address
the following o$(ectives6
Minimi&ing the negative impacts of climate
change through suita$le adaptation measures in the
countries and communities affected and mitigation at
the glo$al level
Provide fairness and e9uit in the actions and
8phold the principle of common $ut differentiated
responsi$ilities in actions to $e taken, such as
concessional financial flows from the developed
countries, and access to technolog on afforda$le
'ndia as a large democrac, with the ma(or challenge
of achieving economic and social development and
eradicating povert, will engage in negotiations and
other actions at the international level in the coming
months that would lead to efficient and e9uita$le
solutions at the glo$al level"
1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC), Climate Change 2!" #he Ph$sical
%cience &asis. (page 13)
1. 'ro(th an) C*2 +missions , -o( )o )i..erent
countries .are/ 0$ 1.2. &acon an) %.
&hattachar$a, #he 2orl) &an3 +nvironment
4epartment, 5ovem0er, 2!. (page 14)
2. 5ational +nerg$ 6ap .or In)ia, #echnolog$
7ision 23 0$ #he +nerg$ an) 1esources
Institute (#+1I) .or * o. the Principal
%cienti.ic 8)viser to the 'overnment o.
In)ia, P%892:93. (page 14)
2. International +nerg$ 8genc$ (I+8) )ata cite)
0$ Planning Commission, In)ia, 2!. (pagel4)
3. In)ia;s Initial 5ational Communication, 24
(58#C*6 I) to <5 =rame(or3 Convention
on Climate Change (<5=CCC). (page 1>)
3. Increasing #ren) o. +?treme 1ain +vents
*ver In)ia in a 2arming +nvironment 0$
&.5. 'os(ami, 7. 7enugopal, 4. %engupta,
6.%. 6a)husoo)anam, Prince @. Aavier,
%cience, 314, 1442 (2:).(page 1>)
4. 8rea %ea Bevels tren)s along the 5orth
In)ian *cean Coasts consistent (ith glo0al
esti-mates/ 0$ 8.%. <nni3rishnan an) 4.
%han3ar, 'lo0al an) Planetar$ Change, >!,
31 (2!). (page 1>)
>. Impact o. Climate Change on =orests in In)ia
0$ 5.-.1avin)ranath, 5.7. Joshi, 1. %u3umar
an) 8. %a?ena, Current %cience C, 3>4
(2:). (page 1:)
:. 1ec$cl i ng o. 8utomo0i l es D Pro0l em
4e.inition an) Possi0le %olutions in the
In)ian Conte?t, 0$ Captain 5.%. 6ohan 1am,
I58+ %eminar on 1ec$cling, %eptem0er, 2!.
(page 31)
!. 4evelopment o. the Integrate) 'asi.ication
Com0ine) C$cle (I'CC) #echnolog$ as suite)
to Po(er 'eneration using In)ian Coals,
P%892>94. (page 3C)
11. Closing the 5uclear =uel C$cle in the Conte?t
o. the 'lo0al Climate Change #hreat 0$ 1.
Chi)am0aram, 1.@. %inha an) 8nan)
Pat(ar)han, 5uclear +nerg$ 1evie(, 3E
(2!). (page 4)